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1. A small particle of mass m moves in such a way that P. E.

= 1/2 mkr 2, where k is


a constant and r is the distance of the particle from origin. Assuming Bohr's
model or quantization of angular momentum and circular orbit , r is directly
proportional to
Ans :rootof(n)
2. The brightness or intensity of spectral lines depends upon the

 A)number of photons of same wavelength



 B)number of photons of same frequency absorbed

 C)number of photons of same frequency emitted

 D)All of the above

Ans: D) The brightness or intensity of spectral lines depends upon the


number of photons of same wavelength or frequency absorbed or emitted

3. The series (of lines) appearing in UV region of electromagnetic spectrum of


hydrogen in called

Ans: Lyman Series

4. Identity the least stable ion amongst the following

 A) Li–
 B) Be–
 C) B–
 D) C-

ANS:
Li– = 1s2, 2s2 (in it all sub-shell are saturated so, it is stable)
Be– = 1s2, 2s2, 2p1 (very much less stable)
B– = 1s2, 2s22p2 (less stable)
C– = 1s2, 2s2, 2p3 (stable due to presence of half-filled 2psubshell)

5. The atomic numbers of elements X,Y and Z are 19, 21 and 25 respectively.
The number of electrons present in the M shells of these elements follow the order.

1) Z>X>Y
2) X>Y>Z

3) Z>Y>X

4) Y>Z>X

Ans: 3) Z>Y>X

X=19=1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 (8)

Y=21=1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2 (9)

Z=25=1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2 (13)

M sub-shell means n=3

.6

SOL:
7.

8 . ANS
Ques:
Sol:

9.

note
10: Both A and R are connected
11

ANS:B
Due to resonance delocalization of electrons takes place or can say it vice versa. Thus,
every bond which is participating in resonance attains partial double bond character.
Consequently sigma bonds attain partial double bond character thus their bond length
decreases and double bond get their character decreased thus their bond length
increases.
12
ANS:Only III

13

NOTE: The difference in potential energy between the actual species and the
(computed) energy of the contributing structure with the lowest potential energy is
called theresonance energy or delocalization energy.
14:

ANS:NH2 group in c is reducing basicity


15
ANS: II is least basic because it is involved in hyper conjugation. I is not involved
in hyper conjugation though the double bond increases s character
16:

ANS:Ortho effect:ortho substituted compounds are highlt acidic.Solvation


decreases
17:

ANS: A) In I there is too much steric crowding over ‘N’ due to which lone pair is
not able to contribute to the basicity of the compound
18:

Ans: B( IV has two acidic groups and II-SIR)


19:

ANS:B

20
ANS:B

21

ANS:B

22
23
24

ANS: Symmetry

25:
Use Field due to a line charge:E=(1/2ner) and apply it for each element on the
other wire integrating it from –infinity to +infinity
26
27

ANS:The approach in the solution is good


28

As we know that field lines are perpendicular to


the equi-potential line or surface, and its direction is in the direction of decreasing
potential.
29
ANS:

30
31

32

ANS:
33

ANS: Charge on the left side of (d) becomes zero because when it does not have
a plate opposite to it due to which it could have a charge. Rest has to be
done on our own.
NOTE: A long thin rod AB is charged uniformly. The electric field at a
point C is directed along the bisector of the angle ACB
34
35

36
F=p(dE/dx)
37

ANS: Wbattery=del(U) + del(H)


Del(H)= Wbattery - del(U)
38

ANS:
39

ANS:

40
41

ANS:

42
ANS:

43
44
ANS:

45

ANS

46
ANS:

NOTE: Just like a fuid in a close d pipe, electricity also follows A*Vd=constant
47

ANS:
48

ANS:

49
50

ANS:
51

ANS

52

ANS
53

ANS:

NOTE: potentiometer measures p. d. in open circuit condition (no current


– flowing through it means internal resistance of measuring device can’t
alter reading. Also, no current flowing through it means no change in
resistances due to heating effect of current
54

ANS

PART 1: PART 2:
55

ANS:

56
ANS:

57
ANS
58

ANS
59

ANS
60

ANS

NOTE: A solenoid does not have a magnetic field


outside
61

ANS:
62

ANS:
63

ANS:
64

ANS
65

ANS

NOTE:FORCE ACTING ON CONDUCTORS PLACED IN UNIFORM


MAGNETIC FIELD IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE EFFECTIVE
LENGTH
66

