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International Conference on Education, Technology, and Science

NETS 2013

Improving The Quality of Education to Face The Impact of Technology

PROCEEDINGS

Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

i
Preface
Rector of UMP
Assalamu’alaikum wr. wb.
Alhamdulillah, that UMP will carry out prestigious event namely “National Olympiad and
International Conference on Education, Technology, and Science (NETS) 2013” is a very great
news for me. NETS 2013 is the first event which is conducted in collaboration between UMP and
PWM Central Java. It is a great event which is constructively supported by ITB, UNiSA, UTeM,
and several institutions under UMP partnership to smoothen the event.
Recently, technology grows very fast. This fast growth affects on the quality of education in
Indonesia. Based on this condition, UMP and PWM Central Java formulate a program which
later it is formed into “NETS 2013”. This event is also a contribution to Islamic Higher
Education Institution to prepare candidate of future leaders who have competitive skills to
compete positively in comprehending knowledge and technology.
In NETS 2013, there are some events which are arranged in a sequence such as: International
Conference on Education, Technology, and Science (ICETS) with Prof. Dr. Ir. Imam Robandi,
M.T., Mr. Ganjar Pranowo, Mr. Simen Lourds, and Dr. Hiroshi Takeda; Seminar (Call for Paper)
including some disciplines of science covering Education, Engineering, Medicine, Science,
Social, Politic, Religion, Law, Culture, Arts, Agriculture, and Technology; National Olympiad
for Student and Teacher (NOST) which is joined by students, teachers, and schools; and Expo. In
NETS 2013 competitions, participants are fighting over trophies, medals, certificates, and
advisory fund reaching up to Rp250.000.000,- ; furthermore, there is also a fellowship to study in
UMP.
As the Rector of The University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, I do really expect that
conducting this event could encourage all of us to be more advanced nation not only on economic
side, but also on social life. It is also expected that this event will increase our awareness on how
important it is to develop and advance technology in education.
That is all I could deliver now, for further information you may access our website on
www.ump.ac.id.
Last but not least, “Let’s join and support NETS 2013 in UMP”.
Wassalamu’alaikum wr. wb.
Purwokerto, 28th Decembe 2013

Rector,

Dr. H. Syamsuhadi Irsyad, M. H.

ii
Preface

The Chairman of NETS 2013

Assalamualaikum, wr. wb.


Today is the valuable and precious milestones for education in Indonesia in general and
Muhammadiyah in particular because all levels of education from elementary schools to
university get together to build relationship and networking in the national Olympiad and
international conference hosted by University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.

We deserve rejoice and pride because there are more than 1705 participants, 215 officials and
300 invited guests. This is also a great honour for University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto to
have the Governor of Central Java and the staffs, the regents from four regions and the staffs, the
chief of Central Muhammadiyah Board , the Education division of Muhammadiyah Board, the
directorate of higher education, Rectors of University of Muhammadiyah throughout Indonesia
and rectors of universities in Purwokerto, companies and stake holders, media , travel biro as well
as the colleagues, persistent fighters for Muhammadiyah in the region and territory.

As the chairman of this events, I‘d like to report that there are more than 1616 teachers and
students who will be joining the national Olympiad and there are more than 311 researchers,
lecturers and students will be taking part in the International Conference. Again, I’d like to
emphasis that this event is really a pride for us because the participants are coming representing
five big islands in Indonesia, they are Sumatra, Kalimantan or Borneo, Java and Sulawesi.

This event holds thirty one types of competitions and organizing six international conferences.
There are twenty five competitions for students, four competitions for teachers and three
competitions for schools. The international conference covers fields of Educations, Engineering,
Science and Agriculture, Health and Medicine, Culture and Arts, social, Politics, Economics,
Religion and Law.

We are proud to mention that we have at least fifteen experts coming from higher education, one
from high schools, two industries and one national research centre (LIPI). The experts and
scholars are coming from some outstanding universities and institutes such as University of
South Australia, Tottori University Japan, Institute Teknologi Melaka, Malaysia, Henderson
Secondary School Singapore, Boromanjani College of Nursing Thailand, Surabaya Technology

iii
Institute Bandung Technology Institute, Gadjah Mada University, Bogor Agriculture Institute,
and University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.
On behalf of the committee, we’d like to express our deep gratitude and thanks to all sides for
their sincere helps and supports that make this event possible to happen in UMP. Last but not
least, we have tried and done our best in organizing this event, however, we realized that
weaknesses and shortcomings may exist. And for that particular reason we’d like to apologize to
you all. Hopefully, the next year NETS will be much better and much improved. Have a great
competition and conference!

Wassalamualaikum wr.wb.
Purwokerto, 28th Decembe 2013

The Chairman
Regawa Bayu Pamungkas, ST., MT.

iv
Organizing Committee

The Responsible : Dr. H. Syamsuhadi Irsyad, MH.


(Rector of Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto)
Steering Committee :
Prof. Dr. Ir. Imam Robandi, MT. (ITS)
Prof. Dr. Din Syamsudin (PP Muhammadiyah)
Prof. Dr. Baedowi (UNS)
Dr. Syamsuhadi Irsyad, SH., MH. (Rektor UMP)
Dr. Chairil Anwar (Dikti Litbang PP Muhammadiyah)
Prof. Dr. DYP. Sugiharto (Koor.Kopertis Wilayah VI)
Drs. Martono, M.Pd. (PWM Jawa Tengah)
Prof. Dr. H.M. Daelamy SP. (PWM Jawa Tengah)
Prof. Dr. Dodi Nandika (IPB)
Prof. Dr. Abdullah (UNDIP)
Prof. Dr. Masrukhi, M.Pd. (UNNES)
Prof. Dr. Suparman Syukur (UIN WALISONGO)
Dr. Ir. Danu Ariono (ITB)
Prof. Dr. Djoko Wahyono, SU., Apt. (UGM)
Prof. Dr. Rochadi Abdulhadi (LIPI)
Prof. Dr. Kamaludin, M.Pd. (Staff Ahli Deputi Gubernur
DKI)
Prof. Dr. Imam Santoso, M.Si. (UNSOED)
Prof. Dr. Mifedwil Jandra Mohd. Janan (UTM)
Dr. Mariana binti Yusof (UTeM)
Dr. Elvia Shauki (UNiSA)

Chair : Ir. Regawa Bayu Pamungkas, MT.


Co-chair : Watemin, SP., MP.

Program : Anwar Ma’ruf, ST., MT.


Santhy Hawanti, Ph.D.
Juanita, ST., MT.
Susanti, M.Phil., Apt.
Agus Mulyadi, SP., MP.
Khristanto, S.S., M.Hum.
Naelati Tubastuvi, SE., M.Si.

Editor : Sularso, Amd.


Nur Afifah Indriyani

v
Keynote and Invited Speakers

Keynote Speakers
Prof. Imam Robandi (ITS, Indonesia)
Mr. Simen Lourds (Singapore)
Dr. Hiroshi Takeda (Tottori University, Japan)

Invited Speakers
Elvia Shauki, Ph.D. (University of South Australia, Australia)
Prof. Dr. Mifedwil Jandra Mohd. Janan (UTM, Malaysia)
Panarut Wisawatapnimit (Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Bangkok, Thailand)
Dr. Ir. Danu Ariono (ITB, Indonesia)
Prof. Dr. Djoko Wahyono, SU., Apt. (UGM, Indonesia)
Dr. Chairil Anwar (UGM, Indonesia)
Prof. Dr. Rochadi Abdulhadi (LIPI)
Prof. Dr. Sugeng Priyadi (UMP, Indonesia)
Herman Soemantri, ST., M.Si. (PT. Pertamina)

vi
CONTENTS

Preface Rector UMP ii

Preface Chairman NETS 2013 iii

Organizing Committee v

Keynote and Invited Speakers vi

EDUCATION

THE IMPACT OF MULTI MEDIA TECHNOLOGY TO ENGLISH TEACHING 1-5


Jusmin H.J Wahid, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

THERE IS AN ELEPHANT IN MY ROOM:CHALLENGES IN TEACHING MULTIPLE 6-12


LEVELSOF REPRESENTATION FOR CHEMISTRY PRESERVICE TEACHERS
Muhamad Imaduddin, Muhammadiyah Semarang University

DEVELOPING A CHEMISTRY MAGAZINEAS A LEARNING RESOURCE OF YEAR-10 13-18


STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Eko Yuliyanto, Muhammadiyah Semarang University

IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF 19-24


COLLABORATIVE LEARNING MODEL DIRECT AND COOPERATIVE TYPE STAD ON
MACROECONOMIC THEORY COURSES
Luqman Hakim, Universitas Negeri Surabaya

EFL TEACHERS AND DIGITAL TEACHING MEDIA 25-29


1
Suwartono, 2Asfi Aniuranti, 1Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto, 2Gajah Mada State
University of Yogjakarta

DEVELOPING A COMPREHENSION BASED INTERACTIVE READING MODEL 30-37


Pudiyono, Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERTISE COMPETENCY BASED PHYSICS PRACTICAL 38-42


WORK ON THE FIELD OF MASONRY AND CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
ENGINEERING IN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Ristiana Dyah Purwandari, Student of Science Education Doctoral Program, Indonesia
University of Education

INCREASING THE LEARNING OUTCOMES AND THE CRITICAL THINKING 43-47


THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF THE PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH
Riza Yonisa Kurniawan, Universitas Negeri Surabaya

THE LEARNING OF SPEAKING AND WRITING USING ICT ( INTERNET IN THE 48-51
CYBER CLASSROOM ) FOR THE STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Sony, Post Graduate Program of English Education, Ahmad Dahlan University

FIVE WAYS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY IN THE CLASSROOM 52-59


Ummu Rosyidah, Post Graduate Program of English Education, Ahmad Dahlan University

vii
THE VALUE EDUCATION LEARNING IN FORMING CHILDREN BEHAVIOR, AGE 5-6 60-63
YEARS OLD
Rohimi Zamzam

INITIATING CULTURAL-BASED CHARACTER LEARNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL 64-76


Masrukhi, Semarang State University

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING AND 77-83


LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: AN INCONCLUSIVE FINDINGS
Meika Kurnia Puji Rahayu D.A., University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Charles Darwin
University

TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH THROUGH UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR 84-87


(URL) STRATEGY
Khamim Mustofa, SMP Muh 2 Kebumen

ANALOGICAL THINKING IN MATHEMATICS PROBLEM SOLVING 88-92


Irwani,Muhammadiyah University of Gresik

SPEECH ON THE BEGINNING OF CHILDREN AGES 5 YEARS 93-97


Perla Yualita, STIKes Aisyiyah Bandung

IMPROVING JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SCIENCE LITERACY BY USING 98-102


MULT IMEDIA ON INTEGRATED-SCIENCE LEARNING IN THEME OF TRASH AND
ITS TACKLING EFFORT
Dewi Nurdiyanti, Banu Kisworo, Tania Avianda Gusman, Chemistry Departement, Teacher
Training and Education Faculty University of Muhammadiyah Cirebon

ENGINEERING

EFFECT OF TIME AND TEMPERATURE ON ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION 103-106


OF ANTIOXIDANT FROM Coleus tuberosus
Albertus Adrian Sutanto, Yustian Suharto, and Hadiyanto, Chemical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University

WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN TOFU INDUSTRY BY USING MICROALGAE 107-110


Nannochloropsis Sp.
Ali Makrup, Mutiara C and Widayat, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro
University

IMPROVING THE QUALITYOF BRIQUETTE FROM UTILIZATION OF SOLID WASTE 111-115


OF FURFURAL SYNTHESIS PROCESS AS AN EFFORTS IN PROVIDING
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES
Mitarlis and Tukiran, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
State University of Surabaya

FUZZY LOGIC AS THE CONTROLLER IN ELECTRONIC LOAD CONTROLLER 116-119


SYSTEM
M. Irfan, Machmud E., Nur Alif , M. Ilham P., Faculty of Engineering Department of
Electrical Engineering Muhammadiyah University Malang

viii
AUDIT DATA PROCESSING TOOL TO SUPPORT ENERGY CONSERVATION 120-125
Galuh Prawestri Citra Handani, Rini Nur Hasanah, and Hadi Suyono, Electrical Engineering
Department, Brawijaya University

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CLOVE OIL AT VACUUM PRESSURE 126-129


Widayat, Muhammad Hilman H, Lily Nurdiana,Hadiyanto, Ngadiwiyana*), Bambang
Cahyono*) and Hantoro Satriadi
Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, *)Jurusan Kimia Fakultas
Sains dan Matematika Universitas Diponegoro

GOVERNOR MODEL USING FUZZY - PID CONTROLLER FOR LOAD FREQUENCY 130-133
CONTROL GENERATOR
Akhmad Ramadhani 1) and Imam Robandi 2), Jurusan Teknik Elektro - FTI, Institut Teknologi
Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

DESIGN MODEL OF STATCOM USING PID CONTROLLER 134-135


Ario P H1), Hermansyah2), Farid D M3),Ratih M S4),Imam Robandi5), Institut Teknologi Sepuluh
Nopember Surabaya

EXCITATION CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN TO IMPROVE VOLTAGE STABILITYIN A 136-137


SINGLE MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM (SMIB) METHOD USING PID
Hermansyah, Aji Akbar Firdaus, Ratih Mar’atus Sholihah, Farid Dwi Murdianto, Imam
Robandi, Electrical Engineering Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember

FREQUENCY STABILITY IMPROVEMENT ON SINGLE MACHINE SYSTEM USING 138-141


FIRST ORDER POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER
Nita Indriani Pertiwi1), Mei Adetya2), Andi Imran3), Abil Huda4),Imam Robandi 5)
(1,2,3,5)
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, (4)UniversitasBorneo Tarakan,
Kalimantan Utara

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE DC-TO-DC CONVERTER FOR HIGH POWER 142-146
LED
Mochammad Rif´an, Nanang Sulistiyanto, Rahmadwati, Onny Setyawati, Electrical
Engineering Department, Brawijaya University

SETTLING TIME CONTROL OF STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT USING LINEAR 147-150
QUADRATIC REGULATOR (LQR)
Ribka Stephani(1), Nita I. Pertiwi(2), Hidayatul Nurohmah(3), Hilmansyah(4) dan Imam Robandi(5)
(1,2,4,5)
Department of Electrical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS)
(3)
Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Darul ‘Ulum Jombang

IMPLEMENTATION OF ELECTRONIC LOAD CONTROLLER TO IMPROVE THE 151-156


VOLTAGE QUALITY OF MICROHYDRO POWER PLANT AT BENDOSARI VILLAGE -
PUJON - BATU OF EAST JAVA PROVINCE
Rini Nur Hasanah, Teguh Utomo, and Nurussa’adah, Electrical Engineering Department,
Brawijaya University

HYBRID POWER PLANT FEASIBILITY STUDY IN MANDANGIN ISLAND USING 157-162


HOMER SOFTWARE
Soeprapto1, Mahfudz Shidiq2, Unggul Wibawa3, 1,2,3 Department of Electrical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang

ix
APPLICATION OF COAL GASIFICATION AS SOURCE OF FUEL IN THE 163-166
CARBONATION PROCESS OF LOCAL KOKAS BRIQUETE
Wijianto1, Subroto2), Dwi Aries Himawanto3)
1,2)
Jurusan Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 3)Jurusan
Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Sebelas Maret

GOVERNOR CONTROL MODEL DESIGN USING PID CONTROLLER IN STEAM 167-170


POWER PLANT
Aji Akbar Firdaus1), Ribka Stephani2), Hidayatul Nurohmah3), Nita Indriani P.4), Imam
Robandi5)
1,4,5)
Department of Electrical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya,
2)
Universitas Kristen Petra, Surabaya, 3)Universitas Darul Ulum, Jombang

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF VACUUM DISTILLERFOR BIOETHANOL 171-173


PRODUCTION
Muhammad Aziz Muslim and Goegoes Dwi Nusantoro, Electrical Engineering Department,
Brawijaya University

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF STEERBY WIRE CONTROL SYSTEM USING 174-177


FUZZY LOGIC
Fachrudin1, Imam Robandi2, Nyoman Sutantra3
1
Electrical Engineering Dept., Widyagama Univ., Malang, 2Electrical Engineering Dept., ITS
Surabaya, 3Mechanical Engineering Dept., ITS Surabaya

EIGENVALUE STABILITY ANALYSIS BASED ON VALUE GENERATOR 178-179


EXCITATION SYSTEM MODEL ON SMIB
Hilmansyah(1), Mei Aditya(2),, Rahmat(3) dan Imam Robandi(4)
(1,2,3,4
Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS)

ANALYSIS OF BIDIRECTIONAL BUCK-BOOST CASCADE CONVERTER 180-181


PERFORMANCE WITH STATIC LOAD USING PSIM
Muhammad Taufiq Ramadhan,Dedet Chandra Riawan,Imam Robandi, Department of
Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology,
ITS

COS IDENTIFICATION AND DESIGN OF WATER TURBINE CONTROL WITH LQR 182-186
METHOD
Ratih Mar’atus S.(1),Aji Akbar F.(2),Ribka Stephani(3),Hidayatul Nurohmah(4),Imam Robandi(5)
(1,2,5)
Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya (ITS), (3) Kristen Petra University,
Surabaya, (4) Darul ‘Ulum University, Jombang

DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER BASED FUZZY CONTROLLER WITH 187-191


STATE FEEDBECK FOR SINGLE MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM
Tamaji, Imam Robandi, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial
Technology Sepuluh Nopember Institut of Technology

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF A POWER SYSTEM MODELING 2 AREA IN THE FORM OF 192-194


STATE SPACE
Abil Huda, Riski C. A. H., Akhmad Ramdhani and Imam Robandi, Jurusan Teknik Elektro –
FTI, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

x
ANALYSIS OF POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER (PSS) PERFORMANCE ON SINGLE 195-196
MACHINE INFINITE BUS (SMIB) USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO)
ALGORITHM
Hidayatul Nurohmah1), Nita Indriani Pertiwi2), Hilmansyah3), Andi Imran4), Imam Robandi5)
1),2),4),5)
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology,
ITS, 3)Politeknik Negeri Balikpapan

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A BUILDING ENERGY AUDIT SOFTWARE 197-202


Rini Nur Hasanah, Hadi Suyono, Wijono, and Moch Dhofir, Electrical Engineering
Department, Brawijaya University

DEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARY CODES FOR PROGRAMMINGTHE HUMANOID 203-207


ROBOTBASED ON CM-510 MODULE
Muchlas and Ferry Yusmianto, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Ahmad
Dahlan

ANALYSIS OF MINIHYDRO POWER AND PHOTOVOLTAIC INJECTION INTO THE 208-212


GRID SYSTEM
Hadi Suyono, Muhammad Fauzan E.P., Hari Santoso, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University

EFFECT OF ETHANOL-96% IN GASOLINE WITH MIXTURE RATIO OF 1:9 AND 2:8 213-218
ON THE COMBUSTION AND EMISSION OF 125cc FOUR-STROKE ENGINE
Dwi Fadila Kurniawan, Eko Siswanto, Erni Yudaningtyas and Eka Maulana, Electrical
Engineering Department, Brawijaya University

A STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF A DI CI ENGINE 219-225


FUELLED WITH DIESEL/LPG BLENDS
Munzir Qadri, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta

BUILDING AND DESIGNING CHEAP TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM FOR 226-231


TENAGA KERJA INDONESIA (TKI)
Wahyu A. P., Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya

DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING DYNAMIC LINEAR QUADRATIC REGULATOR 232-234


(LQR)
Dwi Ajiatmo1,2 and Imam Robandi3
1)
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology ITS, 2)Department of
Electrical Engineering, Faculty Engineering of Darul ‘Ulum University Jombang, 3)Department
of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology ITS Surabaya

OPTIMIZATION OF PID CONTROLLER AND DUAL INPUT POWER SYSTEM 235-242


STABILIZER IN ELECTRICAL SYSTEM USING FIREFLY ALGORITHM
Mhd Fanyand Imam Robandi, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial
Technology ITS Surabaya

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (TDM)FOR 243-247


ANALOG SIGNAL THROUGH OPTICAL FIBERAND CONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION
Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Sapriesty Nainy Sari, and M. Fauzan Edy Purnomo, Department of
Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University

xi
ORGANIC SOLAR CELL BASED ON EXTRACTION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya) AND 248-251
JATROPHA (Ricinus communis) LEAVES IN DSSC (DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL)
Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Eka Maulana, M. Julius St., and Teguh Utomo, Department of Electrical
Engineering, Brawijaya University

EFFECTS OF TIME AND TEMPERATURE OF POLY ETHER ETHER 252-254


KETONESULFONATION (sPEEK) ON THE SOLUBILITY OF sPEEK IN
DIMETHYLACETAMIDE
Muhammad Mujiburohman, Nur Hidayati, HerryPurnama, Siti R. Nihayati, Vendi Kurniawan,
and Muhammad F. Hakim, Department of Chemical Engineering Universitas Muhammadiyah
Surakarta

PSS - SMIB SIMULATION USING PSIM & MATLAB SOFTWARE 255-257


1)
Andi Imran, 2)Hilmansyah, 3)Mei Adetya, 4)Yonny, 5)Imam Robandi
1,3,4,5)
Electrical Engineering Department ITS, 2)Politeknik Balikpapan

RENEWABLE ENERGY DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AS A SMART SOLUTION FOR 258-262


THE ENERGY CRISIS IN INDONESIA
Ramadoni Syahputra1,2, Imam Robandi and Mochamad Ashari2
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah
Yogyakarta, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut
Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

DESIGN OF DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR CONTROLLED BY BOOST CONVERTER 263-264


CLOSE LOOP SYSTEM WITH STATIC LOAD USING PSIM
Abdil Jabbar Asyadili, Rodhi Kelvianto,Muhammad Taufiq Ramadhan,Imam Robandi,
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, ITS

IMPLEMENTATION OF ARITIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM AND 265-273


PREPROCESSING WITH SOBEL ALGORITHM
Nurvelly Rosanti and Nera Kholimah, Informatic Engineering Course, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Muhammadiyah Jakarta

PREDICTION OF TEST ITEMS VALIDITY USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK 274-279


Hindayati Mustafidah1), Sri Hartati2), Retantyo Wardoyo3), Agus Harjoko4)
1)
Informatics Engineering-Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto (Computer Science
Doctoral Student-FMIPA-Gadjah Mada University), 2)3)4)Computer Science-FMIPA-Gadjah
Mada University

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM OF DATA MINING 280-285


TO STUDENTS STATUS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Imam Tahyudin, Azhari Shouni Barkah, Department of Information System, STMIK
AMIKOM Purwokerto

FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE CORRECTION IN SINGLE MACHINE SYSTEM USING 286-289


LINEAR QUADRATIC GAUSSIAN FEED BACK
Farid Dwi M.(1),Ratih Mar'atus S.(2),Aji Akbar F.(3),Ribka Stephani(4),Imam Robandi(5)
(1,3,5)
Tenth of November Institute of Technology (ITS), (3) Christian of Petra University,
Surabaya

xii
ANALYSIS CONTROLLABILITY, OBSERVABILITY, STABILITY IN SMIB BY 290-291
GOVERNOR
Mei Adetya Praja, Abil Huda, Yoni Wicaksono, and Imam Robandi, Department of Electrical
Engineering-Faculty of Industrial Technology,Institute ofTechnology Surabaya (ITS)

ANALYSIS OF MYCROHYDRO POWER PLANT SYSTEM USING COS 292-294


Riski Cahya Anugrerah Haebibi(1), Ario P.H(2), Akhmad Ramadhani(3),Hermansyah(4), Imam
Robandi(5), Electrical Engineering Department-FTI, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
ITS

OLTC TRANSFORMER USING AVR WITH FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL 295-296


Yonny Wicaksono, Imam Robandi, Jurusan Teknik Elektro ITS, Surabaya

OPTIMAL FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER PADA PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR 297-303


(PWR) PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA NUKLIR MENGGUNAKAN CUCKOO
SEARCH ALGORITHM
Prima Dewi Permatasari1), Agus Dharma2), Imam Robandi3)
1,3)
Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
(ITS), 2) Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar – Bali

MANAJEMEN ALIRAN DAYA PADA SISTEM PENGGERAK ELEKTRIK MOTOR 304-309


INDUKSI BERBASISKAN MULTILEVEL INVERTER JEMBATAN-H BERTINGKAT
UNTUK APLIKASI MOBIL MATAHARI (SOLAR CAR)
Muhamad Otong, Dedet Candra Riawan,Imam Robandi, Teknik Elektro-ITSSurabaya

HEALTH AND MEDICINE

TRADITIONAL AND NEW COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY OF NURSING 310-316


Panarut Wisawatapnimit, Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Bangkok, Thailand

EFFECTIVENESS OF ACUPRESSURE MASSAGE TOWARD CHANGE OF MOOD 317-320


DURING THE MENSTRUAL PERIODS
Agustina Ari Handayani, Nursing Program of An Nur Health School, Purwodadi-Grobogan

DESCRIPTION OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT BREAST FEEDING CONTRACEPTION 321-323


DURING LACTATION IN MIDWIFE CLINIC OF MRS. MINARTI PRINGAPUS VILLAGE
PRINGAPUS DISTRICT SEMARANG REGENCY
Rinta Nursanti, Eko Mardiyaningsih, Eka Adimayanti, Ngudi Waluyo Nursing Academy

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATIVE MEASUREMENT MODEL OF PATIENT 324-327


SAFETY CLIMATE OF HOSPITAL IN DKI JAKARTA, 2013
1
Rachmawati, Emma., Linda, Onny., Fikri. Ipik M., Prita Dewi, Evindiyah, 1University of
Muhammadiyah Prof DR HAMKA (UHAMKA) Jakarta

THE MODEL OF GLUCOSE FLUCTUATION WITH DIABETES BASED ON MAPPING 328-331


HbA1c AND MEAN AMPLITUDO OF GLUCOSE EXCURSION VALUE
Lailis Syafa’ah1, Rasad Indra2, Budi Santoso3, Askandar Tjokro Prawiro4
1,3
Technique Faculty Electronic Department Muhammadiyah University Malang, 2,4Medical
Faculty Brawijaya University
THE EFFECT OF HIGH ENEMA TO DECREASE BLOOD UREUM LEVEL OF CHRONIC 332-335

xiii
RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS OF PROF. DR. MARGONO SOEKARDJO PUBLIC
HOSPITAL PURWOKERTO
Made Suandika

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HYPNOBIRTHING RELAXATION TECHNIQUES AND 336-338


CHILDBIRTH DURATION OF STAGE 1 ON BPM SAYIDAH KEC. KALIWUNGU KAB.
KENDAL
Maria Ulfah Kurnia Dewi

TELEHEALTH IMPLEMENTATION USING AN ONLINE MEETING APPLICATION FOR 339-342


THE REMOTE AREA HEALTH SERVICES
Muchlas*and Rizky Nur Ardia Oktaviani**
*
Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, **Department of Public
Health, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

DEVELOPMENT OF SURV-TB (TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE WEBGIS) 343-346


Noor Alis Setiyadi1, Sabarinah B. Prasetyo2
1
Prodi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Muhammadiyah
Surakarta, 2Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Indonesia

STUDY OF POST-STROKE HYPERGLYCEMIA THERAPY ON STROKE INPATIENTS 347-350


IN PKU MUHAMMADIYAH YOGYAKARTA HOSPITAL
Nurul Maziyyah1) Sugiyanto2) Inayati3)
1)
Pharmacy Programme, UMY, 2)Faculty of Pharmacy, UGM, 3)PKU Muhammadiyah
Yogyakarta Hospital

WEI CHI 14 MERIDIANS EXERCISE AND PATIENT AFFIRMACY AS THE 351-354


EMOTIONAL THERAPY
Sutarno*, Widyoningsih**
*Sutarno: Graduate Nursing, Health Science School Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyyah Cilacap

THE EFFICIENCY OF GARLIC AND CUCUMBER CONSUMPTION IN DECREASING 355-360


THE BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG THE ELDERS WITH HYPERTENSION
Priyo,Prita Oktafiyana, Faculty of Health Sciences, Magelang Muhammadiyah University

IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FISAL IN STANDARDIZED EXTRACT FROM 361-366


PHYSALIS ANGULATA. L AND CONTROL ON PANCREATIC FUNCTION OF
SPRAGUE DAWLEY RAT INDUCED BY STREPTOZOTOCIN-NICOTINAMIDE?
Yeny Sulistyowati, Sri Kadarsih Soedjono, Mustofa, Budi Mulyono

PHENOMENOLOGY STUDY OF HELPLESSNESS ELDERLY EXPERIENCE WITH 367-372


HYPERTENSION IN BOGOR CITY
Abdul Wakhid, Achir Yani S. Hamid, and Yossie Susanti Eka Putri

PROFILE OF JOB SATISFACTION AND ITS EFFECT ON CARING BEHAVIOR OF 373-377


HOSPITAL NURSES
Jebul Suroso, Faculty of Health Science of Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

xiv
HOW TO INCREASE MILK PRODUCTION FROM MOTHER WITH INFANT LOW 378-382
BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)
Umi Solikhah 1, Indri Wisudawati Anggraeni2, Sodikin3
1,3
Faculty of Health Science University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, 2Nurse

CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL SUPPORT AND POSTPARTUM QUALITY OF 383-388


LIFE
Faizah Betty Rahayuningsih, Health Science Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

CORRELATION BETWEEN KEGEL EXERCISE WITH NEEDLE PERINEUM INJURY 389-392


HEALING AT NORMAL POSTPARTUM WOMAN IN RB AFIATUN HASANAH
BANDUNG
Annisa Ridlayanti, STIKes Aisyiyah Bandung

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SELF-CONFIDENCE AND DEPRESSION LEVEL OF 393-395


TEENAGE ORPHANAGES IN PANTI ASUHAN YAYASAN SATU UMAT IN
MAGELANG
Peni Nurman, Sambodo Sriadi Pinilih, Priyo, Nursing Science Department ofHealth Science
Faculty of Muhammadiyah University of Magelang

DETERMINATION AND VALIDATION METHOD OF TOTAL FLAVONOID CONTENT 396-405


AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MANGOSTEEN
(Garcinia mangostanaL.) LEAVES AS NATURAL PRESERVATIVES CANDIDATE BY
USING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
Diniatik, Indri Hapsari, Milani Tiara, Ayu Meidyawati, Suhri Nurhidayat, Faculty of Pharmacy
Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

FORMULATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF LIPSTICK FROM 406-411


MANGOSTEEN RIND (Garcinia mangostana L.) METHANOL EXTRACT
Gigih Aditya Pamungkas*, Nuryanti, Iskandar Sobri, Departement of Pharmacy FKIK Jenderal
Soedirman University

THE ROLE OF MEDIA EXPOSURE AND HEALTH BELIEF ON BREAST SELF 412-415
EXAMINATION
Khamidah Achyar,1 Anita D. Anwar,2 H. Herry Garna2
1
University Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, 2 Padjadjaran University

PHENOMENOLOGY STUDY OF VARIOUS OBSTACLE EFFORTS TO ELIMINATEOF 416-420


DENGUE HAEMORAGIC FEVER IN BANYUMAS DISTRICT
Isna Hikmawati, Dedy Purwito

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTENATAL CARE SERVICES AND PERINATAL 421-424


MORTALITY RISK FACTORS IN PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER OF PALEMBANG IN 2012
Rosmiarti,Enderiasari, Midwifery Diploma Degree Muhammadiyah Palembang

EFFECT OF MIND BODY COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES: LISTENING TO 425-429


PASSAGESOF ALQUR’AN AGAINST LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE AT SOCIAL
INSTITUTION OF TERATAI NURSING HOMES PALEMBANG2013
Trilia, Nursing of Science Diploma Degree Muhammadiyah Palembang

xv
EFFECT OF DHIKR THERAPY ON LABOR PAIN KALA 1 AT MATERNITY CLINIC 430-436
BUDI INDAH IN PALEMBANG IN 2012
Maya Fadlilah and Mar’atun Ulaa, Nursing of Science Diploma Degree Muhammadiyah
Palembang

ETHANOL EXTRACT OF BINAHONG LEAVES EFFECT (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) 437-439


Steen) ON HEMATOLOGYCAL CHANGES IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS
Silma Kaffah1, Fitri Kurniwati1, Anjar Mahardian Kusuma1, Asmiyenti Djaliasrin Djalil2
1
Laboratory of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Muhammadiyah
Purwokerto, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of
Muhammadiyah Purwokerto

THE COMPARISON OF FREE RADICALS SCAVENGING ABILITIES BETWEEN 440-446


ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF PURWOCENG (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk.) HERBS AND
LEAVES
Balqis Hisyam Saleh Basleman, Wiranti Sri Rahayu, Retno Wahyuningrum, Pharmacy Faculty
of Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

DIFFERENCES INFLUENCE PLYOMETRIC EXERCISE WITH NEUROMUSCULAR 447-454


ELECTRICAL STIMULATION (NMES) TO INCREASE THE ABILITY OF VERTICAL
JUMP IN BASKETBALL PLAYER STIKES MUHAMMADIYAH PALEMBANG
Putri Edrivania, Usman, Ika Guslanda Bustam, Program Study DIII Physical Therapy, STIKes
Muhammadiyah Palembang

THE CORELATION BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE OF ANEMIA WITH ANEMIA INCIDENT 455-460


IN PREGNANTS
Beti Rahayu Utami, Wilis Dwi Pangesti

THE IDENTIFICATION BACTERIA Streptococcus Pneumoniaee IN THE AIR ROOM 461-464


PAUD IN SEBERANG ULU 1 PALEMBANG
Heri Shatriadi, Zairinayati, Hoetary Tirta Amalia, Environmental Health of Science Diploma
Degree Muhammadiyah Palembang

THE DIFFERENCE ACCURACY APPRAISAL WEIGHT EMBRYOLOGY IN RISANTO 465-473


METHOD AND USG WITH WEIGHT BABIES WERE BORN IN A HEALTH CLINIC
TEGALREJO 2009
Marlin, Riska, Science Diploma Degree Muhammadiyah Palembang

THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY BREASTFEEDING INITIATION TO THE DURATION OF 474-478


LABOR THIRD PERIOD IN MATERNITY MOTHER AT AL-JARIYAH MATERNITY
HOSPITAL PALEMBANG IN 2013
R.A. Aminah Maya, Citra Purwanti, Prodi DIII Kebidanan STIKes Muhammadiyah Palembang

CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY TEST OF EXTRACT AND FRACTION OF GALANGAL (Alpinia 479-487


galanga) ON HeLa CELLS BY INVITRO
Puji Setya Rini, Irsan Saleh, Theodorus, Salni, Stikes Muhammadiyah Palembang

TOXIC EFFECTS OF FORMALDEHYDE KIDNEY Mice (Mus musculus L) SWISS 488-493


WEBSTER MALE
Ra. Hoetary Tirta Amallia, Sri Nita, Theodorus
Program Studi D III Kesehatan Lingkungan, STIKES Muhammadiyah Palembang, Indonesia

xvi
SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE

FARMERS BEHAVIOR TOWARD RISKS OF POTATO FARMING FOR GRANOLA AND 494-497
ATLANTIC VARIETIES IN BANJARNEGARA REGENCY
Pujiharto, Agricultural Faculty University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOVE OIL TO CONTROL SOYBEAN RUST DISEASE 498-500


Sumartini and Eriyanto Yusnawan, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute

VEGETATIVE AND GENERATIVE PERFORMANCES OF THREE SOYBEAN 501-504


VARIETIES IN FIVE LEVELS OF COLCHICINE DOSAGES AND SEED COAT PEELING
TREATMENTS
Sutrisno and Heru Kuswantoro, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute,
Indonesian Agency for Agriculture Research and Development

SIMPLE PARTISIPATORY GIS FOR LAHAR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION IN CIMUJA 505-508


RIVER SUBANG DISTRICT
Rendi Firdian I, Aditya Saputra, and Priyono, Geography Faculty Universitas Muhammadiyah
Surakarta

THE ANALYSIS OF KALIUM -40 RADIONUCLIDE POLLUTION AT SEDIMENT, SEA 509-512


WATER AND SHRIMP (Penaeus Merguiensis) IN CILACAP COASTAL OCEAN
Wahikun, Akademi Maritim Nusantara

THE EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION ON TOTAL FLAVONOID, PHENOLIC 513-517


CONTENTS, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS
Eriyanto Yusnawan, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute

SCREENING OF MUNGBEAN MUTANT GENOTYPES RESISTANT TO POWDERY 518-521


MILDEW (Erysiphe polygoni) AND LEAF SPOT DISEASE (Cercospora canescens)
Sumartini 1),Yuliastuti 2), Eriyanto Yusnawan 1)
1)
Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute, 2)Indonesian Atomic Institute

FUNCTION OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN CARING FOR 522-525


FOOD SECURITY SUPPORT IN SUBDISTRICT BELIK OF PEMALANG REGENCY
Watemin and Sulistyani Budiningsih, Agriculture Faculty of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto
University

EFFECT OF RICE BRAN AND ANORGANIC FERTILIZER DOSAGESON YIELD OF 526-533


WHITE OYSTER MUSHROOM (Pleurotus ostreatus)
Agus Mulyadi Purnawanto, Oetami Dwi Hajoeningtijas, Pujiati Utami, Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto

UTILIZATION OF WASTE OIL PALM AS A TOTAL MIXED RATION SILAGE WITH 534-537
LOCAL RESAURCES BASED TO ACHIEVED FOOD SECURITY IN AN ANIMAL
PROTEIN SOURCES
Agung Irawan, Mohammad Sholikin, Department of Animal Science, University of
Muhammadiyah Malang

CALCULATION PENSION PLAN USING BENEFIT PRORATE METHOD (A Case Study 538-542
of State Lecturers and Employees at Muhammadiyah Cirebon University)
Setyo Wira Rizki and Rifqi Hidayat

xvii
PROFILE OF MICROENTERPRISES CREATIVE SOUVENIR PROCESSED COCONUT 543-547
WASTE MANAGED BY POOR ARTISANS FARMERS IN RURAL
Dumasari1, Tri Septin Muji Rahayu2, Sulistyani Budiningsih3
1,3
Lecturer of Agribusiness Program Study, Faculty of Agriculture, University of
Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, 2Lecturer of management Program Study, Faculty of Economic,
University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto

DEVELOPMENT OF FUSARIUM DISEASE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY WITH 548-555


BIOLOGICAL AGENT IN MAS CULTIVAR BANANA SEEDLINGS RESULT IN VITRO
CULTURES
Anis Shofiyani and Gayuh Prasetyobudi

SOCIAL ECONOMIC

SERVICES CAPACITY OF ISLAMIC FINANCIAL SERVICES COOPERATIVE IN THE 556-562


DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) INPURWOREJO
CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA (Analysis of Services Quality Effect to Loyalty with
Satisfaction as an intervening variable in Business Partner of Islamic Financial Services
Cooperative In District Purworejo)
Agus Fitri Yanto, Danis Imam Bachtiar and Agus Dwi Atmoko, Polytechnic Sawunggalih Aji -
Purworejo

THE ROLE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) TO 563-566


COMMUNITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA (A Study of Productive
Economic Activities in Kalimantan)
R. Deni Muhammad Danial1 and Heinrich Gultom2
1
Student of Doctoral Program of Business Administration UNPAD, Lecturer of Business
Administration, Muhammadiyah University of Sukabumi (UMMI), 2PNPM Support Facility-
World Bank

CORRELATION BETWEEN INTENSITY OF PLAYING ONLINE GAME AND 567-571


EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Ulfi Kholidiyah dan Susatyo Yuwono, Psychology Department of Muhammadiyah University
of Surakarta

GAIN AND LOSS OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AMONG ASEAN-6 572-581


Yuli Utami, International Program for Islamic Economics and Finance, Department of
Economics-University Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

GAMES ONLINE INFLUENCE AT THE CAFE ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN 582-585


CHILDREN AT KELURAHAN CEMPAKA PUTIH, CIPUTAT TIMUR, TANGERANG
SELATAN
Ati Kusmawati, Muhammadiyah Universityof Jakarta

ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF PRICE, LOCATION AND SERVICES TO INCREASE SALES 586-588


VOLUME
Henny Dwijayani, Departement of Management, Faculty Economics of Universitas Darul
Ulum, Jombang

xviii
STUDY OF SELF-EFFICACY IN GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT 589-593
Suwarti and Ugung Dwi Ario Wibowo, Psychology Faculty of University of Muhammadiyah
Purwokerto

EXISTENCE OF RURAL COMMUNITY IN THE DISSEMINATION OF AQUAPONIC 594-599


TECHNOLOGY AT AGROTURISM VILLAGE
Imam Santosa1, Muslihudin2, Taufik Budhi Pramono3
1,2
Sociology Study Program, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Jenderal Soedirman
University, Purwokerto, 3Lecturer of Fishery Study Program, Faculty of Science and
Engineering, Jenderal Soedirman University Purwokerto

THE ANALYSIS OF RISK AND RETURN ON THE PROFIT-LOSS SHARING PRODUCTS 500-606
IN THE INDONESIAN ISLAMIC BANKING INSTITUTION
Yohani1, Achmad Tohirin2, Haryadi3, Sobrotul Imtikhanah4
1,4
Lecturer at the Department of Accounting, Muhammadiyah College of Economics (STIE) of
Pekalongan, 2Lecturer of Islamic Finance & Economics, Post Graduate Program, Faculty of
Economics, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, 3Lecturer at the Department of
Management, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman (UNSOED), Purwokerto

xix
Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

THE IMPACT OF MULTI MEDIA TECHNOLOGY TO ENGLISH TEACHING

Jusmin H.J Wahid


Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Abstract ascribed to a process called information, which is


In globalization era, every student must be fashioned in the backdrop of today’s globalization.
able to operate multimedia technology as a method The concept of information refers to information
to help students in learning process and influential technologies such as the World Wide Web
to communication and culture.Generally, when (WWW), which have transformed society.
people talk about multimedia or rich media, they According to Hofstede G. 1997, in Wang 1994:5
are talking about the graphics and displays online describes information as a process of change due to
and the ways users can interact with them, clicking information communication technology (ICT) to
to enter new sections or produce different types of such an extent that they become the dominant
audio effects. forces in commanding societal transformations and
Multimedia in English teachingvery big popularity of information production and
influence in communication and culture, to join distribution. In his ground-breaking thesis, Masuda
conversations with streaming audio, video, and (1982:29) argues that societies have to re-align
chat functions that allow for digital meetings. themselves in the light of the tremendous
Employees can train together as groups for more significance to the forces of the new technological
complex material and students can converse with innovations that are now part and parcel of the ‘new
teachers and other classes around the world. order.
Multimedia methods of teaching in both Media is a means of transmitting information
school and work settings are the increase in or the various forms, devices, and system that make
available channels for teaching. Some students up mass communications considered as a whole,
learn better through visuals, some students learn including newspaper, magazines, radio stations,
better by listening, and some learn by working television channels, and Web sites. Before
through material on their own. alphabetic writing, the media for communicating
information were oral-auditory and pictographic.
Keywords: Multimedia technology, English Writing facilitated the creation and storage of
teaching printed texts. Later print technology made such
texts available to masses of people (Danesi,
INTRODUCTION 2009:192).
1. Multimedia Okolo and Ferretti (1998) Showed that
Multimedia technology is a combination of student composition representing ideas
traditional media forms that are present in online simultaneously through text and audio, video and
formats. The simplest type of multimedia object is a sound increased the likelihood that students will
video that plays with accompanying sound, but acquire an understanding of complex information.
multimedia projects go far beyond this. Generally, It is a reasonable conjecture that using an even
when people talk about multimedia or rich media, wider range of media will extend this effect. The
they are talking about the graphics and displays same study also noted that students with a wide
online and the ways users can interact with them, range of abilities “readily mastered these tools and
clicking to enter new sections or produce different were highly motivated by the opportunity to
types of audio effects. augment their writing with other media.”That is,
Multimedia technology is exerting an this increased variety of expression enhanced
enduring influence ‘like a North Star’ on almost attitudes as well.
every facet of life across the world today (Kluver, There are several categories are important to
2000:1). The power of multimedia technologies emerge out of the qualitative analysis of the data
continues tore-shape and re-defines the nature and which is included extensive:
practice of politics, culture, commerce, religion and a. Videotapes
education. Specifically in the developing world, b. Interviews
multimedia technologies are associated with the c. Observations, and
emergence of a new knowledge society, largely

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 ED 1 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

d. Student-created materials1. 4) Student centered learning. Students will


There are three methods of using show accountability for learning when
multimedia aspect of online teaching as: collaborative activities or project based
2. Multiple Learning Channels learning is implemented through technology.
One of the key benefits to multimedia 5) Students relate to visual
methods of teaching in both school and work interactions.Especially if there is a game
settings is the increase in available channels for like atmosphere to the presentation. This
teaching. Some students learn better through method helps the students become more
visuals, some students learn better by listening, and engaged in the project.
some learn by working through material on their 6) Classroom management. Class web sites
own. Multimedia aspects of online teaching allow can provide “one stop shopping.” Handouts,
teachers and trainers to use all three methods, assignments, rubrics can all be accessible to
reaching students more easily no matter their students whenever they may need further
learning type2. information. This is also handy for students
3. Continuous Resources to complete their work whenever it is
Online multimedia centers are very easy to convenient for them.
access, and they can easily be updated to keep them 7) Addresses multiple learning styles.
current, unlike hardcopy books. As a result, online Material is presented using various learning
course information tends to be useful far longer styles simultaneously. For example auditory
than more traditional types of teaching materials. and visual approaches.
Students and employees can refer back to the same 8) Helps to prepare the teacher. A quality
resources of data they used when learning if they multimedia presentation makes sure that
have any questions. Teachers and managers must preparation has been done a head of time so
maintain such centers of knowledge in order for that class instruction will be organized,
them to be effective over the long term3. include a variety of learning types, and be
4. The Advantages of implementing relevant4.
multimedia in the classroom Another resources come fromIBM (Hall &
a. The Advantages of Multimedia Baumgartner, 1991, p. 260) suggested many
In using multimedia in teaching English has a advantages (according to their view) of multimedia:
lot of advantages they are: 1) Increases learning effectiveness.
1) Motivation. This is important as we have 2) Offers significant potential in improving
learned that we must first engage the personal communications, education and
attention of our students before they are training efforts.
ready to learn. And students find the use of 3) Tailors information to the individual.
multimedia very motivating and 4) Provides high-quality video images & audio.
entertaining. 5) Frees the teacher from routine tasks.
2) Learning styles addressed. Multimedia 6) Gathers information about the study results
allows teachers to address various learning of the student5:
styles in the classroom. Students can see,
hear, and imagine what things feel like as 4
One reason to implement multimedia into the classroom is
multimedia is used to bring a subject to life. because it is engaging. Multimedia allows us to make our
3) Access to limitless resources for teaching lessons entertaining; therefore grabbing the attention of our
and learning. Teachers are no longer students. The second reason is that it allows us to provide
differentiated instruction. Having different ways to present
limited to textbooks as vast amounts of information to our students allows teachers to meet the needs of
knowledge and teaching ideas may be all students. The third reason is that multimedia is a great way
explored. to make sure our lessons are organized. There are many tools
that we can use to help organize our presentation; therefore
making it easier to understand. The fourth reason is that we are
exposing our students to the real world. Our students are going
1
http://www.athensacademy.org/instruct/media_tech/reeves0.htm to be required to use multimedia in their jobs one day and by
l exposing them at an early age we are preparing them for the
future. The last reason to use multimedia is that is can enhance
2
concepts that are not as interesting as others. There are many
(http://www.ceap.wcu.edu/houghton/MM/RationaleMM.html) ways that the web can turn a not so interesting topic into
3
ihashimi.aurasolution.com/advantages_and_di something the students are willing to learn.
Multimedia centers are very easy to access, and they can easily
be updated to keep them current, unlike hardcopy books. As a 5
result, online course information tends to be useful far longer bloggingonthebay.edublogs.org/.../advantages.
than more traditional types of teaching materials.

Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto ED 2 ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

b. The Disadvantages of multimedia: ANALYSIS ON NECESSITY OF


1) Expensive APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA
2) Not always easy to configure TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING ENGLISH
3) Requires special hardware 1. To Cultivate Students’ Interest in Study
4) Not always compatible Nowadays, the stereotyped traditional
teaching methods and environment are unpopular
THE DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY while multimedia technology featuring audio,
Technology is utilized for the up liftmen of visual animation effects naturally and humanely
modern styles; it satisfies both visual and auditory makes us more access to information besides, with
senses of the students. With the spread and such characteristics as abundant-information and
development of English around the world, English crossing time and space, multimedia technology
has been learned and used by more and more offers a sense of reality and functions very well,
speakers. According to David Graddol ‘it is the which greatly cultivates students’ interest and
language at the leading edge of scientific and motivation in study and their involvement in class
technological development, new thinking in activities.
economies and management, new literatures and 2. To Promote Students’ Communication
entertainment genre. Capacity
Technology is the idea that technology shapes Traditional teaching has hampered students’
the course of human evolution. Many historians of capacity to comprehend certain language and also
science argue that technology has not only become understanding to structure, meaning and function of
an essential condition of advanced, industrial the language, and makes the students passive
civilization, but also that the rate of technological recipients of knowledge, So it is hard to achieve the
change has developed its own momentum. target of communication. With teachers’
Innovations appear at a rate that increases instructions leading students’ thought patterns and
geometrically, unhindered by geographical limits or motivating students’ emotions, the multimedia
social systems, these innovations tend to transform technology seeks integration of teaching and
traditional cultural systems, frequently with learning and provides the students greater
unexpected social consequences. Some social incentives, The PPT courseware activate students’
critics therefore define technology as both a thinking; the visual and vivid courseware rand help
creative and a destructive process (Danesi, them to transforms English learning into capacity
2009:285). cultivation. And such in-class activities as group
According to the Lexicon Webster Dictionary discussion, subject discussion, and debates can also
Volume II (1977:1008) technology is the branch of offer more opportunities for communication among
knowledge that deals with the industrial arts and students and between teachers and students. So
sciences; utilization of such knowledge the multimedia technology teaching has uniquely
knowledge and means used to produce the material inspired students’ positive thinking and
necessities of a society. communication skills in social Practice.
3. To Improve Teaching Effect
THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING Multimedia teachings enrich teaching content
ENGLISH and make the best of class time and break the
As the use of English has increased in “teacher centered” teaching pattern and
popularity so has the need for qualified teachers to fundamentally improve class efficiency. Due to
instruct students in the language. It is true that there large classes it is difficult for the students to have
are teachers who use ‘cutting edge’ technology, but speaking communication. The utilization of multi-
the majority of teachers still teach in the traditional media sound lab materializes the individualized and
manner. None of these traditional manners are bad co-operative teaching. The traditional teaching
or damaging the students. In fact, till date they are model mainly emphasized on teachers’ instruction,
proving to be useful also. However, there are many and the information provided is limited due to
more opportunities for students to gain confidence traditional classes. On the contrary, multimedia
practice and extend themselves, especially for ESL Technology goes beyond time and space,
students who learn the language for more than just creates more vivid, visual, authentic environment
fun. For them to keep pace with ELT and gain more for English learning, stimulates students’ initiatives
confidence they have to stride into the world of and economizes class time meanwhile increases
multimedia technology. class information.

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 ED 3 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

4. To Improve Interaction between Teacher and aimed at changing the behavior potential of another
Student person. “Edmund Amidon defined it as-“ Teaching
Multimedia teaching stresses the role of is an interactive process, primarily involving class
students, and enhances the importance of room talk which takes place between teacher and
“interaction” between teachers and students. A pupil and occurs during certain definable activity.”
major feature of multimedia teaching is to train and Brubacher, “Teaching is an arrangement and
improve students’ ability to listen and speak, and to manipulation of a situation in which an individual
develop their communicative competence, during will seek to overcome and from which he will learn
this process, the teacher’s role as a facilitator is in the course of doing so.Skinner- “Teaching is the
particularly prominent. Using multimedia in context arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement.
creation creates a good platform for the exchange “Ryans-”Teaching is concerned with the activities
between teachers and students, while at the same which are concerned with the guidance or direction
time providing a language environment that of the learning of others. “From these I want to
improves on the traditional classroom teaching make one definition, as my view. Me," Teaching is
model. In this way, teachers in the classroom no a process that improves the student's seeking level
longer blindly input information and force students more easily and it might be overcome any situation
to receive it in a passive way blindly input as an easy way.”Make definition our own after
information and force students to receive it in a reading it.
passive way. Another definition supposed by
5. Creates a Context for Language teaching SukdevsinghTeaching can be defined as interaction
Multimedia teaching creates a context for between the teacher and the taught as far as it is
language teaching. This method makes the class related to imparting of the knowledge to the
lively and interesting, as well as optimizing the students, to cover almost every aspect of education
organization of the class. Multimedia has its own which the students are expected to learn from a
features such a s visibility and liveliness. During teacher and which the teacher will teach them using
the process of multimedia English teaching, sounds all the teaching techniques and aids available to
and pictures can be set together, which enhances teach. This includes motivation, encouragement and
the initiative of both teachers and students, When character building of the students. A good teacher
using multimedia software, teachers can use must understand each and every trait of each of his
pictures and images to enrich the content of classes, students to deal them accordingly. In a nut shell we
and also imagine different contexts in the process of can say that teaching is to train the students in a
producing teaching courseware, Students in the way that they can be useful citizens of a nation.
class can use multimedia to understand the class in People may try to define teaching in their own way
a clear way. Through the whole interactive process, but whatever the definition is given it must include
it is apparent that using multimedia in ELT is the training in various subjects of study as well as
effective in nurturing students’ interest in learning the building of the personality of the students.One
English, as well as enhancing teachers” interest in of the techniques to improving the students’ meets
English teaching. As Zhang (2006:11.1) points out the academic needs and helps them developing
through Multimedia and network technology we English language skills is providing multimedia
can offer students not only rich, sources of during the process of teaching and learning in the
authentic learning materials, but also an attractive classroom. Multimedia classroom provide the
and a friendly interface, vivid pictures and pleasant students chances for interacting with diverse texts
sounds, which to a large extent overcomes the lack that give them a solid background in the tasks and
of authentic language environment and arouses content of mainstream college courses.
students’ interest in learning English. The writing aims to find out some advantages
of the use of multimedia in the classroom. Also, the
THE DEFINITION OF ENGLISH TEACHING involvement of technology in the classroom cannot
Teaching is a social process, to define it is deny giving positive point to improving the quality
very difficult, because the teaching influenced by of teaching and giving more various techniques in
the political and social backgrounds of the country. teaching a foreign language. The research uses a
Hence, just try for it, after reading all the qualitative method giving a deeply description
definitions. There are so many educationists, using multimedia in the classroom. The difference
complimented their definitions about teaching, Here between a traditional classroom and multimedia
are some, to keep in mind.According to Gage, classroom has been drawn in this writing. The
“Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence writing shows that there are some advantages in

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teaching English using multimedia as a technique in in nurturing students’ interest in learning English,
teaching process in the classroom. Through the as well as enhancing teachers’’ interest in English
media the teacher could give more opportunity to teaching.
students to express their opinions and enjoy during
the course. The highly presence and motivation also References
bring positive aspects to students so that they can Danesi, Marcel. (2009). Dictionary of Media and
improve their skills. Communications. New York:M.E. Sharpe, inc.
In Indonesia, English is taught in schools Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and Organizations:
since the students go to Junior high schools. Software of the mind. New York: McGraw
However, many of them do not know how to speak Hill.
and write English for some reasons. Some people Pei, Mario. (1977). The Lexicon Webster
from educational field said that the curriculum need Dictionary: Volume Two Oyster Bed To
to be changed, including the purpose of teaching Zymurgy Supplements. Columbia University:
them English, the textbook, and the methods. To Lexicon.
meet the students’ academic needs and help them Riley, Philip. (2007). Language, Culture and
develop strong English language skills, there are a Identity. New York: continuum.
number of ways need to be applied. One of the http://paksira.wordpress.com/2009/05/22/teaching-
techniques to improving the students is using english-using-multimedia/
multimedia in the process of teaching and learning http://www.ipedr.com/vol33/030-ICLMC2012-
in the classrooms. Multimedia use in classroom will L10042.pdf
provide opportunity for interacting with diverse
texts that give students a solid background in the
tasks and content of mainstream college courses.
Furthermore, because educational technology is
expected to become an integral part of the
curriculum, EFL students must become proficient
in accessing and using electronic resources6.

CONCLUSION
Through the interaction with multimedia, the
students become increasingly familiar with
academic vocabulary and language structure.
Connecting with the Internet will make the benefit
of increased student motivation. Students are eager
to begin class and often arrive early at the computer
lab, logging on the Internet and beginning research
on their own. They also often stay after class to
continue working on the Internet. Overall, students
develop greater confidence in their ability to use
English because they need to interact with the
Internet through reading and writing. Using
multimedia provides the students to gather
information through media that encourages their
imaginations, interests. Also it using this
technology combined with the sense of teaching
will create a successful teaching method7.
Multimedia to understand the class in a clear
way. Through the whole interactive process, it is
apparent that using multimedia in ELT is effective

6
www.phy.ilstu.edu/.../teachlearn/teaching_lear.
7
http://paksira.wordpress.com/2009/05/22/teaching-english-
using-multimedia/
Using multimedia provides the students to gather information
through media that encourages their imaginations, interests.
Also it using this technology combined with the sense of teaching
will create a successful teaching method

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THERE IS AN ELEPHANT IN MY ROOM:


CHALLENGES IN TEACHING MULTIPLE LEVELSOF REPRESENTATION
FOR CHEMISTRY PRESERVICE TEACHERS

Muhamad Imaduddin
Study Program of Chemistry Education, Mathematic and Natural Science Faculty,
Muhammadiyah Semarang University
Kedungmundu Raya 18, Semarang 50273, Telp. (024) 76740291
Email: muhamad.imaduddin89@gmail.com

Abstract reason is the presence of words from everyday


The ability of students to solve mathematical language used in chemistry but have different
problems is often used as standard of mastery of meanings (Bergquist and Heikkinen, 1990). The
chemistry concepts. Contrarily, the understanding third reason is the lack of formal operational
of students on chemistry could be seen through development and visualization capabilities owned
their ability to connect multiple level by “students” (Gabel, Samuel, & Hunn, 1987).
of representations, namely macroscopic, Some other literature also indicates the
submicroscopic, and symbolic level.The aim of difficulties that may occur in the study of chemistry
study was to explore difficulties of the learners in (Sirhan, 2007). Difficulties make students not
understanding the levels of chemical mastering the material of chemistry entirely.One
representation.Tested subjects were 31 students of important reason for students' difficulties in
chemical education at LPTK (an Institute for understanding the chemistry is closely related to the
PreserviceTeachers). Firstly, mapping of multiple levels of representation used in describing
misconceptions was conducted to determine the and explaining chemical phenomena (Johnstone,
condition of preservice teachers' mastery of 2000a, 2000b; Tasker & Dalton, 2006; Eilks, et.al,
concepts. Worksheets specifically were designed for 2007, Chandrasegaran et.al., 2007). The
classroom discussion activity on acid-base understanding of students on chemistry could be
concepts; solution equilibrium; solubity. Data were seen through their ability to connect multiple level
collected through tests of concept mastery and non- of representations, namely macroscopic,
test ie interviews.One group pretest-posttest design submicroscopic, and symbolic level (Johnston,
was applied in this study. % N-g in students’ 2000a, 200b; Treagust & Chandrasegaran, 2009;
mastery of concepts was analyzed. Results showed Talanquer, 2011).Wu, et.al. (2000); Devetak,
that % N-gain at “medium” level category (0,3). It et.al (2004); Tasker & Dalton (2006);
was only 5 preservice teachers (from 31 preservice Chandrasegaran et.al. (2007); and Chittleborough
teachers) showed the ability to connect the macro- & Treagust (2007). Wu, et.al. (2000); Devetak,
submicro-symbolic level.The difficulties of teaching et.al (2004); Tasker & Dalton (2006);
chemistry due to the barrier in the processing of Chandrasegaran et.al. (2007); and Chittle borough
information within working memory space.The & Treagust (2007) explained that (1) the
mastery of symbolic level was an important source macroscopic representations describe the essential
of this barrier. nature of real phenomena which can be seen
through the daily experiences; (2) the
Keywords: Multiple level of representations, submicroscopic representations (or molecular)
themacro-submicro-symbolic level; preservice provide an explanation for the particulate level.
chemistry teachers; workingmemoryspace This level is composed of real and particulate levels
used to describe the movements of electrons,
BACKGROUND molecules, particles and atoms. The material is
Science, especially chemistry, often is described as the arrangement of atoms, molecules,
considered by teachers, researchers, and educators or ions; (3) the symbolic representations (or iconic)
as a difficult subject for students. There are various involve the use of chemical symbols, formulas and
reasons for this. There are several main reasons equations, the molecular structure drawing,
why chemistry is difficult. One of reasons is that diagram, pictorial representations (images), algebra,
the chemistry topics are very abstract. Another

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and computational forms of submicroscopic


representations. METHODOLOGY
Various research findings have expressed Qualitative data were collected through a case
learner’s difficulties which may occur in the study study based on interviews with 9 informants.
of chemistry concept related to the concept of acids Interview guidelines for misconceptions (IGM)
and bases (Drechsler & Schmidt, 2005; Çetingül & were used in interviews as an instrument to map
Geban, 2005; Sheppard, 2006; Chaiyapha et al, and identify the ability of learners in linking levels
2011; Metin, 2011; Muchtar & Harizal, 2012) as of chemical representation. Quantitative data were
well as the concept of pH (Watters & Watters, obtained through test of concept mastery
2006). The materials which are still associated with (TCM).TCM is a type of criterion-referenced test,
chemical equilibrium in acid-base solutions, related tests used to measure students’ mastery or ability by
to chemistry of the solution (Calik et al., 2005; certain criteria predefined by the evaluatorwithout
Morgil et al., 2009) and the solubility and solubility comparing with the other students’ mastery or
products (Krause, S. & Tasooji, A., 2007), still ability (Sukardi, 2009).The tests were essay test
often had misconceptions. Topics of acids and items used to examine the concept mastery.
bases is closely related to basic chemistry concepts Concepts, associating with acid-base theory, acid-
that require a thorough understanding (Sheppard, base equilibrium (determination of pH and acid-
2006). However, learners often only gain base titration), buffer solution and hydrolysis
knowledge about the concept of acid-base through concepts, as well as the mechanism of solubility
memorization without understanding the concept and solubility product, are analyzed and tested
(Lin et al., 2004). through the IGM and TCM.TCM was tested as a
Basically, chemistry concepts will be easily pre-test and post-test through a one-group pretest-
revealed by understanding the microscopic posttest design.Tested subjects were 31 students of
representation(Smith&Metz,1996: 233). Difficulties chemical education at LPTK (an Institute for
of learners on chemistry concepts may be due to PreserviceTeachers) in Semarang City, Central
lack of development of submicroscopic Java. Furthermore,% N-g of concept mastery was
representation through proper visualization on analyzed to determine the level of improvement
learning. The assumption is reinforced by the fact that occurred. This test was used to analyze the
and review of the literature, that teachers generally criteria for the achievement before and after
limit the level of macroscopic and symbolic learning (adapted from Hake, 1998: 65).
representations in teaching learning proccess, while
the relation with the level of submicroscopic was Post Test Score-Pre Test Score
ignored.The students are expected to understand ‹g›=
Maximum Score-Pre Test Score
themselves by looking at the pictures in the book
without direction from the teacher. In addition,
By criteria of N-Gain level achievement:
students are also more in learning mathematical
0,00 ≤ ‹g› <0,30 = low
problem solving without interpret what is meant
about. The ability of students to solve mathematical 0,30 ≤ ‹g›<0,70 = medium
problems is often used as standard of mastery of 0,70 ≤ ‹g›< 1,00 = high
chemistry concepts.
The effectiveness of teaching chemistry in Data of the total score were tested for
school is influenced also by the ability of teachers normality with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test using
to understand and get the hang of the concept to SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science).If the
students, it is deemed relevant to improve the results of the test data showed a normal
competence of preservice teachers to mastery distribution, the significance of differences was
chemistry concepts in macroscopic, demonstrated before and after learning through
submicroscopic, and symbolic level. Nevertheless, Paired Samples t-test (Cohen et al., 2007). If the
the challenges might come up considering pre- data are not normally distributed, the test used
conceptions that were previously owned by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test (Cohen et al.,
preservice teachers. Therefore, this study seeks to 2007).Categorization of learners refers modified
explore how learners’ difficulties in understanding criteria of Abraham et. al. (1992) in Table 1.
the levels of chemical representation.

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Table 1. Categorizationof Students’ ConceptMastery


Category of Grade
Degree ofUnderstanding Scoring criteria
conceptmastery Score
Responses that include all components
Sound understanding 5
of the validated response
Mastering Concepts
Responses that include at least one of
(MC)
Partial understanding the components of the validated 4
response,‘but not all the components
Partial understanding Responses that show understanding of
Mastering Most of
with specific the concept but also make statements 3
Concepts (MMC)
misconception which demonstrate a misunderstanding
Responses that include illogical or MasteringConcepts
Specific misconception
incorrect Information Slightly 2
Unspesific misconception Unclear responses (MCS)
Repeats question
No understanding 1
Irrelevant or unclear response
AmateurIn The Concept
Blank
(AIC)
No response I don’t know 0
I don’t understand
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION analyzed and mapped to the table of misconception
The Mapping of Students’ Misconception frame (Table 2.) and associated with studies that
In this study, mastery of concepts was based have been there. Misconceptions findings in this
on theability of learners toconnect the levels of study may berelevant to the findings of previous
chemical representation, macroscopic, research there.
submicroscopic, and symbolic level. Firstly, Based on the interview, it can indirectly obtain
mapping and identifying the abilityof learners in information about how theability of learners in
linking levels of chemical representation were linking levels of chemical representation. Patterns
conducted through Interview guidelines for obtained can be seen in Figure 1.
misconceptions (IGM). Interview results were
Table 2. The Mapping of Students’ Misconception
Dimension of
Misconceptions in Students Representation RelevantFindings
Level
Notf amiliar witht he theories of Bronsted-Lowry acid-base and Mac  Sym Muchtar & Harizal (2012)
Lewis acid-base especially.
Acid solution is definitely conduct electricity where as an Mac Mic Çetingül & Geban (2005)
alkaline solution does not conduct electricity.
CH3COOH as a base because of the OH-. Sym Mac Lin (2004);Çetingül & Geban
(2005)
OH-is not inacid solution. Onlythere areH+in acidic solution. Sym  Mic
Inthebasic solutioncontainedonlyOH-.
Strong acids will have a low pH while the weak acid will have a Mic  Mac Çetingül & Geban (2005)
pH close bases.
Acids have pH values but does not have the value of pOH. pOH Mac  Sim
is only for bases. Sym  Mic
Concentration from hydrogenionsis onlyis affected by the Mic  Sim Chiu (2005)
amount ofhydrogen(H atoms) inthe formula.
If the concentration of HCl=10-8M, pH of HCl=8 and means Mac  Sim
that HCl is base. HCl is acidic. So, There is no solution of HCl Sym Mik
with a concentration of 10-8 M.
HCl with a concentration of 10-8M is basic because of pH=8. Mac  Sym Watters & Watters (2006)
(There is no contributionof H+ ions from water). Sym  Mic
Errorsin the interpretation of titration curves of acids and bases Sym  Mic Sheppard (2006)
Sym  Mac
Misconceptions in understanding the concept of a saturated Mac Mic Krause & Tasooji (2007)
solution.
Description: Mac = macroscopic level; Mic = submicroscopic level; Sym = symbolic level

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results of tests of concept mastery. Descriptive


data and testing of distribution data can be seen
in Table 1.
Table1. DescriptiveDataof Concept Mastery
Total
Minimum Maximum Mean
Score
Score Score Score
Ideal
Figure 1. The Pattern of Students’ Concept Pre-Test 18 78 41.61
Mastery 150
Post-Test 34 136 74.65
Based on the data in Table 1., It can be
Looking at existing conditions, it can be seen that the maximum post-test scores are
seen that the students still can not synchronize higher than the maximum score on the pre-test.
levels of chemical representation. Cheng & So it is with the mean score obtained. The
Gilbert (2009) stated that success in studying results of the data analysis of each indicator
chemistry should involve the mental increased mastery of concepts as outlined in
construction of the macroscopic levels, Table 2.
submicroscopic, and symbolic in representing Table 2 shows that there are significant
the phenomena associated with the chemistry. differences in the overall concept mastery as
That is, a through mastery of the concept can well as on each of the mastery concepts
not only be seen from the ability to solve indicators. Overall, it can be seen that the gain
mathematical problems alone. obtained at medium levels (0,30). However, it
However, it was often found that educators can be seen that each of GI I and GI IV have
assess students' ability in solving mathematical gain at low levels (0,28 and 0,19). Low gain
calculations only. This is consistent with Lee obtained in the GI I and GI IV showed that
(1999) referenced by Devetak (2004). mastery of concepts is lower than the other
Therefore, students often think that chemistry is concepts. In more detail, the pattern of students’
the science of studying only the element category change can be seen in Figure 2.
symbols, formulas and equations of chemical Based on the Figure 2, it can be seen
compounds. Learners do not understand the that students who experienced a change of AIC
nature of the particle and describes the dynamic Category to MCS category is the group with the
process (Mulford et al 2002). It is also strongly most number of. In addition, there is also a
suspected to occur on the subject of this study. learner who experienced a change in the
category of AIC to MC. The pattern can be
Improvement of Student’s Concept Mastery understood by reviewing process of concept
To determine the increase of concept formation and memory workspace.
mastery in cognitive, it can be seen from the

Table2. Analysis of Concept Mastery Test


Groups of Significance Tests of Rank**
<g>
Indicator Differences* Negative Positive Ties
GI 0,30 (medium) Significantlydifferent 1 29 1
GI I 0,28 (low) Significantlydifferent 3 24 4
GI II 0,35 (medium) Significantlydifferent 2 28 1
GI III 0,35 (medium) Significantlydifferent 3 27 1
GI IV 0,19 (low) Significantlydifferent 6 22 3
GI V 0,31 (medium) Significantlydifferent 1 29 1
Description:
* = Testing using theWilcoxonSigned RanksTest
** = Number of studentswhose score change and itwas shown inthe testWilcoxon
SignedRanks Test.
GI = Overallindicator oftheConceptMastery
GI I = Acid-basetheoryaccording toArrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, andLewistheory.
GI II = The equilibrium in acid-base solution and determination of thepH of the solution
GI III = Buffer solution concepts
GI IV = Hydrolisis concepts
GI V = Concepts of solubility and solubility products

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ence 2013
2
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and Cl2 (g). Learner responses showed sh that the


majority of them still confusion between
betw atoms and
molecules. The concept of microsco
icroscopic models of
atoms and molecules are so problema
blematic. This study
also showed such conditions, both beforeb and after
learning. The use of the index symbol
symb (s), (l), (g)
and (aq) to showed the phase of the substance also
could not be understood and used properly by
students before and after learning. Many
M learners or
students, even after studying chemis
hemistry, still do not
Figure2. The Patternof CategoryCha
ryChangeof understand the role of the chemical
mical formula. Some
Students’ ConceptMastery thought that the chemicall formula for is the
abbreviation for the name than a short way to
“There is An Elephant in My Room”
oom” an Idiom represent the composition or structure
ructure.
for Overload Working Memory Space Actually, when the teacher introduces
intr an idea
-such as chemical formulas and chemical
chem equations-
Related to the formation of concepts,
conce Sirhan the students may already have the knowledge or
(2007) stated that learning chemistry actually
ac need previous experience, thus leadingading to confusion
intellectual and critical thinking because
cause the content (Sirhan, 2007). Another thing that can be
is full of a lot of abstract concepts. It als
also includes highlighted is the ability of learners
rners to interpret the
the content of solution in chemistry and an chemical titration curve. The majority of students
stud have not
equilibrium. Real understanding not only on requires been able to interpret the concept
pt of a buffer system
an understanding of the key concepts but also the and hydrolysis on a curve. Thus, Thus to meet the
development of meaningful links to carry car concept indicators mastery of concepts, the sstudents would
to be interconnected as a whole. Th The concept have to interpret every symbol, symb formula,
developed as new ideas are interconn erconnected and representation in pictures, graphs and curves.
learners are not always correct in conne
connecting. This Santrock (2008) stated that
at the children have a
might direct the formation of misconcept
nceptions. lot of misconceptions that are not compatible with
Sirhan (2007) further stated that a concept or science and reality. They may be trying
tryi to reconcile
pieces of of owned intellectual al th thought can anything that seems contrary to their beliefs. In this
strengthen or even be a barrier to learning
lear more. regard, the use of scientific language
nguage can also lead
Barrier that occurs in GI-1 is unde understandable to misleading misconceptions. The language can be
because of the inability of the st students to one of the contributors to the inform
nformation overload.
understand and interpret the symbols, for formulas, and The problem of language, includin
ncluding the use of
pictures of models before learning. Te Tendency of unfamiliar vocabulary (eg, ions, ion molecules,
education obtained by students in secondary catalysts), familiar vocabulary leading
lead to a shift
schools shows that the symbolic form orm of chemical toward chemical meaning (exa example: atom,
reaction equations, phase index substances, saturated), the use of high-level language
lan sounds
chemical formula and meaning of mathematical
ma (example: entities), and the usee of double or triple
formulas are not interpreted properly.prope Thus, negative meaning. Results showed owed a decrease of
students may not grasp the key concepts
cepts or have not about one unit in the workspace memory.
mem
been really able to connect key concepts
cepts. Sirhan (2007) conduct research
search on vocabulary
Bodner (1991) listed the factors thathat may lead skills in secondary school students
udents in Australia.
to misconceptions on the learner. Bodner
Bodne noted the Results showed that many of the w words used by
problems of learning that only emphasizes science teachers can not be accessed and
memorization, learners have knowledg owledge without understood by students buzzing zzing. Research in
understanding. In line with this res research, the Scotland also showed that some words wo that use is
students can not truly understanding nding the atom, not standard in English-lang
language cause
molecule, ion, chemical formula, as well w as the misunderstanding. The use of language,
langu including
symbolic and submicroscopic representat
esentation related the representation of symbols, requiresre careful
concepts of acid-base and solubility equi uilibria. This thought and caution. Language can help or hinder
might also be a key factor in their miscon
isconceptions. the interaction with long-term memory
mem even be a
Wu (2001) investigated the level of source of overload working memo memory information
description of the learner when the he formulas
for and (Sirhan, 2007; Taber, 2009).
chemical symbols are used, such as Cu (s), H2O (l),
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Tsaparlis (2009) stated that the information Their Components. International Education
passed through the filter will towards working Journal Shannon Research Press. 6: 30-41,
space (or working memory), namely part of Çetingül, P.I. & Geban, O.(2005).Understanding of
memory (mind) in which new information and Acid-Base Concept by Using Conceptual
interact with what is already understood and was Change Approach. H.U.J. Education. 29: 69-
understood. The information is molded into a form 74.
that can be saved and reused later or into a form Chaiyapha, P., Chayajarus, K., & Chairam, S. ,
that can be discarded because it is considered as (2011).Investigation of High School Students’
"not meaningful". By understanding the Understanding of Acid-Base Chemistry Based
information processing models, at least there is an on Jigsaw Metho. Pure and Applied Chemistry
important factor to explain why science it becomes International Conference 2011. 139-142.
difficult for the learners. That is because the Cheng, M., & Gilbert, J. K. (2009). Towards A
language in the chemical process that takes too Better Utilization Of Diagrams In Research
much. Language here also includes the use of Into The Use Of Representative Levels In
symbols representation (Bradley & Steenberg, Chemical Education,(Ed: Gilbert, J.K & D.
2005; Taber, 2009). Thus, the students tend to Treagust), Multiple Representation in
memorize submicroscopic and symbolic Chemical Education: Models & Modelling in
representation in the form of words of description. Science Education. Dordrecht, Springer, 55-
As a result they are not able to imagine and 73.
represent how the processes and structure of a Chandrasegaran, A.L., Treagust, D.F., & Mocerino,
substance having a reaction. M. (2007). The Development of A Two-Tier
Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Instrument for
CONCLUSION Evaluating Secondary School Students’
Based on the research results and discussion, Ability to Describe and Explain Chemical
it can be concluded as follows. % N-gain of concept Reactions Using Multiple Levels of
mastery at “medium” level category (0,3). It was Representation. Chemistry Education
only 5 preservice teachers (from 31 preservice Research and Practice. 8: 293-307.
teachers) showed the ability to connect the macro- Chittleborough, G. & Treagust, D.F. (2007). The
submicro-symbolic level. The difficulties of Modelling Ability of Non-Major Chemistry
teaching chemistry due to the barrier in the Students and Their Understanding of The Sub-
processing of information within working memory Microscopic Level.Chemistry Education
space. The mastery of symbolic level was an Research and Practice.8:274-292.
important source of this barrier. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007).
Research Methods in Education Sixth Edition.
Acknowledgement New York, Routledg..
The author would like to thank for Davidowitz, B. & Chittleborough, G.D. (2009).
BPKLN (Biro Perencanaan dan Kerja sama Luar Linking the Macroscopic and Sub-
Negeri), Ministry of Education and Culture for the microscopic Levels: Diagram, (Ed: Gilbert,
support cost in this research through Beasiswa J.K & D. Treagust), Multiple Representation
Unggulan. in Chemical Education: Models & Modelling
in Science Education. Dordrecht, Springer,
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Kesebelas Jilid 1. Terjemahan Mila

Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto ED 12 ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7


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DEVELOPING A CHEMISTRYMAGAZINEAS A LEARNING RESOURCE


OF YEAR-10 STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Eko Yuliyanto
Chemistry Education Department, Muhammadiyah Semarang University
email: ecko_mch@yahoo.com

Abstract Sheldon's (1995), Amabile (1986:15), Nair and


The study aims to: determine the feasibility of Alyakumi (2012), and Liu, et. All (2012) states that
chemistry magazine in the aspects of the material, if the intrinsic motivation of students is high then
presentation, language, and images. This study was the creativity of students will also be high, as well
a research and development conducted with Borg as better.
and Gall Model’s, i. e preliminary research; There are some efforts to improve the quality
determining the purpose of product; designing of learning. One of the way is through the
format of product and designing assessment of development of learning resources, especially
chemical magazine quality; validation by peer books, textbooks, and other print media. The
reviewer, material expert, media and learning presence off actors that affect the process and thel
expert; and limited try out. The instruments to earning outcomes of students make students have
collect the data were the magazine’s validity sheets, difficulty in understanding the subject matters. This
andstudents’ response sheets. The results of will make them to look for a sources of learning
developing the chemistry magazine, the magazine is outside the classroom. Therefore, they try to learn
appropriate based on material, presentation, to be independent students witht he help of learning
picture and language aspects. resources in accordance with the wishes of students.
It makes educators respond tot hese conditions, in
Keywords: chemistry, magazine, resource particular by providing an exciting learning
resources. Based on the results of a survey
INTRODUCTION conducted inS MAN 1 Mlati indicating that 80%
There are many factors that can affect the students of year-10 (of 91 students) like magazines
learning process in the classroom. These factors can as reading material. It ist he potential for
be derived from students or teacher. Quality of developing a chemical magazine as a source of
learning in the classroomcan be obtained from the learning chemistry.
student responses during learning. Based on a Based on the information in SMAN 1 Mlati no
survey in SMAN 1 Mlati. the information obtained individuals who developing chemistry magazine.
85% students of year-10 class (of 93 students) Chemistry teachers in SMAN 1 Mlati also have not
declared that chemistry teachers in teaching used chemistry magazine in the learning process of
unattractive. Some vapidity is a lack of learning by chemistry. Hence the need for develop the
practice, the lack of intermezzo with laughter, the magazines as a source of learning chemistry, so the
subject matteris to of ast explanation, teachersdo studentsare motivated to learn chemistry subject.
not understand the condition ofthe students, the The learning process is carried outself-students
learning situationis tootense, nodistractionusing the must be supported by an engaging learning
game, there is nointermezzoin the form ofstories, resources and in accordance with the interests of
andthe mediaorthe monotony of learning resources. students. This material of magazine accordance
In addition students want to learn chemistry with the Standards Content, so that the presence of
availability of a full color book. this magazine can help students to learn
This indicates the motivation of students in independently and get the meaningfulness of the
learning chemistry is not optimal and it is alsot chemistry subjects being studied. In addition
hought to lack the motivation to learn can lead to magazine in the learning process use learning
low student creativity. This will potentially result in approaches, as it will greatly assist in the transfer
achievement of students studying chemistry. This is process information effectively and efficiently.
due to the relationship between motivation and Some of the approaches used in the chemistry
creativity. De Jesua, et. All (2013), Nair&Alyakumi learning approach was Science, Environment,
(2011), and Sarsani (2008) states that between Technology, and Society (SETS). The SETS
motivation and creativity have a correlation. approach was used in the developing of the

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 ED 13 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

magazine because it has certain advantages in the The average total score of each sub-
process of information transfer. The language used component was calculated by the formula:
in this magazine was populars cientific language, so
that he material in the magazine will be easily ∑X
understood. The dynamic impression will bes een in Formula: X =
n
every design lay out of each page in the magazine Information :
so arranged as to avoid monotony and give rise to X = the mean score for each sub-component
new or fresh atmosphere. In addition, using of ∑  = the total score of each sub-component
collaborative approaches SETS, Chemo n = the number of grain sub-components
Entrepreneurship (CEP), and the application of The total score andt he average total score was
Mind Mapping in writing subject matter, are calculated for each component, then the average
expected to create"Joy full Learning". final score obtained was converted in to a
The problems studied and identified in this qualitative level of product quality with a 5 scale
study are educators in SMAN 1 Mlati not yet using conversion categorization guidelines (Sukardjo,
chemistry magazine in the learning process. There 2008:83) as presented in Table1.
is a tendency motivation of students in SMAN 1 Table1. Scale of Five Criteria
Mlati. The motivation’s students of year-10 class in Range Score Category
this case is quite low because he lesson is not
4,206 <̅ Very Good
interesting. There was also tendency in creativity,
3,402 <̅ ≤ 4,206 Good
the creativity of students is still limited in this case
2,598 <̅ ≤ 3,402 Neither
because the learning process is not attractive.
1,794 <̅ ≤ 2,598 Bad
RESEARCH METHODS ̅ ≤ 1,794 Vary bad
This study is a Research and Development.
The model used in this research is development RESULTS ANDDISCUSSION
model of Borgand Gall (1983: 772). Borg&Gall The preliminary study
model consists of ten steps are procedural models. Based on observations andextracting
In this study only done up to step 7 on the informationusing aquestionnaireofas many as 93
procedure on a model Borgand Gall. The study was students of class X data showed that83% of
conducted from December 2012 to May 2013. studentsalreadyhave achemistry book, 84% of
Where the research was done in year-10 class of students stated the chemistry books that there are in
SMAN 1 Mlati, Sleman, Yogyakarta. This research school not edequate for students, 95% of students
was conducted hrough seven development stages: a states never read a chemistry magazine, 85% of
preliminary study; formulation of objectives; design students stated that learning chemistry in school is
and manufacture a product format magazines not interesting, 80% of students stated that likes to
chemical assessment instruments; chemical read magazines. Based on preliminary studies, we
preparation of the draft magazine; validation by can conclude that learning of chemistry in year-10
peers, materials experts, media specialists andl classof SMAN 1Mlati not be enable to attract the
earning, chemistry teachers, and smallgroup trials. students and to follow the learning chemistry well.
It has the potential lacking of motivation of students
THE DATA, INSTRUMENTS, AND THE in participating in learning chemistry. So, it is
COLLECTION TECHNIQUES OF DATA necessary to develop learning resources, and can to
The data obtained were aspects of data quality attract the students to study chemistry.
magazine content, presentation and language and Formulation of Objectives
images by peer reviewers, expert material, and The purpose of the learning process in terms
instructional media experts, reviewers and students. of the materials used in the learning process.
The instrument used in this study are chemistry Preparation of materials based Standards
magazine quality instruments. Competency, Basic Competency. Standards
Variabledataqualityanalysisforchemistrymaga Competency used are understand the properties of
zine: criteria of assessmentbeconverted intoa score, organic compounds and functional groups on the
with ascalemodel ofthe fiveLikert’sscale(S.Eko basis of macromolecular compounds, while the
PutroWidoyoko, 2012:106), then the total scoreand basic competency used is to describe the
themean of total score was calculatedforeachsub- peculiarities oft he carbon atoms in the form of
component chemicalmagazine. hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons classified based on
their structure and relation to the nature of the
compound, explaining the process of formation and

Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto ED 14 ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7


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separation techniques petroleum fractions andt heir The results assessment chemsistry magazine of
uses, and describe the functionality and feasibility magazine material by materials experts a
composition of hydrocarbonsine veryday life in the complete can be seen in Table3.
field of food, clothing, housing, commerce, art, and Table3. Data assessment of chemistry magazine
a esthetics. by materials experts
Designing the Format of Products Aspects of assessment Score Category
The format lay out refers to the magazine on Supporting the purpose
the market. The lay out of the magazine referenced 4,33 Very good
of education
on the market that cover the front and back cover, Compliance with science
editorial, content, number of pages, paper size, 4,00 Good
and technology
paper type, font size, andthe preparation Compliance with the
ofsectionlayout. The magazine consists of a front 3,33 Neither
reasoning learners
cover, contents page in the form of rubrics and back Average number of total
cover, and chemistry magazine consists of 78 3,88 Good
score
pages.
Construct of Instrument Chemical Magazine The results assessment of magazine by chemistry
The assessment instrument for the chemistry teachers fully presented in Table4.
magazine was developed based on assessment Table4. Data Assessment of Chemistry Magazine
instrumentsn on-textsbook (Pusbukkur, 2010:1). by chemistry teacher
The Instruments chemistry magazine consists of Aspects of Mean of
Respondent Score Category
three components. The components are the assessment Scores
feasibility of the material, the feasibility of Feasibilityof I 5,000
Material II 4,125
presenting and appropriateness of language and
III 3,500 4,225 Very good
images. This instrument consists of 41 items IV 4,250
statement. This instrument before used to assess the V 4,250
chemistry magazine was validated by Prof. Feasibility of I 4,647
Dr.Sukardjo. Presentation II 3,941
Preparation Draft of Chemistry Magazine III 3,529 4,094 Good
IV 4,412
The Chemistry magazine was developed by In V 3,941
design CS5 software and Corel Draw X3 software. Feasibility of I 4,625
The Magazine designed in the paper which the size language and II 4,125
19.3 cm x 26cm. images III 3,688 4,163 Good
ResultsValidation Chemistry Magazine IV 4,438
V 3,938
The chemistry magazine after validated were
obtained scores on the material aspects,
presentation, and language and images. Validation The result of assessment chemistry magazine by
was done by a chemistry magazine colleague, expert instructional media are presented in Table 5.
materials experts, media expertsand learning and Table 5. Data assessment of chemistry magazine
chemistry teacher. The results of chemistry by expert instructional media
Respon Aspects of assessment dent Score Category
assessment of feasibility magazine material, Systematic ofpresentation 5,00 Very good
presentation language and picture presented in Easiness to understand 4,33 Very good
Table2. Develop creativity 5,00 Very good
Table2. DataAssessmentof ChemistryMagazineby Develop motivation 4,33 Very good
colleague Develop thinking skills 5,00 Very good
Aspects of Mean of Develop thinking skills 4,33 Very good
Respondent Score Category Feasibility of language and images 4,50 Very good
assessment Scores
Feasibilityof I 4,125 Understanding of language 4,66 Very good
Material II 4,125 4,208 Very good Appropriate of language 4,00 Good
III 4,375 Appropriate of images 5,00 Very good
Feasibility of I 4,176 Font of magazine and physical quality 5,00 Very good
Presentation II 4,000 4,216 Very good Mean of total scores 4,65 Very good
III 4,470
Feasibility of I 4,250 Small Group Try Out
language and II 4,125 4,250 Very good Try out conducted on a small group of 8
images III 4,750 people. This small try out group consisted of
assessing the feasibility of the material, presenting

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 ED 15 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

the feasibility and appropriateness of language and assessment by experts on the material aspects of the
images. Fully presented in Tables 6, 7 and 8. matter: the suitability of magazine with science and
Table6. Data assessment of chemistry magazine technology categorized “good”, and the suitability
by the materialaspects of students of contents in a magazine with reasoning students
Aspects of
Respondent Score
Mean of
Category also categorized as “Neither” while the carrying
assessment Scores capacity magazine for the educational objectives
I (high) 4,000
II (high) 4,250
are categorized as “very good”. A learning resource
III (high) 4,125 was said to be good media if the material has been
Feasibilityof IV (middle ) 3,750 published in accordance with the level of
4,141 Good
Material V ( middle ) 4,250 development that became the target object. The
VI (middle) 4,375 chemistry magazine was conceived and was
VII (low) 4,500
dedicated to the students of senior high school. The
VIII (low) 3,875
materials presented in the magazine different from
ordinary chemistry books. The materials in the
Table7. Data assessment of chemistry magazine
magazine were presented in the form of chemitry
by students aspect of the presentation
Aspects of Mean of rubrics material interrelated with one another,
Respondent Score Category whereas in terms of scientific truth remains aligned
assessment Scores
I (high) 3,941 with the field of chemistry.
II (high) 4,059
III (high) 3,941
Feasibility of FeasibilityPresentation
IV (middle ) 3,588
Presentation
V ( middle ) 4,000
3,919 Good The peers assesses chemistry magazine with
VI (middle) 3,824 “very good” category, the chemistry eachers
VII (low) 4,118 assesses the magazine with “good” category, and
VIII (low) 3,882 instructional media expert assess the magazine
“good” category while the students in limited try
Table8. Data assessment of chemistry magazine out assesses chemistry magazine “good” category.
by students aspect of language and images The aspects assessment of the feasibility
Aspects of Mean of presentation on chemistry magazine include: the
Respondent Score Category
assessment Scores
I (high) 4,250
using of systematic presentation, easiness to
II (high) 4,438 understand, develop motivation, develop thinking
III (high) 4,250 skills, develop academic skills, and develop
Feasibility of
language and
IV (middle ) 4,125
4,250
Very creativity.
V ( middle ) 4,063 good Based Pusbukkur (2010:1) the feasibility of a
images
VI (middle) 4,188
non-text book there is a few things one of which is
VII (low) 4,188
VIII (low) 4,500 the feasibility presentation. It is becomes important
that every non-text books including chemistry
Final Product of Assessment magazine. A non-text books was said to be good
Feasibility Material media if the quality of the presentation of the
Assessment of the feasibility material of a material, categorized as “good” category. The
chemistry magazine by expert indicates that a feasibility of chemistry magazine in presentation
minimum quality magazine categorized as “good”. categorized as “good” category. So the chemistry
The results assessment of the chemistry magazine magazine is feasible used as a learning resource for
in the material aspects by peers was “very good” students in senior high school. Presentation of the
category, assessment the chemistry magazine material in the magazine is different from ordinary
materials expert was “good” category, and chemistry books, the one that sets it apart is the
chemistry teachers assess chemistry magazine rubric. The differences magazine unusual chemistry
“very good” category, while the limited try out and chemistry books can be seen in Table 9. The
judge chemistry magazine was “good” category. Rubric is a common theme in the magazine and
The assessment of chemistry magazine covers content in each different section. Every magazine
carrying the material aspects of educational section on the development of this chemistry has a
objectives, compliance with the development of goal orientation in chemistry magazine, which is to
science and technology, and compatibility with the improve learning motivation and attitude on the
reasoning of students. The average scores given by creativity of students. In this magazine presented
experts material is the lowest score if compared rubrics to improve motivation oriented balanced
from the other validation because it is based on an

Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto ED 16 ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

and also complementary with rubrics to improve


creativity as contained in Table 9. Magazine
Table 9. Rubric orientation in Magazine The visual quality of a media can be viewed
Rubric orientation in from several things. Smaldino, et.al (2008:60)
Rubrics Magazine states that visual elements in the design that
Motivation Creativity
Topik utama √ √
arrangement, balance, color, legibility, while the
Eksperimen √ √ appeal of text elements include style, size, spacing,
Tahu lebih jauh √ √ color and use of capital. AccordingP usbukkur
Amazing! √ - (2010:1) the feasibility of a non-text book there are
Profil ilmuwan √ -
Kimiawan berwirausaha √ √
several things that a feasibility material, presenting
Kimiawan tertawa - √ feasibility, feasibility graph andl inguistic. It
Apakah aku dan untuk apa aku? - √ becomes important that every non-text books
Info senyawa-senyawa kimia - √ including chemistry magazine. Anon-text books
dan lambang bahayanya
Mind mapping √ √
said to be good ift he quality of its linguistic,
Chem-browsing - √ material, presentation and graph categorized
Motivasi √ - minimum was“good”. The results of the
development of chemistry magazine on feasibility
Feasibility Language and Images of language and images was categorized “good”.
The Peer assess chemistry magazine with the So, the magazine is feasible to be used as a learning
“very good” category, the magazine assessed by resource for students in senior high school. The
chemistry teacher with a “good” category, and chemistry magazine was a visual media that is
instructional media experts assess the expected to increase the motivation of students.
magazine“very good”category while the limited try Smaldino (2008: 56) states that:
out group assess chemistry magazine“very “visual can increase interest in a lesson. Interest
good”category. The assessment of chemistry enhance motivation.Visual can motivate students by
magazine covers several aspects, namely the attracting their attention, holding their attention,
suitability images and language, understanding of and generating engagement in learning process”
language ori mages, correct use of language, correct
use of images, and use of fonts as well as the CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
physical quality magazine paper. The language and Conclusions
images have an influence on the media or learning Based on the research that has been done can
resources. be summed up as follows: Chemistry Magazine
Table10. The Comparison Text book and based on the assessment by peers, materials experts,
Chemistry magazine media and learning expert, chemistry teachers , and
The type of educational books students of material aspects, presentation, linguistic
Aspects Chemistry and images declared fit for use as a source of self-
Text book
magazine
Materials Material related to Materials related
learning in the process learning chemistry.
standards content to the partial or
onepart in Suggestion
thestandards Based on the results of the implementation of
content
Organization of Organized into The material
the research, there are some things that are still not
the materials units or Chapter arranged in the a optimal in the development of chemistry magazine
unique rubrics therefore there are some advice given by
The material of a The contents researchers are:
Purpose subject of suitable to study
knowledge and the matter and as
1. Magazine printing in order to reduce production
science enrichment costs using the cover of a magazine on the ivory
material or paper 230 grams and the content section using
reference HVS 80 gram paper (color full ).
The Purpose of as a basic As
Use handbook for anenrichmentbook
2. The Chemistry magazine need for further
students for students testing, which is done by cooperating with
Evaluation There is ana There is not MGMPs forums such as chemistry teacher, so it
Instrument evaluation include an will get more and more representative input on
instrument evaluation
instrument
the needs of the students in the class.