Ans:C
67

ANS:
68

ANS
69

ANS

Ratio of Magnetic momentum to angular momentum of an electron is


q/2m
70
ANS:

71

NOTE:
BACK-bonding: This type of bonding occurs between atoms in a
compound in which one atom has lone pair of electron and the other
has vacant orbital placed adjacent to each other.
ANS

72

ANS

NOTE
73

ANS:
74

ANS: B(Due to back-bonding as F does not have a vacant d orbital)

NAMING CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS

 

 

 
NOTE:
Corey House Synthesis is quite good for preparation of
hydrocarbons.
Steric hindrance is not favoured in this method

The odd-numbered alkanes have a lower trend in melting


points than even numbered alkanes. This is because even
numbered alkanes pack well in the solid phase, forming a
well-organized structure, which requires more energy to
break apart. The odd-numbered alkanes pack less well and
so the "looser" organized solid packing structure requires
less energy to break apart.
Density of alkane is directly proportional to the no of C
atoms in it.

The heat of combustion is the amount of heat released when


a compound is burnt with excess of oxygen. If the compound
has extra energy as a result of ring strain, its heat of
combustion would be high. More stable the compound less
is the heat of combustion.

Branching decreases stability decreases, heat of combustion


increases.

% of Cl in pyrene (C16H10), DDT (C14H9Cl5), chloral (C2HCl3O)


and gammaxene (C6H6Cl6) are 0%, 50%, 72.2% and 73.2%,
respectively.

Alkanes are lighter than water

Fractional distillation method is based on the different eint


he boiling points of the compounds. Enantiomers have same
boiling point but diastereomers have different boiling points.

Na / NH3 form trans product. Lindlar catalyst forms cis


product.
75

ANS:
D(less hindered product is formed)

NOTE: Enthalpy of hydrogenation is defined as the change


in enthalpy, which occurs when one mol of an unsaturated compound
reacts with an excess of hydrogen to become fully saturated at
atmospheric pressure and room temperature the reactants and
products being in their natural states under these conditions.
76

ANS
77

ANS:

ADDITION OF CHBr2 GIVES (A) AND THEN RING OPENING TAKES


PLACE

NOTE: SYN ADDITION:


NOTE:

If Zn is not present in oxidation,

Zinc is not present hence CH3CHO first formed is oxidised to


CH3COOH

78

ANS
NOTE: Tollen's reagent is most notable for its reaction with aldehydes to
produce a silver mirror, but it reacts with several other types of compounds,
notably alpha-hydroxy ketones, terminal alkynes carboxylic acids too.
With terminal alkynes, the alkyne reacts as a acid to form a
silver acetylide which precipitates. In the case of acetylene,
both hydrogens can react:

NOTE

and

Hydroboration of alkynes:
79

ANS:A

80

ANS
Acetylene may be prepared using Kolbe's electrolytic method
employing – Potassium Fumarate

81

ANS: The reaction proceeds through benzyne mechanism.

NOTE: The benzyne intermediate is aromatic in nature and in the


absence eof a nucleophile it undergoes dimerisation to give
diphenylene
Just like NaNH2 (CH3)2NLi/(CH3)2NH also reacts via benzyne formation
when it comes in contact with chlorobenzene.
82

ANS

Pyridiene undergoes electrophilic substitution at meta position


because positive charge on Nitrogen atom of the ring is much more
unstable.
83

ANS:

84
ANS:

The products we get when ethers react with halogens largely depend
on the condition. For example, we get α,α'-dichlorodiethyl ether when
diethyl ether reacts with Cl2 in dark. In presence of light and excess
of chlorine, all the hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine.