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 ED 17 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

References Pusat Perbukuan Depdiknas. (2010). Pedoman


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IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF


COLLABORATIVE LEARNING MODEL DIRECT AND COOPERATIVE TYPE
STAD ON MACROECONOMIC THEORY COURSES

Luqman Hakim
Universitas Negeri Surabaya
luqmanhakimb114@gmail.com

Abstract From the background described above, the


The low outcome of economic education formulation of the problem in this study were : (1)
students was caused by characteristic of the How does the application of direct and
substance introduction to economics which collaborative learning model STAD cooperative
abstract, theoretic, and teacher centered. So that, learning for macroeconomic theory courses on
the implementation direct learning and Student Economic Education Program. (2) How does the
Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) can make course learning outcomes at the macro economic
the substance introduction to mcroeconomics theory Studies Economics Education S - 1 with the
becomes easier to be accepted and understood by direct and collaborative learning model STAD
students. The purpose of this research is to describe cooperative learning. (3) Are there any constraints
the level of completeness student’s learning faced by the students in the Economics of
outcome at introduction to macroeconomics Education Program follows the use of direct and
subject.The research result of the implementation collaborative learning model STAD cooperative
direct learning and Student Team Achievement learning in introductory courses macroeconomic
Divisions (STAD) is student activities at each theory.
meeting have a significant escalation. The level of Through collaborative model of learning
completeness student’s learning outcome at direct and cooperative type stad expected students
agregate demand and supply substance have a could understand the concept of theory either
significant escalation from 68,6% at first cycle individually, makro groups and classes. The
become 82,9% at second cycle, and then become concept of the theory makro better qualitative and
91,4% at post test. The student’s response about the quantitative will pre-sighted not only comprehends
implementation direct learning and Student Team the theory by remembering, but also analyse and
Achievement Divisions (STAD) contextual is evaluate a meaning that is contained in
positive. perekonomin a country so as to study result of the
students has risen. According to simanjuntak
Keywords: STAD, direct learning, learning (1985:9) learning is own efforts having knowledge.
outcome While sudjana (1996:5) defines learning as a
process that characterized by the presence of
BACKGROUND change at yourself in someone. Change as a result
Learning is a process that processes input into of a learning process can be shown in various forms
output using the instrumental. Instrumental inputs as changed knowledge, understanding, the attitudes
used by lecturers will process the students as inputs and behaviors, skill, prowess, a change of habits as
into output quality. Instrumental inputs include well as other aspects that belonged to individuals.
building infrastructure, educational facilities, The definition of other about learning given garry
curriculum, instructional models, administration and kingsley (1970: 15) in sudjana learning is the
and other instruments. process of changing the original comportment
Learning model as an instrument of education through experience and trial.
plays a role in processing students to obtain better Learning according to slameto (2003: 2)
learning results. The results of the study describe psychologically is “a process of change namely
the product as a mirror learning student success in change comportment as the result of interactions
learning. Learning allows the process that allows with surroundings in meet the needs of his life or
the acquisition of good learning outcomes. Cagne learned: a process of efforts by someone in order to
(1985), the results obtained through learning events gain a change comportment new overall, as the
learning event. result of experience of themselves in the interaction
with environment”.

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Skinner in dimyati (1999:9) said, “learning is learning (improvement instruction oriented).


a behavior at the time of a learned person then Subjects of a course called sedangakan basic
responnya meliorate”. So that by learning then they economic theory makro s-1 education program
will undergo a change comportment. Learning economic subjects, namely matter demand and a
according to azwar (2004: 164) in the most general supply aggregate.
sense is any behavioral change caused by
experience or as a result of the interaction of The Procedure of Research
individuals with their environment. Besides According to kemmis and mc taggart (1998),
according to djamarah (1994: 20) learning is a the procedure of research in the act of class,
activities performed in a conscious to get a number include: (1) a plan of action; (2) the act of research;
of an impression from the ingredients being studied. (3) observation; (4) the reflection and (5) of
Meanwhile, according to azwar (2004:164) planning back.
learning is any behavioral change caused by
experience or as a result of the interaction of The Cycle of Research
individuals with their environment, hence people The research covering two breeding cycles,
are openly against changes that occurred to him. namely (1) first of aggregate demand, (2) a second
Learning according to djamarah (1994:21) is “a about the offer an aggregate. Each carpel cycle use
activities performed in a conscious to get a number of syntax research consisting of the plan, the act of,
of an impression of material that has been studied observation and reflection.
and is a who has the goal that is the occurrence of a First cycle includes: (1) of planning namely:
change in self of the individual”. explain material that will be presented in learning,
Learning cooperative type stad learning specifically, formulated the goal of teaching give a
cooperative type stad arranged in an attempt to test, prerequisite distributed to student, teaching
improve liveliness and participation siswa, materials assigning university students to read the
accompanying the student with experience attitude material brash aggregate demand, and distributed
leadership and make a decision in a group, as well sheet activities a student. (2) the act of. Is the
as provide opportunities on the kids to interact and implementation of the poses belajar-mengajar by
learning together students with different using model in class. (3) observation. To observe
backgrounds. Learning cooperative type stad could and record comportment student when learning and
also improve the performance of students in the observe and record comportment model. (4)
duties of academic, superior in helped students in reflection. Conduct a study on the implementation
translated concepts difficult, motivates students to of the process of belajar-mengajar that has been
think more deeply and critically. Learning done. (5) discuss and evaluation with an observer
cooperative used for melatihkan ketrampilan- used as the basis of analyzing data and the result is
ketrampilan ketrampilan-ketrampilan cooperation the condition of the end.
and integration. (trianto, 2007). Second cycle includes: (1) of planning
According to slavin in ratumanan (2004) the namely: the things that are obtained from the cycle i
activity of learning cooperative can play a role in and from the results of the discussion and
many lessons. In one particular subject learning evaluation with an observer in the cycle i. (2) the
cooperative can be used to three the purpose of act of. Is the implementation of the poses belajar-
different. For example, in both the students work as mengajar by using model in class. (3) observation.
certain groups 'm trying to find something (e.g., To observe and record comportment student when
economic cost of solving a problem acceptance and learning and observe and record comportment
the balance aggregate with the approach of model. (4) reflection. Conduct a study on the
qualitative and quantitative approach) after the hour implementation of the process of belajar-mengajar
is completed, students can be employed as groups that has been done. (5) discuss and evaluation with
discussion. Finally students get a chance work observers.
together to ensure that all members of the group has The technique of collecting data in this
mastered that lesson. research is reducing the data is an activity selection,
focusing, and simplification of the data which
METHOD began on collecting data until the preparation of the
A kind of this research appertain to research report research. The data referred to covering
qualitative with the kind of research classroom transcript the implementation of learning macro
action research (research the act of class) (hopkins, economic theory in the lecture by the application of
1993:48), that is oriented toward the quality of learning through direct and cooperative, model of

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learning test result the interview the results of the country of them depending on how much demand
poll, the observation and note the field. The aggregative in a the country.
activities of the simplification of the data has been The stage of the activities of the nucleus. Next
accumulating intended to get information that is phase which is done is to explain about the theory
clear and significant so as to be accounted for. of aggregate demand consisting of the concept of
Presentation of data done by means of composing a aggregate demand (15 minutes). In any explanation
narrative bit on information that has been obtained each of the theory the request of the aggregate used
from the reduction that would give the withdrawal the examples of real (contextual) to ease purport
of conclusions and taking action. The data has been and understanding a student. Furthermore,
served furthermore made interpretation, and demonstrated to student how to describe a curve
evaluation this can include the completion of about: demand and formulated aggregate demand on the
(1) the difference between the design and basis of existing data (20 minutes). The next step
implementation of the action; (2) the need for exercise is terbimbing for college students to draw a
change of action; (3) of alternative action which is curve demand aggregate(35 minutes).
considered proper; (4) the perception of The stage of the activities of the end
researchers, a friend peers who engages in the After the provision of exercise terbimbing
observation of the field of and planning for action finished, researchers together students
that has been conducted; (5) the obstacles and why merekapitulasi all the things that have been studied.
constraint it appears and so forth. The withdrawal After that, given the opportunity to students to ask
of a conclusion is to give a conclusion against the me questions about some things into their problem.
result of interpretation and evaluated. The event The next step is with students conclude material
includes the meaning of data and give an that has been studied very associated in real life as a
explanation. Unverified was validity of data that is form of reflection of learning. Furthermore, the rest
inferred, next conducted activities unverified, is of the time employed to work on the test cycle 1.
testing the truth solidity, and aptness makna-makna The Cycle 2
that has emerged from the data. This event be The stage any preliminary activity. The
considered as adoption of intisari of cereal offering activity of learning started by giving apersepsi
data that has been organized in the form of about the enactment of the law of demand. Next
statements or sentence which briefly, solid, and raised the phenomena that occur in society,
meaningless. The technique of using analysis especially the phenomenon aggregate offering that
descriptive analysis of data by the percentage based is listed in the preaching of the mass media
on kriterium that is designed in the design of (editorial main newspapers), as an example the
research. Kriterium study result of the effective if extinction of kerosene in jakarta. By associating the
70 % student gain in value at least 75. two things, researchers mean to explain that there is
some factor influence offer aggregate (5 minutes).
RESULT AND DISCUSSION The Core Activities
The Cycle 1 Next phase is provides a description of factors
In cycles 1, meeting 1, who be used as that affects the offer an aggregate. (15 minutes).
reference common is implementation plan of Furthermore, students organized in small groups.
learning which is supported by an instrument Each group consists of 4-5 students and
observation and the instrument of learning. heterogeneous. Any of a group of negotiating to
work on worksheets student (mfi). Micro financial
Meeting 1 The stage any preliminary activity institution mfi that we use is micro financial
The stage any preliminary activity carried out institution mfi offer an aggregate. The process of
for 10 minutes first. The activity of learning learning that takes place is: (1) any group of
prefixed to convey competence base and motivates allotted time for 20 minutes to work on third part in
students by lifting the theme “aggregate demand”. mfi. (2) a group who are selected randomly
Furthermore, given the questions to students about presented the results of diskusinya for 10 minutes.
what would be the needs of the people in an (3) 15 minutes latter is used for questions. In this
economy the state and how their efforts to meet the part of scientists participate as an observer and
need. Subjects of this basic generalized and directed emend the results of an answer student if there is a
to the theory of aggregate demand. In this case, mistake.
explained that aggregate demand will impact on the The stage of the activities of the end. After a
economy of a country. A growing economy of a discussion finished, with students all the results of
the discussion direkapitulasi. After that, given the

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opportunity to students to ask me questions about of every case with looked at the problem from a
some things that will be a problem them in the different angle.
exercise that discussion. Furthermore, the results of The activity of a student
the discussion is inferred by associated in real life Observation of the activity of students
closer to more material that they ve learnt with the performed in implementing the cycle. The activity
environment a student. Thus, what have they learn of a student who observed covering the activity of
useful for them (10 minutes). Furthermore, the performance and cooperative. Based on the result
remaining time for 25 minutes used to work on the analysis above then can be inferred that does not
test cycle 2. happen increasing the activity of students
Based on presentation of data the research has significantly. A diagram 1 showing you averages
been mentioned and in this part be raised discussion appraisement performance of a student for
research results that have done, as follows: worksheets student 1 and 2 especially on the
formulated function.
The implementation of learning
The cycle 1. Skill cooperative student
The main obstacles facing difficulties Every student cycle cooperative observation
observation activity is the performance of a student. activity carried on different groups. In cycles 1 and
This is due to the number of students who too much 2 observation deftness cooperative carried on 5
crowded and a rowdy because the turn of the hour group that has determined at random. Overall
is just finished. Hence, observation of just devoted cooperative skills and lowest siklusnya is tending to
to fifteen students chosen at random. decline in every skills are not in duty was to
Besides problems or other obstacle appears on average. Not residing in duty mean the group
cycle i can diidentifikasikan as follows: (1) student members are silent or execute activity. Low
not used scientific analyses are required to think percentage exuded high activity of student so that
and solve problems found in mfi. (2), in discussion discussion seems more lively and active.
with student not used to express his opinion Nor is the low skills are not in duty, deftness
individually. (3) the voice sounded researchers taking a turn and share duty is craftsmanship with
relatively less clear. Kendala-kendala to resolve the average highest luminance siklusnya. It shows that
efforts among others: (1) providing positive most students ve been brave to declare his opinion
strengthening to students. (2) is strengthening the and mutual cooperate through the distribution of
positive improved confidence student (3) in the duty. So that the discussion luminance group not
cycle lecturer initiative to to use wireless to sound only dominated by members of a particular group
lecturer can reach to the class. course. Deftness cooperative other which tended to
The cycle 2. rise in every siklusnya is the capacity really
In the implementation of the cycle ii, appreciate others, heard actively and ability ask.
relatively does not appear constraints that have Third skills this had made the process of discussion
been significant enough. So that learning process be more dynamic.
runs more effective and efficient. This condition is While skills invite other people to speak
much caused by more students ready and declined in any siklusnya. The decrease in skills it
terkondisikan to receive matter. In addition, indicates that every student has been bold to give
students also no longer lumpish or more bold to his opinion without having to be prompted by a
convey them their opinions. Observation activities friend diskusinya. While skills examine exactness
in the performance of students also elected five tended to be stable at each siklusnya which means
belash student at random. Progress has been the results of the discussion and a report of work
achieved on a cycle ii is as follows: (1) student has remains focused and comprehensive.
been able to develop their own scientific way of Response student against of learning. Based
thinking and mengkonstruk understanding of their on the results of study of a student assume learning
own. (2) student has been able to declare their process on any material by using approach
aspirations individually in the discussion together. langsungl aggregate demand is nothing new. It was
An atmosphere of discussion together into more proven by about 34,29 % say yes, the remaining
evenly and not dominated by certain groups. 65,71 % answer no. It was because the model of
Student participation in the process of learning is learning directly they have got before. However
getting higher. (3) student can predict against a about 57,14 % student said that the way of teaching
couple of things probable to happen in the solution teachers new one. The rest of 42,86 % say no.
Referring to the results of an interview with some

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students obtained data, that learning process and the CONCLUSION


manner of university professors teach tending to Based on analysis of data derived from
new so far they learned the science of economics in observation management of learning, activity
teoritik and teacher tends to uses the method of students, response students, and study result of the
talks in conveying matter. So far they regard the students, then inconclusive some things as follows:
science of economics as the science which teoritik (1) the application of learning direct and
and abstract. And so that in learning process often cooperative type stad in college course economic
arising boredom. theory makro, especially on any material demand
Student response improvement seen in cycle 2 and a supply aggregate in general can way it
it is because of the way includes a new teaching for planned. Several problems there repairable in the
students, so students are enthusiastic in following next round. Besides this approach can improve
the teaching-learning activities are high. According activity student. (2) study result of the on any
to them by implementing approaches STAD by material demand and a supply increased
lecturer makes economics as the science of real or productivity of 68,6 % in cycles i into 82,9 % in
tangible and practical teoritik not impressed. In cycles ii, then increased to 91,4 % in posttest. (3)
addition to this way of teaching faculty also response against the implementation of students
provides its own color in economic studies. The learning direct and stad in college course macro
feelings of students for coursework and classroom economic theory appertain positive.
atmosphere was fun. This statement is supported by
about 82,86% of students stated that they felt happy References
for coursework and 91,43% stating the class Amstrong, Scoot. 2008. Student Team
atmosphere of fun. This indicates that the Acheivement Divisions (STAD) in a Twelfth
application of the model is able to create a climate Grade Classroom: Effect on Student
that STAD conducive to learning, especially in Acheivement and Attitude. (Jurnal Kansas
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said that they do not feel happy in following and Management, New York : The McGraw –
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The rest 14,29 % claimed that time allotted Perangkat Pembelajaran Melalui Media VCD
inadequate. Enough time given is also supported by Berorientasi Model Direct Instruction Untuk
the use of language internal mfi understandable. Menuntaskan Hasil Belajar Mahasiswa Pada
Some students 88,57 % said mfi compiled by using Fisika Dasar II. Media Pendidikan Dan Ilmu
approach lecturer stad more easily understood. Pengetahuan. 26 (4)
Student Learning Outcomes Cagne, Robert, M., 1985, The Condition of
Based on analysis of data above known that Learning and Theory of Instruction, New
increase level ketuntasan learning klasikal of 68,6 York: Holt Sauders International
% in cycles i into 82,9 % in cycles ii, then increased Gredler, Margaret, R and Bell. 1986. Belajar dan
to 91,4 % in posttest. Increasing ketuntasan learn in Membelajarkan (diterjemahkan oleh Munandi,
klasikal from the cycle i to cycle ii due for about 1994). Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada.
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SIL_BELAJAR_SISWA_YANG_DIAJAR.pd
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Ibrahim, Muslimin, dkk. 2005, Pembelajaran Soejoto, Ady, dan Hariati. 2001. Model
Kooperatif, Unesa, University Press, Surabaya Pembelajaran Langsung Pada Mata Kuliah
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(1), halaman 35-52: Penerapan Model Suprayekti, dkk. 2006. Strategi Penyampaian
Pembelajaran langsung Berbantuan Media Pembelajaran Kooperatif. (Jurnal Pendidikan
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Mahasiswa Pada Perkuliahan Atletik Syam, Jonni. 1995. Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar
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EFL TEACHERS AND DIGITAL TEACHING MEDIA

Suwartono
Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

Asfi Aniuranti
Gajah Mada State University of Yogjakarta

Abstract and learning process concept is partly influenced by


Over the past decade, along with the rapid the development of human life, especially the
growing information communication technology, development of technology in themodern life.
information processing has become an The development of technology has entered
indispensable part of application in varying fields. the classroom. The presence of technology in the
In relation to language teaching and learning, classroom is represented by the teaching media,
digital media have entered the classroom. Sadly, to from simple to the sophisticated forms as
the writer’s observation when giving professional commonly available in language laboratories and
trainings, those teachers of English who belonged computer-assisted language learning centers. The
to ‘well prepared’ for this sort of media were very media are there to support the teaching and
few. These teachers used a laptop with certain learning. This paper aims to discuss how teaching
learning materials prepared prior to teaching and media help teachers and students in teaching and
an LCD projector and/or speakers on the desk. In learning process, outlines problems encountered by
general,their teaching and learning seemed more teachers, and, finally, suggests possible solutions to
interesting due to technology touch. They created the problems.
an image of being creative, and above all,
innovative. This paper presentation discuss how DISCUSSION
technology, in this case digital teaching media, A. Advantages of Digital Teaching Media Use
supports teaching and learning; then, outlines the According to Kemp and Dayton (1985) the
problems facing EFL teachers; and, use of media in teaching is beneficial in the
finally,suggests possible solutions to the problems. following ways:
Obviously, this paper presentation is meant to 1. Uniformity of presenting learning materials.
promote professional teaching and contribute to Teachers may vary in understanding a concept.
future researches on similar topic. With media their various interpretations are
reduced, and therefore, the messages are
INTRODUCTION conveyed uniformly.
In traditional mode of teaching, including the 2. More interesting learning process. Media help
teaching of English as a foreign language in convey audible information (audio) and visible
Indonesia, teachers used to beasource of everything (visual), in such away that they are able to
in the classroom, while students were only the describe principles, concepts, process and
recipients. Teacherswere the center, while students procedures abstract and incomplete to more
werethe silent, passive objects. This concept has concrete and complete.
changed today: students are the center of teaching 3. More interactive learning process. If accurately
and learning process. Teachers with all their efforts selected and well-prepared, media can help
and main roles as the classroom director, manager, teachers and students communicate in two ways
counselor, and a model in the use of the language actively. Without media, teachers may tend to
they teach, facilitate learning inside the classroom speak ‘one way’to the students.
and, possibly extended to, outside formal learning 4. Reduced teaching and learning time allotment.
context. Quite often, teachers need much time explaining
Today, every teacher of English in Indonesia the learning materials. When done correctly, the
is demanded to teach English with the ‘student- use of media save time. This means students
centered’ concept. Every teacher is given may spend more time doing exercises and
responsibilities to achieve teaching and learning varied learning tasks.
goals by involving students in the process of 5. Improved student learning quality.The use of
learningthe language.The change of the teaching media does not only make learning process

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more efficient, but also help students absorb or teaching and learning process. In other words,
master learning material more comprehensively. today’s English language classrooms are filled with
6. Student’s less dependence on teacher. It is activities referring to deductive teaching.
another way to say media “talk”. When planned Creativity in the use of technology in the
carefully, media enable learning process to language classroom has resulted in teaching
occur anywhere and any time the students want, innovations. Digital (video/photo) camera, laptop,
with little or no help fromand even in the computer, and LCD projector are often seen
absence of teacher. available in the classrooms. A good teacher of
7. Optimized positive attittude towards learning English might download songs, games, texts,
process. The use of media that is interesting to images, or other materials from the internet,
students will in turn enhance student’s integrate them to those media/tools above, and use
favor/love of and appreciation for knowledge them to support his/her teaching and learning. The
and skill given and its inquiry. internet is an unlimited source of downloadable
8. Teacher’s wider roles. Through media, teachers materials. From You-Tube, for example,video files
do not have to repeat explanation again and can be downloadedand made use for a speaking
again. They can save their time giving oral class. From inside a laptop, Power-Point perhaps
explanation. Consequently, they have time remains the most popular among those few teachers
paying more attention to students, encouraging skilled in dealing with the media.
them, giving help, etc. The use of media in ESL/EFL language
Media as teaching aids should be utilized by classrooms is “the wind of change” – as a form of
teachers in their teaching and learning process, but teaching innovation. According to Hassel and
in fact this aspect is often neglected for some Hassel, digital media have potential to transform
reasons,such as limited time for teaching process through three ways.
teachingpreparation, difficulty finding suitable 1. Enabling excellent teachers to reach more
media, no funding, etc. These are all not necessary, students.
since actually many sorts of media will do in Great teachers will increasinglybe able to
accordance with certain conditions and needs, such teach more students in person as digital learning
as time, financial support, and material to be taught. replacesportions of instruction in an individualized
A certain kind of media have certain characteristics fashion and provides time-savingstudent data; reach
and capacity in conveying messages and students remotely via technology; and capture and
information (Kemp and Dayton,1985). sharetheir performances and methods widely
Teachers should know the characteristics and through video and smart softwarethat individualizes
capacity of each type of media in order that they learning. Even among excellent teachers, various
can select which one best suits the condition and peoplewill thrive in different roles.
need. Audio CDs, for example, are good to let 2. Attracting and retaining more of these
students have adequate experience of verbal excellent teachers.
learning materials (sounds and pronunciation). As excellentteachers reach more students, they
Some audio CDs are available on the will be able to earn more out of regularper-pupil
market.When the available audio materials are not funds. The combination of higher pay and career
suitable, teachers can prepare one by themselves opportunitiesmade possible by digital learning will,
with a simple way and relatively low cost. Audio in turn, help teaching attract and keepthe best
media making for a classroom use just needs a performers.
recorder and a better speaker of English,that might 3. Boosting effectiveness and job options for
be the teacher him/herself. The key word is average teachers.
creativity. Average teacherswill benefit as digital
Talking about creativity in teaching and technology and the extended reach of their
learning, the writer had most difficult moments excellentpeers take complex tasks off their to-do
trying to persuade his audiences that media would lists, enabling them to focus on theparts of teaching
make their practice much better. In his professional at which they can excel. Through technology, they
experience of giving trainings to EFL teachers of can alsoobtain real-time data and advice about how
Junior and Senior High Schoolsin some areas, the to help each of their studentssucceed, saving time
writer found that the vast majority of the teachers and improving performance. Digital learning makes
have not seemed to show interest in utilizing any iteasier to personalize instruction, which many
kind of media. They preferred talking in most of the average teachers find it difficultor impossible to
time, leaving an impression of monotonous achieve with whole classrooms of students with a

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wide arrayof needs. Some new roles will pay less, they had inadequate computer skill (or not at all),
but many will also require hours farshorter than and consequently, they were not self-confident.
today’s typical fifty-hour teacher workweek. In his career development, the writer has
The development of digital teaching media some experience in using technology in the
need teachers of English to always adapt classroom. Once, he was so keen on utilizing video
themselves to be technologically literate and work to stimulate student learning interest in a listening
with media to support their teaching and learning class. It turned out that video was an extraordinary
process, of course if they are committed to medium to help language learnerslisten and speak.
professionalism. Later, he conducted a classroom action research
study involving the use of internet materials to
B. EFL Teachers in Digital Era develop the students’ scientific writing performance
Teachers as an important element in teaching (Suwartono, 2008). Last year, he conducted another
and learning process cannot avoid the influence of classroom research study on the use of video as a
digital era which has already created technologies. reflective tool in the English suprasegmental
A digital age has opened up the new dimensions to features teaching and learning. The study has also
the learning which are not visible in our existing led to some promising pedagogical implications for
traditional school system. Twenty first century the teaching of pronunciation in specific and the
learning is more complex than ever before as it English language in general.
includes various skills that must be acquired by the We cannot deny that students who live in
learner. digital era are more knowledgeable about
Besides creating a more complex teaching and technology than their teachers who just know about
learning process, digital era influences the teachers’ it recently. As pointed out in Teaching and
role. Teachers are demanded to play their roles as a Learning in the Digital Age, students are ahead of
facilitator, manager, and advisor by keeping with their teachers in using the technology and accessing
the development of technology in digital era. Based information in various fields. They are less
on the article untitled Teaching and Learning in the dependent on teachers and prescribed text books.
Digital Age, the main roles of teachers arebuilding They build upon their existing knowledge and
linkages between their students' individual interests derive their own meanings. It has provided them
and understandings and the common skills and freedom and flexibility which was not available
knowledge society expects them to acquire.It is the earlier. Learners have active, reflective role in this
task of teachers to tackle with the technology and to digital age.
grow their learners to acquire “skills of the 21st Today’s children are “growing up digital.”
century”. Their view of the world is very different from that
In reality, on the contrary, many teachers of of adults, thanks to exceptional access to
English seem unaware of “conventional” teaching information, people, and ideas across highly
media, let alone digital media. In the classroom, interactive media. Today’s children are the latest
during peer-teaching training of the teacher model of human being. Looking at the world of
professional certification program, where the children is not looking backward at our own past –
training participants had been provided feedback on it islooking ahead. They are our evolutionary
teaching performance, they did not seem to care future.
about the comment given,highlighting the absence In the meanwhile, the technology that
of teaching media. Though digital technological develops in digital era helps teachers do their job
devices were already made available in the room, better. For instance, in old time, teachers used to
namely laptop and LCD projector, they remained use blackboard and chalk to explain the material.
relatively the same as in the second day peer- Those teaching aids can be replaced by Power-
teaching. Point, which is more effective and efficient for
Surprisingly, when asked if the presence of delivering the material.
technologies in the classroom would be beneficial Even thoughthere are positive effects that
to students, almost all teachers’ response fell into emerge from technology, problems may also arise.
the favorable side of the scale (Suwartono, 2009). The biggest one, according to an article untitled
This means there is no consistency between the Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age, is a
teachers’ perception and their behavior. This could classroom filled with digitally literate students
mean they only pretended: they were not honest in being taught by linear‐thinking, technologically
giving response to the survey. It could also mean obstructed teachers. Students have been exposed to
these technologies or similar ones early on during

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their formative years while their teachers have just initiate close cooperation with teacher training and
been exposed to it only recently. As a result, the professional development institutions nearby.
students are sometimes more capable with the 2. Doing a Classroom Action Research
technology. A study aimed to improve the professional
Some schools today were equipped with skills of teachers through a change of mindset
digital media. However, it seems only few teachers (Sukarni, et. al, 2009) concluded that the EFL
use them in the classroom. The germane question teachers involved in the classroom action research
is: are they rarely given the chance to learn how to program were encouraged to enhance their
use this technology, or do they not have interest in competency level, believe in their own capacity in
the technology? Answer to either question means the English language competence, and were willing
that the teachers are left behind in term of digital to cooperate with issues such as the importance of
media, at least the ones applicable to classroom use. IT facilities for the improvement of education, were
If it is true, then, these teachers of English do not eager to attend international seminars, publish the
optimally benefit students. paper in seminar proceedings, and in an
international journal. It means that EFL teachers are
C. Suggested Solutions ready to improve their own practice, including the
Here are alternative solutions to the problems use of technology in the classroom by learning and
faced by the EFL teachers in keeping pace with working together with colleagues.
technological advancements in the classroom. The Teachers more capable in digital teaching
solutions are proposed considering the aspect of media can share knowledge and experience with
empowerment rather than the assistance from their peers in collaborative action research projects.
authorities, which means dependence and That is why, Burns (2007) asserts that action
uncertainty. research is “...a way of empowering teachers –
1. Being Actively Involved in Teaching especially when it is used collaboratively to share
Professional Association ideas and explore classroom issues with
The local association of teachers of English is colleagues.” It can be said that it is a kind of an
strategic to improve the EFL teachers’ teaching implicit – learning by doing – approach to teachers’
competency and quality. Within the organization, professional development.
teachers of English can create environment for their
own professional development. They cannot only CONCLUSION
share ideas, knowledge, skills, and experience Technological advancements in varying fields
among themselves, but also initiate preferred of life have entered the language classroom. EFL
sources of up-dated information, eg. journals, and teachers should warmly welcome the technology
source persons or trainers with their own funding. progress and optimally make use of it as medium to
Observation shows most teachers are support their teaching and learning, of course if
unfamiliar with scientific journal. Few teachers they are committed to professionalism. Therefore,
have adequate insights into the methodology of they should continually sharpen their creativity by
teaching because they have got the chance to attend eksploiting the technology for teaching innovations.
very much top-down or centralized trainings by the Teaching Professional Association activities and
government.It is a problem to be done in a country collaborative classroom action research are
which is geographically and demographically very strategic to empower EFL teachers in keeping pace
large. with the development of today’s digital technology
The associations can actively participate in applicable to the English language classroom. With
trainings held by the local government board or the activities EFL teachers do not have to wait until
within university-based services. For example, in they are too late!
regard to teacher professional development, in
China, Yang (2008) mentions the merit of a digital References
training system developed by the project for the Burns, Anne, “Empowering Teachers through
teaching of writing in English in an area. The result Collaborative Action Research,” The 55th
is that it opens a fruitful way to professional TEFLIN International Conference 2007
teaching, efficient learning, and innovative writing. (Proceedings), Jakarta.
So far, trainings on teaching media for teachers of Hatmanto, E. D., “Internet Resources for Creative
English have been very, very rare, at least in our Teaching Materials for ESL” (Proceedings),
local area and the vicinity. The association can then The 2009 UAD TEFL National Conference,
Yogjakarta.

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Hassel, B.C and Hassel E.Y. (2nd), “Teachers in Suwartono, “Dependent upon Teacher’s Creativity”
the Age of Digital Instruction”, Accessed (Proceedings), The 2008 GloCALL
online: http://edexcellencemedia.net/ International Conference, Yogjakarta,
publications/2012/20120425-education- Indonesia.
reform-for-the-digital-era/20120425- Suwartono, “The Necessity of Synchronizing the
Education-Reform-for-the-Digital-Era- EFL Teachers’ Perception with Their
FINAL-Chapter-1.pdf. 3 December, 2013 at Behavior to Upgrade
18.49. Professionalism”(Proceedings), The 2009
Kemp, J. E., and Dayton, D. K., Planning and TEFLIN Conference,Malang, East Java,
Producing Instructional Media, Harper & Indonesia.
Row, Limited, 1985. Teaching And Learning In The Digital Age
Richards, J. C., and Lockhart, C., Reflective Education Essay, Accessed
Teaching in Second Language Classrooms, online:http://www.ukessays.com/essays/educa
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, tion/teaching-and-learning-in-the-digital-age-
1996. education-essay.php. December 1, 2013 at
Sukarni, E. I., Winarni, D., and Nirmayanti, Y. T., 16.39.
“Improving Teachers’ Professionalism Yang, Yonglin, “Digitalization in ELT Classroom:
through Materials Development, Information An Enjoyable Path to Innovative Teaching
Technology, and Classroom Action Research, and Learning” (Proceedings), The 6th Asia
“ TEFLIN Journal, Volume 20, Number 2, TEFL International Conference, Bali,
2009. Indonesia, 2008.

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DEVELOPING A COMPREHENSION BASED INTERACTIVE READING MODEL

Pudiyono
Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

Abstract BACKGROUND
The goal of the research was to develop Reading skill is the most basic language skill
interactive comprehension based reading model to which students have to master. This language skill
develop the students’ comprehension skills which is obviously considered strategic as having good
were integrative with the other language skills; reading skills, students do not only achieve the
listening, writing and speaking. To reach the goal, information they seek to develop their life quality,
this research in the first year was oriented to invent but they could certainly develop other language
the following: 1) teaching and learning strategy in skills well.
reading, 2) student’s learning strategy, 3) text Most SMA students in each level showed low
books and other resources for the students’ reading reading ability. This in turns brought about
materials, 4) students’ interests in reading, 5) problems in their mastering English on both oral
students’ attitude towards reading instructions, and and written language. Reading comprehension had
6) hypothetically, finding the basic model of been the most basic problems they deal in their
interactive comprehension based reading model. learning. This basic comprehension problem
The subjects of the research were teachers covered problems in understanding new
and students of SMA Negeri 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of vocabulary, new phrases, sentences, paragraphs and
Purwokerto. Data collections were done through the whole passage.
questionnaire, observation, interview and Presumably, student’s understanding on
documentary. These then were analyzed using vocabulary was too low to understand the phrases
qualitative model of Huberman, while the and sentences they encounter in reading. They
quantitative was done through percentage. usually comprehended words or new words in a
Data analysis results showed that majority reading text as what they read them in a dictionary.
(>80%) reading strategies applied still focused on This might cause problems for students to get the
rhetoric approach; generic structures, language correct meaning in longer language forms. The
functions, etc. The reading instructions did not problems in understanding words might lead them
focus on the comprehension. Besides, the teachers to have problems on sentences, paragraphs. In
did not apply cooperative nor collaborative short, students might fail to understand the reading
learning strategies. Reading aloud and translation task as a whole.
activities which do not encourage comprehension Many factors contributed these problems. The
were still much applied. The score of reading teaching learning procedure did not really push the
strategy was still under the expectation. Most students to work contextually interactive in
schools used LKS for their learning resources. developing reading skills. This inappropriate
Therefore, the student’s interest was just 68.18 and measure of handling reading classes did not really
the student’s reading attitude was even worse with encourage students to develop activities needed to
only 57.21. To solve this problem, the teacher develop their real life skills. Unfortunately, this
should create cooperative and collaborative common practice had been going on since they
learning activities to make students interact well. started their reading instruction in earlier level or
To develop comprehension, the teacher should Junior High School level.
apply scientific approach in which the text was Reading instructions in both Junior and Senior
considered as the data and realize the results of High Schools generally much focused on
their understanding into graphic organizers. explaining text forms which was just rhetorical and
quite inappropriate with the life skill they needed to
Keywords:instructions, reading text, interactive develop. Some examples dealing with this were
activities, comprehension, reading skills, graphic explanations on generic structures, language
organizers features, social functions, etc. which were
considered to have no practical benefits to the life
skills needed.

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Reading instructions in both SMP and SMA Data collecting technique was done through:1)
focused so much on rhetorical explanations such as Questionnaire was carried out to get information
generic structures, language features etc. that these data on students’ attitude, motivation, and students’
instructions did not explore activities on feelings in joining reading instructions. The answer
comprehension. In fact, comprehension was the of the questionnaire was converted into scales or
core factor in reading instruction. As we have in our scores as the following; quite agree= 4, agree= 3,
daily lives, we have no businesses at all in reading, disagree= 2 and disagree much= 1.2) Observation
except to get the comprehension. Therefore, as the was applied to get data on how far comprehension
basis in reading activities, every teacher who has to based interactive reading had been accomplished.
teach reading must know this and varies exercises In applying the observation, the observers used
to students to explore comprehension on the observation sheet, check list and notes, to minute
reading text students read. the application of comprehension based interactive
Besides that, there were still many other reading activities happening in the class. The
exercises implemented in teaching and learning observation sheet was designed containing
reading activities which deviated much from the behaviour items or happenings which would likely
comprehension core content for students. Those be to happen. 3) The interviews were done
exercises covered reading aloud, translation, and especially to the English teachers to get data on
asking students to open up a dictionary when reading resources, reading text materials, students’
finding a difficult word. These activities did really attitudes towards reading classes, students’ learning
have less contribution on developing students’ strategy on reading, teachers’ strategy in
reading comprehension. They did not even have implementing teaching strategy. 4) This research
any support to make students become independent also applied documentary by analyzing the
readers which should be encouraged to develop as teachers’ documents on learning instructions such
their daily life skills. as lesson plans to get their learning strategy,
Based on this background, it is highly materials, reading sources.
recommended to have an appropriate solution Analyzing the data dealing with
which could shape and change both teachers and questionnaires on reading sources, students’ attitude
students’ mind-set in teaching and learning reading and motivation applied percentage. By using
to solve this problem. This teaching and learning percentage analysis, the trend or counter trend of
reading should be interactive reading activities the aspects in points such as students’ motivation
which develop students’ participations in pre- and attitudes would come out. Other type of data
reading, whiles reading and post-reading activities belonging to qualitative ones were observed and
which is based on comprehending the passage or analyzed using qualitative data analysis such as
reading texts being learnt. observe and note or simak and catat by referring to
the frequency of the distributions.
METHOD
The design of this research was a qualitative RESULT AND DISCUSSION
and quantitative one. The research was to get 1. The Strategy Applied in Reading Instructions
factual description on the reading teaching and a. The interviews on teaching and learning
learning model and the strategy being implemented strategies were carried out to in those schools in
currently in those school settings. The research was friendly and less formal atmospheres.
considered as the preliminary research which aimed Commonly, they responded happily to this
at: 1) noting TL reading strategy, 2) noting activity as they could also have the chance to
students’ learning strategy in reading classes, 3) share their experience and problems they had in
noting resources and text books as their reading their professional jobs. The results of the
materials, 4) noting students’ interest in learning interviews are as following:
reading, 5) noting students’ attitudes towards 1) Reading instructions still much focused on
reading instructions and, 6) hypothetically, deciding rhetorical aspects such as generic structure,
the basic patterns of reading instruction on language feature, social function, etc in their
comprehension based interactive reading to develop implementation of reading instructions.
the students’ comprehension skills. Collecting data 2) Teachers did not implement on reading
was done from February up to August 2013, the instructions in which teacher led students
population in this research covered all teachers and use reading text or material to analyze to
students from 5 SMA in Purwokerto; SMA Negeri come into well accepted conclusion.
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in the academic year 2013-2014.

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3) Reading instructions did not apply teaching them.Unfortunately, this social learning strategy the
approaches which lead students to build students accomplished mostly happened when they
social skills such as cooperative and did activities out of the class. This result was
collaborative learning. backed up from triangulation result taken from
4) Variations of activities and creativities other data analysis as telling that most schools had
leading students to comprehend reading not run classroom reading instructions which
materials were still less developed. applied cooperative and collaborative learning
5) Many teachers applied misleading activities strategies by several reasons. Therefore, students
to develop comprehension by focusing much from these schools developed group works by
on grammar, games, cross-word puzzles, etc. themselves beyond their formal school times.
which did not lead them to have reading life Meanwhile, the other learning strategies;
skills. cognitive, metacognitive, and memory strategy
6) Pre-reading activities they applied did not were not much used by students in developing their
really stimulate the students’ motivation in reading skills or comprehending English texts. This
reading the reading materials as they mostly was quite serious as the score the students got was
related little to the reading materials only 60.83. This was even worse because cognitive
presented. learning strategy was considered the strategy which
7) Many reading instructions still applied directly developed the students’ reading skills. With
reading aloud which did not really push this low result of cognitive learning strategy, the
students to get understanding. survey showed that students rarely accomplished
8) Exercise innovations were much needed to the following activities in reading:
make students develop their reading life a. Making an outline about the conclusion of the
skills extensively. text that they read.
b. Triangulations on documents by observing b. Writing the important information taken from
lesson plan documents they used for their the text that they read.
classroom reading instructions showed that the c. Analyzing and evaluating the information of the
results really underlined the results of text critically.
interviews. The documents did not really show
clear learning procedures on implementing 3. Resources and Materials for Reading
reading classes on cooperative and collaborative The survey asked students with 48 types of
procedures. They did not present clear steps of typically reading resources in English found in
activities which led students to develop their everyday activities. The survey result showed that
reading life skills. students did not read various English reading
materials. What they usually read was just to
2. Student’s Learning Strategy in Reading improve their reading skills by reading student’s
The survey asked 30 questions related to workbooks or LKS; 86.66. Next to LKS, students
students’ learning strategy. Overall, the result of the seemed to have good habit of reading English
students’ learning strategy in classroom as well as cartoons and caricatures; 63.33. The third big
non classroom reading instructions showed that percentage for students to do was reading English
their learning strategy did not show good strategy. instructions 50. This was something usual for
This was supported by the result of the students to do when they had their English test or
questionnaire score: 66.62. exercises.
Those 30 questions derived from 6 learning The interview results taken from interviewing
strategies. Out of those 6 learning strategies, the teachers working in those schools showed similar
students quite often used 3 learning strategies more outcomes. The following is the results:
to develop their reading comprehension; social, a. Commonly the teacher used ready made English
affective, and compensatory strategies. The social materials in the form of text books for their
learning strategy, covering discussion with friends; learning sources and material in their classroom
learning in groups, got the highest score reaching interactions. Those text books were published
77.25 or 3.08 in scale 4. The next to social learning by various publishers and provided by schools.
strategy was affective learning strategy with Therefore, it was compulsory for students to
75.70% or 3.04, and compensatory learning have one as their daily reading resources.
strategy with 67.00% or 2.67. The highest score of b. In developing students’ English skills, majority
the social strategy happened as the result of the of teachers used students’ workbooks or LKS
students’ good cooperative among which were taken from different publishers. As

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public knowledge, students’ workbooks were when seeing English books (3.77), 5)
printed English resources which did not have considering that English books are important
high academic quality as they were printed (3.69), 6) always trying to be active in class
without passing through tight editing. Some sessions.
complaints came out as the result of using this Three other question items showed fair
LKS. Many parents complained as saying that results which covered: 1) feeling happy doing
the LKS materials were not really suitable to exercises in English classes (3.31), 2) always try
students’ level. Some expressions used was to answer teacher’s questions in reading classes
considered impolite (SindoNewscom, 19/09/13). (3.15), 3) always try to guess the meaning of
Repubika (11/08/13) also issued similar outcries unfamiliar words (2.82).
as telling that LKS up to now had been main One question item, go to the library to read
resources in the learning instructions at schools. or get reading materials/passage, fell into bad
However, the LKS used at schools needed one with score 2.48.
evaluation to get more effective. One of West b. Teacher’s Support
Java Province legislators lamented that teachers In general, the results of teacher’s support
should be more creative not to always use LKS for students in learning reading reached score
as their main learning sources. 66. This score was considered less good than the
c. Most teachers did not want to be creative to score found in the student’s interests. This
develop their creative aspect by trying to make means that the role of the teachers in the
use authentic English texts which could be taken classroom reading interaction did not get much
from daily materials which students had to appreciation from the students. Anyhow, the ten
know to be applied and developed in their question items asking this aspect explained that
learning instructions. Such those learning three achieved good results, with the following
materials could be taken from newspapers, details: 1) discussing with the teacher during
magazines, announcements, short stories, reading class (3.83), 2) fond of seeing the
manuals, game instructions, catalogues, diaries, teacher’s appearance (3.73), 3) give rewards or
diagrams, reviews in English et cetera. appreciations to students (3.62).
Five question items showed fair results
4. Student’s Interest in Reading which covered the following: 1) the teacher
Students’ interests consisted of three major gave time to students to respond, 2) the teacher
components covering personal interest, teacher’s encouraged students in solving problems, 3) the
support, and teaching method. To get clear teacher gave much attention to the class, 4) the
descriptions on students’ interest in reading teacher let students express their problems, 5)
activities or classroom reading instructions, this the teacher had willing to help. This means that
research used questionnaires. the teacher was quite responsive only dealing
The total number of respondents was 135 with direct skills of handling classes on reading
students consisting of 50 male students, and 85 presentation. When it dealt with problems, two
female ones. This number of respondents covered question items showed bad results as 1) the care
all students in that level. In general, the students’ on students having bad English achievements,
interest was not high enough, therefore, needed and 2) the care on students being quiet on
much development as the score of the questionnaire having problems.
result just showed 68.18. The results of those three c. Teaching Method
components are as the following: Overall teaching method aspect in learning
a. Student’s Personal Interest reading comprehension for students reached 70.
Overall, the students’ personal interest in 02. This means that students appreciated well
reading just showed 68. 54. This achievement the way the teacher presented reading
did not show happy result as this was under instructions for students. The good responds on
good category which should be at least 70. question items for the teacher in presenting the
However, out of 10 question items asking this reading instructions covered: 1) the way the
aspect, six (6) showed good results. Those six teacher explained the explanations, 2) the
covered: 1) always try to understand the content explanations given presented in humorous
of the text they read (3.99), 2) often respond modes, and the text variations. Another
teachers’ questions during class sessions (3.84), important question item which had low
3) feeling happy learning reading in English responds from students was on group works. It
(3.79), 4) feeling interested in reading English seemed that the teacher did not build the good

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habits of running group discussions. This was good enough to create agreeable situation in
also obvious in another data result. Discussions learning as the score 62.13. The following is the
among students happened out of classroom complete table of the students’ attitude:
learning. c. Question Item Results
The fair responds of question items The student’s attitude on classroom
covered: 1) reading with media, instructions in reading interactions from the questionnaire in
full English, 2) LKS based instructions and 3) detail showed that four aspects had good
students having English questions from achievements. This also showed that these four
teachers. belonged to students’ individual or personal
5. Student’s Attitude towards Reading basis on student’s inner attitude which was not
Instructions much influenced by external factors. Those four
a. General Responds question items (achieving more than 70)
Student’s attitude in reading instructions covered: looking for reading text books, reading
could be classified into two main classifications. English materials, discussing with friends and
Those were students’ attitude towards the learning materials by themselves at home. On
objects and the attitude towards the aspects. the other hand, other students’ attitudes in
The students’ attitude towards objects consisted reading activities showed low results. This
of three sub components covering: a) attitude included; doing exercises, feeling challenged to
towards material, b) attitude towards process of find problems when learning atext, feeling
learning, and c) attitude towards teacher. While happy with teacher’s rewards, following
the students’ attitude towards the aspects also teacher’s instructions on reading, feeling happy
consisted of three sub components which to join English classes on reading, feeling happy
covered: a) cognitive aspect, b) affective aspect, with the teacher, interesting reading method,
and c) behavioural aspect. working together in doing tasks, with all under
In general the result of students’ attitudes 50.
in following classroom reading instructions d. Teachers’ observations
were categorized as not good enough, as the The students’ attitude towardsEnglish
score average on the questionnaire only showed reading instructions was taken from the
57.21. This figure just showed that student’s interview results with teachers in the schools.
attitudes towards classroom reading instructions The following absorbs were the results:
needed much attention and development in 1) Most students did not like much joining
order to get good results as expected. The reading classes compared to those other
efforts needed to develop the students’ attitude skills such as speaking and listening.
had to include the object aspects, covering 2) They thought that reading English texts was
learning materials, learning procedures, a big job, not just an ordinary activity like
teachers, internal and external motivations of others.
the students and related parties. 3) Teachers mostly used LKS for their reading
b. Responds in Each of Attitude Object skills and material in their instructions.
The student’s attitude in classroom reading 4) Teachers did not use IT media as most
interactions on attitude object basically did not schools did not supply this media technology
show good result, just 57.13. This means that and besides to use this kind of media needed
majority of students did not have an appropriate more time or even time consuming.
appreciation or respect on the classroom reading 5) The learning strategy did not apply or
instructions, even though the questionnaire develop social networking skills by applying
score towards their teacher showed the highest both cooperative and collaborative
score 59.26. This was not considered strategies, for example by group works, pair
appropriate to produce good impacts towards works, etc.
their reading achievement. 6) Student skills in doing reading skills needed
The students’ attitude on the classroom developments.
reading instructions did not give different result 7) Students mostly felt bored in the classroom.
from that of the attitude object. Fortunately, It was obvious that some got asleep and
students showed cognitive aspects as the talked to their friends.
highest. This was good as this could be the 8) Only some students used library for their
indicator that students paid more attention on study.
the cognitive aspect even though this was not

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6. Developing a Comprehension Based design a comprehension map clearly, either


Interactive Reading Model in an abstract concept or writing draft on a
a. The Concept of a Comprehension Based piece of paper. By being able to make such a
Interactive Reading Model comprehension map, the reader would then
1) Interactive Reading Activities be able to achieve the meaning or message
The implementation of reading or information presented in the reading
activities which involved a lot of participants passage. Therefore, the following are the key
in the class room reading based on the activities people use to build good
application of cooperative and collaborative comprehension.
learning strategies. With these models, a) Observe the title, texts, data, and
students may have lots of activities such as premises.
sharing, discussion, mutual helps, both in b) Make hypothetical questions based on
pair works, small group works or teams. the title.
These activities were developed to c) Understand new vocabulary found in the
encourage social cooperative among text based on its context.
students in their groups or as a whole. These d) Indentify the answer to the hypothetic
kinds of activities are quite significant for questions.
students to do to build their social spirits as e) Understand the content by making the
their life skills they have to develop. These point graphs or graphic organizations.
interactive reading activities would bring f) Make the summary
about good results by applying the following
key activities: b. The Implementation of Comprehension Based
a) Cooperative learning activities Interactive Reading
b) Collaborative learning activities 1) Pre-reading Activity: in pairs or small
c) Share, discuss, report, inform, describe. groups
d) Work in pairs, in small groups, in teams. Pre-reading activities were good initial
2) Comprehension Based Activities learning which encouraged acceptable
The appropriate reading activities learning conditions for students to get the
should be based on reading comprehension. subject or topics well. Having well prepared
That someone has to do a reading activity is pre-reading activities would make students
encouraged by the fact that he has some much focused on the reading passage they
reasons or knowledge or information gap. had to undergo. Teachers could initiate class
To get good reading comprehension of the in pre-reading by presenting questions, or
text, readers have to supply themselves with light exercises, or even games to arouse
questions. The more questions one has in students’ motivation. Teachers should be
reading, the better understanding he has on able to encourage students’ motivation by
the text he is reading. The first question pushing students to build their prior
could start from the title he first reads. From knowledge, make predictions, establish a
the title he should have a question or two purpose, generate questions and finally
considered as hypothetical questions. The students were really serious and focused in
next step for him to is to link the questions trying to get the answers by reading the
to the text by trying to find out the answers passage or text.
of that question offered in the reading This activity was good to run for about
passage. 10 minutes, because this kind of activity was
Readers could come across new meant as the warming up. Therefore, within
vocabulary on the text material they read one instructional meeting it was enough to
which present problems to them. have one pre-reading activity. The following
Experienced readers would then be able to are some optional key expressions to do pre-
solve such problems easily by observing the reading activity.
textual contexts, building prior knowledge a) Ask general questions leading to the text.
and then making some guesses of meaning b) Make students do light exercises leading
contextually to the passage. The main and to the text.
central step in comprehending the meaning c) Make then finish point graphs leading to
of the text is that the reader should be able to the text.

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Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

2) While Reading Activity: in pairs or small the information and message taken from the
groups text implanted into their knowledge which
By focusing the text title carefully, could enrich their life skills. The
students should be able to make one or two recommended activities could be as the
hypothetical questions stemmed from the following:
title. The hypothetical questions which a) Discuss related topics
students had to make should by then be able b) Write related topics
to encourage them to read the reading text
further carefully and smartly in order to get CONCLUSION
the answer. This might be in the form of The conclusions taken from these data
activities in answering questions they analysis are of the following:
formulated earlier during pre-reading as well a. The classroom reading instructions still applied
as others that could arise through their rhetorical explanations which did not support
reading activities. the comprehension as the core content; generic
The next procedure was to deal with structure, language features, social function of
identifying unfamiliar words or new texts, etc.
vocabulary they could possibly come across. b. The classroom reading instructions still applied
Good and experienced readers should be misleading activities such as reading aloud,
able to solve those unfamiliar words by translation activities,which did not really
guessing the meaning or synonymous words support students’ goal in developing
based on the phrasal and sentential and comprehension.
paragraphed contexts. By digesting the c. The development of social life skills in the
context smartly, students did not have to forms of cooperative and collaborative learning
make them busy and bothered consulting to strategies was not yet developed.
a dictionary. Students were not then d. Students’ reading strategy needed development
recommended to use a dictionary as this as the score was still low 66.62.
would only make them to dependent readers e. Reading resources and reading materials needed
who could not read well and fluently. variations which related to contextual life.
Having had the unfamiliar words Teachers mostly used workbooks published
solved, the students then try their best to locally (86.66%) for students to learn. This did
analyze the content of the passage by not give wide reading exposures to students.
indentifying the main points found in the f. Students’ motivation on reading needed much
text. The next step was to make notes on encouragement as the score was only 68.18. On
those main ideas or concepts and then design the hand, the students’ attitudes towards reading
the content graph or graphic organizations were still in dire level as the score only showed
either in abstract pictures or in real crosses 57.21.
they could make on a piece of paper. The g. The solution to the problem of classroom
following is the standard procedure of reading instruction was to apply cooperative and
activities in while reading. collaborative learning so that interactive reading
a) Observe the title. could be realized.
b) Make hypothetic questions based on the h. The most important step to implement this
title. classroom reading instructions was to apply
c) Solve new vocabulary problems in comprehension based reading using scientific
context to the text. approach. Reading texts were treated as data by
d) Identify the topics of the paragraphs. which student could further implement scientific
e) Identify the core content of the text. approach by designing graphic organizers to
f) Design the graphic organizers. show their understanding on the reading
g) Make a summary. materials they have already read.
3) Post Reading Activity: in pairs or small
groups References
Still in pair or small group activities, Arikunto, Suharsimi. (1998). Prosedur Penelitian.
this post reading activities were meant to Jakarta: Rineka Cipta
encourage students to design follow-up Ball, Christopher. (1971). Lexis: The Vocabulary of
activities relating to the information taken in English. The English Language. Great Britain:
the text. This was recommended as to make Sphere Book Ltd.

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On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

Emerald, Dechant. 1991. Teachers Directory of Napa, Pieter A. (1991). Vocabulary Development
Reading Shells Aids and Materials. New Skills. Yogyakarta: Kanisius
York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc. Nunan, David. 1998. Language Teaching
Ending Kusrini, (2012). Interactive Activities as An Methodology: A Textbook for Teacher. UK
Alterlative to Encourage Students’ Prentice Hall International Ltd.
Involvement. EDUCARE; Volume 4 Number Tarigan, Guntur Henry. (1985). Pengajaran Kosa
2 Kata. Bandung: Angkasa.
Evans, Desmond, W. 1990. Improving English Wilkins, D. A.1983. Linguistics in Language
Skills. Dina Rupa Aksara. Jakarta Teaching. Edward Arnold Ltd., London.
Littlewood. (1999) Cummunicative Approach in
Language Teaching. Great Britain: Sphere
Book Ltd

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DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERTISE COMPETENCY BASED PHYSICS PRACTICAL


WORK ON THE FIELD OF MASONRY AND CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
ENGINEERING IN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Ristiana Dyah Purwandari


Student of Science Education Doctoral Program, Indonesia University of Education,
Indonesia

Abstract knowledge, as well as the subjects derived from


This study was part of a research and competence to be achieved. In addition, based on
development (R&D), aimed to develop of expertise the learnedness of the 2013 curriculum, it
competency based physics practical work on emphasizes on: Student-Centered, Interactive,
Masonry and Concrete Construction Engineering Active-Probe, Real World Context, Team -Based
in Vocational High School (SMK). This study was Learning, Stimulation in all directions (all senses),
established on several inventions in the field as Multimedia Equipment (various educational
prerequisite analysis, including: the result of technology equipment), Multi-Discipline
curriculum analysis on association of adaptive and Knowledge (multidisciplinary approach), and
productive group science, result ofwritten Critical (requires creative thinking).
questionnaire on the adherence of physics practical Based on the decree of the General Director of
work in Vocational High involving 26 physics Primary and Secondary Education Management
teachers from 13 vocational schools in seven Number:251/C/Kep/MN/2008 about spectrum of
Regencies, Central Java Province, unexploited expertise on vocational education, there are six
potential of local mineral materials, development of areas of study set for vocational skill. Field study of
No-fines Concrete technology, vocational high expertise includes: Technology and Engineering,
school physics teachers' perceptions to the Information Technology and Communication,
development of expertise skills competency-based Health, Arts-Crafts-Tourism, Agribusiness and
physics practical work and science process skills of Agro Technology (Agriculture), and Business and
vocational students that were still low. The results Management, all of which consisted of 121 skill
of the study obtained initial design of expertise competency. Three of the six subject areas of
competency-based physics practical work expertise are supported by adaptive subjects
development through No-fines Concrete (physics) i.e. Field of Technology and Engineering
technology. expertise subject, Health and Agriculture. Each
total hours of physics subject for three-year study
BACKGROUND period is 276 hours, 192 hours and 192 hours.
Vocational education aims to improve Giancoli (2001), states that students who have
intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble been interested in entering the fields of expertise of
character, and skills of the students to live non-physics will ask, "Why should I study
independently and to take advanced education in physics?" Consistent with these questions and in
accordance with the vocational program accordance with the basic competencies of physics
(curriculum of SMKTujuh Lima 1 Purwokerto, subjects comprised in the vocational curriculum,
2009). To support these objectives then the the basic competencies of physics in Vocational
structure curriculum of vocational school is drafted High School is as follows : (1) Mastering the basic
consisting of three groups of subjects namely the concepts of physics that directly support the
normative, adaptive, and productive subject. achievement of skill program competencies, (2)
Physics subject is one of the adaptive groups Applying the basic concepts of physics to support
underlying technology development. the application of the skill program competencies in
Based on the improved mindset of Curriculum everyday life, (3) Applying the basic concepts of
Formulation 2013, it is found that Graduates’ physics to develop skill program capabilities at a
Competency Standards is derived from higher level. Under those conditions, the learning of
requirements, Content Standards is derived from physics was highly influential in the achievement of
Graduates’ Competency through free subjects-Core skill program, and this should be an important
Competencies and all subjects should contribute to concern for physics teachers in Vocational High
the establishment of attitudes, skills, and School. However, in the field, physics teachers do

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not design the learning suitable to the expected • To develop students’ understanding of the
competencies. methods by which this knowledge has been
Physics learning process carried out by gained and our grounds for confidence in it
teachers mostly remains theoretical and less (knowledge about science).
supported by lab skill activities in laboratory that The first aim is about understanding the content of
can provide students in understanding concepts. science and the second is about understanding the
Moreover, based on the research results of Memon, nature of science. An understanding of how science
2007 (in Faize, 2011), the science teachers are and the scientific community work will help
simply supplied with only pedagogical-theoretic students learn the content of science better. This
aspects but less emphasis on teaching methods includes understanding of the processes involved in
using lab skills. Training provision in conducting the conducting of a scientific enquiry, the
lab skills is completely disregarded; the intellectual reasoning used by scientists to analyse
consequence is that science teachers are lack of data and produce evidence in order to make a claim
teaching skills using practical methods that are or propose a theory, and how this evidence is
effectively needed in students' understanding of verified by the scientific community.
concepts. Hodson (1990:34), suggests that activity in the
Learning physics as part of science is laboratory has four main functions, namely: (a) to
essentially aimed at fostering students' intellectual carry out the experiments (experiments), (b)
competencies such as independent learning, laboratory work, (c) practice, and (d) the
problem solving, decision making and critical implementation of didactic science education.
thinking (American Association for the Practical work is defined according to Millar (2004,
Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1993; National p.2):
Research Council (NRC), 1996. According to Tan
& Temiz, (2003), the essential purpose of teaching “any teaching and learning activity which
science today is to educate students to be able to involves at some point the students in
conduct researches, explore, investigate, make observing or manipulating real objects and
connections between everyday life with science materials”.
topics, use scientific methods in solving problems
and see the world through the eyes of a scientist. In Practical work in this sense includes
order that science learning is able to give impact to fieldwork, laboratory work and experimental work.
the expected skill, it is essential to consider how the In the context of our study with Vietnamese high
learning process is presented to the learner, (Utari, school physics teachers, classroom teaching was the
2010). Considering this objective, students should focus of our study but not fieldwork, and the
try to obtain and achieve the knowledge and skills wordings of ‘practical work’, ‘laboratory work’ and
of the process, in this context, science education ‘experimental work’ are used interchangeably in
becomes very important (Taşdere & Ercan, 2009), this paper to have similar meanings in Millar’s
in order to obtain the information, students need to context.
develop several skills called "science process Tamir (1991) has established five major
skills". Science process skills emphasized on the rationales for school science laboratory work.
formation of knowledge acquiring skill, and These are: (i) laboratory work provides students
communicate the acquisition. Skills mean the with opportunities for understanding and
ability to use the mind, reason and action efficiently manipulating the highly complex and abstract
and effectively to achieve a particular outcome, nature of science in inducing effective conceptual
including creativity. Related to this, laboratory is a change, (ii) working with the actual investigations
proper mode for learning activities as well as helps students develop procedural knowledge,
providing students with science process skills. promote problem-solving and analytical skills as
Millar (2004, p.1) in his article on The role of well as fostering scientific attitudes and values such
practical work in the teaching and learning of as honesty, patience, acknowledgment of failure,
science summed up broadly two main aims of understanding experimental limitations and being.
science education: Practical work is defined as a method of
• To help students gain an understanding of as learning that serves to clarify the concept through
much of the established body of scientific contact with tools, materials or natural events
knowledge as is appropriate to their needs, directly, increase students’ intellectual skills of
interests and capacities through observation or complete and selective
information exploration and support practical

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On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

problem solving, practice in problem solving, apply opened questions. The instruments submitted to all
knowledge andskills to the situation faced, practice the teachers had been permitted by the principals.
in designing experiments, interpret data, and The instruments used to measure the science
develop scientific attitude (Departemen Pendidikan process skills consisted of: 1. Practice assessment in
Nasional, 2007) . the laboratory, 2. Science Process Skills questions
The problem now is how the development of with properties of concrete aggregate-based physics
the physics lab skill that is able to accommodate the materials. The questions consisted of ten essay
needs of expertise competence and what factors questions and four multiple choices.
underlie the development? Students are expected to
have expertise competencies that are expected to be RESULT AND DISCUSSION
supported by lab skill activities that provide skill Based on the existing curriculum at SMK 2
process. Additionally, students are exposed to real- and SMKTujuh Lima 1 Purwokerto stated that
world context that uses multidisciplinary physics competencies on Masonry and Concrete
knowledge (multidisciplinary approach), can be Construction Engineering in Vocational
done in teams, and develop creative thinking. Schoolwere as follows : (1) Mastering the basic
concepts of physics that directly supported the
METHOD achievement of their expertise competency
This study was part of the R & D, at the initial program, (2) Applying basic concepts of physics to
stage analysis of necessity was performed, support the application of their expertise
including the curriculum identification of competency program in everyday life, (3) Applying
vocational School (SMK Tujuh Lima 1Purwokerto the basic concepts of physics to develop their
and SMK Negeri 2 Purwokerto) groups of adaptive expertise competency program at a higher level .
and productive lesson, those were the subjects of Expertise Competency of Masonry and Concrete
physics, performance and inspection of concrete Construction Engineering including: a. Being able
construction and building materials science to choose a career, being able to compete and
engineering. This activity obtained the connection develop themselves in the scope of Building
between basic physics competence and productive Engineering Program especially expertise
subjects. Research activities continued with written competency on Masonry and Concrete Construction
questionnaire about practical implementation in Engineering, b. Providing learners with knowledge
vocational schools involving physics teacher and skills as a preparation for those interested in
respondents (N = 26), namely seven Public continuing higher education .
Vocational Schools and six Private Vocational Identification of physics basic competence and
Schools in seven Regencies, Central Java province. basic competences of productive group
To develop expertise competency-based physics lab (Implementation of Concrete Construction
materials, literature review of research results Inspection Engineeringand Material Science) that
related to concrete technology and the relation of had mutual relationship respectively were as
basic competencies that had been acquired earlier follows: A. Basic physics competencies
between basic physical competence and productive encompassed: 1. Mastering the concept of scale and
group basic competences was performed, one of the its unit, 2. Using the appropriate measuring tools to
technologies being developed was the technology measure physical quantity, 3. Mastering the concept
of no-fines concrete which was a group of of temperature and heat, 4. Mastering the effect of
lightweight concrete. In this study, also conducted heat to a substance, 5. Measuring temperature and
written questionnaire on vocational school physics heat, 6. Calculating heat, 7. Calculating vibrations,
teachers' perceptions toward the development of no- waves , and sound, B. Basic competence of
fines concrete based lab skill, dig science process Masonry and Concrete Construction Engineering
skills on Vocational School students of class X, and included : 1. Checking building materials: Identify
observation of local mineral potential that can be the size of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate
used as a test object of no-fines concrete. (gradation) to recognize the difference, Learn how
The instruments used in the study were as to identify the quality of materials and physical
follows: 1. written questionnaire of physics learning natures of aggregates include: aggregate gradation,
implementation by using lab skill method in density, weight, water absorption, water content, 2.
vocational school, 2. written questionnaire about The strength of concrete and concrete properties .
teachers’ perceptions on the development of Based on the analysis of vocational curriculum
expertise competency requirement-based physics on the field of Masonry and Concrete Construction
lab skill. Both instruments used contained semi- Engineering (between physical competence and

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Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

productive group competence) and literature review questionnaire involving 22 other vocational
of research results related to concrete technology, teachers in seven regencies of Central Java related
expertise competency requirement-based physics to physics lab skill implementation. The results
lab skill materials were developed as follows : 1. showed that 46% of physics teachers in vocational
Reduction of sound waves, 2. The density and schools did not implement the lab skill in teaching
weight of the aggregate, 3. The density and weight physics. The reasons of why teachers did not
of non-sand concrete brick wall materials, 4. implement the lab: 1. Lack of practical tools (tool
Thermal conductivity of non-sand concrete brick availability), 2. Lack of meeting hours, 3. Physics
wall materials, 5. The rate of heat flow of non-sand of matter was more to the basic theory and had less
concrete brick wall materials, 6. Temperature support to the competency of vocational students.
isolation of non-sand concrete brick wall materials. The next data obtained that 54% of teachers stated
The results of the initial survey and written to implement physics lab, but the implementation in
questionnaire to the Vocational physics teacher in one semester conducted by each teacher in
Purwokerto, they were SMK 2 and SMK Tujuh percentages were: ( once ) 7,14%, (twice) 7,14% ,
Lima1 Purwokerto, showed that the physics lab (3 times) 71,42% and (>4 times) as of 14,28%.
skill as a learning support lab had not been Implemented lab skill materials included
implemented. Observation results also indicated mechanics, fluid motion and electric-magnetic. The
that many physics laboratories were not well- results showed that nearly half of physics teachers
managed; even some practical tools such as lab kits involved as respondents did not conduct lab skill in
had not been used and stored neatly. The teachers’ learning physics, the teachers’ arguments were as
excuses were: lack of school hours (time limited follows: 1. Vocational lesson hours were spent
meetings, only 2x45 minutes per week) and the lack more to the practice in the workshop of building
of adequate facilities and infrastructure. It was also engineering materials, 2. Learning physics was just
confirmed from the results of measurements of a theory and considered less support the
Science Process Skills of SMK Tujuh Lima1 competency in areas of expertise. This was where
Purwokerto students. the issues need to be resolved, that was by
Science process skills measured included: the accommodating the learning of physics that
ability to observe, plan experiments, propose supported expertise competency through based
hypotheses, use tools and materials, carry out the physics lab skills through expertise competency
experiment. The results obtained were as follows: requirement-based physics lab skill.
the ability to observe (38,24 %), planning Based on the results of written questionnaire
experiments (16,56%), proposing hypothesis about teachers' perceptions to the development of
(19,4%), using tools and materials (12 %) and the physics lab skills adjusted to the needs of
carrying out the experiment (14,5%). While the expertise competency requirements showed that
science process skills that includes the skill to 84,6 % of teachers agreed, suggesting that expertise
interpret the results of observation, communication competency requirement-based physics lab skill
skills, the ability to classify and ability to predict gained support from the vocational school physics
showed an average value continuously of 21,6%, teachers . The reason given by the teachers was the
7,37%, 8,14% and 8,6 % . continuity between the physics materials and
Based on survey results, observations, written subject matter of expertise competency, so that
questionnaire andvocational students’science students could directly apply the physics materials
process skills measurement results showed that the on their fields of expertise and would support each
unimplemented lab skills impacted students’ other.
lowscience process skills. This showed that physics Based on what had been described, the physics
learning that did not give students the chance to lab skill could be developed based on expertise
utilize the tools directly that could be done in lab competency through no-fines Concrete technology.
skill did not give real experience to Development design could be described as follows:
students.Research continued with written

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On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

Basic Analysis Library study’s Developed


Competence ofcurriculum research findings technologies
Physics

Expertise competency Supporting Local


based physics practical
Basic Competence of Potential
work
productive group (skill):
- TechnicalImplementation Providing students with
and examination of function
Science Process Skills
Concrete Construction
- Building Materials
Developing critical Thinking
Knowledge
and creative Skills

Figure 1. Scheme development design of expertise competency-based physics practical work

CONCLUSSION the context to the real-world, team -based


The conclusions that could be raised from the learning, stimulation to all directions (all five
requirement analysis phase are: senses), multi- disciplinary knowledge
1. Physics learning in vocational school needs to (multidisciplinary approach), and critical
be updated in the sense of not only the (requires creative thinking).
theoretical academic but also need to be
supported with lab skill that can provide hands- References
on experience to the students and to develop a American Association for the Advancement of
scientific attitude. Science (AAAS). (1993). Benchmarks for
2. In order physics lab to support its function as scientific literacy. Oxford: Oxford University
supporting the achievement of expertise Press.
competency, necessary materials can be Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007. Direktorat
developed based on the curriculum analysis that Jenderal Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan
connects physics’ basic competence and basic Menengah Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah
competences in areas of expertise or productive Menengah Atas.
groups, literature review on research findings , Faize, F. A., (2011). “Physics Teachers’
emerging technologies and local potential that Competency in Practical Skills – A
can be developed . Comparison of ‘O’ Level and Federal Board
3. Expertise competency requirement-based Students’ Views in Pakistan”. European
physics lab skill can also provide the students Journal of SocialSciences. 19, 4 - 555.
with the science process skill can develop Giancoli, D. C. (2001). Physics with Applications.
critical and creative thinking skills. New York: Prentice Hall.
4. Design development of expertise competency- Hodson, D. (1990), Critical look at practical
based physics lab skills can also be developed in working school science. School Science
the field of Technology and Engineering Review, 70 (256), 34-40.
Expertise Studies, Health and Agriculture with Millar, R. (2004). The Role of Practical Work in the
design preparation steps such as in Figure 1. Teaching and Learning of Science
5. Expertise competency requirement-based (Commissioned paper) Committee on
physics lab skill is consistent with the basic HighSchool Science Laboratories: Role and
learning curriculum in 2013 which emphasizes Vision. Washington DC. National Academy of
on: student-centered, interactive, active-probe, Sciences.

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INCREASING THE LEARNING OUTCOMES AND THE CRITICAL THINKING


THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF
THE PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH

Riza Yonisa Kurniawan


Universitas Negeri Surabaya
rizayonisa@yahoo.com

Abstract training and upgrading teacher qualifications,


The quality of education is played by many curriculum improvement, procurement of books
teachers as educators. to achieve a quality and teaching tools, repair facilities and
education, it is necessary to note the methods and infrastructure. The quality of education will be
models of teaching and teaching strategies that will achieved if the learning process is efficient and
be implemented by the teacher to the student. One effective for the achievement of knowledge and
model used is problem solving in which the model skills for graduate students in accordance with the
is expected to train students to face and resolve a demands of the times. In order for effective
given problem. Critical thinking skills and student teaching and learning process and efisisen to note
achievement X.6 class SMAN 5 Malang still low, the existence of students' learning ability, the
students still looks difficult to relate the material determination of the method of teaching used by
obtained in the school with problems that exist teachers as well as teaching and learning strategy in
around them. The purpose of this study was to accordance with the principles of teaching and
determine the application of learning models of learning.
problem solving in class X Senior High School 5 The question now is how the teacher as a
Malang, knowing the model of learning problem manifestation of his responsibility as educators of
solving can improve students' critical thinking skills young people as well as take an active role in the
class X.6 Senior High School 5 Malang and to success of government programs in education can
know the model of learning problem solving can broaden the diverse thinking of all students, so that
improve student achievement X.6 class Senior High they can learn the concepts and linking them with
School 5 Malang. The subjects were students of real life. This is a challenge that must be faced by
class X.6 Senior High School 5 Malang number of teachers everyday, to be able to overcome these
students with a total of 39 students of which 13 teachers should have extensive knowledge, creative
students male and 26 female students. The results of and innovative in managing the learning process.
this study indicate that there is an increase in But in fact the field of learning is given by
critical thinking skills and student achievement presenting the material as much as possible in
during the administration of the action. accordance with the curriculum targets without
providing the widest possible opportunity for
Keywords:problem solving, critical thinking skills, students to practice. According to Ibrahim
academic achievement (2003:43) is widely used in a variety of teaching
methods including lectures, teachers in the
BACKGROUND implementation of this method has a greater role in
The development of science and technology the delivery of teaching materials in accordance
are so rapid demand of human resources with with the systematics that have been prepared. The
expertise and skills in accordance with the needs traditional way is still regarded as an attempt to
and demands of the present age. Education is interpret the teaching of delivering textbooks as
essentially an attempt to prepare the human much as possible, so that students are expected to
resources with the expertise and skills according to reveal that information back to the time of the test.
the demands of nation-building, in which the The many roles of teachers in this method so that
progress of a nation can only be achieved through the matter quickly resolved in the near future but
good education arrangement. Improving the quality make students less active in learning.
of education is expected to increase the dignity of Previous research underlying this study is the
the Indonesian people. research conducted by Marpaung (2005) that the
Various attempts have been made to improve study of biology with problem-based learning
the quality of education among other various skills activity sheets (LKPBM) as an alternative

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On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

assessment to improve critical thinking skills are a Observation, engineering observation is used to
positive influence on indicators of critical thinking, determine the activity of the students in solving the
namely the formulation of problems, argument, problems presented by the teacher and measure
deduction, induction and resolved the problem, and students' thinking skills in solving problems during
can improve learning outcomes which has a the teaching and learning activities that take place
positive effect on a cognitive level. In another study based on the observation sheet. In addition
Muslikhatin (2005) states that the application of observations were also performed to obtain data on
cooperative learning model learning problems and the harmony between the learning plan has been
investigations group model improves learning included in the learning scenario with the
outcomes, both cognitive learning outcomes, implementation of learning problem solving, (4)
affective, and psychomotor and critical thinking field notes, useful to obtain objective data that is
Traffic. It is characterized by an increase in the not recorded on the observation sheet about the
average value of the study subjects. Research things that happened during administration actions.
conducted by Ariana (2006) also stated that the
implementation of the integration model of RESULT AND DISCUSSION
problem-based learning and cooperative learning Cycle I taught the subject matter ”Cost of
jigsaw models can improve student achievement. production and revenue”. The material is taught for
this can be seen from the increase in the average 4 hours of lessons divided into 2 sessions. The time
value of the study subjects. Arnyana research allotted for one hour lesson is 45 minutes. The first
results (2007) shows that the model of Problem meeting begins with a pre-test and the second
Based Learning (PBL) can (1) increase students' meeting ended with the end of the test cycle I.
understanding of concepts Biology, (2) improve the Researchers in this study serves as a first cycle
problem solving abilities of Biology, (3) improve 3 teachers and peers as observers. 1 person
the ability to apply the concepts of Biology, (4) observing teachers and students are 2 people
increase students 'positive attitudes towards watching. Observers record all activities that occur
biology, and (5) increase students' critical thinking during the learning takes place. Observers record all
skills. Based on the results of an investigator - observations in the observation sheet format and
Hafid (2007) argued that effective problem solving field notes.
strategies to develop critical thinking skills in Implementation of learning begins with the
teaching various subject areas. class teacher assistant (SMAN 5 Malang economics
teacher) introduced to the students that starting
METHOD today (Monday) to the subject of the cost of
This research is action research (Classrom production, revenue and profit / loss completed the
Actioan Research) because researchers directly teacher will be guided by the new (research). When
involved in the research process beginning to end of finished introducing themselves and explaining the
the study. Action research conducted by purpose of the coming researchers, and teachers
systematically collecting data about daily practices (researchers) provide pre-test as a pre- requisite
and analyze them to make decisions about which knowledge (initial test).
practices should be done in the future (Madya, The activity is intended to determine the
2006). students' prior knowledge of the subject matter
The research location is a place where prior to action. After administration of the initial
research can look at the facts that occur during the test, the activities continued with the presentation
learning process takes place. This research was beginning teachers (researchers) to convey the
conducted in March to April in SMAN 5 Malang purpose of learning and the importance of linking
Tanimbarese street address number 24 Malang. the material studied and learned the usefulness of
The process of data collection in this study by the material for other economic materials to be
using the following techniques : (1) Test, aiming to studied further. By the time the teacher gives
determine the increase in achievement and explanations, students are involved in debriefing
cognitive aspects of learning, especially as one of a activities. It aims to explore students' prior
series of learning activities in problem solving. knowledge. After the presentation of the learning
Such tests include the initial tests (pre-test) and a material, the next stage is learning groups, in this
test at the end of the cycle and end the test after the stage the student is directed to understand the
given action (post-test), (2) Interview in which the concept of production costs through text materials
type of interview used in this study is a (modules) that have been given to each student.
combination of interviews with the questions, (3) Students are required to sit on each predefined

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group. Classroom atmosphere seemed rowdy when teacher (researcher), teacher greeting
students join the group. Then each group looking ”Assalamualaikum” all students replied in unison
for a problem and find a solution. ”Wa'alaikumsalam Sir". Ask the teacher before
By the time the students work in groups, class assignment given last week, ”Is it done duty
researchers and observers to observe and pay last week?”. Then all the students replied, ”Yes Sir”
attention to all student activities. Researchers with simultaneously. The teacher explains the
looked at all the group members to accept the material that will be discussed at the second
presence of members of their respective groups. No meeting that the material on receipt.
conflicts in each group. Researchers sometimes Students are asked to join each group, then
stop at one of the group for their attention in a discuss the problems that have been distributed
group task. If there are any questions from prior to the meeting. After completion of the
members of the group, the researchers asked discussion groups and then designate a group of
beforehand to ask the members in the group. If teachers who are ready to come forward to present
members of the group cannot answer, the the results of their discussion. The discussion was
researchers did not directly answer the questions of quite exciting, a lot of students who respond and
the students but lead students to find their own refute the statement of the renderer. Due to the
answers to their questions. Researchers praised the limited time given allocation, then not all of the
group works well. For a group whose members are answers can be answered by the presenter. But of
less eager to work and discuss, researchers motivate the answers that the presenter has been described
them with the award to be given to the successful representative of the entire student questions and
group. there are some statements that presenters must be
This was followed by presentation of the straightened by the teacher.
results of the discussion in front of the class by each In this first cycle of all aspects of the teacher
designated group in turn. While other groups as a implemented 100 %. This is done starting from the
buffer and comment on the results of the advanced aspect explains the purpose of learning, to reflect
group performances. In this case the researchers are on aspects of the learning process that has been
not many plays, only if there is congestion in the done, but the teacher still has not been able to
presentation, the researchers acted as a mediator in optimize the allocation of available time so much
order to straighten out the answer is not quite right time is wasted in vain, the teacher also emphasizes
or wrong. This is done so that students are more student mastery of the material still less so in the
active in learning. second cycle students can better understand the
Once finished with the class teacher material covered.
discussion concludes material just discussed, there Students Critical Thinking Skills Problem
are many students who do not understand about the Solving Approach
newly learned material, as before there are At the time of the discussion, the researcher
economic subjects replications of other subjects, so with the observer observing each student activities
that less economic interest in learning so high. and assessed based on the observation sheet that
Many students are still talking about the replay just had been developed by researchers which contains
completed and some are still confused with the 6 aspects of critical thinking skills. How to
results of the group discussions were performed. So calculate the percentage of students' critical
for the next meeting teachers assign tasks to each thinking skills is to divide the total value of the
student to learn the material receipt and answer the level of students' critical thinking skills in the field
question that is on the student worksheet. with a total value of students' level of critical
In this first cycle, most of the time spent on thinking skills is ideal. The value of critical
discussion. So that the planned allocation of time thinking skills base in this study was 4. Now we
cannot be done well. Receive unpreparedness of know the percentage of students' critical thinking
students in the subject matter is one of the causes of skills, further classified according to the percentage
the loss of time that has been planned. In addition of ketercapaiannya which consists of excellent,
to recording the activity of discussion, student good, fairly good, not good, and not good.
activity was also recorded by using the observation In Cycle II teaches material that is the subject
sheet which contains student assessment critical of "Profit/Loss". After the students into 8 groups,
thinking skills in solving problems. At the second the teacher distributed to all students for the module
meeting of the next meeting, as well as at the first to be referenced in the discussion group. Before the
meeting, but the teacher did not introduce himself. group discussion the teacher presents the material
Because the students already know the name of the started a course outline and submit tasks to each

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group to work with. In a group discussion, the importance of this material in everyday life and
teacher guides the discussion group by way around individual students are not busy with other subjects
to each group. In guiding the discussion of the that replicates the concentration of the students
interaction between teachers and students. focused only on economic subjects. During the
At the time of the discussion, the students discussion of female students is more dominant role
appear to be more active when compared to the than men. This is because the composition of the
discussion in cycle I. This was seen at the time of number of men is only 12 people while the number
the discussion and ask students actively work of women 27. So it seems more women are active
together to mutually accomplish the task given by in the discussion. Female students possess a
the teacher group. Students feel a sense of literature book more complete than the male
responsibility to the group that received the highest students that the material that they find a more
scores from other groups however there are still reverensi material. Although the number of men is
some students who jokingly. Groups that were only half of the women did not discourage them in
active were group 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8. following the discussion. This is evidenced by the
After the discussion of learning activities activity of male students when asked in the
followed by a presentation of the discussion. discussion, they adopt a more logical reasoning and
Because a lot of time spent on the presentation, the can be accepted by other groups. While there are
teacher pointed to a couple of groups that are ready some groups of women are still less precise and
to perform. and other groups as a buffer if the rational decision-making and away from the answer
answer is less appropriate than the presenter or desired by the questioner. But even so there is one
presenters disagreed. At this time a lot of the of the most dominant women's groups in expressing
discussion groups and provide arguments to refute their opinions and arguments, so it can be received
each one for each group not to be outdone by other by all students.
groups. and this time there is no lesson that
interfere with the replication of other subjects so CONCLUSSION
that all students are focused on economic subjects. Application of the method of problem solving
Teachers continue to provide additional and learning done in 5 stages. Stages in the study are as
straighten out the answer if there is an answer that follows : (1) a class presentation stage, the
is less than a statement of the student. The researcher presents the objectives of learning,
next activity is the provision of the final test cycle motivate students, and linking material importance
II. The number of questions given is 10 and 5 and usefulness of the material to be studied for
questions about the objective description. In doing materials other economies that will be studied. To
the test is the same as the first cycle, students are help students understand the subject matter,
prohibited to work together with other students. The researchers brought students to the real world that is
result is that the individual scores then summed and often experienced by students in the classroom, (2)
averaged as group scores. study group, in an effort to solidify students'
In this second cycle of all aspects of the understanding of the subject of the cost of
teachers also implemented 100 %. (can be found in production, acceptance and Profit / Loss, conducted
appendix 6). This is done starting from the aspect of the study group. each group consisted of 4-5
learning to explain the purpose of evaluating the students discuss exchange ideas, and work in
learning outcomes and students' critical thinking completing tasks and find alternative solutions to
skills, reflect on the learning process has been the problems faced.
carried out from the first cycle teachers already In this study group, students complete tasks
make improvements is to allocate time according to that exist in the sheet material and worksheets ; (3)
the scenarios that have been made, students already individual tests, tests of each end of the cycle to be
interested and in the presence of a teacher can completed by the student. In completing the test,
motivate them to learn and solve problems, and students must demonstrate mastery of the material
students can receive course material easier to so that the individual is not allowed to ask each
understand compared to before getting learning other, although with a friend one group, (4) points
with problem solving approach. of individual and group development, are shown to
Students Critical Thinking Skills Problem provide awards to students on their work better than
Solving Approach ever. Improvement of individual points calculated
The observation of critical thinking skills in by finding the difference between the baseline score
the second cycle is a very large increase, this is and then score the final test cycle compared with
because the students already understand the established criteria. Further development of the

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group points to calculate the average of points Hafid, A. 2007. Mengembangkan Kemampuan
earned each individual in the group, (5) a group Berpikir Kritis melalui Teknik Problem
award, announced at the beginning of the previous Solving. Jurnal Penelitian dan
meeting held after the test. The successful group Pengembangan Keilmuan Secara Aktual.
was given a gift of (Snack and stationery). (Online), 5 (3):126-277,
Application of economic methods of learning (http://digilib.unm.ac.id)
with problem solving approach in senior high Ibrahim (2003) dalam Saraswati. 2005. Pengaruh
school 5 Malang can improve students' critical Pengajaran Modul Terhadap Prestasi Belajar
thinking skills. It is evident from the increase in the pada Mata Pelajaran Akuntansi di SMK PGRI
average scores of students' critical thinking skills at 3 Blitar. Skripsi tidak diterbitkan. Malang: FE
each end of the cycle, both cycles I and II cycle. Universitas Negeri Malang.
Application of economic methods of learning with Madya, Suwarsih. 2006. Penelitian Tindakan: Teori
problem solving approach in senior high school 5 dan Praktik.Bandung: Alfabeta.
Malang can improve student achievement. It is Marpaung, Rini Rita T. 2005. Penggunaan Lembar
evident from the increase in test scores at each end Kegiatan Berbasis Masalah (LKPBM) sebagai
of each cycle, a lot of students who have achieved Assesmen Alternatif untuk Meningkatkan
mastery learning established by the school that is Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis dan Hasil Belajar
equal to 75, as many as 35 students from a total of Biologi Siswa Kelas VII SMP Laboratorium
39 students in total students that scored above 75. Universitas Negeri Malang. Tesis tidak
Learning problem solving model to improve diterbitkan. Malang: Program Pasca Sarjana
the students' pleasure. By learning groups, students Universitas Negeri Malang.
discuss, exchange ideas and help each other so that Mbulu, Joseph. 2001. Pengajaran Individual:
they can solve the problem quickly. Students Pendekatan, Metode dan Media Pedoman
participating in learning and excited states Mengajar bagi Guru dan Calon Guru.
expressed more easily understand the subject Malang: Yayasan Elang Mas.
matter. Muslikhatin, Yayuk. 2005. Penerapan
Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah dan
References Kooperatif dengan Tipe Kelompok Investigasi
Ariana, Arifandi. 2006. Keefektifan Penerapan untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar dan
Model Pemaduan Pembelajaran Berbasis Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Kelas X
Masalah dan Pembelajaran Kooperatif Model SMA Lab UM pada materi ekosistem. Skripsi.
Jigsaw dalam Meningkatkan Minat dan Tidak diterbitkan. Malang: Fakultas
Prestasi Belajar Siswa pada Mata Pelajaran Matematika Dan IPA.
Ekonomi di SMA Negeri 5 Ponorogo.Skripsi. Nasution, S. 2000. Berbagai Pendekatan dalam
Tidak diterbitkan. Malang: Fakutas ekonomi. Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: Bumi
Arnyana, Ida Bagus Putu. 2007. Penerapan Model Aksara.
PBL Pada Pelajaran Biologi untuk Simanjuntak, B, IL Pasaribu. 1985. Didaktik dan
Meningkatkan Kompetensi dan Metodik. Bandung: Tarsito.
KemampuanBerpikir Kritis Siswa Kelas X Sudjana, Nana. 1996. Cara Belajar Siswa Aktif
SMA Negeri 1 Singaraja Tahun pelajaran dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung:
2006/2007.Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran Sinar Baru Algensindo.
UNDIKSHA, No. 2 TH. XXXX April 2007 Suherman. 2003. Common Text Book: Strategi
Garry dan Kingley (1970) dalam Sudjana. 1996. Pembelajaran Matematika Kontemporer.
Cara Belajar Siswa Aktif dalam Proses Bandung: IMSTEP JICA.
Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: Sinar Baru
Algensindo.