85
Fries Rearrangement

Claisen Rearrangement

86

ANS
NOTE:

Cathecol, resorcinol and


hydroquinone, none of them have zero dipole
moment
87
ANS:D (2,4 DNP TEST IS GIVEN BY ALDEHYDEWS AND KETONES)
88

ANS:A, (A) is

NOTE:
On heating β-keto acids release CO2.
TOLLEN’S REAGENT

Tollen's reagent is an alkaline solution containing a silver–


ammonia complex, [Ag(NH3)2]OH or ammoniacal silver nitrate,
AgNO3 + NH4OH. It is a mild oxidising agent (itself gets reduced
from Ag+ into Ag). Tollen’s test is also called “silver mirror
test” due to the formation of white ppt of elemental silver.
Tollen’s test is used to differentiate between
(i) aldehydes and ketones
(ii) terminal alkyne and non-terminal alkyne e.g, 1-butyne and 2-
butyne (also can be used to distinguish btw alkene and alkyne
e.g, ethene and ethyne
(iii) formic acid and acetic acid
(iii) tartaric acid and citric acid
(iv) Glucose and sucrose or, fructose and sucrose etc.
Tollen’s test is given by-
[1] Aldehydes [oxidised into salt of corresponding
carboxylic acid RCOO-(aq) and Ag(s) ]

[2] Hemi acetals [they are first converted into aldehydes in basic
medium]
[3] Glucose, an aldohexose, HOCH2(CHOH)4CHO —gives->
HOCH2(CHOH)4CHO, Gluconic acid.
[Note- Remember that neither alpha nor beta-glucosides reduces
tollen’s/ fehling’s reagent.]
[4] α- Hydroxy ketones [having atleast two α hydrogen,
tautomerise into
aldehydes] e.g., Fructose reduces Tollens'reagent, even though it
contains no aldehyde group. [A α-hydroxy ketone, tautomerises
into glucose and mannose in alkaline medium, called Lobry de-
Bruyn Ekenstein rearrangement]

[Both glucose and fructose(monosaccharides) give positive


result for Tollen's, Benedict's and Fehling's test. Infact, all
monosaccharides are reducing sugars]

[5] Tartaric acid also gives silver mirror test but not citric acid.

[6] Terminal alkyne [white ppt of silver salt, RC#CAg is formed,


not “silver mirror”].

[7] HCOOH [Formic acid is half-aldehyde and it has reducible


(bonded to carbonyl carbon) aldehydic hydrogen hence Formic
acid reduces Tollen's reagent, Fehling's solution, mercuric
chloride and potassium permanganate, but acetic acid does not]

[8] CHCl3 [Chloroform upon alkaline hydrolysis gives formic acid


first].
2CHCl3 + 7OH– → CO + HCOO– + 6Cl– + 4H2O
[9] Phenyl hydroxyl amine, PhNHOH with tollen’s reagent gives
nitrosobenzene (PhN=O) and silver mirror
89

ANS := 0.67

90

ANS
Methane was released.
91

ANS

SeO2 reaction:
92

ANS:
93

ANS:

94

ANS
95

ANS : Darzens Reaction

96

ANS
97

ANS

98
ANS:A It also means that other are incorrect

NOTE:Lassaigne’s test is give specific


elements like S,N or halogens only
NOTE: RCOOH is converted to RCONH2 when reacted with N3H
99

ANS:

100
ANS: C
NOTE:
In the carbylamine reaction, carbene intermediate is formed
total 3 times in total.
Diazocouplin reaction takes place at slightly acidic medium
101

ANS:D
102

ANS:A

103
ANS:C

104

ANS

NOTE
105

ANS:A

106

ANS:C
107

108
ANS:A
CH3+ is highly unstable.

109

ANS:
110

ANS
111

ANS
112

ANS
113

ANS
114

ANS:D(BECKMANN’s REARRANGEMENT)

ORDER OF BASICITY OF BUTYL DERIVATIVES OF AMINES

REASON:
115

ANS:B
116
ANS:B (lp in A is involved in resonance)
117

ANS:B (due to ortho effect)


118
ANS:

When an aldehyde or a ketone reacts with NH2OH, an oxime is


formed.
ANS:B
119

ANS:B
CARBOHYDRATES:
 The monomer units of starch are α-glucose
 The sequence in which amino acids are arranged in
proteins is called primary structure.
 Cellobiose is a 1, 4’-ββ-glycoside
 The secondary structure of a protein refers to α-helical
backbone
 Uracil is present in RNA but not in DNA.
 The no. of moles of Acetic Anhydride needed to completely
react with a compound is equal to the no. of –OH groups
present in the compound.
 Glucode contains 5 –OH groups in it.
 It is an aldohexose.
 β-anomer of glucose is more stable.
Reason: At equilibrium, the beta anomer of D-
glucose predominates, because the -OH group of the
anomeric carbon is in the more stable equatorial position
of the more stable chair structure. In alpha-D-glucose, the -
OH group on the anomeric carbon is axial.
 Naturally occurring glusoce is dextrorotatory.
 Properties that confirm cyclic structure of glucose are:
Mutarotation
Negative Schiff’s Reagent Test
Does not react with Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite
Penta acetate derivative of glucose does not react with
hydroxylamine.
 The presence of absence of hydroxyl group on 2nd
carbon atom of sugar differentiates RNA and DNA