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THE LEARNING OF SPEAKING AND WRITING USING ICT


( INTERNET IN THE CYBER CLASSROOM )
FOR THE STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Sony
Post Graduate Program of English Education
Ahmad Dahlan University

Abstract BACKGROUND OF STUDY


There are four language skills namely English as International language has spread
listening, speaking, reading, and writing in all over the world. In global era that there is no
studying English.In the theaching learning proses, limit between countries to communicate,
some teachers only eemphasis on grammar and relationship, assessing the information and shared
reading skills to answer from the text just for in social life, nationality, and country in Indonesia
comprehention. The learning like this will not focus can not be separated from the global influences,
on the learnigEnglish as tool of communication. So the rapidly progress which happened in science
the students only get good mark but the don not and technology art and culture. Mastering English
have the skill to use English as tool of is the key for us take part in the global era (we can
communication.Some students do not master the speak) access information, adopt and make
speaking and writingas the productiveEnglish competitive with other countries in the world.
skiil.As we now that the people communicate with Information in various kinds of forms to a
other with are not only use the language especial certain extent is considered as the
Engglish directly or face to face but also they can mostenjoyable entertainment in satisfying
commucatee by using Audio Visual Aids (AVA) like intellectual curio city, sharing theright to
the computer. From the computer we can access communicate, and givingperspective to the
many information and knowledge from the program meaning of life, based on consideration above,
of computer like internet.The learning of speaking people keep trying to minimize the kind of
and writing using ICT (Internet in The Classroom) disturbances they meet in their communication.
can be practised by the students who want to The learning of English which is only
improve their global mind set orall and written emphasis on grammar and the skill to answer from
competence by using internet. Fromthe resultof the text just for understanding items. The learning
learning speaking and writing that the student who like this will not focus on the English learning as
want to improve their global mindset oral and tool of communication. So the students only get
written competence by using internet. From the good mark but they do not have the skill to use
result of teaching learning speaking and writing English as tool of communication. So the students
that the students can speak by chatting in the do not master the language competence like
internet and the students also write a type of genres listening, speaking or writing actively. As we know
like: story writing, letter to a friend, recount, and that the people communicate with other not only use
description (place, person and thing).From the the language especially English directly or face to
internet the students can learn speaking using face but also they can communicate by using Audio
internet. This can be done by chatting with Visual Aids (AVA) like the computer. From the
foreigner from many countries and they can write a computer what we can access many information
letter, messages, story, recount, and description, of about anything what we want and we need.
place, person or thing in the internet to Computer is an automatic device that
communicate with others. By doing this project is performs calculations and makes decisions and has
hope teachers can increase the quality of students’ the capacity for storing and instantly recalling vast
competence in English actively. In addition the amounts of information. It processes information
students have skills of assessing information using that can be represented in many forms, including
communication technology. numbers, letters, words, sentences, sounds,
pictures, formulas, control signal, punctuation
Keywords:The learning of speakingand writing, marks and mathematical signs. The processing is
ICT (internet), Cyber Classroom controlled by a set of step-by-step instructions
called a program. From the explanation above,

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we realize that technology development always g. So it will show the dialogue box MIRC set up
changes time to time which offers easiness for h. Kill our data with our the address of e-mail in
live. So the new learning will be recommended box which is avaisible, and the click OK or
which benefit the source of learning that can be click CANCEL to pass the dialogue box.
used, it is applicated and utilized for active i. Then it will be shown MIRC on the window
English learning and fun. From internet the j. Click general option
student can learn speaking indirectly without face k. Click the connect to IRC server (wait)
to face with others from many countries and they l. In enter name of channel to joint box typing
can write a letter in the internet to communicate thename of channel where you want to joint (e.g
with others. This learning will be given to the # bawe # Indonesia , # Bandungor others)
students on the first, second, and third class with m. Click Add , the click Edit after that click joint
the small group. By doing of this project is hoped it n. So it will take out the name that available(for
can increase the quality of students competence in example : “ganteng”). So it will take out the
English actively and information communication appearance and start the talk, typing, Hai,enter.
technology skill. And the click the name its channel in order that
our message to go through (the appearance can
METHOD OF THE STUDY be managed to look interesting and informative,
In this study the writer used qualitative ask to your tutor)
research.Qualitativeresearch is a research where the o. Next, please wait the answer from the man who
data is done by description cf the data deeply. is pointed
p. After answer please back click your answer,
DISCUSSION push the entetr, then back click its channel in
A. The Learning of Speaking Using Internet order that our message to go through
As a language skill, speaking is sometimes q. Thus so on finish
under evaluated or, in some circles, taken for r. Happy chatting
granted with recent growth of English as an
internatioanal language of communication. There is B. Thelearning of Writing Using Internet
clearly a needfor many learners to speak and Writing is a learnt skilln and therefore, it is
interact in multiplicity of situation through the normally learnt through the process of instructions.
language for foreign level, bussiness or other One has to master form of the language and lear
professional reason. Generally, as we know that certain structureswhich are less used to in speech,
speaking identically with oral. So we can do butwhich are important for
speaking if we can meet the people face to face or effectivecommunicationin writing (Byrne, 1990).
directly.Here, the writer tries to explain, that The writer tries to explain the use of the
speaking can take place not only face to face or internet as a teaching aid for a writing class.The
directly, but also indirectly or using media. We can students might be thought writing with different
speak with other do not have to use English which genre.Some writing different genres that it will be
pronounce it orally, but we can practice speaking discussedsuch as a letter to a friend, storywriting,
by writing of the expressions. So it called spoken description of place, person, and recount.
written. It means that the conversation which 1. On–Line Class
happens by writing expression.We can write a The teaching on line is more interactive
message or to take something (information) on the than teaching offline.The on –line class focuses
internet with more simple sentence, free, and more on how to use internet.The internet can be used
understandable. It does not always consider about to motivate students in their efforts to acquire
the grammar and sentence structure.One of the English proficiency skills. Students will be
application speaking using Internet is chatting. involved in tasks that require them to participate
As we know that chatting has several steps in class to learn how to use the internet for
to do.According to Supriyatna (2000: 5-6) to general writing purposes and create texts.
connect chatting has the following steps: 2. Essential Factors to Consider in Teaching On–
a. Click start Line
b. Look up the program a. Teacher
c. Look upMIRC The teacher should be be aware of all the
d. Clik MIRS 32 complexities of on–line
e. Wait until the dialogue box about MIRC is out learningenvirontment suchdifficulties in
f. Click close button ( X ) scheduling the access to the computer in the

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lab or the students who do not have their sub theme which will be responsible forevery
own computer.During the on–line lesson, the group.
teacher needs to be extremely active
monitoring students from viewing material D. The Using of ICT Model
that is not appropiate for them, and finally 1. Preparation
maintain their attention and guide them on a. Supply hardware and software
the web sites so that they becomefocused on b. Holding internet training for three section
the assigned tasks. c. Making the work program and the activity
b. Resources agenda
When considering the resources for d. Making evaluation form
conducting on–line lesson, it is suggested 2. The Teaching Scenario
that the teacher must have a computer lab a. Giving the assignment to carry out in
with internet access with the least one internet laboratory
computer per two students, with relatively b. Doing learning in internet laboratory
task internet connection. c. Gathering the result of students work
c. Wrting genres with the internet d. Presentation the result of work
The writer tries to explain the techniques e. Using the result of rest material of learning
how to teach each writing genre with help of f. Doing evaluation
the internet.The techniques proposed for 3. The Learning Activities
teaching different genres are based on the Learning in internet laboratory can be
web sites provided students with information done twice a week or minimally once a
theyneed, to be later used as a model in week.The English teacher together with the
writing. students decide the activity which will be done
in the next section (in English CBC is called
C. Cyber Classroom Model conferencing), the students divided into the
1. Preparations are : small group minimally 2 students. The activity
There are6 actions which is done by every group is the same.
a. Preparing set of hardware and software 4. The Benefits of ICT
internet lab. The aims of English learning in CBC are
b. Holding the internet using training for4 to master the discourse competence in oral and
weeks written form.To reach this aim, the biggest
c. Giving job description problem is the lack of exposure toward using
d. Explaining the purpose and target of activity English.The benefit variety of learning source
e. Making the result of the students work web includes learning media in it. It will give big
site contribution in effectiveness to reach the aims
f. Making evaluation of learning. One of the invention by review
2. The Action of Scenario team sector that the use of learning media will
a. Giving explaination the program of cyber be able to decrease teachers’ trouble until 1/3
classroom information communication technology of ICT.
b. Doing learning activity In this case the internet can be used to learning
c. Discussing the result media by UTILIZATION means that
d. Sending written via email to other friend intentionally designed to learning media but can
e. Senior high school in West country be found applicated and used to the learning
f. Down loading letters from other country need. All on line activities give exposure or
g. Doing evaluation introduction of English learning directly from
3. The Action native speaker.Many of exposure highly oral
The application of the learning speaking and written competence mastery quickly. These
and writing using internet in the cyber are examples of internet services which can be
classroom is the second class of Language used to exposure English from native speaker.
Departement Senior High School divided into They are browsing, On -line learning, E-mail,
groups, which are consist of 5 or 6 students. On-line communication or Chatting and
Every group gets different assignment from personal web.
other group depend on the theme which gave
and wrote the report in English, every theme has

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CONCLUSION Brown, H.D. 1997. Principles of Language


Based on theb explanation above, the writer Learning and Teaching Englewood Cliffs.
concludes that: NJ.PrentiveHall.
1. Applying internet for speaking and writing: Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching Principle an
a. The learning of speaking using internet for Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy.
the Senior High School students are done by Eddison Wesloy: Longman.
chatting. From chatting, the students can Gusnarwanto. "Teaching Writing by Retelling
improve their spoken written skills. Folktales at Junior High School of Grade
b. The learning of writing using internet for the Second",A Paper.Muhammadiyah University
Senior High Schoolstudents are done by of Purworejo, Purworejo, 2005.(Unpublished
writing with different genres like : a letter to Writing).
friend, story, description (place, person and Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practive of English
thing), and recount. Language Teaching. Malaysia: Longman.
c. The students can get markis 7-8,5 in their Hartono, Rudi. 2005. Genres of Texts. English
evaluation. Department Faculty of Language and Art:
d. The students get the balance between Semarang State University (Unpublished
speaking and writing skills in the activity in Writing).
cyber classroom. Komidah, Siti. "Teaching Sepaking Using games
e. The students feel excited beacuse the have in for Senior High School Students as an
the International Class athmosfer. Alternative Way to in Crease Student's
2. The benefit of internet for learning speaking and Speaking Skill", A Paper. Muhammadiyah
writing: University of Purworejo, Purworejo. 2004.
a. Cyber classroom learning model and ICT (Unpublished Writing).
gives positive contribution towards the Mulyasa, E. 2005. Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi
increase of students competence mastery (Konsep, karakteristik dan Impelementasi).
both in oral and written English. Bandung: PTRemajaRosdakarya Bandung,.
b. The benefit of ICT is optimizing English Nurbaity, Nikmah. 2005. Makalah Inovasi
exposure from native speaker and native Pembelajaran, SMA Negeri 7 Purworejo.
country. Purnawati, Tri."The Effect of An Interest in English
c. Giving unlimited learning source in accessed to the Writing Competence of the Fith
by the students and as a cultural competence. Semester Sudents of the English Departments
d. Giving positive contribution towards native of Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo in
country cultural ubderstanding and other the Academic Year of 2001/2002", A Thesis,
countries(multicutural understanding) Muhammadiyah University Purworejo,
e. Increasing thev students skills with goal Purworejo.2002. (Unpublished Writing).
mindset. Rade Macher-Gibson.1983. An Introduction to
f. Givingpositive contribution towards the Computers and Infornation System. USA:
increasing of the students ability by using South-Western Publishing CO.
and benefing of the ICT as learning source Suhartono, "The Teaching of Vocabulary and
and g lobal communication mediumin Grammar to Improve Student's Speaking
International Values. Ability of Junior High School" A Paper.
Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo,
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Ardiyati, Wienny. 2005. ICELS "Information Wong, Rangxian. 1990. Focusing on Oral
Technology and English Language Studies: Communicative Competence. English
The Graduate Program (S2) in English Teaching Forum. Januar.
Language Studies. Sanata Dharma University:
Yogyakarta.

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FIVE WAYS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY IN THE CLASSROOM

Ummu Rosyidah
Post Graduate Program of English Education
Ahmad Dahlan University of Yogyakarta

1. BUILD UP SELF-ESTEEM Closely related to self-confidence is what


Many adults still suffer from the negative psychologists call ‘self-efficacy’, the positive
impact of their schooling; this pillar really explores judgment of one’s own capacity to perform. Self-
ways in which children can be encouraged to build efficacy is not the same as the actual skills we have,
inner resilience and self-belief. but rather our belief about what we can do with the
Many references mentioned self-belief and the skills we have. Skill alone is not enough to
power of positive thinking. National sports teams, guarantee our best performance-we have to believe
businesses and individuals are continually being in our skills in order to use them at their best.
encouraged to develop self-belief; therefore isn’t Goleman, in Working with Emotional Intelligence
the most logical place to start with the younger (1998) (see ‘Recommended reading’), quotes from
generation? the work of Albert Bandura, a Stanford University
There is a strong belief by the writers of many psychologist who pioneered the study of self-
personal development and self-help books that if efficacy, who points out the contrast between those
you really believe in something you can make it who doubt themselves and those who believe in
happen; it is the power of positive thought. Another their abilities when it comes to taking on a difficult
way of describing it is ‘self-talk’. Shad Helmstetter task.
in What to Say when You Talk to Yourself (1998) Those with self-efficacy gladly step up to take
argues powerfully about the need to programme the challenge; those with self-doubt don’t even try,
your brain into positive thoughts rather than the regardless of how well they might actually do. Self-
negative messages that we receive in our lives. confidence raises expectations and raises
One of the sad realities is that many people aspirations, while self-doubt lowers them. Goleman
underachieve, often as a result of the feedback that goes on to state that ‘there is a tight link between
they receive from others. Parents, teachers, friends self-knowledge and self-confidence. We each have
and partners are often responsible for giving (often an inner map of our proclivities, abilities and
unsolicited) advice or feedback which so deficiencies.’ He quotes from two studies:
undermines an individual’s confidence that they In a decades long study of managers at AT&T, self-
give up on a plan or course of action because of confidence early in a person’s career predicted
doubts fuelled by someone else. What this often promotions and success in higher management
does is to reinforce the concerns that they may years later. And in a sixty year study of more than a
already have. thousand high IQ men and women followed from
Helmstetter says that leading behavioral childhood through retirement, those most self-
researchers have told us that as much as ‘77% of confident in their early years were most successful
everything we think is negative and as their careers unfolded.
counterproductive and works against us’. He then Brian Tracy in Maximum Achievement (1993)
asks: takes a similar line:
What if each and every day, from the time you were Children who learn to build and maintain their own
a small child, you had been given an extra helping levels of self-esteem have far better self-concepts
of self-confidence, double the amount of than children who do not. Children with high,
determination, and twice the amount of belief in the positive self-concepts do well in school. They do not
outcome? Can you imagine what tasks you might engage in vandalism, or get into trouble. They don’t
accomplish more easily, what problems you would do destructive things to their bodies. They are more
overcome, what goals you would reach? ... Could it capable of resisting the negative influences of their
be that those who appear to be ‘luckier’ than the peer groups. They have stronger characters.
rest have only gotten a little better programming? Children with high self-concepts, high self-
... It is no Building self-esteem 95longer a success esteem are independent in their thinking. They are
theory ... The brain simply believes what you tell it more likely to think for themselves, and to orient
most. themselves toward success, achievement and

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personal fulfillment. They are more focused on He sums this up by suggesting that the best
realizing their potential than on compensating for measure of self-esteem is how much you like
their deficiencies. yourself, and states:
He also suggests that, when children feel good The more you like yourself, the better you do at
about themselves, they develop better judgment everything you put your mind to. The more you like
about the things that are good for them in the long yourself, the more confidence you have, the more
run. They develop the ability to delay gratification positive is your attitude, the healthier and more
in the short term in order to enjoy greater rewards energetic you are and the happier you are overall.
in the future. This has enormous implications for teachers
So how do you help children develop a and parents. Children are not born with a self-
positive self-concept? In reality this is not concept; it is developed through interactions and
something that teachers can achieve on their own; it feedback from the adults in their world.
has to be part of a relationship between the child, a. Paradigm Shift
the parents and the teacher. However, by Another useful technique is paradigm shift.
understanding it and reinforcing the principles you The logic behind paradigm shift is that you are
can play a major role in helping a child to develop helping people to make a mindset change. By
it. Tracy suggests that a self-concept is made up of encouraging a shift from a negative to a positive
three parts: perspective you are helping them work to achieve
• Self-ideal. He suggests that a person’s self-ideal is what they really want. It builds on the principles of
a vision or an ideal description of the person that visualization: visualizing what it could be like and
someone would most like to be. This may be a then moving further forward into identifying how it
combination of values, qualities and attributes and could feel. It can range from quite basic human
sets the standards for an individual. activities like getting up in the morning to the more
• Self-image. Again Tracy’s view is that your self- personal and aspiring, e.g. ‘I want to be successful
image is the way that you see yourself and what in achieving what I want from life.’
you think about yourself and how you go about By shifting their personal perspective from
your daily duties. He describes this as your ‘inner disbelief to belief the individual learner can start to
mirror’ and suggests that you ‘always behave work to achieve what they really want. The real
consistently with the picture that you hold of issue is that it is easy to say, but much harder to
yourself on the inside’. Powerfully, he suggests achieve. The role of the teacher as coach can be to
that it is possible to improve one’s performance help the individual to keep reaffirming their beliefs,
by changing the mental pictures that you hold help them to identify strategies for achieving the
about yourself in that area. I referred to the work shift and reinforce their embryonic steps towards
of performance coaches at the start of this chapter, achieving the reality:
and much of their work is in the area of helping • ‘I want to get up easily in the morning – I enjoy
individuals to visualize a more successful person. getting out of bed and the beauty of mornings.’
As people begin to see themselves as becoming • ‘I want to be fit and healthy – I am a fit and
more confident and, importantly, as winners, their healthy person.’
behavior becomes more focused and confident. • ‘I want to be able to network with confidence –
• Self-esteem. The third part of the self-concept is people will find me interesting and stimulating.’
self-esteem. Tracy describes this as ‘the source of • ‘I want to achieve my ambition – I have already
energy, enthusiasm, vitality Building self-esteem started and am going to achieve it.’
97and optimism that powers your personality and In each case the first step towards achieving a
makes you a high achieving man or woman’. He mindset change is to begin to live as if the shift had
suggests that your level of self-esteem is already taken place. If I want to get up easily in the
determined by two factors: how valuable and morning, what do I need to do to shift my
worthwhile you feel you are and how much you perception of what enjoying getting up feels like?
like and accept yourself as a good person; and How could I make the mornings? a more pleasant
your feeling of ‘self-efficacy’, as described by experience?
Goleman. He suggests that the two sides of your If I want to be more interesting and
self-esteem reinforce each other. When you feel stimulating, how would it feel to be this person?
good about yourself, you perform better, and What behaviors do I need to display? Importantly,
when you perform well you feel good about as discussed in Chapter 4, this will not be achieved
yourself. overnight, but the first step is helping a student
believe that it is possible. Inviting in speakers who

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have overcome self-doubt, sharing case studies of c. How to Develop Others


people who have overcome adversity, and also There are a number of practical day-to-day
giving each individual student time and support and actions you can take to help children of all ages
positive feedback can help them take their first develop:
tentative steps forward. It is also important to • Help them to help themselves.
maintain this support and to keep supporting them • Provide a stimulating learning environment.
when they falter on the way or when they reject • Keep a sense of FUN about learning and life.
help. • Be optimistic and give them a sense of hope in
b. Helping Individuals to Believe in Themselves their future.
Building on from the concept of ‘paradigm • Treat each child as an individual.
shift’, one of the most important acts that an adult • Draw the best out of each child.
can do for a child is to build their self- belief. From • Recognize their natural talents and be
the moment that a child is born, the feedback that encouraging.
they receive defines their perception of what they • Provide a support system.
can and cannot do. As adults we cannot and must • Do not hold back creative students; take pride in
not limit another person’s belief by our own views developing them. Encourage their involvement
on what is achievable. There are specific actions in different projects.
that we can do to help young people develop self- • Champion and be willing to promote the ideas
belief: of students and help them to build new skills by
• Believe that each child is different, that they building from small to greater responsibilities.
have their own unique combination of • Be prepared to share your expertise. Help
intelligences, learning abilities, hopes and students to succeed by giving positive and
desires and, therefore, do not judge them by constructive feedback. Seek feedback on your
other children. This particularly applies to effectiveness.
younger siblings, who often suffer as a result of • Encourage students to build personal
the expectations of the similarity, or not, to the development plans, and clearly identify with
their older brothers or sisters. them their strengths and development areas.
• Be committed to supporting their development Work to create opportunities for them to
through positive feedback. Remember the quote develop new understanding of their personal
from Thomas Edison, ‘I haven’t failed; I have capabilities.
just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.’ • Offer ongoing support and additional learning
• Help children build a positive mindset. The and coaching opportunities.
body responds to the messages that are sent • When they leave your class, maintain an interest
from the mind. The way someone stands, the in their development.
speed that they move and the way they respond • Invite into school or college role models who
to the environment around them are based on can track their journey, people who are more
the messages that their mind sends them. Don’t maverick, people who have followed non-
just tell them about a paradigm shift; help them traditional roles and people who have overcome
live it each day. Think of all the messages that a adversity.
child receives each day from family, peers and • Don’t see it just as a one-off activity; it needs to
school; encourage them to develop their own be ongoing.
filter.
• Help them to overcome failure. This is 2. MODEL CREATIVITY YOUR SELF
particularly true at examination time. Have Faced with a pile of marking, Monday
positive examples of people who have failed morning, an unruly class, difficult parents,
and how successful they have become in their demanding school head, unhelpful colleagues and
own field. challenging governors, you could easily forget that
• Remind them that tomorrow is a new day. there is a creative world waiting to be discovered.
However hard a particular day has been, How well do you know yourself? How far do
however hard life has been, none of us can you push the boundaries of discovery? What do you
predict what will happen tomorrow, so do to inspire yourself? Would you describe yourself
encourage them to see it as an opportunity to as creative? Over the years I have worked with
start afresh, taking with them the wisdom from many people in helping them develop their
the past, but with new hope for the future. creativity. What is interesting is how many people
are reluctant to acknowledge their creativity. If I

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ask a group of any age ‘Would you describe b. Identifying Sources of Inspiration
yourself as creative?’, there is a lot of looking down As has been highlighted throughout this book
at their hands. Very few people want to we are all different and as such will be inspired in
acknowledge that they might be creative. I have very different ways, but here are some thoughts to
also heard very young children say, ‘I cannot draw. add to those above. One way of being inspired is to
I’m rubbish at art.’ What is important in any debate start looking much more closely at the things
about creativity is to recognize the scale and scope around you.
of it. It is not just about the arts; it has a much Go to an art gallery and go as close to a
broader perspective than that. If we take the painting as a curator will let you; marvel at the
dictionary definition, ‘Inventive and imaginative, detail in the brush strokes; now back right away.
creating, or able to create’ (Concise Oxford What is different? Visit modern art and some old
Dictionary, 9th edition), it is possible to see that masters; look at sculptures; try to get inside the
this can be applied to any discipline. I would also artist’s mind. Look at some more obscure art; see if
venture to suggest that itis almost impossible to be you can identify what the artist is trying to say.
a teacher if you do not have some element of When people’s lives are busy they sometimes
creativity. I know that some teachers feel that some forget what richness exists simply by observing,
of the constraints of the curriculum are denying and consequently their creativity doesn’t flow
them their creativity, but most respond with energy because it cannot fight its way through the clutter.
and vigor to accommodate the curriculum within Another way of stimulating your creativity is to
their creative mindsets. In some cases the ingenuity practice being an artisan. Traditionally, artisans are
of their ideas and the opportunities that they create workers and craftspeople; they create things; they
for learning go much further than the standards make bread, grow vegetables and carve in wood or
suggested in the National Curriculum. stone. In today’s society, many people have a secret
Where these ideas come from is sometimes dream of being an artisan, creating things to sell at
hard to define. Inspiration cannot easily be a local market. While this may seem a romantic
anchored down and looked at. It is a sense, a feeling dream, the making of things is another way to slow
and a mood, something that lifts you above the down and let your creativity flow. While kneading
ordinary and enables you to achieve something the bread or tending plants you may suddenly find
special. Being inspired transcends the normal day- you have thought of the solution to a problem that
to-day activities. I have already mentioned ‘flow’, has been bothering you for weeks.
and more and more people are becoming aware of You may feel that you lack the skills to do
how this works. There are techniques that stimulate anything creative, but most things can be taught.
it which have already been mentioned. It is, It’s never too late to learn a musical instrument, to
however, I think, worth mentioning again that there take singing or dancing lessons, or to learn to paint
are conditions that help to stimulate creativity. or sculpt. You may not become a Michelangelo or a
a. ‘What are The Best Conditions That Help Renoir, but you can have tremendous fun learning,
You to be Creative or Innovative?’ and what you create will give you as much a sense
This was one of the questions in a survey that of achievement as if it were a masterpiece. This
I asked for Managing the Mavericks (Thorne, 2003 doesn’t apply just to making things. Designing a
– see ‘Recommended reading’). garden, instructing an architect or finding a solution
The responses reveal a richness of stimuli, to a problem can all involve creativity.
ranging across outside environments to c. Idea Generation
organizational teams and individuals’ own domestic So where do people get their ideas from? In
space. A number of respondents gave examples of reality there are a number of sources and triggers,
when they are in ‘flow’. Freedom is often and the more you open your mind up to learning
mentioned, as is feeling relaxed and, when and use different approaches and techniques the
discussing preferred working environments, a need easier you will find it to identify new ideas. If you
to be stimulated through the senses. Other people want to stimulate your mind to come up with ideas,
are also important for some respondents, either as the secret is to relax and let your subconscious do
sounding boards or just to talk to, socialize with or the work. Ideas often occur when we are least
have there to welcome them back from their expecting them and when we are doing other
thinking time. Others mention that deadlines, things. Many people who have been searching for a
challenges and pressure also help them to be solution to a problem find the solution occurs once
creative. they go and do something else. As already
mentioned, this can happens when you are doing

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something quite mundane like cleaning the car, worksheets, and coloring between the lines make up
ironing or taking part in some physical activity. a large portion of the schoolwork in our classrooms.
However, what is even more important is that, No wonder students are unimpressed when teachers
when your mind is clear and your ideas are running try to engage them in these passive, uninteresting
freely, you need to make the most of this special activities. Snakes, eels, and worms are boring!
time. If you find that you have hit a creative period, Engage with Variety and Choice
you need to capture your thoughts because they will Recently, I asked a tenth grade student why he
come at a pace which may surprise you. Some was struggling in school. He explained that it's
people find it easy to generate ideas, but most find because school is boring. To be blunt here, when I
it a challenge; therefore you need to use a variety of took five days recently and followed one student
methods to help you stimulate your mind. When each in tenth grade, eleventh grade, twelfth grade
you find your creativity is being stifled, take a all day long through each of their classes, I was
break and do something completely different. Take bored most of the time. I found it hard to sit still for
regular time out to indulge yourself. Use others for so long, and I wondered how the students got
support and to bounce ideas off, however crazy. through it.
Build on initial fleeting thoughts to anchor more I think you get the picture. As teachers, we
tangible concepts. Unlearn lessons from childhood; need to start creating more elephants, giraffes, and
say ‘I can’ instead of ‘I can’t’. swords -- and that awesome Spider-Man.
Let's say it's Monday, and the goal is to get
3. OFFER CHOICE students to read a textbook chapter for content and
Last holiday, I went to Baron beach, Gunung understanding. As a resource, textbooks have lots
Kidul, Yogyakarta. While my husband and I waited of information, but they are not the only source for
on the shore for the darkness to signal the start of information and learning.
night displays, we were intrigued by an enterprising I'd like to suggest that you offer something
young man working his way through the people like the following selection for your students to
sitting in folding chairs and on picnic blankets. choose from:
He was a balloon artist, and his simple • Create a slide show presentation to illustrate the
business plan was proving to be very effective. He major points of the chapter as if they were
would ask a child what he wanted, and he would teachers teaching younger students.
create it for him. We watched, amazed, as he made • Develop a newspaper article or a journalistic TV
flowers, swords, poodles, Spider-Man (it was report about the chapter as if it were breaking
awesome), scepters, and crowns. There seemed no news.
limit to what he could create with simple balloons. • Prepare a debate on the chapter's main points
He had no want for customers, as they flocked and pose as either politicians or lawyers
to him rather than the other way around. He presenting their persuasive arguments.
probably made enough money that night to cover • Write a drama about the contents of the chapter
much of his monthly living expenses! and perform it to their peers and parents.
In differentiating our instruction and student • Construct an encyclopedic database of
learning in our own classes, do we sometimes play vocabulary, terms, and concepts included in the
the same trick? Rather than provide a rich variety of chapter, as well as prior knowledge that needs to
learning activities, do we simply stick with our be understood, and questions that are yet to be
favorite -- a tried-and-true strategy -- and maybe answered.
dress it up a bit by having students answer the odd- • Design a virtual field trip to study topics and
numbered questions in the book rather than the concepts to be learned based on the content of
even-numbered ones? the chapter.
If we do that, in essence, we aren't even asking • Invite experts to visit their classroom and ask
students, "Do you want a snake, an eel, or a worm?" them questions about their expertise based on
Could it be that we don't know how to tie the the content of the chapter.
balloons, or that perhaps we just don't have the
• Use the contents of the chapter to devise an
energy to make them interesting? Heaven forbid
experiment to prove or disprove the assertions
that we might be reluctant to make the attempt, yet
made in the chapter.
in many cases, I am afraid that some teachers praise
the virtues of snakes, eels, and worms far too much. • Fill the walls of the classroom with essential
The truth is that bookwork, copying notes, questions gleaned from the chapter and
listening to lectures, filling in the blanks on challenge the teacher and other classes to a
content quiz show.

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In each of these options, not once is it This self discovery can be especially useful for
necessary for the teacher to say, "Open your books a pre writing activities.
to page 37 and answer the questions at the end of Certain types of questions may actually
the chapter." We want the students to love the discourage active learning. Beware of the following
content as much as we do, not to hate it. If we can questions (adapted from Kinsella 1991):
get them to love it, then they will continue to learn. a. Too much class time spent on display questions-
Just as I saw the children's faces light up on students can easily grow weary or tired of
the Fourth of July when they saw the balloons artificial context that do not involve genuine
transformed into flowers or Spider-Man, I have seeking information.
seen students light up when the teacher takes a b. A question that insults students’ intelligence by
passive activity and makes it an active one. being so obvious that students will think it’s too
silly to bother answering.
4. USE QUESTION EFFECTIVELY c. Vague questions that are worded in abstract or
For those who use lecture as the primary ambiguous language
delivery method in the classroom, there are a few d. Questions stated in language that is too complex
relatively easy methods to increase student or too wordy for aural comprehension.
involvement and interest in the classroom, e. Too many rhetorical questions (that you intend
regardless of course level or academic field. At the to answer yourself) that students think you want
simplest level, this approach requires asking them to answer, and then get confused when
questions during the lecture that challenge students you supply the answer.
to apply the concepts and principles introduced. f. Random question that do not fall into logical.
Although most instructors would maintain that their Well-planned sequence, sending students’
students already ask questions during class, some thought patterns into chaos.
college professors still devote only a small portion
of class time to posing questions to students. Most 5. MAKE CONNECTIONS
of these questions are directed at the lowest a. Direct Relationship: Problems Lead to
cognitive level, requiring only recapitulation, Creativity (P→C)
clarification, or factual responses. Often only a Here, problems can directly influence the
small proportion of students regularly respond. content or process of creativity. Kay Jamison, in An
Appropriate questioning in an active learning Unquiet Mind, wrote about her own bipolar
can fulfill a number of different functions (Brown, disorder. The content came directly from her
2001:169-171): experience. The process might at times have been
a. Teacher questions give students the impetus and affected by mild mood symptoms affecting
opportunity to produce language comfortably cognition, affect, or motivation (e.g., looser
without having to risk initiating language associations, deeper feelings, enhanced energy or
themselves. Appropriately pitched questions can motivation).As another example, consider a young
give more silent students an affective “green woman who just escaped an abusive situation and
light” and a structured opportunity to immediately and creatively helps a sibling escape.
communicate in their target language. b. Indirect Relationship: Problems Lead to a
b. Teacher questions can serve to initiate a chain Situation
reaction of student interaction among them. One (Third Factor) That Leads to Creativity
question may be all that is needed to start a (P → T → C)
discussion; without initial question, however, Here problems lead to an event or realization
students will be reluctant to initiate the process. (Third Factor) that generates new creative goals or
c. Teacher questions give the teacher immediate accomplishments. Consider someone who got
feedback about student comprehension. After painfully divorced and is writing regularly in a
posing a question, a teacher can use student journal, for catharsis and understanding. This
response to diagnose linguistic or content individual discovers hidden potential, pleasure from
difficulties, grammatical or phonological writing, and the wish to share with others around
problems. more universal themes – and comes to write a blog
d. Teacher questions provide students with that helps many people. Nobelist John Cheever is
opportunities to find out what they think by another example, who wrote as a youth about
hearing what they say. In responding to family and school difficulties, and later in life
questions about a reading or a film, they can shared some of this more broadly in his books.
discover what their opinions and reactions are.

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With growth beyond personal issues and examples include many early childhood conflicts.
greater concern for the human condition, these These can at times lead to resilient coping
examples also concern deficiency creativity turning (e.g.,Goertzels & Goertzels, 1962;Werner&Smith,
into a more altruistic being creativity (Rhodes, 2001), at other times to decompensation. It is vital
1990). to clarify what makes the difference, and how one
c. Direct Relationship: Creativity Leads to can intervene to help people.
Problems (C → P)
This one can go either way. Problems are SUMMARY
almost guaranteed for some types of creativity, such Although everyday creativity may require
as visual art or writing therapies that open up much of us in terms of personal risk-taking, there
hidden recesses and reveal unconscious material. are many indications that it can be healthy in
Often we seek this in arts, in psychotherapy, in expressive arts activities and beyond. Although one
dream work, or in talking with a friend. But what hears about “creativity and psychopathology,”
happens next? Why is one person resilient (Flach, creativity may serve as a healthy compensatory
1990), coping with personal disruption and advantage to the risk for bipolar disorder and
reintegration, while another is not? Humanistic perhaps for schizophrenia. We also have chances
psychologist Rollo May(1975) wrote about anxiety for resilient creative coping with our problems. The
that can accompany creative revelations and the next section looks more deeply at what may be
need for courage to move ahead with creativity. happening personally during insightful creative
Difficult results of one’s creativity may ultimately moments.
be healthy, if worked through (as in the preceding
section). If not this can lead to escapes and various References
problems, as one sees in the section that follows. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of
d. Indirect Relationship: Creativity Leads to a control. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
Situation Branden, N. (1994). The six pillars of self-esteem.
(Third Factor)That Ends Up Generating New York: Bantam.
Problems (C → T → P) Tracy, Brian (1993) Maximum Achievement, Simon
Here a problem becomes too much, even if & Schuster, New York
resilient attempts were made to cope (or defend). Goleman, Daniel (1998) Working with Emotional
Unlike the Pennebaker (1995) studies where Intelligence, Bloomsbury, London
expressive writing participants worked things Goleman, Daniel, Boyatzis, Richard and McKee,
through toward increased well-being, here major Annie (2002) The New Leaders, Little, Brown,
discomfort remains untreated. This could lead to London
depression, alcohol or drug abuse, avoidance, etc. Helmstetter, Shad (1998) What to Say when You
Another sad case involves ostracism of creative you Talk to Yourself, Thorsons, London
thin schools, by peers, and sometime by teachers Johnson, B. (2012) “Live Up your classroom with
whom are understand their presentations (Cramond, choices” fresh articles blog
2005). They may cope by withdrawal, clowning, Jamison,K.R.(1989).Mood disorders and patterns
and other defenses, as may some employees in of creativity in British artists and writers.
similar situations. Psychiatry, 52, 125–134.
e. Third Factor, Which Can Affect Both Creativity Rhodes ,C.(1990). Growth from deficiency
and Problems (C ← T → P) creativity to being creativity. Creativity
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spectrum mood disorders affects perhaps more than Flach, F.(1990). Disorders of the path ways
5% of the population (Akiskal & Akiskal, 2007; involved in the creative process. Creativity
Akiskal & Mallya, 1987). (Consider too other Research Journal, 3, 158–165.
major Pathologies that run in families and might May, R.(1975). The courage to create. NewYork:
show a compensatory advantage.) Enhanced Bantam Books
creative potential isn’t necessarily related to degree Pennebaker, J.(Ed.).(1995).Emotion, disclosure,
of illness, or even to illness at all just to underlying and health. Washington, DC: American
familial risk. There may be effects on cognition, Psychological Association.
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Richards & Kinney, 1990) that early creative students. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
exposures for children at risk could lower the Akiskal ,H.S. ,& Akiskal, K.K.(2007). In search of
emergence or expression of pathology. Other Aristotle: Temperament, human nature,

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melancholia, creativity and eminence. Journal recovery. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
of Affective Disorders, 100, 1–6. Press.
Akiskal,H.S.,&Mallya,G.(1987).Criteria for the Brown.H.Douglas. Teaching by principle: an
“soft” bipolar spectrum: Treatment interactive approach to language pedagogy.
implications. Sychopharmacology Bulletin, San Francisco University. New York.2000
23, 67. Thorne, Kaye (2003) Managing the Mavericks,
Richards, R., & Kinney, D.K.(1990).Mood swings Spiro Publishing, London.
and creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 3, Fowler, H.W. and Fowler, F.G. (1995) Concise
203–218. Oxford Dictionary, 9th edn, Oxford University
Goertzel, V., & Goertzel,M.(1962). Cradles of Press, Oxford.
eminence. Boston: Little, Brown.
Werner, E.E., & Smith, R.S.(2001). Journeys from
childhood to mid life: Risk, resilience, and

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THE VALUE EDUCATION LEARNING IN FORMING CHILDREN BEHAVIOR,


AGE 5-6 YEARS OLD

Rohimi Zamzam

Abstract explanation of connectedness between these


The purpose of this research is know the domains, create educational outcomes feels no
Value education learning in forming children lameness. Lameness was strongly felt by the
behavior, age 5-6 years old. This research was held community that the behavior and actions
in TK QatrunnadaCentral of Java, which has 51 demonstrated by the graduate students of the
students of 5-6 years old. Has ttwo groups that school. They tend to be only good at cognitive
consist of 17 students: the first groups consists of aspects, but less good at affective and psychomotor
20 students; and 14 studenst for the second group, aspects. As a result of that, many of the school
and supervised with 6 taechers, administration and leavers who are good in expressing ideas and
cooperation worker. All members of the school concepts but not good in action and deed. Returns
community were research informant. to education have been characterized by the
The result of the research shows that : (1) formation of the cognitive but affective aspects of
Value Education Learning will from a good and the formation and ultimately the behavior was
prased behavior based on Islamic approach; much like respect for parents, teachers, children
(2)Value Education Learning that’s using by the less adherent, daily attitude shown as : greet, shake
teachers is concicting of the actuation, assessment, hands, and this is caused due to the imbalance of
media, and a variation method with a united interpretation purposes education. Society at the
leraning approach. present time tend to have a misconception about the
success of an education that success was
Keywords: Value Education Learning, Forming demonstrated by the achievement of high grades.
Children Behavior Furthermore they perceive that it is not clear
educational outcomes, unpredictable linearly from
A. PRELIMINARY now. Not what graduates should be able to nurture a
Education in Indonesia in general aims to vision for the future. As noted Singh "future time is
development potential students to become a man of the dimension of exixtence ", and thus it is expected
faith and fear of God Almighty, noble, healthy, that education is supposed to be able to grow the
knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent and vision of a child 's ability to face the future. This is
become citizens of a democratic and responsible. because the future is not a single thing, and for a
Referring to the educational purposes of the above, future not only one straight path, but many roads
it is clear that the purpose of education is already leading to the various possibilities that can occur.
showing perfection. That's because the purpose of Of course in foster good behavior should begin
education is not just one aspect touched ( eg early age children, so there is a basic foundation
cognitive ) aspects, but overall it's good cognitive, when as an adult. In this regard it should be
affective and psychomotor. With the perfect required to provide education value can create
educational purposes, public education as the user multi-dimensional stimuli in children's learning
expects that educational outcomes can realize the activities both on the cognitive, affective and
complete man, the man who balanced between psychomotor domains which is ultimately going to
cognitive, affective and psychomotor. establish good behavior. Such mechanisms will be
However it turns out the educational goals by able to react to external stimuli that would foster
Numan Somantri no explanation of the functional creativity and systematic, that is able to grow
relationship between the domains intraceptive alternative vision. Mexicans Abroad suggests that
extraceptive knowledge and knowledge), so that the this kind of stimulus is needed since the age of
position is in juxtaposition or in parallel. This is children in the first three years to grow the system
because between them have a very sensitive issue penserabutan their brain nerve system. Say so
because it contains elements of culture that private because at this age is a critical age.
faith and devotion to the elements of culture that
are considered public. The absence of an

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B. DISCUSSION very sure of herself and love adventure ;(c) have


1. Behaviour a high imagination, identity begins to form,
Behaviour is any form of reaction or response comes a sense of pride in their work ;(d) appears
to a person to an object that is realized in action or the feeling of giving and receiving ;(e) very
movement. This behavior occurs because of the angry when unable to do anything he wants.
tendency or urge a person to meet their needs, and Formation behavior is inseparable from the
seek pleasure or avoid pain. Hull was quoted as cognitive maturity and child affective domain.
saying by Gredler mention that behavior or While efforts mefungsikan cognitive maturity
behavior serves to keep the organism can still depends on the stimulus he received from the
survive. Understanding behavior is also an act or environment. Families are the first and the
manner by individuals, either without demonstrated environment closest to the formation of the child's
and shown to the environment. Actions or ways in behavior, it becomes very important as a basis for
which a person without is shown to the its existence in the form of behavior.
environment, such as frowning, style (style) in
writing, dancing, and smiling. 2. Educational Value
Childhood Behavior Characteristics 5-6 years a. SubstanceArthur W. Combos are the essence of
To look specifically at the behavioral education suggests the following values :1) That
characteristics of children aged 5-6 years, according the mere intellectual learning can generate
to Jean R. Fewldman can be seen from several destructive excesses ; 2) the value of education
aspects : is very necessary to develop the potential of
a. Physical Aspects(a) Can run, jump, spin, kick emotion and feeling ; 3) That the brain not only
and catch the ball, and lined up like serves asthe store of facts and concepts;4) That
soldiersontiptoe;(b) to write the name, cut the the learning is the process:(a) internalization
rope, draw simple, copy simple drawings, fine and personalization information and moral
motor already well controlled;(c) to wear their values ;(b) an exposure to new experiences
own clothes, sewing, cutting, tying shoelaces, informations ;(c) personal discovery of what it
hair combing and can take care of themselves. means ;(d) Determine the ways of behavior ;(e)
b. AspectsofLanguage(a) Glad to be funny, strong the establishment of self- concept, values,
interest in the words ;(b) Glad to throw the feeling of challence and the feeling of being
words why and how;(c) to follow the song, bellonging and care.Value of education as a way
game, pat and others ;(d) Be able to to address or point of view is the basis or
communicate well ;(e) to provide your name, rationale on which to base or the base of starting
complete home address, telephone number, and engineering implementation. In determining the
date of birth ;(f) Liked the book, can retell the choice of approach, as well as the expectations
story or compose a story part series. of the target mindset and philosophy of the
c. Aspects of Intelligence(a) Having a curiosity person or people in question was crucial. When
about the outside environment ;(b) to make a determining the choice of approach, benchmark
three- dimensional building, know the names of that should be used is the moral values and
the form ;(c) Start of letters and numbers, can norms of Pancasila, cultural and religious
recognize letters and sounds ;(d) to the communities.
concentration in a long period of time ;(e) to b. Characteristics of Educational Value
draw up to 10 numbers and counting with There are a number of characteristics that can be
objects ;(f) Can count to 20, recognize the recognized in the value of education, namely:1)
position, and said opponents were ableto affective world is part of the totality of the
concentrations much longer. human self (internal) and the external world ;2)
d. Social Aspects(a) dear friends, can work the problem is the value of coaching coaching
together and share toys ;(b) to express their psychiatric problems, therefore postulatnya to
feelings, sometimes behave out of control;(c) be understood ;3) the value of the educational
Cooperate with the group and can follow the process can only occur if the theory or principle
rules ;(d) The game will further explore the on this matter can be understood and applied
potential of imagination ;(e) Very eager to since the program planning activities through a
please adults. pattern of teaching and assessment as learning
e. Emotional aspects(a) Shows the extreme activities ;4) the value of the education process
emotions/emotional, occasionally pity but requires a number of prerequisite readiness and
sometimes hate ;(b) shows hostility, defying openness and the ability afektual students, the

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atmosphere and environment of C. COVER


learning,understanding and capabilities as well Bother to have fun first and then the
as a private teacher and procedural patterns ;5) proverbial no fade by the progress of time, parents
The success of the process and outcomes of should be the watchword, which from the beginning
learning activities depends on the clarity of should have the power to educate their children to
educational value expectancy, value targets that be the generation that “qualified”, hardiness, not
must be personalized and moral clarity of withered and broken spirit in the face of challenges.
instructional materials as well as the reliability As is there as a mature implementation of value
and affordability of learning media ;6) the education is implemented not run harmoniously and
professional skills of teachersto package the efficiently. Here and there still seems no lameness.
message content, as well as proficiency zoom to As a result, the value of education is expected to
invite and engage potential students afektual ;7) form a valuable noble nation has not been reached.
the understanding and application of the various Inaccessibility was characterized by the presence of
principles of humanistic education, among moral crisis of the nation. There fore, in order to
others ;8) goals and learning patterns must be succeed with the educational value of good
whole - round value (substance and potential example of the need of all parties: there is good
targets) continuous between taxonomic cooperation between parents, educators, and
domain;9) the target value - moral expectations community; no continuity between education held
in accordance with the required curriculum at home, at school and in the community, and
content of the message ;10) must relate learning learning should be organized by the methods that
activities interaction with the environment ;11) touch emotional totality. So specifically here
fostering moral values as early as possible, summarized that early childhood philosophy is to
gradual, sequential and continuous ;12) is instill values, norms and morals in children early so
individualized with anintegrated process that as not to lose direction, of course with the
varies. debriefing when they are adults, dealing with
c. Principles of Learning Value matters of irregularities, corruption, destruction of
Approach or traditional learning models tend to morality, vices, the disintegration of the nation, the
assume that students have the same needs, and nature of my better parts, etc., will not hapen,
learn the same way at the same time, in a quiet because the child has been equipped with the
classroom, with activities subject matter strictly values, norms, and morals that have been instilled .
structured and dominated by the teacher. In fact, And of course uswatun hasanah (eg , role model ) is
the traditional teaching approach or feels not only limited in the mouth but applied in
difficult to achieve educational goals. everyday life. Although they have experienced ups
Traditional learning models are now widely and downs for the first terlbih finally to destination.
applied, tends to pay less attention to the Currently, heart many Indonesian children who are
continuity of students gained experience in blind, deaf, lame, and sick, so they are blind
family life. Things like this is contrary to the tehadap truth and goodness, and then easy to
character of elementary school age. Elementary blindly commit acts of violence, be brutal, drug
school students still crave the ongoing addiction, trapped in the sex trade, and other-other.
experiences in the family environment can also They become so because they got a sample and
be experienced at school. In addition, the belajr of the adults, even public figures who are
experience of those who are still demanding the also behaving like that. We, the educators (teachers
implementation of the global nature of learning and parents) should not allow the present alarming
models that are relevant to their characteristics situation becomes even worse. This, children who
(Briggs and Fotter, 1990 ; Rachman, 1999). are within our reach, we must give the value of
Characteristics of elementary school students education, so that they truly become a quality of
are happy to perform manipulative activities, life. Hopefully we managed to reform ourselves
want all concrete, and integrated. Taking into before we reform others. Hopefully with the
account the characteristics of the students like it, planting of good values early on sat reap
then approach or learning model that assumed pleasurable results they become adults in letter life.
suitable for elementary school students are
learning models that are based more on social
interaction and personal (Joyce and Weil, 1992)
or models of interactions and transactions.