 Osazone is formed when sugars are reacted with
excess of phenylhydrazone
 Glucose and fructose give same osazone


 Starch and glucode consist of D-glucose unit
 In starch glucose units are linked through 1, 4 – α –
glycosidic linkages
 linkage between glucose and fructose is α and it does
not undergo mutarotation
 Sucrose is a non reducing sugar


 D–Galactose is a C–4 epimer of D–glucose


 L and D mannose are Enantiomers to each other.

 D-glucose+Br2(aq)=Glucaric acid
 Anomers differ at C1
 Numbering starts from CHO group

AMINO ACIDS
 Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-
NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a
side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

 This supposed to D configuration


 ANS:C

 1st step is called stecker acid


synthesis
 Normal amino acids having only one COOH and one NH2
Group have a pH of 7 usually.
 Total number of atoms present in a plane in a single

peptide bond is 6


ANS:C

 glycine

POLYMERS
 Low density polythene is tough, poor conductor of
electricity and highly branched.


 Zeilga Natta catalyst is used for polymerization of alkene.

 is
 Phenol and formaldehyde=Bakelite(-CH2-) bonding
 The monomer of natural rubber is isoprene which is cis in
configuration
 Polymer of CH2-CH-CCl-CH2=Neoprene
 Polymer of glycogen is stored by animals
 The commercial name of polyacrilonitrile is Orlon(Acrilan)

 ANS:C
 Nylon 6,6 is prepared by condensation polymerization
 Terylene is a copolymer prepared ny condensation polymerization
 BuNa-S is a copolymer


 CCl4 is a chain transfer reagent
PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 As2S3 and AlCl3 are soluble in excessof NaOH while Cu is not due to
low value of the Ksp


 Marsh test is used for detecting As and is very sensitive and is thus
used in forensic studies also. The sample is placed in a flask with
arsenic-free zinc and sulfuric acid.
 Borax on heating strongly above its melting point melts to a liquid,
which then solidifies to a transparent mass commonly known as
borax-bead. The transparent glassy mass consists of boric
anhydride and sodium metaborate

 ANS:ZnCl2


 Chromyl chloride=CrO2Cl2
 Dimethyl glyoxime and NaHSO3/NH4CNS are used to distinguish
and separate Cu2+ and Ni2+. These are used in order NaHSO3-
/CNS− then DMG


 Acetanilide=
 Acetanilide on nitration produces a mixture of o-nitroacetanilide
(minor product) and p-nitroacetanilide (major product). The
constituents of the product mixture are usually separated by
fractional crystallization
 Aspirin (an analgesic) is prepared by the acetylation of salicylic
acid with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine. It may be
purified conveniently by crystallization.
 Fe(OH)3 and Cr(OH)3 ppt are separated by NaOH/H2O2(Sodium
peroxiede)
 CoCl2 gives blue colour with NH4SCN in ethereal layer due to
formation of


.


 Reaction of F- is not carried out in a test tube-explosive


 O-salicaldehyde and p-salicaldehyde are separated by
steam distillation(best for any o,p 1:1 mixture)


 ANS:C

 Borax bead test



 Aqueous NaOH is suitable for separating the constituents of a


mixture of benzophenone and 2-naphthol?

 2-naphthol
 Canonical(ethanoic) AgNO3 solution reacts with
compounds containing detatchable Halogen atoms to give
colured(depending on halogen) ppt. of silver.
 In Kjeldahl method nitrogen is estimated as NH3.


 ANS:ZnS,CdS and CuS have low Ksp values
 AgCl is soluble in strong acids
 No2 anion can be be converted into NO3 anion bypassing the extract
through urea


 ANS:A
 Lassaigne’s
Test



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