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References Hers. Richard H. et al., 1980. Models of Moral


Djahiri, Kosasaih., 1992. Affective World Menuluri Education: An Appraisal. New York:
for Moral Values and Moral Education. New Longman Inc.
York: LPPMP. Purwa Hadiwardoyo, A1. 1990. Moral and
Glenn, Paul J. 1934.Ethics ; A Clas Manual in Masaalahnya. Yogyakarta, Issues, Yogyakarta
Moral Phylosophy. St.Louis & London; Canisius
B.Herder Book Co. Sinolungan, A.E. 1997. Developmental Psychology
Haricahyono, Cheppy., 1995. Dimensions of Moral Students. Jakarta :Wira Sari
Education. Semarang, Semarang Teachers'
Training College Press.

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INITIATING CULTURAL-BASED CHARACTER LEARNING


IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

Masrukhi
Semarang State University

Abstract
Each nation will recognize the importance of Keywords: Character building, learning process,
character building in order to preserve and school culture
maintain its existence as a nation-state. The most
strategic vehicle for character building process is PRELIMINARY
education in schools, through the learning process Character Building is a very fundamental
in class. By taking a learning setting of Citizenship problem of the nation. In Indonesia, the effort to
Education (PKn) in primary schools in Semarang, build character development in the context of
empirical studies which have conducted find a few national character has become a serious problem
things. Firstly, configuration model that was built since the proclamation associated with periods of
of the latent exogenous variables, such as power consolidation.Herbert Feith stressed, "The
appreciation of teachers, principal leadership, Difficulties Which presaged this situation for the
school culture, learning design, and the latent process of power consolidation changed from clear
endogenous variable; learning of character- if one looks at the character of Indonesia as a
building indicate that the model fit, based on the political unit examines the divisive forces and
findings of Chi-Square value of 23.22 and its p- growing from its geographical, economic, and
value of 0.0871. Secondly, the learning of socio-cultural organization." (Feith, 1992).
character-building more awakened by the school When the later consolidation of power was
culture and leadership of school principals. done, things that confront the nation for the next
This study recommends several ways. First, it character development is a matter of social
is necessary to increase the understanding of PKn inequality; reality as a multi-ethnic community,
elementary school teachers about Character multi religious and multi cultural. Bung Karno had
Development through synergy activities between asserted in a speech in front of the colonial judge
education department as a facilitator, universities committee in 1930, as follows:
as a material developer, by empowering and “.... To build nationality awareness, in this
developing the existing institutions at the nationalism, there is a power, which later could
community of primary school teachers as Teacher open the pleasures of days later. We have a
Working Group (KKG), profession organizations, nationalism that must be positive nationalism,
and so on. Second, it is necessary to facilitate the creative nationalism, nationalism which
arrangement of examples or models of Citizenship established, nationalism that “create and worship”.
Education learning design which contains Through the positive nationalism, Indonesian
Character Building, to teachers in primary schools people can establish independent living conditions
by involving various stakeholders. Third, it is that are material and mysticism. ( Soekarno,
necessary to do structural approach, empowering 1930:63)
principals to facilitate and motivate Citizenship In fact, by quoting the opinion of the great
Education teachers of Character Development leader of Egypt at that time; Mustafa Kamal, Bung
learning in the classroom, which is done through Karno reaffirmed;
the meetings of Principals Working Group (KKKS). “Because of nationalism, the backward
Fourth, it is necessary to do the empowerment of nations could reach quickly the civilization,
school culture to support Character Development greatness and power. Only nationalism could be the
learning in PKn classroom through the blood that flows in the veins of strong nations and it
strengthening of extra-curricular activities that can could give life to every human being alive” .
be created and developed by the Citizenship (Sukarno, 1930).
Education teachers by empowering local potentials Post-reform, the Indonesian people crashed
which contain the noble values , such as traditional tremendous characters. Polite behaviour, tolerance,
games, folklores, fairy tales, poetry, wise words, solidarity, social concerns, mutual cooperation,
symbols, etc., which contain local wisdom. hard working and , such as attributes of good

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citizenship, is replaced by the barbarian culture; peer group in violence, the phenomenon of
suspicion, selfishness, anarchism and so on. increasing self-destructive behaviour, the more
The survey that was conducted by Klaus-Peter blurred the moral guidelines good and bad with the
Kriegsmann (2003) from the Asian Development indications do not feel guilty when lying and there
Bank, which identified six ASEAN countries of the is no sense of empathy, declining work ethic among
six indicators; infrastructure, legal system, political the young generation, increasingly low level of
stability, respect for intellectual property, the level respect for parents and teachers, the phenomenon of
of transparency and corporate governance, low sense of individual and citizen responsibility,
Indonesia was the country's most low credibility, used to be dishonest among young generation and
after Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and the presence of mutual suspicions and hatred
the highest is Singapore. among them.
The low credibility of Indonesia in the eyes of As subjects in school are on a mission of
the international world is a reflection of the smart and good citizenship, character building is an
behaviour of individuals who has no characters, so important mission of the Citizenship Education in
the negative impact on the state management, schools. Citizenship Education subject directly
corporations, legal systems, which ultimately will related to the inculcation of values. In fact, this
reduce the competitiveness of Indonesia, and cause subject has an internalization responsibility of
Indonesia more slumped socially, economically and character building value which is bigger than other
culturally. subject matter. With jargon Civic Intelligence, PKn
The importance of character in the existence expect to construct the learners to have a sense of
of the nation, expressed also by Davidson and citizenship in the life of nation and motherland.
Rees-Mog (1997) as follows: Civic Intelligence becomes weak when ignoring
"All strong societies have a strong character character development in it.
basis. Any study of history of economic Associated with the internalization of building
development shows the close relationship between character early, then the process of learning in
moral and economic factors. Countries and groups primary schools is very important. This process is a
that achieve successful development do so partly vehicle for initial enlightenment effort that will
because they have an ethic that encourages the shape the cognitive structure of learners about the
economic virtues of self-reliance, hard work, family characters. Elementary school-age children still
and social responsibility, high savings, and think a simple and concrete. Their world is still
honesty. " limited to their playing and family environment.
Lickona, a professor of education from The process of imitation is dominant for the efforts
Cortland University described the relationship of values internalization.
between aspects of character and the progress of the Donna E. Norton, as quoted by Sunarto (2000)
nation. According Lickona (2003), there are ten shows the results of his research that the views of
signs of the times to watch out because if those cognitive development, a child will begin learning
signs already exists, it means that a nation is to read and enjoy simple books and demonstrate the
heading to face destruction. Those signs are: (1) new capabilities at the age of six to eight years.
increasing violence among adolescents, (2) use of Then at the age of 10 to 12 years, children begin to
language and words are deteriorating, (3) strong develop strong linkages with the social relations
influence of peer group in the act of violence, (4) more large as expected by the environment.
increasing self-destructive behaviour , such as the These conditions are very strategic for
use of drugs, alcohol and free sex, (5) the more character development in the life of the child. In the
blurred the moral guidelines of good and bad, (6) future, the concepts of character that has been
declining work ethic, (7) low respect for parents internalized in him will be the parameters for
and teachers, (8) low sense of individual interaction with social phenomena as the result of
responsibility and citizenship , (9) used to be the social construction of public culture.
dishonesty, and (10) the existence of mutual Reminding golden age is very strategic for the
suspicion and hatred among fellow. development of character, learning process in
It was surprising that the indications of the primary schools should put more emphasis on
young generation behaviour are already a common character development, weather as an instructional
direction. A research conducted by Megawangi effect or nurture effect. Citizenship Education
(2007) foundthose behaviour , such as increasing whose mission is smart and good citizenship put the
violence among adolescents, the use of language development of character as instructional effect
and words are deteriorating, the strong influence of which is reflected in the study materials, learning

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process, reference of learning that is used, to the process of the way of life to respect, tolerance for
evaluation of learning. But in the reality, these diversity of cultures that live in a plural society), it
substantive issues are not reflected well on study is also ignored, whereas PKN is indeed the subject
materials and learning process in class. of education to accommodate students who come
Tilaar (2003) asserted her anxiety about the from various political areas, ethnic and different
teaching of Citizenship Education in primary traditions.”
schools as follows: Research conducted by Masrukhi (2008),
“PPKn (Indonesian Civic Education version) found that character development is low on study
developed by indoctrination, accumulating materials of Citizenship Education in elementary
knowledge which is less meaningful, hegemonic school. By basing ourselves on Cronbach
and often being criticized anti-reality. The values of framework in examining the character development
pluralism are neglected. PKn that should be problems which consists of beliefs, feelings and
developed as an education to shape the character of actions, Nawangsih found the distribution of
the nation, it is ignored. As an education that leads content on study materials of Citizenship Education
to shape the character, PKn that should implement in primary schools as follows:
multicultural education approach (transformation
Table 1. Material Content of Character Building in Elementary School PPKn Books
Content of
No Material of Study
Character Building
1 Unity and integrity of the Nation 73%
2 Norms, laws and regulations 46%
3 Human rights 45%
4 Needs of citizens 30%
5 Constitution of the State 15%
6 Power and politics 12%
7 Five principles (Pancasila) 13%
8 Globalization 8%
Total average 30.25%

Masrukhi’s research finding as presented in textbook-oriented is very difficult to build the


the table above is the real situation in the reality learning process of building character. Learning of
that the study materials of Citizenship education in character building is a learning process that allows
the Elementary School has a low content of meaningful educational interactions, involving the
character building. deepest aspects that exist at the learners themselves.
While the portrait of Citizenship education The learning requires the maximal support of the
learning in Elementary schools, the research results elements, such as good teaching materials,
of Saefudin (2007) that by using qualitative methods, teacher behaviours, as well as support the
analysis found the following these things. First, the school environment.
methods used by teachers in the learning process of The next problem is the determinant factors
Citizenship education in primary schools more that influence the management of Citizenship
focused on the mastery of knowledge, Education learning as a developer of character.
memorization and tasks construction. Second, the Then the next one is how to make an accurate
subject materials are textbook-oriented which model to build teaching/ learning process of
means that learning resources are mostly textbooks. Citizenship Education in schools as a builder of
Third, the learning atmosphere is more dominant of character.
“one way communication”; teachers take the role as
transmitter materials, while learners receive calmly. THEORETICAL BASIS
Studying about the findings obtained in Two theories which are used to conduct an
research conducted by Saefudin indicated that the assessment of this issue are Gestalt theory of
character development has not been obtained a learning and constructivism learning theory.
space proportionally in the learning of Citizenship Gestalt theory of learning is in the thicket of
education. “Information Processing” model of cognitive learning. Cognitive learning has
learning where teachers are more dominant position contributed to the use of cognitive or mental
as a transmitter of knowledge through lecture element in the learning process, because its views
method, memorization and assignments, as well as are firmly that learning is not only mechanistic

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stimulus and response, but also involves mental practice in school setting. For frames of reference
activity within individuals who are currently are used to describe these dilemmas. Conceptual
studying. Therefore, according to cognitive learning dilemmas are rooted in teachers' attempts to
theory, learning is an active mental process to understand the philosophical, psychological and
achieve, remember and use knowledge. So that, epistemological underpinnings of constructivism.
human behaviour cannot be measured and observed Pedagogical dilemmas for teachers arise from the
without involving the mental processes, such as more complex approaches to designing curriculum
motivation, intent, beliefs, etc. and fashioning learning experiences that
Even Gestalt theory assesses visual-motor constructivism demands. Cultural dilemmas emerge
functions for the behaviour observation. between teacher dilemmas emerge between
"Assessment of visual-motor functions is the teachers and students during the radical
Importance of a comprehensive psychological reorientation of classroom roles and expectations
evaluation. The Bender-Gestalt test has provided necessary to accommodate the constructivist ethos.
insight into problems as mental retardation, Political dilemmas are associated with resistance
learning disabilities, personality dynamics and from various stakeholders in school communities
brain injury (Decker, 2008). when institutional norm are questioned and
The figures who join to construct this theory routines of privilege and authority are
are Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt disturbed.”(Windschitl, 2002)
Koffka. They have not felt satisfied with the Jean Piaget and Vygotsky stressed that
findings of previous scholars who claimed that changes of cognitive into development occurs when
learning is as a process of stimuli and responses as the existing previous concepts began to shift
well as humans are mechanistic. Their researches because there is new information received through
are more emphasis on perception. According to the disequilibrium process. In addition, Jean Piaget
them, human beings are not only men who are able Vygotsky also emphasized the importance of social
to react if there are stimuli that affect it. But more environment in the study by stating that the
than that, humans are individual creatures whose integration capabilities in the group of learning will
spiritual and carnal. Thus, when humans react to its be able to increase the changes conceptually.
environment, humans do not just respond, but also In view of Vygotsky (Elliot, 2003), learning is
includes their different subjectivity elements among a process that involves two important elements.
them. First, learning is a biological process as the basic
Gestalt theory said that learning is a process process. Second, learning is a psychosocial process
that is based on understanding (insight). Because, as a higher process and essentially related to the
basically, every person's behaviour is always based socio-cultural environment. Thus, further
on cognition; the action whose function are to know Vygotsky, the appearance of a person's behaviour is
and think about the situation in which behaviour due to the intervening these two elements. By the
occurs. In learning situations, the involvement of time someone gets stimulus and its environment, he
someone directly in the learning situation can is going to use physical senses, such as tools to
produce an understanding that can help the capture or absorb the stimulus. Then, by using his
individual to solve the problem. In other words, brain nerves, information that was received had
Gestalt theory states that the most important in the been processed. Sense organ involvement in
learning process is to understand what the absorbing stimulation and nerve of the brain in
individual learned by themselves. Therefore, managing the information obtained is the physical
Gestalt theory of learning is called insight learning psychology process as a basic element in learning.
theory. The second grand theory is packaged of
In addition, this study also bases on learning approach system, where school as a place of
theory constructivism. Despite both being in the conducting learning process is placed in a broader
cognitivism, this second theory is more existed in spectrum. It means that school cannot be apart from
the corridor of praxis learning. the community. Therefore, learning as a rotating
Characteristics of constructivism can be system is also broader. It can happen by
observed through the perspective of Mark considering the interests and expectations of
Windschitl’s “dilemma”: stakeholders in the community. In this context, the
“As more specific phenomena, of interest, relationship between the learning process of
“dilemmas” are aspects of teachers' intellectual Citizenship Education as a character builder that
and lived experiences that prevent theoretical occurs in class cannot be separated with these
ideals of constructivism from being realized in complex systems. By using the framework of

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Makmun systems analysis (as quoted by Widodo,


2005), the complexity of the system will be
illustrated as follows.
Aspiration
Goal Stakeholder

Regulation

Internal Accountability

Efficiency Productivity Relevance


Input Process Output Outcomes

− mv input − values internalization − Knowing the good Smart and good


− instrumental input − involvement of student − Desiring the good citizenship
− environmental nput affection potential − Doing the good
− learning situation − Habits of mind
− character building − Habit of heart
− Habits of action

Figure 1. Systems Approach

From the picture above shows that a learning atmosphere of character building, as well as output
system that includes elements of input, process and in the form of learner competence regarding the
output is only part of a system that related to the characters, including indicators of knowing the
life society. The result of PKN learning expected by good, desiring the good, doing the good, habits of
society as stakeholders is forming character of the mind, habits of heart and habits of action.
learners to have good attitude and character. Competency of these students eventually lead to the
Desires and expectations of this society is an formation of attribute competence “smart and good
aspiration that have to be accommodated by citizenship” that applied in daily life in society as
teachers in setting goals of Citizenship Education citizens, and once to answer the expectations of
learning in the classroom as a process of character society in which students will reside.
building. The aspirations of stakeholders are
become one of considerations in designing learning EMPIRICAL REALITY OF LEARNING
about threshold requirements; requirements that CONFIGURATION
have to exist in the learning process of Citizenship From the data review process, obtained the
Education in the classroom. Threshold requirements full model of configuration conceptualization of the
are inputs that consist of row input, instrumental influence of a teacher appreciation, principal
inputs and environmental input. Within the process leadership, school culture, and learning design to
have to realize the internalization values, the learning of character development, as shown
involvement of affective potential learners, learning below:

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Figure 2. Effect Diagram between Models Full Variable

The output of data analysis if the model will be consulted with the test indicated by the model fit, as
follows:
Fit Value Indicator Coefficient Interpretation
Chi-Square 52.29 chi square value approaching 0 indicates that
model fit.
P Value 0.064 Greater than 0.05 means identical data with the
model.

The finding of a full model through the by the school culture and the principal leadership. It
LISREL calculation shows that all exogenous latent means that learning of character development
variables to support together the formation of occurs empirically only happen if the school
learning character development. Variables that environment and school principle support.
provide the highest impact which can be seen from Understanding of teachers about the subjects PKn
the path coefficient is the school culture reached provide character development is still relatively
0.62, followed by the principle leadership 0.234, unknown by the teachers. Teachers in the learning
the next lesson plan 0.17, and last appreciation for PKn just give lessons in accordance with the
teachers on character development reached 0.05. demands of the curriculum and textbooks which are
Variables that provide the highest impact can available in schools. It also has implications for
be seen from the path coefficient is the school teacher learning design became very weak in
culture reached 0.62, followed by the leadership of providing character development materials.
ekolah 0.234, next lesson plan 0.17, last Despite the full model is fit, but after tests
appreciation for teachers on character development conducted by partial effect of each exogenous latent
0.05. variable on the endogenous latent variable shows
Learning of character development on the none of the fit configurations. Recapitulation of
current reality according to the data was influenced output shown in the following table:

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Table 3. Recapitulation of Partial Test Model


Fit Value
Partial Model Coefficient Interpretation
Indicators
ζ1 - ƞ Chi-Square 59.43 chi square value approaching 0 shows that the
model fit.
P Value 0.00 Smaller than 0.05 means that the data not
identical to the model.
ζ2 - ƞ Chi-Square 96.70 Chi square value is far from 0 shows that the
model does not fit
P Value 0.00 Smaller than 0.05 means that the data not
identical to the model
ζ3 - ƞ Chi-Square 59.58 chi square value is far from 0 shows that the
model does not fit
P Value 0.00 Smaller than 0.05 means that the data not
identical to the model
ζ4 - ƞ Chi-Square 36.38 chi square value approaching 0 shows that the
model fit
P Value 0.00 Smaller than 0.05 means that the data not
identical to the model

From all calculation results above, every Further, modifications made to obtain a model
model has not shown that the model is fit yet, that really fit. The modification is based on
because p-value of calculation results are still larger indicator of modifications (modification indices)
than significant level of 5% (0.05). it means that LISREL through viewing coefficients in full model
although all four teachers' appreciation of the analysis (basic model). Modifications is done by
exogenous latent variables on character building , adding a custom indicator variable in the school
leadership of school principals, school culture that environment in learning character development
supports the development of character design and (X33). It is the indicator of supporting teacher
also having spirit of learning character development appreciation in character development. Besides,
have a significant influence on learning character teacher appreciation indicator variables, namely
development. However, an empirical appreciation X1.1: Cognition on character building, X1.2:
of teachers on character development are still Affection of character development and X1.3:
relatively low, the teacher lesson plan has not given Cognition regarding the character development are
the spirit of development characters yet, so that the also supporting indicators of character development
model of calculation results show that the model is learning design. Furthermore, the indicator variable
not fully appropriate, learning character X4.1: teaching materials, X4.2: Method of learning
development is still possible being influenced by and X4.3: instructional media are also supporting
other variables from outside of the model in this indicator of teacher appreciation on character
research. building. The modification result model as shown
in the model figure follows.

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Figure 3. The result of fit model modifications

Diagram of the model in the picture above Character development learning is a complex
shows the value of Chi-Square of 23.22 and its p- totality which requires support from a variety of
value of 0.0871. It shows fit numbers because p- potential that exists in school. Brook and Gooble
value is higher than the significance level 5% (in El Mubarok, 2008) described the complexity
(0.05). It also indicates that there is no difference in which included principles, processes and practices
the results model of analysis modification with an in the learning process. It starts from the values
empirical model (Model Fit). From the result of taught had to be manifested in the curriculum which
modification obtained standard regression is easily digested and translated by learners in daily
coefficient of teacher appreciation on character life into the school environment that contains its
development to be increased from 0.05 to 0.07, the own culture.
standard regression coefficient of the character Therefore, according to Brook and Gooble (in
building lesson plan from 0.17 to 0.25. El Mubarok, 2008), to create learning contents as
An indicator variable of habit in the school character development, there are several principles
environment with learning character development must be adhered. Firstly, school should be viewed
(X33) is the supporting indicator that is big enough as an environment which is like an island with its
for teacher appreciation on character building own culture and language. However, school also
(0.41). needs to expand character education not only to the
Indicator of teacher appreciation in the form teachers, staff and students, but also to the family
of cognition about character development is a and society. Secondly, in carrying out the
supporting in learning design of character curriculum of character, the teaching of values
development and empirical condition show a should always relate with the whole school system,
positive figure of 0.08. Meanwhile, the appreciation the subject is taught as separate-stand alone subject,
of teacher in the form of affection on character but integrated into the whole school curriculum and
development is still relatively weak. It causes the also entire academicians aware and support the
low of character design on character development teaching values. Thirdly, emphasis is placed to
with the negative standard coefficient. In line with stimulate the learners how to translate these
that, the character-building lesson plan in teaching principles into the value of prosaically behaviour.
materials, teaching methods and instructional media In the base assumptions, empirically found in
are also still very weak and very poorly understood this study. Citizenship education learning that
by teachers. brings the character development mission must

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obtain the support of various components in the apply their own ideas, beside to teach the students
school. By using LISREL analysis as a technique in to realize and aware of their own learning strategy.
SEM, indicated that the variables which contribute The students need to be familiar to solve
the highest was 0.62 for the school culture fixation problems, find something useful for them, and
and principle leadership at 0.23. doing with ideas. Teacher won’t be able to guide all
These facts have implications on teachers' knowledge and norms to the students. The students
views about learning that learning is not a process have to construct knowledge and norms in their
of transformation of knowledge, but a process of own mind set. The essence of this constructivism is
interaction between all potential learners with the ideas. The students have to find and transform
education environment (schools) maximally. certain complex information into other situation.
Through such a process, it will make intensive Based on that, teaching and learning have to be in
dialogues, because learners observe, experience, do, “constructing” process, not only “receiving”
and interact with the environment in school. knowledge and norms.
Finally, cognition or internalized values within the
learners themselves are the result of the building CULTURAL-BASED LEARNING
itself through interaction with the environment. Building an Indonesian citizenship teacher
It is consistent with two theories of learning education which contains character building should
which are used in this research, the Gestalt learning explore the headmaster’s leadership potency and
theory and constructivism learning theory. Gestalt culture which grows in the school community.
learning theory relies on the functioning of self- Headmaster leadership as a personal manifestation
insight on students. So, it’s often called insight which has structural authority in the research
theory (insightful learning). This study confirmed finding which has high correlation, shown by
that: first, Insight depends on basic skills. Every correlation index as 0.58, with learning which
individual has a basic capability that different from contains of character building. The roles of
one to another. The difference usually lies on the headmaster’s leadership are in the modelling,
age. Usually the young is more difficult to learn giving motivation, giving facilities, and able to
with insight. Second, insight depends on relevant of create and to stand the regulations at school. That is
the past experience. Background helped the way, taking the headmaster’s role can be meant as
formation of insight, but does not guarantee the structural approaches.
formation of insight. Third, insight depends on the Besides exploring the headmaster’s
settings of insight situations. Learning insight is leadership, the growing and developing culture at
only possible if the learning situation is set, so that school can’t be ignored. The correlation between
all aspects required can be observed. Fourth, insight school culture and learning which contains
was preceded with a period of searching and character building has high coefficient that is 0.94.
experimenting. Individual before solving the Exploring the school culture can be done
problem may make responses that are less relevant through extracurricular activities that are created
to solve the problem. Fifth, the solution for the and improved by Indonesian citizenship teacher.
problem by using insight can be repeated easily and Goes along with the extracurricular characters, in
will apply directly. Sixth, it is the most essential these activities, the teacher can make any
part that if the insight had been formed, the problem improvements in every occasion because they don’t
in other situation can be solved. Insight has the be under the formal curriculum again. Local
ability to be transferred from one problem to potency which contains moral value can be added
another, although the situation that leads to here, traditional games, folklore, fairy tales, prose,
different insights with the new situation and wise words, symbols, etc. All those potencies can
material, but in same realization and generalization. be arranged into interesting extracurricular
Whereas on constructivism learning theory, activities agenda to the students. That effort can be
the important principles in this context are that in named as cultural approach.
the learning process, learners should be active and There are two approaches which are explained
engage learners into learning centre and in the above; structural approach and cultural approach
classroom learning. Therefore, the teacher is a must be based on the Pancasila parameter. This
facilitator which facilitates the process by using can’t be apart from a Principe that the effort of
ways that make information becomes meaningful character building in Indonesian context is
for students, through attractive methods, media and characters which base on Pancasila as the basic
teaching materials synergistically. Teachers must value.
also provide opportunities for students to find or

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The visualization of the synergy between which contains character building is as the
structural approach and cultural approach in the following:
effort of building Indonesian citizenship leaning

Good model

Creating
Motivation conducive
Headmaster’s environment
leadership

Facility Support the


Pancasila’s
value character
building learning

Regulation

Interaction

Attitude
Facility

Extracurricular
activities

Local

School
culture
Traditional
games

Folklore
Value

Fairy tales

Poetry

Symbols

Figure 4.

He is Freire, figure of learning who is very which crushes him. World and reality are not
expert in exploring that learning process through ‘something which appears by itself, and that is way
beautiful words. In his opinion, the nature of human “this should be received as it is”, as a fate or
is being an actor or subject, not an object of the destination that can’t be avoided. Humans have to
victim. The calling of genuine human is being an be critic and full of creativity to live in the world
aware doer who acts to defeat the world and reality and reality, and that means humans have to

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understand his appearance. Therefore, education generalizable, and having learned he will
has to be self reality introductory oriented, and able understand properly, appreciate deeply, infer
to get closer with the environment. (El Mubarok, carefully, and conclude logically (Barr et.all.,
2008:75) 2978:106).It means that this tradition pays more
Next, Freire mentioned that education process attention in the development efforts of good
as a human being learning (humanize human) citizens’ characters which are signed by the ability
which is an effort to prepare smart and real of facing and solving social problems using vision
generations, smart emotionally, smart spiritually, and social scientist way of work.
not to create small humans, passive, and can’t solve The three Citizenship Education learning
the problems faced. traditions aren’t seen black and white, which means
To apply the learning approaches which base if we use one the approach, we leave other
on human being in Citizenship Education, the three approaches. The differentiation of that Citizenship
social studies learning traditions can be applied. Education orientation is only academically.
First tradition is the tradition of “Civic Education Practically, synergism between the three traditions
Taught as Citizenship Transmission”. This tradition will give effective learning impact for the creating
refers to certain social learning method which has good citizens. This is because the indicator of the
aim to improve good citizen, which is signed by good citizens are citizens who obey the norms and
“conforms to certain accepted practices, hold role of low which grow and develop in the social
particular beliefs, is loyal to certain values, life (Tradition of Social Studies Taught as
participates in certain activities, and conforms to Citizenship Transmission), citizens who have
norms which are often local in character” (Barr ability to analyze social problems and then able to
et.all.,1978:22). Therefore, the aim of this tradition make smart decisions (Tradition of Social Studies
is to develop “a reasoned patriotism; a basic Taught as Reflective Inquiry), and citizens who can
understanding and appreciation of (America) value, seen and solve social and personal problems using
institution, and practices: personal identity and visions and social scientist way (tradition of Social
integrity and responsible citizenship: understanding Studies Taught as Social Science).
and appreciation of the (America heritage, active
democratic participation, and awareness of social CLOSING
problems, and desirable) ideas, attitudes, and This research finds that school culture and
behavioural skills” (Barr et.ell.,1978:44). In other headmaster’s leadership give significance
words, this tradition focuses on developing good contributions to the formation of Citizenship
citizens both in value and norms which have been Education learning process which contains
accepted formally in a country (Saripudin, 2001:24) character building. School culture gives 33.64%
Second is the tradition of “Civic Education while headmaster’s leadership gives 5.76%. These
Taught as Reflective Inquiry, is alearning modus research findings bring implication that the
which emphasizes on the same thing, that is formation of Citizenship Education learning
developing good citizens which different process which contains character building to its
requirements that is seen from the ability “.....to students should be started by creating conducive
engage in a continual process of clarifying process school situations. The two things which have to be
of clarifying their own value structure” (Barr et. created are school culture and headmaster’s
all., 1978:86). Therefore the main purpose of this leadership. Even though those two variables don’t
tradition is “....the enhancement of the students have direct connection to the class learning process,
decision making abilities, for decision making is the however, the value investment is not only happens
most important requirement of citizenship in a in the classroom. The formation of school culture
political democracy” (Barr et. All.,1978:102). In and headmaster’s leadership can be achieved when
other words, this tradition focuses on the it is supported by all related sides. From policy
development the good citizen characters with its aspect, support from Education Department, from
main character is the ability to analyze the social mentality and material are needed from university
problems and then can take smart decision. over there.
The third tradition is; “Civic Education The second finding of this research is that in
Taught as Social Science. In this tradition, the the elementary school’s Citizenship
learning modus is also emphasizes on the Educationmanagement, characters building is a
development good citizens which is signed with the synergic effort, in some aspects, from the teacher’s
ability of:....mode and thinking from social science appreciation, school culture, headmaster’s
disciplines, that this mode of thinking, is leadership, and teaching design. This finding gives

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implication that the effort of enlighten to all http://www.sagepublications.com (14


participants from all potencies at school about Desember 2008).
characters building needs to be done with well Elliot, S.N. 2003. Educational Psychology;
planned, systematic, and cohesive by involving all Effective Teaching- Effective Learning.
character building experts, supported by the Singapore: Mc Graw-Hill Book.
decision maker that are headmaster and education El Mubarok, Zaim. 2008. Membumikan Pendidikan
department. Nilai; Mengumpulkan yang Terserak,
Modification of fit model is shown that Menyambung yang Terputus dan Menyatukan
teacher’s appreciation indicator which formsa yang Tercerai. Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta.
cognition about the character building is a support Feith, Herbert. 1992. The Deoline of Construction
in the teaching design which contains character Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York:
building at empiric situation shows positive point of Cornell University Press.
0.08, meanwhile, the teacher’s appreciation which Lickona, Thomas. 2003. My Thoughts about
is as an affection of creating characters building and National Character. Ithaca and London:
conation about characters building is still low Cornell University Press.
enough which becomes one of the causes of the Megawangi, Ratna. 2004. Pendidikan
minimal level teaching design which consists of Karakter:Solusi yang Tepat Untuk
character building with negative standard Membangun Bangsa. Jakarta : Star Energy.
coefficient. In line with that, teaching design which Masrukhi. 2001. Pemanfaalan Media dalam
contains character building in the teaching Pembelajaran PPKn di SMU di Kota
materials, teaching methods, and teaching media is Semarang, hasil penelitian, tidak diterbitkan.
also still weak and the teachers don’t understand Unnes : Lembaga Penelitian Unnes.
well. Implication of this finding is that there is still Soekarno. (l930). Indonesia Menggugat Pidato
an important role of the teacher in the teaching Pembelaan Bung Karno; Dimuka Hakim
process which contains character building. Kolonial Tahun 1930. Jakarta: Departemen
Therefore, the teaching of Citizenship Education Penerangan RI.
teachers about character building should be done Sunarto. 2000. Analisis Wacana, Ideologi Jender
well planned and systematic started from the Media Anak-anak. Semarang: Mimbar.
changing of the structural cognition of teachers of Saefudin, Asikin. 2007. Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran
the importance of character building to the effort of Mata Pelajaran Pendidikan
changing teachers’ mindset about character Kewarganegaraan di Sekolah Dasar pada
building. beberapa kota/kabupaten di Jawa Tengah.
Hasil Penelitian. Jakarta: Balitbang Dikti.
CONCLUSION http://www.dediknas.go.id/jurnal—no, 17/
Rearrange the Citizenship Education learning Pembelajaran.htm.
to be learning which contains character building; it Tilaar, HAR,. 1997. Multikulturalisme, tantangan-
needs good planning by exploring all potencies tantangan global masa depan dalam
through a strong system. In this context, the effort transformasi pendidikan nasional. Jakarta:
of the betterment of Citizenship Education which Gramedia.
contains character building quality is done by Windschitl, Mark. 2002. Framing Constructivism in
education management approaches, which one of Practice as the Negotiation of Dilemmas; An
those is school learning management. In the context Analysis of the Conceptual, Pedagogical,
of education management, it needs to arrange Cultural, and Political Challenges Facing
Citizenship Education management guidance as a Teachers, page 132, Review of Educational
school cultural-based character building. Research, Published by Sage.
http://www.sagepublications.com (14
Reference Desember 2008).
Barr, R. D., Barth, J. L., Shermis, S.S. 1977. Widodo, Joko. 2005. Perencanaan Pendidikan di
Defining the Social Studies. Virginia: National Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan; Model
Council for the Social Studies. Perencanaan Pendidikan Berorientasi
Decker, Scott L. 2008. Measuring Growth and Keunggulan Mutu Lulusan Berdasarkan Studi
Decline in Visual-Motor Processes with the Kasus di SMK Negeri 2, SMK Negeri 6, dan
Bender-Gestalt Second Edition, page 3, SMK Negeri 7 Semarang. Disertasi, tidak
Journal of Psycho educational Assessment. dipublikasikan. Bandung: Program Pasca
Published by Sage. Sarjana Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

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Winataputra,U.S. 1999a. Civic Education


Classroom as A Laboratory for
Democracy.Bandung: CICED.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING AND


LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: AN INCONCLUSIVE FINDINGS

Meika Kurnia Puji Rahayu D.A.


University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Charles Darwin University

Abstract competitive advantages (Ali 2004; Bhatt et al.


Information and Communication Technology 2010; Powell & Dent-Micallef 1997; Yuhetty
(ICT) has emerged as one of drivers that have 2002).
significant impacts on organizational changes. Higher education institutions are not exempt
Higher education institutions are not exempt from from this global trend. The daily lives of faculty, as
this global trend. The daily lives of faculty, as well well as students and staff, are significantly affected
as students and staff, are significantly affected by by the introduction and dissemination of ICT. For
the introduction and dissemination of ICT. instance, communication channels between
However, research findings show mix-results of lecturers and students can be conducted in many
ICT use in tertiary education. Rather than improve ways, at any time. Online resources, including e-
the quality of teaching and learning, the use of ICT journals and e-books, simplify the research
in higher education has led to several problems that processes (Hudson 2010). The management of
need to be addressed. This paper provides brief students, particularly in large classes is modernized
description about those inconsistency findings and through online enrolment, course rosters, and online
discusses several factors that potentially impact the grade management (Lane 2008). In addition, the
use of ICT in higher education. Further agendas use of presentation software such as PowerPoint
need to be established to minimize the inconsistency that is already widely used in lecture classes is
impact of ICT use in higher education, in teaching completed by the development ofCourse Web sites,
and learning in particular. whether stand-alone or as part of a Learning
Management System (LMS).
Keywords:ICT, teaching, learning, higher
education INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY TERMINOLOGY
INTRODUCTION Historically, the concept of educational
Information and Communication Technology technology underpins the terminology used in
(ICT) has emerged as one of drivers that have information technology. Educational technology
significant impacts on organizational changes includes any tool can be used to help students
(Friga, Bettis & Sullivan 2003; Schoemaker 2008). accomplish specified learning goals (Davies,
ICT now has been extending beyond the integration Sprague& New 2008). Bates and Poole (2003)
of hardware and software. It involves human confirmed that the tools are any means can be used
resources and managerial activities embedded in the to communicate with learners other than using face-
utilization of ICT (Jimba 1999; Ryssel, Ritter & to face. Nowadays, educational technology
Gemünden 2004; Sandery 1999; Seels & Richey terminology has shifted to information technology,
1994; UNESCO 2003). communication technology, or information and
Powell and Dent-Micallef (1997) stated that communication technology. In practice, those three
ICT is a catalyst for modernising and improving terminologies are interchangeably used.
business performance. ICT also plays an important Information and Communication Technology
role in developing effective and efficient (ICT) is a terms that is now in popular use,
information building in businesses and generally to describe computer and
organizations in general (Bhatt et al. 2010; Dhar & communications technologies which are designed
Sundararajan 2007). In addition, ICT allows and used to gather, store, process and display
businesses to generate and disseminate information information (Sandery 1999). ICT is an integration
that enable businesses give accurate and creative of hardware and software which is used in the
responses to markets and customer demands. creation, acquisition, storage, diffusion, retrieval,
Furthermore, ICT also become enabler for manipulation and transmission of information
businesses to create value to improve their (Jimba 1999; Ryssel, Ritter & Gemünden 2004;

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UNESCO 2003). ICT includes all equipment and networking sites (Tanner 2011, p. 31).
devices of communication network such as, Consequently, students have opportunities to
telephone system, television, radio, mobile produce information and contribute to the creation
telephone networks, computers, the Internet, and of knowledge by searching additional information
web-based devices (Shaw 2010). In addition, Seels related to course materials and sharing the
and Richey (1994) argue that other than the information online at any time. Another impact is
convergence of hardware and software, ICT also that learning process is not limited in the classroom
includes a range of personnel, resources, and a set with face to face communication. It can be done
of management activities committed to supporting through many type of learning through ICT, such as
the utilization of abundant capabilities offered by computer assisted learning, online learning,
ICT. distance learning, blended learning or e-learning.
Therefore, educational sector, higher
ICT USE IN HIGHER EDUCATION education in particular, is required to adapt to the
INSTITUTIONS learning styles of this new generation of students
Initially, the tertiary education mainly use ICT (Hudson 2010). Educators need to redesign
to perform administrative task and data storage teaching strategies that meet this learners’ need
including admission, registration, and student’s (Prensky 2001; Oblinger and Oblinger 2005; Bates
records (Gray, Thomas & Lewis 2010; Mills 2008). and Sangra 2011). Re-identifying the nature and
The shift from manual and paper-based processes to form of teaching and learning as well as
online and electronic processes in administrative considering the necessity of innovation in
office has given a significant effect to staff in curriculum design and delivery is important for
accomplishing their tasks more successfully (Coyne higher education sector (Hamilton, McFarland &
2010). ICT, including e-mail, cell and desk phones, Mirchandani 2000). Integrating ICT in higher
video, and teleconferencing communications education curriculum is a key resource to re-design
technology help administrative staff to teaching and learning practices that meet current
communicate more effectively with students and upcoming requirements (Alavi & Gallupe
(Young 2012). Moreover, with the popularisation of 2003; Leidner & Jarvenpaa 1995; Seethamraju
the Internet, ICT became one of the multiple 2007; Tamim et al. 2011; Zeeshan, Hashmi &
resources that are widely available for academic Bhatti 2011).
staff and students in accessing information
(Lowerison et al. 2006). Therefore, management POSITIVE IMPACTS OF ICT INTEGRATION
and administrative processes in higher education INTO TEACHING AND LEARNING
now take place almost completely online using ICT Scholars agree that ICT has positive impacts
resources (Mills 2008, p. 21). on educational applications. ICT is believed to
The ICT use in educational sector in daily revolutionize both teaching and learning in higher
basis has also changed the way educators deliver education (Bates & Sangra 2011; Laurillard 2006;
the courses. The introduction of the World Wide Lowerison et al. 2006). Some scholars stated that
Web (WWW) in 1991 has changed lecturers’ role. ICT, such as computer, Internet and Web-based
They are not longer a single source who gives devices increase the quality of teaching and
information and knowledge to students (Thomas learning as well as increase sharing and
2011).Moreover, currently, lecturers are facing construction of knowledge (Alavi, Wheeler &
students who are grown up in a digital world and Valacich 1995; Leidner & Jarvenpaa 1995; Matzen
have their own styles of learning. The & Edmunds 2007; Renes & Strange 2011). ICT
characteristics of this new generation of students integration into teaching and learning also enhances
are including lives surrounded by and using students’ engagement in the learning process
computers, videogames, digital music players, (Ashleigh 2005). Additionally, ICT use in teaching
video cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and and learning provides means to create a learning
tools of the digital age (Prensky 2001, p. 3). They environment in which learners can be creative,
use media-based languages and prefer to perform critical, constructive, and become producers of their
several tasks at once (Sánchez et al. 2011). They own perspectives (Nagy & Bigum 2007, p. 81).
have their own expectations and understandings of Research findings support the argument that
technology as well as life and learning styles (Camp ICT is important for teaching and learning practices
& DeBlois 2007, p.22). They are familiar with Web as it has significant impact to enhance the quality of
2.0 world which prompts them to compare learning teaching as well as learning. For example,
experiences with digital games and social Campbell (2000) examined the effect of ICT use in

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Business Sytems class on students’ interaction and The positive impact of CT integration into
ability to absorp knowledge from learning group. teaching and learning practices is supported by two
The researcher compared two groups of students meta-analysis studies (Matthews 2012; Tamim et
from the Griffith University Australia. The first al. 2011). A second-order meta-analysis study
group is students who study at Logan campus (Tamim et al. 2011), a synthesis of 1,055 studies,
which embracing flexible learning and the second proves the significant and positive influences of
group is students who study at the main campus at ICT integration into teaching and learning on
Nathan which delivered the subject by traditional student achievement. Another meta-analysis study
means. Flexible learning is a teaching method that conducted by The US Department of Education
“generally endeavours to empower the student with also confirms that students who learn through
greater autonomy and responsibility for his or her online environment have higher performance than
own learning” (Campbell 2000, p.352). In the those who learn through classical technique
flexible learning, ICT is an important element for (Matthews 2012).
learning practices. Campbell found that students It can be concluded that ICT such as,
from Nathan campus have a higher failure rate than computers, the Internet, and other web-based
students studying at Logan campus. In addition, devices, are not only tools that serve and deliver the
students who study at Logan campus have a knowledge, but also become learning environments
stronger feeling of friendships and higher that prompt lecturers to design more active-learning
motivation than students who study in Nathan methodologies (Yusuf 2012).
campus. Similar result comes from Serva and Fuller
(2004) who identified whether two constructs – INCONSISTENCY OUTCOME OF ICT USE
active learning and effective media use – are IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
important dimensions for positive student learning Despite the significant role of ICT in
experience. The researchers conducted a survey enhancing teaching and learning quality, the
involved 727 business students who were asked to findings from previous studies show inconsistent
assess the effectiveness of media use. The finding results (Hu & Hui 2012; Noguera & Watson 2004;
shows that the effectiveness of media use can Redmann & Kotrlik 2004; Serva & Fuller 2004).
greatly enhance students’ learning experiences. Instead of improving the teaching and learning
Furthermore, Lowerison et al. (2006) found that the processes, the integration of ICT led to some
use of computer-mediated learning in problems.
postsecondary courses improves student Noguera and Watson’s (2004) study found
engagement in class, and it also enhances that ICT integration in teaching and learning had no
instructors' access to learners' feedback. The finding significant impact on student achievement and
supported Alavi and Gallupe’s (2003) study which satisfaction. The finding is supported by other
revealed that students are more engaged in learning research (Redmann & Kotrlik 2004; Serva & Fuller
activities because of less physical boundaries of the 2004) which found that the use of ICT in business
classroom and ease of access to the learning content schools has low impact on learning effectiveness.
and resources. Moreover, Hu and Hui (2012) emphasized that
Literature also notes that ICT integration into technology-mediated learning has no significant
higher education curricula prompts educators to effectson learning effectiveness and satisfaction. Hu
provide learning environments in which they can and Hui (2012) asserted that there is no evidence
develop students’ soft skills required by business that ICT use in teaching will give better results for
world (Bennis & O’Toole 2005; Chia & Holt 2008; learning effectiveness than face-to-face method. In
Hay & Hodgkinson 2008; Mintzberg 2004; Pfeffer a recent study, Romeo, Lyoyd and Downes (2012)
& Fong 2004; Schoemaker 2008). The deployment emphasized that ICT integration into learning
of ICT in teaching and learning enhances students’ practices has not given the significant impact to
competence on team work and problem solving learning effectiveness as expected. Moreover, a
(Baldwin 1998). Furthermore, ICT significantly study of Redmann and Kortlik (2004) found that
influences to the development of students’ skills lecturers still faced problem to integrate ICT in
and competencies needed in business practices, teaching and learning because they were not using
such as communication, information handling, team the Internet for instructional purposes. The finding
work and problem solving (Alexopoulos & Lynn from Redmann and Kortlik’s study is confirmed by
2010; Baldwin 1998; Bates & Sangra 2011; Kooti Serva and Fuller (2004) who found that business
2011). educators infrequently used ICT properly to
enhance the quality of teaching and learning.

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The inconsistent research findings of ICT use resources; and lack of incentives for integrating
in higher education indicate that an investment in ICT in teaching. Other factors belong to
ICT in undergraduate and graduate courses has not institution/system barriers are organizational
been equivalent in the actual use of ICT (Serva & structure, organizational culture, and leadership.
Fuller 2004). Lecturers seem oblivious to the need Factors Related to People
of addressing successful implementation of using Prior research revealed that educators’
ICT to enhance the design and delivery of curricula. perception of ICT use has become a central factor
For this reason, Hawawini (2005) suggested that it that influences the effective use of ICT in teaching
is necessary to understand how educators in the and learning (Cheng 2011; Igbaria, M. 1994;
higher education sector use ICT effectively in Igbaria, Magid, Guimaraes & Davis 1995; Igbaria,
teaching and learning to enhance the design and M. & Tan 1997; Van Raaij & Schepers 2008). A
delivery of the business curriculum. perception about e-learning system as an enjoyable
method in teaching increases teachers’ willingness
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS to accept and use the ICT in the teaching (Cheng
Literature shows that ICT enhances the quality 2011). On the other hand, a negative perception on
of teaching and learning. However, higher the ability of ICT tools obstructs the integration of
education institutions have to be aware that there ICT into teaching and learning (Brinkerhoff 2006).
are problems need to be addressed. Some studies BECTA (2004) reported that “no benefit of
demonstrate that academics staffs in the higher technology use” perceived by teachers prevent them
education institutions are experiencing anxieties in to integrate ICT in the teaching practices. Other
integrating ICT into their daily lives (McPherson & factors related to people are an adequate level of
Nunes 2008; Redmann & Kotrlik 2004). Lecturers competence to use ICT (Drent & Meelissen 2008)
also still have problems working with computers and willingness to use ICT (BECTA 2004; Birch &
because they are computer illiterate (Pannen, Sankey 2008; Mumtaz 2000; Weston 2005).
Riyanti & Pramuki 2007) or lack skills to embrace Factors related to Institutional/System
ICT development (Conole 2007; Pannen 2003). Literature also shows that several institution
Serva and Fuller (2004) found that ICT are seldom or system factors might hinder or support the use of
used properly by higher education educators to ICT in teaching and learning (Ali 2004; Balanskat,
enhance the quality of teaching and learning at the Blamire & Kefala 2006; BECTA 2004). For
undergraduate level. Their usage of ICT is limited examples, reward strategy and training in solving
only for preparing materials and recording student technical problems (Mumtaz 2000),an access to
data base. resources, the quality of ICT infrastructure, quality
of hardware, and the availability of internet
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ICT USE IN facilities (BECTA 2004; Bingimlas 2009). There
HIGHER EDUCATION are also factors that come from institution such as,
Bingimlas (2009) and Ertmer (1999) argued organizational structure, organizational culture and
that identifying the barriers of ICT use would help leadership which have influence to the ICT use in
academic institutions to improve the use of ICT teaching and learning in higher education level
enhance the quality of teaching and learning. (Mumtaz 2000).
"Barrier" is defined as any situation that makes any
progress or achievement is difficult to be obtained CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
(WordNet 1997). Barriers of ICT use in teaching A rapid transformation in information and
and learning in higher education can be classified communication technology (ICT) is having a
into two groups of barriers. They are barriers significant impact on every sphere of life, including
related to people and barriers related to higher education sector. However, research findings
system/institution. Barriers related to people show inconclusive results.There are several
include any condition perceived or performed by potential factors which might hinder or support the
educators, staff, and students. For examples, ICT integration into teaching and learning.
perceived of usefulness, perceive of ease of use of At least two issues that need to be addressed
ICT; unwillingness to use ICT; lack of ICT skills; for future agenda. First, scholar and academics
and insufficient time to plan and to use ICT practitioners need to build mutual relationship in
(BECTA 2004; Bingimlas 2009; Davis 1989; examining factors that potentially hinder the use of
Mumtaz 2000). System/institution barriers involve ICT in teaching and learning. This agenda is
inadequate technical and administrative support; necessary to improve the way educators use ICT in
inappropriate teacher training; lack of access to their teaching activities. Second, scholars need to

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analysis the effective use of ICT in teaching and Bingimlas, KA 2009, 'Barriers to the successful
learning in higher education sector. Measuring the integration of ICT in teaching and learning
effectiveness of ICT is important to ensure the environments: a review of the literature',
beneficial impact of ICT. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science &
Technology Education, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 235-
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Incorporating active learning and effective

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TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH THROUGH UNIFORM RESOURCE


LOCATOR (URL) STRATEGY

Khamim Mustofa
SMP Muh 2 Kebumen

Abstract process is to encourage learners to learn their


In Indonesia, English is a compulsory subject second language in appropriate and successful
which is taught in Junior High School and Senior ways. Educators are to pay attention to whether the
High School as a foreign language. As a result, the learners learn the language better than before and
Indonesian government always makes effort to whether they make progress in the process to
improve the quality of teachers through seminary, improve their proficiency. Consequently, learners
training and other component which are involved in are to be made independent in their foreign
education process. The education in Indonesia has language learning. Hence, foreign language learners
been improved from time to time; one of them is are to be shown the how to learn a second language
established by curriculum. According to the independently, namely language learning strategies.
competence based curriculum of Junior High Goethe In (1997) said that good teaching
School, the goal of foreign language learningto should enable learners to learn better, because in
learn how to communicate by using the target the end it is not the teaching but the learning that
language in oral or written. So after learning matters, implying that the ultimate goal in teaching
English, students should be able to communicate in is to make learners learn independently. It is a
English spoken or written. character of “ good language learners”.
In my opinion, the functions of learning As professional teachers, we must be able to
English in Junior High School are; first, by create a student to learn, create intelligent students
studying English students are expected to have a to adapt the changes of curriculum and adjust the
means to develop their knowledge of science, development of educational purposes to deal with
technology and culture. The second is, students are curriculum 2013. Students should be active and
expected to be able to support the development of motivated to solve the problems faced in the
tourism. The third is, the students are able to learn classroom and present it in front of the class with
and continue their study in a favorite school. The the teacher guidance.
forth is they are able to know the world through the I was very concerned when I observed in
internet which communicated in English. some schools, particularly in my town, that the
Based on the paradigm above, we must have a English language teachers still use a conventional
good strategy to success our teaching and gain our method by using the textbook without any
students’ purpose, perhaps using minimum energy interesting media. It is one of our home works to all
and time but getting maximum result. The writer is of us to turn it into an interesting learning process
not only offers direct and indirect strategy to for obtaining the desired learning objectives.
improve their learning but also internet media. I think, declining of national test scores in the
Internet is one of the most important to English subject is caused by the lack of creativity of
improve our English skill, there are some English the teacher in the learning process, so that students’
programs provided completely, as a professional absorption is not satisfactory with our expectations,
teacher we have to operate those programs or URL because most students in Junior High School still
spread to gain more varieties learning. On this have difficulties in receiving the material given, so
paper, the writer chooses some URLs that that they can not convey their ideas clearly because
considered the easiest operation for all levels as of their limited experience to solve the problems
one of strategy ways to improve our teaching and especially to analyze the texts.
learning. Oxford (1991) classifies LLS into direct and
indirect strategies. The category of direct strategies
Keywords: Strategy, direct, indirect, Internet consists of memory strategies, cognitive strategies
and compensation strategies while indirect
1. Introduction strategies comprise metacognitive strategies,
Students need to be autonomous in their affective strategies and social strategies. The
learning. Thus the essential element in the teaching complete version is as follows:

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2. Direct Strategies
a. Memory Strategy b. Affective Strategies
1) Creating mental linkages: grouping, 1) Lowering your anxiety: using progressive
associating/elaborating, placing words into relaxation, deep breathing or meditation,
context using music, using laughter.
2) Applying images and sounds: using imagery, 2) Encouraging yourself: making positive
semantic mapping using keywords, statements, taking risks wisely, rewarding
representing sounds in memory. yourself.
3) Reviewing well: structured reviewing 3) Taking your emotional temperature:
4) Employing action: using physical response listening to your body, using checklist,
or sensation, using mechanical technique. writing a language learning diary, discussing
your feeling with someone else.
b. Cognitive Strategies
1) Practicing: repeating, formally practicing c. Social Strategies
with sounds and writing systems 1) Asking questions: asking for clarification or
Recognizing and using formulas and verification and asking for correction.
patterns, recombining, practicing 2) Cooperating with others: cooperating with
naturalistically. peers, cooperating with proficient users of
2) Receiving and sending messages: getting the the new language.
idea quickly, using resources for receiving 3) Empathizing with others: developing
and sending messages. cultural understanding, becoming aware of
3) Analyzing and reasoning: reasoning others’ thoughts and feeling the strategies
deductively, analyzing expressions, need to be trained to students. The success
analyzing contrastively (across language), of strategy training was discovered by
translating, transferring. Chamot ( 2006) among students for high-
4) Creating structure for input and proficiency in English. The effect of the
output:taking notes, summarizing, strategy was that more strategies were used
highlighting. by the students. It implies that in developing
instructional material, strategy training is
c. Compensation strategies advisable to be involved.
1) Guessing intelligently: using linguistic clues,
using other clues There are also some strategies that offered by
2) Overcoming limitations in speaking and New Teacher Center @ UC Santa Cruz (2005) :
writing: switching to the mother tongue, a. The first of the six key strategies is vocabulary
getting help, using mime or gesture, and language development, through which
avoiding communication partially or totally, teachers introduce new concepts by discussing
selecting the topic, adjusting or vocabulary words key to that concept. Exploring
approximating the message, coining words, specific academic terms like algorithm starts a
using a circumlocution or synonym. sequence of lessons on larger math concepts and
builds the student’s background knowledge.
3. Indirect Strategies b. The second strategy is guided interaction. With
a. Metacognitive Strategies this method, teachers structure lessons so
1) Centering your learning: over viewing and students work together to understand what they
linking with already known material, paying read—by listening, speaking, reading, and
attention, delaying speech production, writing collaboratively about the academic
2) Arranging and planning your learning: concepts in the text.
finding out about language learning, c. The third strategy is metacognition and
organizing, setting goals and objectives, authentic assessment. Rather than having
identifying the purpose of a language task., students simply memorize information, teachers
planning for language task, seeking practice model and explicitly teach thinking skills
opportunities (metacognition) crucial to learning new
3) Evaluating your learning: self-monitoring concepts. Research shows that metacognition is
and self- evaluation a critical skill for learning a second language
and a skill used by highly proficient readers of
any language. With authentic assessments,

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teachers use a variety of activities to check opinion, may encourage students to know more and
students’ understanding, acknowledging that give them opportunity to learn in fun and more
students learning a second language need a enjoy atmosphere of learning. When they can enjoy
variety of ways to demonstrate their their learning, I believe they will perform their best.
understanding of concepts that are not wholly The problem is that many teachers themselves are
reliant on advanced language skills. still illiterate in terms of technology. Consequently,
d. The fourth strategy is explicit instruction, or learning may not run smoothly. This situation is
direct teaching of concepts, academic language, surely the opposite side of what to expect. URL has
and reading comprehension strategies needed to inspired me as a teacher to make of use technology
complete classroom tasks. to accelerate my students' learning. I also hope that
e. The fifth strategy is the use of meaning-based URL will be a breakthrough to help me solve
context and universal themes, referring to taking learning obstacles which my students often find in
something meaningful from the students’ their learning.
everyday lives and using it as a springboard to URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. A
interest them in academic concepts. Research URL is a formatted text string used by Web
shows that when students are interested in browsers, email clients and other software to
something and can connect it to their lives or identify a network resource on the Internet.
cultural backgrounds they are more highly Network resources are files that can be plain Web
motivated and learn at a better rate. pages, other text documents, graphics, or programs.
f. The final strategy is the use of modeling, http://compnetworking.about.com
graphic organizers, and visuals. The use of a According to the writer, internet also is one of
variety of visual aids, including pictures, the important media that used as the best strategy in
diagrams, and charts, helps all students—and Language Learning Strategy because it is easy
especially ELL students—easily recognize operated and can be applied in many levels, such
essential information and its relationship to as:
supporting ideas. Visuals make both the Resources
No The description of URL
language and the content more accessible to URL
students 1 www.youtube. We also can learn by
com/user/Min watching video, can't we? I
4. Internet Media (URL) ooAngloLink? think YouTube is complete
I think learning through URL is one of many feature=watch enough to look for learning
ways that we can apply in our teaching-learning. resources
That is good and helpful. URL is so inspiring for us 2 www.engvid.c This URL contain of
that we can teach something new to my students. om/ learning English through
Free English Course from the URL will on line video
motivate and encourage the learners to learn 3 www.ehow.co tips for learning English
English by themselves and in the hope they can m/way_54152
improve their knowledge and competence. That's 09_english-
why this is inspiring me to share this kind of grammar-
English course with my students or at least with my beginners.html
children. 4 www.esl- many themes in daily life
There are many ways for the learners in library.com/le
enriching English vocabulary. However, the use of ssons.php
URL as one of IT-based learning techniques may 5 www.eslkidsla good material of
become a better way in solving the problem of b.com/lessons/ vocabulary and language
teaching and learning. It may encourage and attract index.html function for kids
the learners to learn more the English by doing self- RENCANA PELAKSANAAN
access activities. PEMBELAJARAN(RPP)
I feel that teachers and students are now really
well-equipped as technology grows very rapidly. Sekolah : SMP Muhammadiyah 2Kebumen
There are a lot of facilities to help them improve Mata Pelajaran: Bahasa Inggris
their learning. The use of URL like me is one Kelas/Smt : IX/Gasal
simple example of how everybody can take the Alokasi Waktu : 40 menit
benefit of technology in terms of language learning. SK : Listening, Speaking, Reading and
Not only it is easier to do, IT-based learning, in my Writing

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Urutan 4. The fourth strategy is explicit instruction, or


No Materi
Materi direct teaching of concepts, academic language,
1 First one Listening the text : and reading comprehension strategies needed to
“Timun mas” Find the complete classroom tasks.
sentence that used “Past 5. The fifth strategy is the use of meaning-based
tense” context and universal themes
2 The second The understanding of 6. The final strategy is the use of modeling,
one Narrative text graphic organizers, and visuals.
3 The third one Narrative text structure As a professional teacher we have to operate
4 The forth one The use of simple past some URLs programs that spread free on internet to
tense gain more varieties learning. Those URLs can
5 The fifth one Writing the summary of improve our English skill and our teaching and
Narrative text by title learning.
“timun mas”
6 The sixth one Grammar test References
http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategie
CONCLUSION s-teaching-english-language-learners
Oxford (1991) classifies LLS into direct and http://www.supportrealteachers.org/strategies-for-
indirect strategies. The category of direct strategies english-language-learners.html
consists of memory strategies, cognitive strategies http://compnetworking.about.com
and compensation strategies while indirect J.J Wilson strategies from Postcards
strategies comprise metacognitive strategies, Popular and useful learning strategies in language
affective strategies and social strategies. acquisition amongst teenagers, Erla
Edvardsdóttir, 050378-5199, University of
Direct Strategies Iceland, School of Education, Faculty of
1. Memory Strategy Teacher Education April 2010.
2. Cognitive Strategies J. Michael O’Malley and anna Uhl Chammot,
3. Compensation strategies Learning Strategies In Second Language
Acquisition.
Indirect Strategies 2012 International Conference on Language,
1. Metacognitive Strategies Medias and Culture IPEDR vol.33 (2012) ©
2. Affective Strategies (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore.
3. Social Strategies Jermaine S. Mc dougald, The use of modern
technology in the EFL classroom, an
There are also some strategies that offered by evaluation of technology as a tool in language
New Teacher Center @ UC Santa Cruz (2005) : teaching. 2005.
1. The first of the six key strategies is vocabulary Use of Technology in English Language Teaching
and language development, and Learning'; An Analysis, Solanki D
2. The second strategy is guided interaction. Shyamlee, 2012.
3. The third strategy is metacognition and
authentic assessment.

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ANALOGICAL THINKING IN MATHEMATICSPROBLEMSOLVING

Irwani
Muhammadiyah University of Gresik
email : irwanizawawi@ymail.com

Abstract 2006). One form of reasoning is analogical


Analogy has been widely used in real life. reasoning. Analogy is the similarity between the
Analogies are often used in problem solving. two situations, one that has been known (source)
Therefore, every student must learn how to use the and another less well understood (target) (Reid,
analogy in problem solving. Especially when they 2002). Reasoning is a particular form of thinking
are in school, the analogy is often used to solve with regard to the deduction based on the premises
problems that are similar to each other. This study (Copi, 1982). Others say reasoning is thinking
is intended to obtain a description of the stages of activities that have certain characteristics in
analogical thinking students in solving determining the truth (Suriasumantri, 2001). Think
mathematical problems. the analogy is a way of thinking in drawing
This study uses qualitative approach with conclusions inductively by observing the pattern of
descriptive-exploratory research. The subjects were the relationship or the relationship between the
junior high school students. Auxiliary instrument is structure of the problem is already known (the
a matter of mathematical analogy, which is source) to the problem to be solved (the target).
composed of the target resource issues and Thinking or cognitive process is strongly
problems. Researchers conducted in-depth associated with information processing. Thinking is
interviews to the subject, which is done in a mental activity which includes receiving
conjunction with the subject solve mathematical information, processing or information processing,
analogy. Activity of subjects during the activity information storage, and recall of information
recorded with a camcorder and voice recorder. The (Marpaung, 1986). There are three stages in the
recording was transcribed and coded, then processing of information in memory, namely: 1)
analyzed for inferences. Encoding, which aims to transform the information
As a result, subject to resolve the problem received so that individuals can put in the memory.
follows the structure of the target source problem 2) Storage, which serves to retain the information.
solving, with the stages: 1) Encoding, the subject 3) Retrieval, which is the process of accessing the
encodes the information contained in the source information that has been stored, (Sternberg, 2003).
and target problems. Such information is Information processing in inductive reasoning
information that is known, being asked, or other known as “Componential theory of information
information that is useful to both settle the matter. processing in inductive reasoning” (Sternberg,
2) Inferring, subject concluded to use the concepts, 1987). Components of information processing in
formulas or definitions in order to resolve the inductive reasoning consists of seven components,
source of the problem. 3) Mapping, a subject using namely: 1) Encoding. 2) Inference. 3) Mapping. 4)
the role or a way of resolving the problem source to Applications. 5) Comparison. 6) Justification. 7)
be used in solving the target problem. 4) Applying, Response. Componential theory comes with certain
subjects completed the target problem. models that apply to a particular inductive
problems. Components of information processing
Keywords:Analogical Thinking, Mathematical theory to determine where to draw the model, the
Problem Solving model also determines the way in which the
performance of the set (or subset) of the
BACKGROUND components are combined into a strategy to resolve
One of the goals of mathematics education, the problem. Resolve the problem with the analogy
among others is aimed at using the reasoning on the of the form A : B :: C : (D1, D2) using the7
pattern and nature of mathematics. Reasoning components of information processing (Sternberg,
indicators to be achieved by learners include the 2008) while completing a problem with the analogy
ability to draw conclusions from statements and of the form A : B :: C : (D) using the four
find patterns or mathematical nature of the components of information processing, ie 1)
symptoms to make generalizations (Depdiknas,

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Encoding, 2) Inferring, 3) Mapping, and 4) While the purpose of this study was to obtain
Applying (Sternberg, 1987). descriptions of the process of analogical thinking
Analogical thinking in solving mathematical junior high school students in solving mathematical
problems is the way of thinking of students in problems.
solving a target problem by using a source of the
problem (English, 1999). In this study the process METHOD
of thinking in solving mathematical analogy is a This studyemployed a qualitative approach. It
combination of measures developed by Sternberg is calleda qualitative approach, since the description
(1987) and Novick (1999), which in turn according ofthe results ofthis study is elaborated using words
to the authors called “analogical thinking process of or said research in the field of language and
students in solving mathematical problems”, description (Faisal, 1990). If it is viewed from the
includes four things: 1) Encoding is the process by goal, and the presence or absence of something
which students perform encoding the information variable manipulation, this study is a descriptive
contained in the resource and target problems. 2) study. Specifically the purpose of this study to
Inferring is the process of inference to use the explore the thought processes analogy students in
concepts, formulas, definition or boundaries in solving mathematical problems, this study
order to solve the problem source. 3) Mapping is considered exploratory study. Thus, this study used
the process of mapping role, the pattern or structure a qualitative approach with descriptive-exploratory
of the source problem solving to solving the target research design.
problem. 4) Applying is the process of applying The subjects were junior high school students.
role, the pattern or structure of solutions sources in In consideration of the students at the level they are
solving target problem. (see figure 1) at the stage of inductive thinking, because the
Relationship between analogical thinking in analogy included in phase inductive thinking.
solving problems with analogical thinking in Accordance with the opinion (Soedjadi, 2000) said
solving mathematical problems can be seen in that deductive logic is very important in
Figure 1. mathematics because mathematics is one of the
Encoding
characteristics. However, in elementary and junior
high level, still required the use of inductive logic.
Subjects selected based on tests of mathematical
Preparation A B C D Response
ability groups of high math ability students
category (score ≥ 75). The results of math ability
Inference Application test the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1
Gresik, the highest score achieved by NAS with a
Sternberg (2003; 500)
Mapping Analogical thinking
process in
mathematics value of 100, then the subject of this study is NAS.
problem solving
Role/way of
Mapping Application
The main instrument is the researcher himself,
resolving the
problem solving
Inference
in addition to his position as a researcher as well as
The The
an observer, as well as a planner, analysis,
Concepts used in
Known
information
information
in question
Known
information
information
in question
interpretation of data, and eventually became the
solving the
problem source Sources problems Target Problem reporting of research results. Supporting
instruments are 1) Mathematics Problem Ability
Novick, (dalam English, 2004: 5-6)
Test. Mathematical skills test is used to encompass
Encoding the study subjects. About math ability test consists
of 12 questions are based on the national exam
Figure 1. Relationship between analogical thinking
questions last 5 years. Material about mathematics
in solving problems with analogical thinking in
ability tests selected only until the eighth grade
solving math problems
junior high school mathematics. The selection of
material is based on the curriculum KTSP in 2006.
Analogical thinkingis to think about the
2) Mathematical Analogies problem. Thisquestionis
structure o rpatterns of relationship (predicate)
used to explore students' analogical thinking in
betweenthe source ofa problem with the target
solving mathematics problems. Matter of
problem, it is necessary to think the analogy
mathematic alanalogy consists of the resource and
stagesin solving mathematical problems. Based on
target problems. (see appendix)
the above background, the question in this research
Subjects were given about the mathematical
is: “How is analogical thinking stage of junior high
analogy, based on answers to a subject, then
school students in solving mathematical problems?”
conducted interviews to explore further stages of

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thinking students in solving mathematical


problems. Data results of the written test and 2) Completion of the problem target (M2)
interview is then reduced to sharpen, classify and
dispose of unnecessary, and organize raw data
obtained from the field. Based on the results of the
reduction, the data is presented and described in the
form of a more systematic conclusion to be done.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


RESULTS
Subjects in solving mathematical problems,
first of all work on the problem directly with the
source of its own way based on previous
experiences. Second, subjects in solving the target
problems tend to follow a pattern or structure of the
source problem solving.
Results jobs research at the source problem
(M1) and the target problem (M2) is:
1) Completion of the problem source (M1)

From theresults ofthe writtentestcan


bedescribedasthe followingthings:
1. Encodingphase, subjectsidentified theknown
informationandinformation in question on
theissuein eitherthe sourceorthetarget ofthe
problem.
2. Inferringphase, subjectsusingthe concept ofthe
LCM, multiplication, anddivision
byzeroresidualtosolve the sourceproblem (M1).
3. Mappingphase, subjectsusingthe concept ofthe
LCM, multiplication,
divisionwithremainderzeroonthe source
problem(M1) tosolve the target problem (M2).
4. Applyingphase, subjectscompletedthe
targetproblem.
Then thesubjectofa writtenresponsefollowed
byan interviewtodig deepsubject knowledgeto
solveproblemsbased onthe sourceandthe
targetproblemstagesanalogical thinkingin
solvingmathematical problems.
1. Encoding phase
Excerpts of the interview as follows:
P: What is known of the problem 1?
S: Each bag filled with 16 cookies, the
remaining 6 cake; filled with 14 cookies,
the remaining 6 cake; 8 pastry filled, the
remaining 6 cake; 9 stuffed pastry, no
residual
P: Are there more is known of the problem 1?
S: If each bag filled with 16, 14 and 8 cakes,
together remaining 6 cake.
Cake brought nothing left
P: If the problem 2, what is known?
S: Decorative stones put in 12 boxes,

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remaining 2 stones; put in 8 cardboard, the source of the problem: a minimum total
remaining 2 stones; put in 6 cardboard, amount brought cake. The elements that are
remaining 2 stones; put in 7 cardboard, no known to the target problem: if the ornamental
trace stone put in 12 boxes, remaining 2 decorative
P: Much less is known of the problem 2? stone; ornamental stones put in 8 cardboard,
S: Because it included 12, 8 and 6 cardboard, remaining 2 decorative stone; ornamental stones
together remaining 2 ornamental stone. put in 6 cardboard, remaining 2 decorative
Later that brought a lot of the same cake stone; stone decorative cardboard put in 7, no
P: Asked what the problem 1? stone is left ornamental. Many ornamental
S: Minimal brought a lot of cake stones that were taken should not be left. The
P: What is being asked to issue 2? elements in question on the issue of targets:
S: Ornamental stones that were taken ornamental stone taken between 50 and 200.
between 50-200 2. Inferring stage, subject resolved the source
problem using the LCM concept, which is
2. Inferring phase looking for LCM of 16, 14 and 8, was 112.
P: Well, if the problem 1, how to solve it LCM 112 plus 6 cakes left, then divide the 9. If
completely? the LCM after plus 6 is not divisible by 9, then
the LCM folded. Then calculate the smallest
S: Sought before the “lowest common
number divisible by 9, which is 342.
multiple” (LCM) of 16, 14 and 8, was 112.
Total number of cakes that are multiples of 3. Mapping phase, subjects employed the LCM
112 was taken, namely: 112, 224, 336, concept to find LCM of three numbers. LCM is
448, 560, ... Because the remaining 6, then added to the remaining number, then divided by
multiples of 112 plus 6, ie 118, 230, 342, the number, which when divided no trace. If the
454 ... So the smallest number divisible by LCM after plus the remaining number is not
9 is 342 divisible, then the number is folded. Ultimately
determine the number divisible.
3.Mapping phase
4. Applying phase, subjects completed the target
P: If the problem 2, how its solution?
problem. LCM of 12, 8 and 6, which is 24.
S: The same, which is for first LCM of 12, 8
LCM 24 plus 2 remaining ornamental stones,
and 6. Then multiples of plus 2. Then look namely 26. Then divided by 7. Because 26 is
for numbers between 50 and 200 is not divisible by 7, then folded and the LCM
divisible by 7
each plus 2. Then look for numbers between 50
4.Applying phase and 200 is divisible by 7. Then the number
P: Detail how? between 50 and 200 are divisible by 7 is 98.
S: LCM of 12, 8 and 6, which is 24. Total
number of ornamental stones that were CUNCLUSION
taken are multiples of 24, ie: 24, 48, 72, Standard procedure in solving math problems
96, 120, 144, 168, 192, ... Because the is to identify known information, the information in
remaining 2, then multiples of 24 plus 2, ie question as well as other information that can help
26, 50, 74, 98, 122, 146, 170, 194, ... Then in solving mathematical problems. If these
the numbers between 50 and 200 are activities are done on a matter of two or more
divisible by 7 is 98 similar, this activity is called encoding the resource
Note: P = Researcher, S = Subject and target problems. Based on the known elements
and asked the subjects to use the concept LCM
From the results of the interview can be concluded 3 numbers, multiples and the concept of
described as follows: numbers divisible resources problem to resolve the
1. Encoding phase, subjects identified the known problem. This is done on the subject of inferring
information and asked both the problem at the stage. Rolein the form of draft LCM 3 numbers,
source and the target problem. Known multiples and the concept of numbers divisible by
information on the source of the problem: if that of the source of the problem is mapped to be
each bag is filled with 16 cookies, the remaining used in solving the target problem. Finally resolve
6 cake; each bag filled with 14 cookies, the the target subject.
remaining 6 cake; every bag filled with 8 cakes, Subject solved the target problem tends to
remaining 6 cookies, and if each bag is filled 9 follow a pattern or structure of the source problem
cake, no cake remaining. Many brought cake solving. Stages of the target is subject solved the
should not be left. The elements in question on

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problem: 1. Encodingphase, the subject encodes the Di Indonesia, Dirjen Dikti Depdiknas, Jakarta.
information contained in the resource and target
problems. Information include information that is APPENDIX
known, the information in question, or any other
information related to both settle the matter; 2. Sources problems (M11): Birthday Cake
Stage concludes (Inferring), subject concluded to Ani wants to give a gift of a birthday cake on his
use the concepts, formulas or definitions in order to birthday. Ani was not sure how much cake left, if
resolve the source problem. 3. Mappingphase, the cake is put into a bag. At first, each pouch
subjects using the role or a way of resolving the condition 16 cakes. It turns out the last bag there
source problem to be used in solving the target are 6 remaining cake, but Ani wanted no cake
problem. 4. Applyingphase, subjects completed the left. Then he pulled out all the contents of the
target problem. bag and began to fill each bag with 14 cookies,
turns on the last bag there are 6 remaining cake.
References At three he attempts to fill each bag with 8 cakes.
Copi, Irving M. (1982). Introduction to Logic, Again, the cake is left on the last bag there are 6
Mcmillan Publishing Co, Inc, New York. cakes. Ani confusion, then he called his friend
Depdiknas. (2006). Mata Pelajaran Matematika Ana to help resolve the problem. Ana advised to
Sekolah Atas (SMA) dan Madrasah Aliyah fill each bag with 9 cake, it turns out there is no
(MA), Pusat Kurikulum Balitbang, Jakarta more cake left. Ani excited and thanked her.
Faisal, Sanafiah. (1990). Penelitian Kualitatif,YA2 What is the minimum lot Ani cakes brought in
, Malang. his friend's birthday party?
Marpaung. (1986). Sumbangan Pikiran terhadap Target Problem (M12): Shop Building
Pendidikan Matematika dan Fisika, Pusat Building a store employee would like to send
Penelitian Pendidikan Matematika/Informatika customers orders ornamental stones, ornamental
FPMIPA, IKIP Sanata Darma, Yogyakarta stones by inserting it into a cardboard box. He
Reid, David A. (2002). Conjectures and Refutations did not know how many pet rocks that can be
in Grade 5 Mathematics, Journal for Research contained in the boxes. At first he was put into
in Mathematics Education 2002, 33, (1); 5-29. 12 boxes, but the remaining 2 ornamental stone.
Published by: National Council of Teachers of The shop owner wanted no ornamental stone is
Mathematics. left to be loaded in 1 carton. The employee then
Suriasumantri, Jujun. S. (2001). Ilmu dalam took out all the contents ofthe box and start to
Perspektif, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta. enter it into 8 boxes, but the remaining 2
Sternberg, R.J. (2003). Cognitif Psychology. 3TH ornamental stone. Even in the third step, the
Edition. Yale University. ornamental stone inserted into the 6 cardboard,
Sternberg, R.J. (1987). Benyon IQ a Triarchic but still remaining 2 ornamental stone. The
Theory of Human Intellegence. Cambridge employee was upset and reported the matter to
University Press, New York. the owner of the store. The shop owner suggested
Sternberg, RJ. (2008). Psikologi Kognitif. Ed. 4. ornamental stone is inserted into the 7 boxes. The
(Terj.: Yudi Santoso), Pustaka Pelajar, employee then insert into 7 boxes of decorative
Yogyakarta. stone, was no longer remaining ornamental stone.
English, Lyn D. (1999). Developing Mathematical If the decorative stones to be sent between 50
Reasoning in Grades K-12. In Stiff, Lee V and 200. How many ornamental stones that can
Curcio, Frances R (ED). Reasoning by be sent to customers?
Analogy. Reston: The National Council of
Teacher of Mathematics. Inc.
Soedjadi, R. (2000). Kiat Pendidikan Matematika

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SPEECH ON THE BEGINNING OF CHILDREN AGES 5 YEARS

Perla Yualita
STIKes Aisyiyah Bandung
perlayualita3@gmail.com

Abstract 2. Exploration age, because this is a time period


This study was conducted to obtain an where kids want to know the state of their
overview of speech in the early days of children environment and its mechanism, how it feels,
aged 5 years. From research, it has been found that and how they can become part of their
in their early days, children 5 years of age are environment.
shown to have a strong desire to speak. This is 3. Inquiry age, where children seek to explore their
evident from the produced MLU figure of 4.9 at environment with many questions.
Post V stage (Brown Standard). This means that the 4. Imitation age, where kids love to imitate the
the ability to speak above stage V which shows that speech and actions of others.
their ability has exceeded co-ordination of simple 5. Creative age, a period where children show
sentences. In addition, at this time the more creativity in play compared to other times
childrenhavealready been talking about their in their life.
favorite activities and have mastered the basic Early childhood learning is considered as the
grammar lawsoftheir first language (L1), although right moment to achieve a variety of skills because
in terms of phonological development they are still at this time the child likes to repeat activities that
experiencing difficulties in pronunciation of are important to learn skills. In this age range,
compound and less complex consonants. At the children are venturous and like to try new things.
same time, they havelearnedthe vocabulary of During early childhood, children have a strong
abstract words, verbs, nouns, and plural words, desire to learn to speak. This is because learning to
along with the desire to give information to others. speak is the principal means of socialization and
also a means to gain independence
Keywords: The beginning of children 5 years of (http://digilib.petra.ac.id).
age, MLU, First Language (L1 Furthermore, Benedict (Chaer, 2003:237)
states that children around the age of 13 months
BACKGROUND have mastered about 50 words, but only around the
In accordance with the opinion stated by age of 19 months can children productively utter
Elizabeth Hurlock,the age of 2 to 6 years isthe stage those words.
of early childhood. Early childhood period is the Referring to the aforementioned opinions, the
closing stage of infancy and a period of transition author was interested in conducting research related
from dependence to growing independence. The to children's ability to talk, especially about
characteristics of early childhood can be seen from children's ability to produce speech. The subjects of
the titles given by parents, educators, and research chosen by the author were children aged 5
psychologists. Parents call early childhood as a years, because this age is the midpoint of early
difficult phase that invites many problems mainly childhood where children have a strong desire to
related to behavior. Parents also call it the age of speak.
playing because childrenat that age spend most of The guidelines used to calculate the amount of
their time playing. According to educators, the children’s controlled speech refer to the
period of 2 to 6 years of age is the preschool stage measurement set by Roger Brown (Mar'at,
which is a time of preparation before entering 2009:60), which is known as Main Length of
school life filled with pressure and responsibility. Utterance (MLU). MLU calculation is obtained by
Meanwhile, psychologists call this period with dividing the number of morphemes by the number
many designations, namely: of utterances produced by children. The purpose of
1. Group age, which is a period where the children this study is to get an idea of utterances produced in
learn the basics of social behavior as a the early stages of children aged 5 years.
preparation for higher social life, required for
adjustment when they enter the first grade of
elementary school.

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METHOD 1. Pre-linguistic stage, the language development


The type of research conducted was survey phase in which children have not yet been able
research. Kerlinger (Sugiyono, 1998:3) states that to produce meaningful sounds. Resulting sounds
survey research is conducted on either a large or like crying, whining, cooing, and chattering are
small population, but the studied data are data from only a means to train their articulate motions
samples taken from the population in order to find until they are able to utter meaningful words.
relative occurrences, distribution, and relationships 2. One-word stage, the language development
between variables, both sociological and phase where children have only been able to use
psychological. one-word utterances. These one-word utterances
The survey was conducted to collect data and represent complete ideas and expressions.
information about a large population by using a 3. Two-word stage, the phase where children are
relatively small sample. The method used was a able to use two words in their speech.
descriptive survey method. The descriptive survey 4. Multiple-word stage, the language development
method is a research method that takes a sample of phase where children are able to speak with
a population by using interviews and observations three words or more with a better mastery of
as data collectors. grammar.
The respondents in this study was boy aged 5 In the above stages, children's knowledge of
years. The instrument used in this study was a language subsystems, such as phonology, grammar,
recorder used to conduct interviews and semantics, and pragmatics, also implicitly develops.
observations. Interviews were conducted Receptive oral language skills, such as listening or
unstructured/informally and recorded using a tape understanding, are acquired by children faster than
recorder without the knowledge of the respondent the ability to speak. When children have only been
so that the data obtained are natural. able to use speech with one word, for instance, their
Observations were structured and ability to understand would be higher. They are
unstructured. Structured observations were able to understand and respond to full and relatively
designed systematically concerning what will be long speech, and so on (http://pustaka.ut.ac.id).
observed, and when and where the observations
take place. Unstructured observations were not Language Development
prepared systematically concerning what will be The comprehension of young children
observed. The results of observations were recorded sometimes goes beyond their speech. They use
in field notes. small children’s ways in feeling and understanding
The data analysis techniques were their world during their development. Roger Brown
implemented as follows. believes that the Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)
1. The data from recorded interviews were is a good index for assessing the maturity of a
converted to written text. child's language. The following is the elaboration of
2. The interview data were compared with the Brown’s stages which include age range, mean
results of observations. length of utterance, characteristics of language and
3. The written text was analyzed carefully. sentence variations.
4. The results of the text analysis were associated 1. Phase 1
with the MLU theory. The MLU is 1.00 to 2.00. The vocabulary
5. The results of the study were summed up. primarily consists of nouns and verbs with several
adjectives and auxiliaries. Word order is also
LITERATURE REVIEW shown. Characteristic phrases are “mama dada”,
Child Language Acquisition “papa dada”, and “big dog”.
Language acquisition is the process toward the 2. Phase 2
possession of the ability to speak, either in terms of The MLU is 2.00 to 2.50. Compound words
understanding or expression, naturally, without are formed precisely, past tense, be, the, a, an are
going through formal learning activities. In other used, along with some prepositions. Characteristic
words, this activity is done by children phrases are “sleeping doll”, “they’re beautiful”, and
unconsciously with no burden, and takes place on “milk runs”.
an informal basis and in the context of meaningful 3. Phase 3
language. The MLU is 2.50 to 3.00. “Yes/No” questions
Language skills in children are not obtained start to appear, questions using who, what, where
simultaneously. Speaking skills, for example, are are developed, negative words (no, not, non-) are
acquired by a child through the following stages. used, and so are important or imperative words

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(command or request). Characteristic phrases are Standard Robert Brown (Timothy, 2003)
“Daddy home?” and “Susie not want milk.” Age Range
4. Phase 4 Stage MLU (Words)
(Months)
The MLU is 3.00 to 3.75. A sentence is Early I 1.01 – 1.49 16 – 26
sometimes associated with other sentences. Late I 1.50 – 1.99 18 – 31
Characteristic phrases include, “I thought it was Late II 2.00 – 2.49 21 – 35
red,” and “Know what I saw.” Late III 2.50 – 2.99 24 – 41
5. Phase 5 Early IV 3.00 – 3.49 28 – 45
The MLU is 3.75 to 4.50. Simple sentences Late IV/ 3.50 – 3.99 31 – 50
and relations between propositions are coordinated. Early V
Characteristic phrases are “I went to Bob’s house Late V 4.00 – 4.49 37 – 52
and ate ice cream,” and “I want a rabbit as funny.” ( Post V 4.5 + 41 -
http://digilib.petra.ac.id). Schaerlaekens (Mar'at, 2009:66-67) suggests
Mean Length of Utterance (MLU), the existence of a differentiation period from 2.5 to
according to Roger Brown (Bayu, 2009), is an 5 years of age in child language development which
index of language development based on the has the following characteristics.
number of words per sentence generated by a child 1. At the end of the period children have generally
in a sample consisting of about 50 to 100 sentences, mastered their native language, meaning that
as an index of good maturity. basic grammar laws obtained from adults have
MLU stages : been mastered.
1. 1 + 2.0 2. The development of phonology may be said to
2. 2.5 have ended. There may still be difficulties in
3. 3.0 pronouncing combined and less complex
4. 3.5 consonants.
5. 4.0 3. Vocabulary is developed, both quantitatively
Phase 1 starts when a child creates sentences and qualitatively. Some abstract concepts, such
that consist of one word, the sign 1+ indicating that as the concept of time, space, and quantum,
the average number of words in each utterance is begin to emerge.
more than one but not yet two. This phase continues 4. Nouns and verbs become more differentiated in
until the child has an average of two words per use, characterized by the utilization of
utterance, and so on. prepositions, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs.
The development of language comprehension 5. The function of language for communication
in a child is not only greatly influenced by the begins to actually be fulfilled, as children are
child's biological condition, but the linguistic able to hold conversations in a way that can be
environment around the child from an early age is understood by adults.
much more important in their language 6. Children start willing to share their perception
development, especially the role of parents and and experience concerning the outside world
other people around the child. with other people, by giving feedback, asking
Phase I MLU index= 1, 75 questions, giving orders, informing, etc.
Phase II  MLU index= 2, 25 7. Development in terms of morphology begins to
Phase III  MLU index= 2, 75 occur, characterized by the emergence of plural
Phase IV  MLU index= 3, 50 words, changes in noun suffixes, and changes in
Phase V  MLU index= 4, 00 verbs.

Robert Brown Standard (Mar'at, 2009: 65-66) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Analysis resulted in data as given in the
Phase 1 : Relations of rules in simple sentences following table.
Phase 2 : Modulation (setting) of meaning in No. Situation Theme Speech Morpheme
simple sentences 1. Going to Carrefour 24 132
Phase 3 : Conversion of simple sentences 2. At home 36 162
Phase 4 : Inserting a sentence into another sentence Σ 60 294
Phase 5 : Coordination of simple sentences Based on the number of utterances and
(grammar known) morphemes that has been collected, the number of
Main Length of Utterance (MLU) which has been
mastered by the respondents is:

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ΣMorpheme 294 with other people, by giving feedback, asking


MLU = = =4.9 questions, giving orders, informing, etc., such as
ΣSpeech 60
Referring to the standards set by Roger Brown the speech Suka sama mamah pake odol
(Mar'at, 2009:65-66), respondents were above stage Kodomo oren. Here the respondent intended to
V because the MLU value obtained was 4.9, while inform that he was happy to brush his teeth
the reference value was 4.00. Such is also the case using orange-colored Kodomo toothpaste.
when referring to Roger Brown (Timothy, 2003), 7. Development in terms of morphology begins to
where respondents are in Post V stage.Post V stage occur, characterized by the emergence of plural
shows MLU of over 4.5 at the age range of above words, such as angka-angkanya (utterance 12),
41 months. This suggests that the 5-year-old and changes in verb suffixes, such as dinyalakin
respondents were in a range that matches the (utterance 42).
standards set out by Roger Brown. At this stage the respondent began to talk
The figure obtained by the respondent at about his favorite activities, such as eating and
MLU=4.9 demonstrates an ability above phase V. drinking his favorite things (utterances 2-6),
This means that the ability has exceeded the watching his favorite movie (utterances 26, 29-31),
coordination of simple sentences. This is evidenced playing his favorite game (utterances 11-15, 26, and
by the statement of Schaerlaekens (Mar'at, 2009: 41), mentioning the title of his favorite song
66-67), which suggests that the differentiation (utterances 33, 35, and 36), and mentioning his
period of 2.5 - 5 years of age has the following favorite book (utterances 38-40).
characteristics.
1. At the end of the period children have generally CONCLUSION
mastered their native language, meaning that Based on the research on the overview of
basic grammar laws obtained from adults have speech produced in the early stages of children aged
been mastered. It can be seen from the 5 years, the following conclusions are obtained:
utterances of respondents who have Indonesian 1. Children aged 5 years in the middle of early
as L1. childhood are shown to have a strong desire to
2. The development of phonology may be said to speak. This is evident from the produced MLU
have ended. There may still be difficulties in figure of 4.9 which is at Post V stage (Brown
pronouncing combined and less complex Standard). This means that the child has ability
consonants, as in the word carrefour above phase V which demonstrates that his
pronounced as kerpur (utterance 1), okky jelly ability has exceeded the coordination of simple
drink as oki jeli ding (utterances 2, sentences.
3),championship as chempionsip (utterance 11), 2. At this stage the respondent began to talk about
computer as tongpitter (speech 41), dinding as his favorite activities, such as eating and
dingding (utterance 33), and oranye as oren drinking his favorite things (utterances 2-6),
(utterance 58). watching his favorite movie (utterances 26, 29-
3. Vocabulary is developed, both quantitatively 31), playing his favorite game (utterances 11-
and qualitatively. Some abstract concepts, such 15, 26, and 41), mentioning the title of his
as the concept of time, space, and quantum, favorite song (utterances 33, 35, and 36), and
begin to emerge, as in the phrase nggak lama mentioning his favorite book (utterances 38-40).
(utterance 8) which states time, and pulang 3. Referring to the opinion of Schaerlaekens
siang (utterance 20). (Mar'at, 2009:66-67), obtaining 4.9 (age 2.5 - 5
4. Nouns and verbs become more differentiated in years) implies that at this age children have
use, characterized by the utilization of generally mastered basic grammar laws in their
prepositions, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs, as L1 although in terms of phonological
in di situ (utterance 27), and gak bisa development they are still experiencing
liat(utterance 55). difficulties in pronunciation of compound and
5. The function of language for communication less complex consonants. At the same time, they
begins to actually be fulfilled, as children are have learned the vocabulary of abstract words
able to hold conversations in a way that can be such as time, verbs, nouns, and plural words,
understood by adults. This is evident from the along with the desire to give information to
fact that the communication process went others.
smoothly without any obstacles. The results of this study can be used to
6. Children start willing to share their perception contribute to the science of nursing, especially child
and experience concerning the outside world nursing. By taking into account the child's language

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Proceedings of International Conference
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skills, especially at the age of 5 years, it is expected Mar'at, Samsunuwiyati. 2009. Psikolinguistik Suatu
nursing care in children can be performed more Pengantar. Bandung: PT. Refika Aditama.
optimally. Sugiyono. 1998. Metode Penelitian Administrasi.
Bandung: Alfabeta.
References Nn. 2006. Active Learning. [Online] Available:
B. Jay, Timothy. 2003. The Psychology of http://digilib.petra.ac.id/.../jiunkpe-ns-s1-
Language. Pearson Education Asia Limited 2006-42402017-4865-active_learning
and Peking University Press, China. chapter2.pdf
Bayu. 2009. Perkembangan Kognitif pada Masa Nn. -------------------------- [Online] Available:
Bayi [Online]. Available: sejuk- http://pustaka.ut.ac.id/puslata/online.php?men
pagi.blogspot.com/.../perkembangan-kognitif- u=bmpshort_detail2&ID=303.
pada-masa-bayi.html [1 June 2010]. Nn. --------------------------- [Online] Available:
Chaer, Abdul. 2003. Psikolinguistik Kajian http://pustaka.ut.ac.id/puslata/online.php?men
Teoretik. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta. u=bmpshort_detail2&ID=265).

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IMPROVING JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SCIENCE LITERACY BY


USING MULT IMEDIA ON INTEGRATED-SCIENCE LEARNING IN THEME OF
TRASH AND ITS TACKLING EFFORT

Dewi Nurdiyanti
Banu Kisworo
Tania Avianda Gusman

Chemistry Departement, Teacher Training and Education Faculty


University of Muhammadiyah Cirebon
Email: dewinurdiyanti@yahoo.co.id, kisworo.banu@yahoo.com, nia_inu@yahoo.com

Abstract level, it is 29% as the content, 34% in the process,


To improve students’ science literacy on and 32% in the context, comparable by the
integrated-science learning in the theme of trash improvement in International PISA literacy. This
and its tackling effort by using multimedia was lowered science literacy is because of the factor of
done by comparing the result of students’ science learning process where it is still using teacher
literacy increment which is referred to PISA centered learning, whereas the students’ activities
between those who are learning through video and can be told that they only hear the explanation from
animation and those who are learning through the teacher and take important notes (Mahyudin,
power point slides. The sample of this research is 2007), so that the students only learn science as the
60 students of VII grade of Junior High School product but process, attitude, and application. The
(SMP0 6 Cirebon. During the teaching learning content being taught is not related with their daily
process, the experimental group was taught by activities, and also the learning process is still not
using video and animation whereas the controlled integrated however we used Integrated Science as
group was taught by using power point slides. Pre- the name of the subject. It is not the same with the
test and post-test control group design are used to learning process that should be applied by
execute quasi-experiment design. Based on the Depdiknas which more pressed by giving direct
result of the observation, teacher had conduct experience to develop the competence to
appropriately with the lesson plan in which the step comprehend the nature naturally (Depdiknas,
of learning which had most of students’ active 2006).
response was nexus step. In this step, 66,7% of the Science literacy learning is a learning based
students deliverd their oponion and 83,3% of the on developing of science skill knowledge in every
students answered the question. Based on the result part of life, finding the solution of problems,
of analysis, there was a significant increment of making the decision, and improving the quality of
students’ science literacy of experimental group life. (Holbrook dan Rannikmae dalam Holbrook,
compared to the controlled group. This is proven 1998). The goal is to improve creative skill used
by % N-Gain of experimental group which reached the knowledge and to know the application in daily
48,6% whereas 25,2% for controlled group. The life to solve the problems and to make decision that
highest increment is on the science content aspect can improve life quality. (Holbrook dan Rannikmae
which reached the number of 44,14%. From t-Test, dalam Holbrook 1998). Integrated science learning
mean disparty 5 N-Gain at α = 0,05 with P- based literacy science is not only improving
value/sig. 0,000 indicates that using multimedia on students’ motivation, but also improving the
itegrated-science learning in the theme of trash and content of subject, the process, aplication context,
its tackling effort can improve students’ science and students science attitude, Sumatati (2009).
literacy more significantly than using power point From the six of science literacy learning stages, the
sides. most stage which gets more positive response is
nexus stage (Nurdiyanti, 2012).
Key words: Integrated Science, Trash and its Multimedia in the learning process can be
tackling effort, Multimedia, Science Literacy. defined as the combination of many media involves
text, graphic, audio, photo, and animation
(Samodra, et al., 2009). The use of multimedia in
INTRODUCTION the learning process give the opportunity to the
PISA-OECD reflected that the improvement students to learn not only from one source of
Indonesian young learners’ science literacy which learning such as teacher, but also give them to
measured in National PISA 2006 is still in lower improve their cognitive better, creative and

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innovative (Saguni, 2006). It happened because of In this step, the teacher increase the curiosity
the information is delivered by visual, verbal and of students by asking the question "How can
audio. (Mayer dan Moreno, 1998). It is also can the right to process waste in accordance with
attract students’ attention in a subject (Wiendartun, the nature of garbage"? Respon active
et. al., 2007). students at this step is still not up to 36, 7%
The making of video and animation as the and 10% for the answer to question. At this
multimedia in this research by adopting the step, students prefer is asking the teacher
research done by Samodra, D., W, dkk, 2009 it was together with his friends than answer the
used design instructional model / development question by himself. From the interview is
model gather with the approached system. This known that they have appeared curious and
design generally recommended the activities they want to ask but they are still afraid to
logically include the analysis, design, development, ask.
implementation and evaluation (ADDIE). Based on 3. The Elaborasi Step
the explanation above, so that this research is done In this step the student observation directy of
to improve the students’ science literacy by making the garbage sample and write the observations
the video and animation as the multimedia in the on the worksheet provided. These
integrated-science learning in theme of trash and its observations include the type, nature,
tackling effort. amendment and biotic and abiotic components
that exist in the trash. After observation, the
RESEARCH METHOD student guided by the teacher to discuss the
This research is an experimental research by types, properties, and changes in biotic and
designing control group pre test and post test. This abiotic components that exist in the trash were
research subject is the seventh grade of Junior State observed. After that, the students are given
High School 6 Cirebon which has 60 students and impressions back on how waste management
divided in two groups, they are experimental group and appropriate based on the nature of the
(used video and animation as the multimedia) and material changes as well as biotic and abiotic
control group (used power point). The data in this components that are involved in it. When the
research is from the use of instruments includes video is played, the student is watching
multiple choice test, it is to know the improvement carefully . Response aktif students at this step
of students’ science literacy, observation sheet, it is is increasing up to 63.3% and 50% answered
to know the application of learning process and the question to ask. At this step, the teacher
students science attitude and interview to know the makes a fun discussion so that the students
students’ response of the learning process. more active than the previous step.
4. The Decision Step
RESULT AND DISCUSSION At this step, the teacher is guiding students to
Implementation of The Learning Process associate with the waste material that is taught
1. The Contact Step so that students can determine the appropriate
The activities undertaken at this step is the method of processing waste for each samples
teacher divided the students into groups, then were observed. At this step, the number of
the teacher showed a video about the garbage active responses of students increased from
and its consequeces. Thereafter, the teacher is the previous stage is 83.3% for answer the
guiding students had discussion related to questions of teachers and 56% of expression.
learning content ( properties of matter, biotic From the interview, it is known that students
and abiotic components). By the time the are getting used to the discussions and started
teacher has been carrying out learning growing his confidence so they dare to argue
activities in accordance with the RPP. At this and answer questions individually.
step, the number of students who show an 5. The Nexus Step
active response of 27,6% is still a bit to At this step, students are guided to take the
answer the question, and 0% for the giving essence of learning (decontextualization) and
question then the remaining of students are apply it to another context (re-
prefer discuss with his friend and nothing to contextualization) by watching videos and
do. When the video is played so the student discussion. Number of active student response
listen and pay attention to the video. Based on to answer the question is increased up to
the interview of the lower active response 83.8%, 66.7% to express opinions and the
because they are unfamiliar with the presence asking questions is decreased up to 10%.
of the researcher as teacher and observer and Based on interviews that the declining number
also with the multimedia is the new things that of students because they already understand
they got in the school. the material of the teacher is taught.
2. The Curiosity Step 6. The Evaluation Step

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At this step, the students is taking the test to
determine the increasing of scientific literacy
with eventhough there are still students who Students’ Science Literacy Improvement
working together. Students’ science literacy improvement in the
From the observation of the feasibility study aspect of content, process and science application
using a multimedia Integrated Sciences is known context are from the use of test instrument involve
that teachers are already implementing the learning the multiple choice test based on PISA criteria. The
activities in accordance with the RPP and the result of pre test, post test and % N-Gain for
teacher can also put the condition as a facilitator control and experimental class can be seen in
during discussions that stimulate students to be picture 1. It can be seen that the result of post test
active. In the learning process that students are and % N-Gain in experimental class is bigger than
enthusiastic with animated video show by the in control class, this is proved that the class which
teacher, they feel attracted by the display so that used video and animation as the multimedia is
students focus more on learning. The step of the succeed to get the higher achievement than in the
most active response is nexus where the number of control class which used power point.
students expressing their opinions as much as The improvement in students’ science literacy
66.7% and the students who answered the question in every aspect (the aspect of content, process and
as much as 83.3%. At this step students have a the context of science application) can be seen in
concepts is being taught and the context provided the picture 2.
outside from the context of the theme is close to
daily life of the students.

80 71.4
70 57.4
60 48.6
50 44.3 42.4
Average

40
30 25.2 Experiment
20 Control
10
0
Scietific Literacy Scietific Literacy % Gain
when Pretest whenPostttest

Picture 1. The result of pre test, post test and %N Gain

50 44.14 42.1
38.9
40
% N-Gain

30 24.8
17.1 14.2
20
Experiment
10
Control
0
Content Scientific Scientific
Process Context
Aplication

Picture 2. The improvement of science Literacy in every aspect.

Normality and Homogenity Test normality test and table 2 showed the result of
After getting the data of pre test, post test and homogeneity in the pre test, post test and % N-
%N-Gain, then tested the normality and Gain.
homogeneity to those data. Table 1 showed the

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Tabel 1. Normality Data Pretest, Posttest, and N-gain Result


Pre Test Post Test %N-gain
Exsperimental Control Eksperimental Control Eksperimental Control
Class Class Class Class Class Class
P-value/Sig. 0,112 0,11 0,015 0,033 0,193 0,022
Conclusion Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
The test is done in significance of level 95% (α = 0,05) by the criteria if -value/Sig > α so the data is
normal distributed.

Tabel 2. Homogenity Data Pretest, Posttest, and N-gain Result


Pre Test Post Test N-gain
P-
0,700 0,981 0,736
value/Sig.
Conclusion Homogeny Homogeny Homogeny

The test is done in significance of level 95%


(α = 0,05) by the criteria if -value/Sig > α so t -Test
experimental and control class are homogeny. The To know whether there is different science
homogeneity data showed that the sample that used literacy in pretest, posttest and the improvement of
in this research is having the same skill between the experimental and control class so it is done the t
experimental and class control. This is the same Test because the three data are normal and
with the statement of Ruseffendi (1994) who stated homogeny distributed. T test is done in the
that the equivalence of research subject in the significance of level 95% (α = 0,05) with the
different group should be appeared in order to get criteria if P-value/Sig < α so that there is a
the difference of the result in each group, not only significant differential in science literacy in
because of those groups is not equivalence but also experiment and control class. The result of t test to
there is a difference treatment, in this case is improve science literacy can be seen in table 3, as
because of different media. follow:

Tabel 2. The result of t-test of science Literacy in Pretest, post test and % N Gain
Pretest Posttest % N-Gain
P-value/Sig. 0,484 0,000 0,000
There is not There is a
There is a
Conclusion significant different significant
significant different
different

Based on the data in table 2 known that science CONCLUSION


literacy in the pretest of both groups is not a Based on the six stages science literacy, the
different significant. Meanwhile in there is a most stage that gets more active response is nexus
significant different in result of post test and %N stage, the result of nexus stage is 66,7 % students
Gain. Multimedia in the form of video and gave the opinion and 83,3% answered the
animation in integrated learning Science in Garbage questions. Teacher has been done the learning
as the theme and the effort to tackle it, is the media process as it applied in the lesson plan.
that can be seen and heard and it is also can Integrated-science learning in theme of trash
improve students’ science literacy comparing by and its tackling effort by using video and animation
using power point that only applied pictures and can improve students’ science literacy better than
text. It emphasized that picture, animation, video its learning by using power point. The biggest
and attracted concept will be easily memorized for science literacy is achieved in experimental group
the students better comparing by visualizing the based % N-Gain is 48,6 % and control group 25,2
subject with text and pictures (Wiendartun, et. al., %, the biggest improvement happened in the aspect
2007). of science content, it is 44,14 %. From t test there is
average different % N-Gain in α = 0,05 with P-
value/Sig. 0,000 that showed a significant different

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in % N-Gain between experiment and control


group.

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Meningkatkan Literasi Sains Siswa MTs. Tesis
pada SPS UPI Bandung: tidak diterbitkan.
Wiendartun, Taufik Ramlan Ramalis, Hery Saeful
Rochman. (2007). Pengaruh Pembelajaran
Berbasis Multimedia Terhadap Hasil Belajar
Fisika. Proceeding of The First International
Seminar on Science Education ISBN: 979-25-
0599-7

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EFFECT OF TIME AND TEMPERATURE ON ULTRASOUND ASSISTED


EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT FROM Coleus tuberosus

Albertus Adrian Sutanto*), Yustian Suharto, and Hadiyanto


Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University
Jl. Prof. Sudharto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang, 50275, Phone/Fax: +62 247460058
*)
Corresponding author: adrian.albertus@gmail.com

Abstract dangerous because it can steal electrons from other


Coleus tuberosus, in Indonesia known as compounds such as protein, lipids, carbohydrates,
“black potatoes”, is one one of the crops that and DNA in human body (Amelia, 2006). DNA is a
contain antioxidant such as ursolic acid and compound present in the nuclei of cells. When
oleanolic acid, has a potential as a cancer DNA damaged, it can lead to wide range of
medicine. Coleus tuberosus peel has higher degenerative diseases, one of which is cancer
antioxidant content than its flesh. The antioxidant Generally, cancer cause death and become one
from Coleus tuberosus can be taken by ultrasound of the main causes of death in developing country.
assisted extraction (UAE). This research will study Cancer is a serious threat for public health in
the effect of temperature and time on the activity of Indonesia. Based on data from Ministry of Health
antioxidants that can be extracted from the Coleus in 2007, the amount of cancer patients in Indonesia
tuberosus peel. Experiment begins with the reach 4.3 per 1000 population. According to WHO,
preparation of raw materials, then extraction is in 2030 there will be a surge in the number of
done by ultrasonic method with variation of patients in Indonesia until seven times from now. In
temperature and time. The antioxidant activity of addition, the number deaths caused by cancer in
extract obtained was analyzed using DPPH Indonesia ranks as the sixth leading cause of death
method. The results show that increasing in Indonesia.
temperature and time will increase the antioxidants One of the effective way to counter cancer is
activity. The higher antioxidant activity consume antioxidant. Antioxidant function is as a
corresponds to the higher antioxidant content can catcher of free radicals, forming complexes
be extracted from Coleus tuberosus peel extract. compound with pro-oxidant metals, and as a
Extract obtained by 60 minutes of extraction time reductor (Ayuningrat, 2009). Antioxidant gives on
and 60°C of extraction temperature showed the or more of its electrons to free radicals, so it can
highest antioxidant activity compared to any other stop the damage caused by free radicals (Praptiwi et
variables with 89.35% of antioxidant activity. al., 2006).
Naturally, our bodies produce antioxidants
Keywords:ultrasound, extraction, antioxidant, used to protect the body from various diseases.
Coleus tuberosus, peel, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid However, the production of natural antioxidants in
the body will decrease to 50% at the age of 40
INTRODUCTION years. So, supply of antioxidants from outside
Cancer is a disease which is characterized by source is needed to improve antioxidant level in our
abnormal cell cycle, and the cell ability to grow body (Amelia, 2006). Based on the source,
uncontrolled, attacking nearby biologic cell, and antioxidants can be divided into natural
migrate to other organs via blood circulation or antioxidants and synthetic antioxidant. However,
lymphatic system. Environmental factors are very synthetic antioxidants have negative side effects on
influential as one of the causes of cancer. health so that antioxidants from natural products,
Unhealthy environmental danger include free such as fruits and vegetables are usually more
radical, is a molecule, atom, or group of atoms that desirable, because of better security level and wider
have several unpaired electrons and become benefits.
reactive free radical. Free radical like this is very

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Fig. 1 The mechanism of cell wall disruption in ultrasound assisted extraction (a) breaking of cell wall due to
cavitation, (b) diffusion of solvent into the cell structure (Shirsath et al., 2012)

One of the crops that could potentially have may enhanced the extraction efficiency due to
antioxidant is Coleus tuberosus, in Indonesia also disruption of cell walls, particle-size reduction, and
knows as black potato.Coleus tuberosus, vegetables enhancing mass transfer of the cell contents as a
from the Lamiceaefamily. One of the characteristics result of cavitation bubble collapse(Xia et al.,
possessed bioactive compounds of plants of the 2012). The mechanism of cell wall disruption in
family Lamiaceae, especially of the subfamily of ultrasound assisted extraction can bee seen on Fig.
Nepetoideae, is the presence of triterpenic acid. 1. This phenomenon causes physical effect, such as
There are two types of triterpenic acids contained in increasing sirculation and tubulence, hence mass
Coleus tuberosus, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid transfer rate is increase. Ultrasound assisted
(Nugraheni et al., 2010). In the field of biology and extraction (UAE) also also capable of destroying
pharmacology, triterpenic acid used as a source of the plants’ cell walls of the material will be
antioxidants, anti-tumor, and immune system extracted so it can increase the mass transfer in the
enhancement (Nugraheni et al., 2010). In research extraction process (Vetal et al., 2013).Therefore, in
conducted by Nugraheni et al. (2011), both flesh this study is done to investigate the effect of time
and skin from black potato contain ursolic acid and and temperature used on antioxidant activity from
oleanolic acid. However, the black potato skins the extract obtained from Coleus tuberosus peel.
contain more antioxidants than the flesh. Ursolic
acid and oleanolic acid have proven to inhibit the MATERIALS AND METHODS
growth of cancer cells Nugraheni et al., 2011). Materials and Apparatus
Triterpenic acid compounds in black potatoes can The materials used were Coleus tuberosus
be obtained by extraction, one of them is ultrasound peel, methanol as a solvent, DPPH
assisted extraction. (diphenylpicrylhydrazil) as a reagent to test the
Extraction is a separation operation of a solute antioxidant activity. The ultrasound assisted
in a mixture using another separating agent called extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaning
solvent. The basic principle of extraction is based bath (Bransonic 2510E-DTH with ultrasonic power
on differences in solubility (Utami et al., 2009). To of 100W and frequency of 42kHz).
separate solutes of diluent, the mixture is contacted
with a solvent. After the contact, the solute will Preparation of Raw Material
diffuse from the diluent to solvent resulting in Coleus tuberosus was washed to remove any
separation. Based on the phases involved, there are dirts from its skin. Coleus tuberosus’ skin was
two types of extraction, liquid-liquid extraction and peeled to + 1mm thick using a potato peeler. The
solid-liquid extraction. According to Nasir et al. peel then dried in an oven for 24 hours at 40°C.
(2009), the factors that affect the extraction process After the drying process done, the peel was grinded
is the operating temperature, extraction time, using a blender.
solvent type, as well as the size, shape, and
condition of the solid particles.
Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid extraction
froma mixture can be done
byultrasound.Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)

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Ultrasound Assisted Extraction higher amount of antioxidant can be extracted from


The extraction was carried out in an Coleus tuberosus peel extract corresponds to the
erlenmeyer flask. Solid to solvent ratio used in the higher antioxidant activity of the extract
extraction was 1:75 (w/v) and the solvent used was (Nugraheni, 2011).
methanol. The bath temperature was varied from 30
to 60°C and the extraction time was varied from 30 Effect of Temperature
to 60 minutes. The extract was then filtered and
100
concentrated into 25 mL. The extract was stored in

Antioxidant Activity
88.57 89.35
the refrigerator for further analysis. 90 82.77
80

(%)
Determination ofAntioxidant Activity
DPPH (diphenylpicrylhydrazil) method 70
The assay was based on the DPPH method of 30 °C 45 °C 60 °C
Celli et al. (2011). 100µL of crude extract were
added to 3.9 mL of 60µM DPPH solution. After 30 Temperature
minutes of incubation in the dark at room
temperature. The absorbance then was measured at Fig. 3 Antioxidant Activity of Coleus Tuberosus
515 nm. The antioxidant activity can be calculated Peel Extract on Various Extraction Temperature
according to the following formula : (Time : 60 minutes, Solvent : Methanol, Solid to
Solvent Ratio 1:75 (w/v))
  Absorbance samplet =30  
Antioxidant activity (%) = 1 −    x 100%
  Absorbance control  The temperature effect on the antioxidant
 t =0  
activity of Coleus tuberosus peel extract was
investigated over temperature range 30-60°C. The
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
extraction was done during 60 minutes using
Effect of Time
methanol as a solven and solid to solvent ratio used
was 1:75 (w/v). The result is shown on Fig. 3. It is
100 88.57 found that the temperature rise causes the
Antioxidant Activity

90 80.34 83.38 antioxidant activity of Coleus tuberosus peel extract


80 increases. The solubility of ursolic acid and
70 oleanolic acid increases as the temperature
(%)

increases, therefore the antioxidant content in the


30 45 60
solvent will increase as the temperature increases
Minutes Minutes Minutes
(Fan et al., 2011).
Extraction Time In addition to the solubility, the diffusion of
ursolic acid and oleanolic acid increases due to
Fig. 2 Antioxidant Activity of Coleus Tuberosus reduction of solvent viscosity as the temperature
Peel Extract on Various Extraction Time increases (Vetal et al., 2013). The higher diffusion
(Temperature : 45°C, Solvent : Methanol, Solid to of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, the higher mass
Solvent Ratio 1:75 (w/v)) transfer occurs from Coleus tuberosus peel’s cells
to the solvent, therefore the antioxidant content in
The effect extraction time on the antioxidant the solvent will increase as the temperature
activity of Coleus tuberosus peel extract was increases (Xia et al., 2012). The higher antioxidant
investigated at various extraction time (30, 45, 60 content corresponds to the higher antioxidant
minutes). The extraction was done at 45°C using activity of the extract (Nugraheni, 2011).
methanol as a solvent and solid to solvent ratio used In spite of that, there is temperature limitation
was 1:75 (w/v). The result is shown on Fig. 2. It is in the extraction of ursolic acid and oleanic acid
found that the longer extraction time, the higher from Coleus tuberosus peel, because the ursolic
antioxidant activity of Coleus tuberosus peel acid and oleanic acid is thermally stable up to 70°C
extract. The longer extraction time gives the longer (Xia dkk., 2012). The ursolic acid and oleanic acid
contacting time between solvent and solute, starts degraded if the extraction temperature is more
therefore the higher antioxidant (ursolic acid and than 70°C.
oleanolic acid) extracted from Coleus tuberosus
peel. The yield of an extraction increases as the
extraction time increases (Petigny et al., 2013). The

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CONCLUSION Nugraheni, M., Santoso U., Suparmo, and


The results from this study showed the effect Wuryastuti H., (2011), Potential of Coleus
of time and temperature of extraction on the tuberosus as an Antioxidant and Cancer
antioxidant activity of the extract obtained. The Chemoprevention Agent, International Food
longer extraction time gives the longer contacting Research Journal, 2011, 18 (4), pp. 1471-
time between solvent and solute, therefore the 1480.
higher antioxidant (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) Petigny, Loïc, Sandrine Périno-Issartier, Joël
extracted from Coleus tuberosus peel. The higher Wajsman, and Farid Chemat, (2013), Batch
extraction temperature, causes the higher solubility and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted
of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid and reduces the Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus
solvent visosity. Extract obtained by 60 minutes of Mol.), International Journal of Molecular
extraction time and 60°C of extraction time showed Sciences, 2013, 14, pp. 5750-5764.
the highest antioxidant activity compared to any Praptiwi, Dewi P. and Harapini M., (2006), Nilai
other variables with 89.35% of antioxidant activity. Peroksida dan Aktivitas Anti Radikal Bebas
Diphenyl Picril Hydrazil Hydrate (DPPH)
References Ekstrak Metanol Knema laurina, Majalah
Amelia, Gusmeta, (2006), Potensi Rumput Mutiara Farmasi Indonesia, 2006, 17(1), pp. 32-36.
(Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.) Sebagai Sirsath, S.R., S.H. Sonawane, and P.R. Gogate,
Antioksidan Alami, Institut Pertanian Bogor. (2012), Intensification of extraction of natural
Ayuningrat, Eka, (2009), Penapisan Awal products using ultrasonic irradiations – A
Komponen Bioaktif dari Kijing Taiwan review of current status, Chemical
(Anodonta woodiana Lea.) sebagai Senyawa Engineering and Processing, 2012, 53, pp. 10-
Antioksidan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. 23.
Celli, Giovana Bonat, Adaucto Bellarmino Pereira- Utami, T. S., Arbianti, R., Hermansyah, H., Reza,
Netto, and Trust Beta, (2011), Comparative A., and Rini R., (2009), Perbandingan
analysis of total phenolic content, antioxidant Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun
activity, and flavonoids profile of fruits from Simpur (Dillenia indica) dari Berbagai
two varieties of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia Metode Ekstraksi dengan Uji ANOVA,
uniflora L.) throughout the frit developmental Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Indonesia,
stages, Food Research International, 2011, 44, Bandung, 19-20 Oktober 2009.
pp. 2442-2451. Vetal, Mangesh D., Vikesh G. Lade, and Virendra
Fan, Jie-Ping, Tao Kong, Lu Zhang, Sheng Tong, K. Rathod, (2013), Extraction of ursolic acid
Zhe-You Tian, Yong-Hua Duan, and Xue- from Ocimum sanctum by ultrasound: Process
Hong Zhang, (2011), Solubilities of Ursolic intensification and kinetic studies, Chem. Eng.
Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Four Solvents Process., 2013.
from (283.2 to 329.7) K, J. Chem. Eng. Data, Xia, En-Qin, Ying-Ying Yu, Xiang-Rong Xu, Gui-
2011, 56 (5), pp. 2723–2725. Fang Deng, Ya-Jun Guo, and Hua-Bin Li,
Nasir, Subriyer, Fitriyanti, and Hilma Kamila, (2012), Ultrasound-assisted extraction of
(2009), Ekstraksi Dedak Padi Menjadi Minyak oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum
Mentah Dedak Padi (Crude Bran Oil) dengan lucidum Ait, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 19
Menggunakan Pelarut n-Hexane dan Ethanol, (2012), pp. 772-776.
Jurnal Rekayasa Sriwijaya, No. 1 Vol. 18,
March 2009.
Nugraheni, M., Santoso U., Suparmo, and
Wuryastuti H., (2010), In vitro antioxidant,
antiproliferative and apoptosis effect of
Coleus tuberosus L., African Journal of Food
Science, 2010, 5(4), pp. 232 - 241.

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WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN TOFU INDUSTRY


BY USING MICROALGAE NannochloropsisSp

Ali Makrup, Mutiara C and Widayat


Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University
Prof. Soedarto, SH street, Tembalang, Semarang.
Makrup.tekim10@gmail.com

Abstract produces CO2 and active mudthat is the result of


Indonesia as a producer of tofu generated tofu waste treatment (Hongyang dkk., 2011).
more liquid waste. Treatment liquid waste of tofu To resolve the problem, there are methods that
using aerobics and anaerobic method still have can be solved tofu liquid waste as medium
some weakness.Cultivation of microalgae cultivation microalgae. Some microalgae are not
Nannochloropsis sp on tofu liquid waste can be onlyable to remove the pollutant, but also able to
treated perfectly and potentially as a biodiesel produce lipids, which can be converted into
feedstock. Cultivation carried out for 10 days at biodiesel (Perez-Garcia et al., 2012; Bhatnagar et
different percent volume of tofu liquid waste al., 2010; Li et al., 2008). A Microalgae Chlorella
showed that the more volume of tofu liquid waste pyrenoidosa including, Scenedesmus obliquus,
make the longer process decipherment of polymer Chlorella and Spirulina platensis, minutissima
compounds in the waste, that’s make the growth (Hongyang dkk., 2012; Martinez et al., 2000;
rate of Nannochloropsis Sp. are slowness. But, an Bhatnagar et al., 2010; Yang dkk., 2008). That
increasing in percent volume of liquid waste can be microalgae are ableand effective to remove the
improve the decrease of COD. Variable of 20%V pollutant in the waste, but have a low productivity,
has the fastest growth rate with the ability to low lipid content and intolerant in extreme
decrease levels of COD up to 77.40%. While, 60%V environment condition (Hongyang dkk., 2012;
Variable is capable of lowering the levels of COD Chisti, 2007).
up to 82.35% but slow in growth. Selection of microalgae for cultivating will
depend heavily on the ability to remove the
Keywords:Waste, Tofu, Nannochloropsis Sp, pollutants, easy of adapting to the environment and
Cultivation, COD productivity of lipids. Nannochloropsis Sp. is
microalgae which able to producing up to 68% of
1. INTRODUCTION lipids (dry base) and tolerant with environmental
Indonesia is one of the tofu producers that conditions (Chisti, 2007). The large lipid levels can
quite productive either home or industrial scale be converted into one of the alternative biodiesel
with a number of industry reached 84.000 business energy. Biodiesel is one of the potential alternative
units with a production capacity around 2.46 fuel to supply even replace petroleum diesel
million ton/year. Tofu Industry generated for liquid because it has a similar characteristics (Hambali,
waste which is forecast to reach 20 million cubic 2006).
meter (m3) every year. The amount of liquid waste Cultivation system of microalgae requires
from 1 kg of soybean each process is an average of medium are have enough nutrients for the growth.
45 litres (Nurhasan and Pramudyanto,1987; Tofu liquid waste have nutrients that are still useful
Barbosa et al., 2006; Tang and Ma, 2009). Liquid and does not have toxic and hazardous substance,
waste contained nutrient are very useful in the so the liquid waste can be used as a medium of
cultivation process for the production of cultivation. Because of cultivation are important,
microalgae. then conducted research to know the growth rate
At this time,tofuliquid waste treatment by and decrease in the levels of organic COD on
anaerobic and aerobic methods. However, both of cultivation microalgae types of NannochloropsisSp.
those method have several weakness. Anaerobic in medium tofu waste liquid.
process have a weakness that is not able to
eliminate nitrogen and phosphor, and requires the 2. FUNDAMENTAL THEORY
addition of a base for setting the basicity (Metcalf Some research suggests that sea microalgae
and Eddy, 2003). Aerobic method is able to can become an liquid waste processing agent is
eliminate the organic level and nutrients, but more effective than conventional methods and able

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to become as a new alternative resource of raw beginning of cultivation, and then decline in the
material forbiodiesel. The advantages of sea mid-and rise in later cultivation. Increase in Optical
microalgae compared to the land plants of algae Density at the beginning of the cultivation is the
such as : first, oil content the microalgae sea quite effect of the process of homogenization between
high between 20-50%, even for this kind of sea water and total suspended solids of liquid
Nannochlropsis sp can reached 68% of dry weight waste. Dilution of total suspended solids leads to
(Chisti, 2008). Second, growth rate very fast and increased concentrations of tofu liquid waste. So,
does not require a large area (Asep 2010). Sea the value of OD in media at the beginning for
microalgae are able of producing oil in greater cultivation 1-4 days tend to rise. While the decline
quantities than land plants. of OD in cultivation in the middle occur because
Table 2.1 Ratio of Oil Content on various types of chemical compounds of polymer components in the
Microalga. (Chisti, 2007) waste degradation into simple compounds. Tofu
Oil content liquid waste containing polymer compounds of
Types of microalga carbohydrate such as olygosaccaryde,
(% dry weight)
Botryococcus braunii 25–75 monosaccaride as well as containing other
Chlorella sp. 28–32 compounds such as proteins, amino acids,
Crypthecodinium cohnii 20 isoflavone, saponin, P, Ca, Fe and other nutrients
Cylindrotheca sp. 16–37 (Barbosa et al., 2006).
Dunaliella primolecta 23 Optical density is measurement of the level of
Isochrysis sp. 25–33 turbidity or density of a solution, more concentrated
Monallanthus salina >20 a solution be values of optical density will be
Nannochloropsis sp. 31–68 increased. Waste polymer compounds degradation
proses resulted in reduced concentration. This
3. MATERIAL AND METHODE concentration is a decline in profits that the
The materials used in this research is tofu component is ready to be used as nutrition for
liquid waste are obtained from tofu home industry microalgae to grow. Therefore, after a phase of OD
in Mrican village, inoculums of decline microlaga growth up. Growth up of a
microalgaeNannochloropsis spare obtained from microalgae is characterized by an increased in the
BPAP Jepara and fertilizer NPK, Urea and TSP, value of OD.
NaHCO3technical grade. Tools are used include 1.2
Buble Column reactor, aerator, neon lights, 1 0%
spektrofomoeter Sp Optima 300, extraction tool 0.8
Optical Density

20
gerhard and glassware. 0.6 %
Research begins with the preparation of 40
0.4
%
materialsof tofu liquid waste. Waste is filtered to 0.2 60
reduce the total solid and then without sterilization, %
0
directly mixed with seawater according variable
-0.2 0 2 4 6 8 10
percent volume (0%; 20%; 40%; 60%) with added
nutrition 30 ppm. Microalgae Nannochloropsis sp -0.4
Hari
10% Vwith OD 0.5 added to Buble Column reactor
containing media with lighting and aeration for 24
hours. Figure 4.1. Relationship of Optical Density and
Measurement of the optical density is done %Volume Increase of waste Liquid Tofu
every day by the spektrofometry method using a
spectrophotometer Sp Optima 300at a wavelength Level decomposition of Polymer compound
680 nm. Where the analysis the decrease organic on liquid waste largely determine the growth rate of
COD levels are conducted at the beginning and end microalgae. More faster the polymer breaks down,
of the period cultivation with it will be faster growth rate of Nannochloropsis sp
permanganometrymethods. anyway. Based on the figure 4.1 fastest growth
rates occurred at 20% volume percent. Variable
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION more than 20%V, polymer compounds
4.1. Effect of Percent Volume of Tofu Liquid decomposition takes a longer time so that less
Waste to Optical Density effective for the purpose of processing waste and
Based on Figure 4.1 shows that optical density biomass production. An addition of liquid waste is
values of all the variables tend to rise at the greater than 20% V has a higher concentration of
the polymer medium so that microalgae takes much

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longer for decomposition, that result slowness of volume of liquid waste cause greater decline in
the process of growth and breeding. COD. In terms of growth, 20% V variable is the
best, but if in terms of decreasing COD 60% V
4.2. Effect of Percent Volume of Tofu Liquid variable is the best.
Waste to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Thus, the selection percent volume of liquid
Table 4.1. Effect of Percent Volume of Tofu Liquid waste should be adapted to the purpose. if the
Waste to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)after purpose for production a biomass, percent volume
Processing byNannochloropsis sp 20% V more effectively. But for wastewater
COD (mg/L) treatment, then 60% V variable is more effective.
Variable
No Decrease
(%V) Initial Finally
(%) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1 0 980.6452 960 2.11 The writers thanks to the Rector of
2 20 4129.032 933.3333 77.40 Diponegoro University that gived the Grants
3 40 4645.161 960.00 79.33 Research Students by 2013.
4 60 6193.548 1093.33 82.35
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Nannochloropsis Sp. But, be increased in percent of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in soybean

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processing wastewater. Bioresource Perez-Garcia, O., Escalante, F.M.E., de-Bashan,


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Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto EN 110 ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7


Proceedings of International Conference
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Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

IMPROVING THE QUALITYOF BRIQUETTE FROM UTILIZATION OFSOLID


WASTE OF FURFURAL SYNTHESISPROCESS AS AN
EFFORTSINPROVIDINGALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES

Mitarlis and Tukiran


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
State University of Surabaya
mitarlis@ymail.com

Abstract use of waste from abundant natural resources such


It had been done utilization of solid waste as biomass. Various types of agricultural wastes
from furfural synthesize processinto briquette, but such as bagasse, particle wood waste, pineapple
the quality is not maximized. In this research, leaves, lamtoro bark, corn cobs, and so has the
quality improvement make briquettes with addition potential to be used as a source of alternative
of solid waste of furfural synthesis process and energy. Similarly, the waste industry which rich
blotong was also potentially as briquettes. The biomass content such as filter cake (blotong) which
method of research was done by making briquettes is a sugar industry waste as a potential source of
of each of the solid waste of furfural synthesis alternative energy.
process and briquetting filter cake , then made The new technology is needed to diversify the
briquettes from mixture of waste and filter cake. utilization of waste materials mentioned above into
Briquette quality test conducted by the high value products and more useful. One type is
determination of water content , ash content and the use of alternative fuel convert blotong into
caloric value. The results showed that the briquettes. Blotong is a sugar factory waste that is
briquettes from waste solid synthesis furfural not utilized earlier and more considered as junk.
process water content on lowest levels reached at Based on initial testing, showed that heat energy
3:10 composition adhesive sample is 7.72% and yield from blotong briqutte very low and burn out
meet SNI standard, 16.536% ash content almost quickly. A research effort to improve the
meet SNI standard, as well as the caloric value of weaknesses of the blotong briquettes through by
2157 Kcal/Kg still not meet the SNI standard. mixing with coal dust have carried out. The
Briquettes of blotong thewater content is achieved composition of the mixture were tested , among
at the lowest composition adhesive sample at 5:10 others, 90:10 , 80:20 , 70:30 , 60:40 and 50:50 as
is 4.93% and meets the SNI standard, 37.74% ash the comparison blotong with powdered coal. Once
content not meet SNI standard, as well as the tested and analyzed through the combustion process
caloric value of 2524 Kcal/Kg not meet SNI based data processing temperature, the mixture
standard. Improving the quality of briquettes with obtained blotong briquettes and coal powder is best
mixing of solid waste of furfural synthesis processes to have a composition that is 60:40 [1].
and blotong on multiple comparisons and adhesive While it has been done the research on the
sample, achieved the best results with the highest utilization of biomass into furfural. Research on
caloric value of the waste and filter cake furfural plant design has been done, the design is
composition 10:40 and 7:10 of adhesivesample also a section for side product separating. In the
composition achieved calorific value 3242.57 process of furfural synthesis process produce side
though not meet SNI standardyet. products such as glucose, acetic acid, and the rest of
the pentose are not vaporized [2]. Utilization of
Keywords: briquettes, solid waste, furfural, blotong biomass in addition to alternative fuels can also be
used as starting materials in the manufacture of
BACKGROUND chemical raw materials such as furfural that
The need for energy is increasing while the Indonesia is still imported.
availability of energy resources dwindling. Various Research on the development of methods of
attempts have been made to the energy saving synthesis of furfural also been done. Among others
program or development of alternative energy the development of furfural synthesis methods
using. In the provision alternated energy some based on agricultural waste mixture in order to
researches have been carried out, among others, the achieve the principles of green chemistry. The

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 EN 111 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

results showed that the synthesis method developed 1. Drying Solid Waste of furfural synthesis
furfural yield is only 5.58% of the weight of raw processes
material. This method still gives containing Solid waste furfural synthesis processes
byproduct material components early enough to be that have been separated from liquid waste is
one factor that does not meet the principles of green then dried in the sun for 5daysto obtain asolid
chemistry [3]. The process of synthesis of furfural wastethatis dry and ready to be processed into
in the study still produces solid waste colored black briquettes.
carbon-rich, so it still has the potential to waste
utilization as an alternative fuel such as briquettes.
In this research, quality improvement of briquettes
from solid waste furfural synthesis process by
adding blotong which has the potential to be used
as briquettes. Issues to be addressed is how the Figure1. Drying process of solid waste of
quality of the briquettes from solid waste of furfural furfural synthesis process by heating 4
synthesis process, briquette blotong, and how to hoursunder the sun
improve the quality of solid waste of furfural
synthesis process briquettes, with the addition of 2. Mixing of Solid Waste with Adhesive
blotong and how the quality of the briquettes. Dried solid waste of furfural synthesis
process is mixed with adhesive in accordance
METHOD with composition variables.
Method used in this study is an experiment in 3. Shaping and Drying Briquette
a laboratory scale. Make blotong with the general Briquettes shaping is done by using a
procedure of briquettes making with some variable pressing machine that is made of modified pipes
of adhesive sample composition. Furthermore, also and hydraulic press. Dough mixture of solid
performed making briquette from solid waste of waste furfural synthesis and adhesive results are
furfural synthesis process with some composition of pressed in order to obtain briquettes with a tube
adhesive samples. The procedure was done without shape and then dried in the sun.
going through the carbonation process because the
characteristics of blotong had a black solid wastes
such as soils containing a high enough of carbon
26.51% and the ratio C/N 25.62% [4]. In addition,
the procedure to reduce the process and save
energy. For the manufacture of briquettes
compacted and dried blotong. The advantage of
using briquettes blotong is the price that is cheaper Figure 2. Briquettes of solid waste synthesis
than firewood and other fuels. However, it is process furfural
necessary to make briquettes quite a long time
between 4 to 7 days of drying, but it also depends The briquettes were obtained and analyzed
on the weather conditions [5]. Similarly for quantitatively to identify which test the moisture
briquettes from solid waste of furfural synthesis content, ash content test, and test the heating value.
process, it make without through carbonation As a comparison test done as well quality of
process because the characteristics of the waste has briquettes blotong without mixture, the quality is
been a solid blackish -rich carbon content. Another less than the maximum. These results will be
variable is the manufacture of briquettes with some compared with the quality briquette after mixing
mixture composition of solid waste of furfural with solid waste of furfural synthesis process.
synthesis process and blotong, composition of Blotong samples obtained were dried and the
adesive samples. The briquettes are then tested initial dry weight be determine. Blotong briquette
qualities include moisture content, and ash content, manufacturing procedures as in the general
as well as caloric value. manufacture of briquettes.
Similar to the manufacture
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ofbriquettesfromsolid waste of furfural synthesis
In the process of making briquettes are process without through carbonation process
several stages. The stages are drying solid waste of because, duelargelybeen in the form of carbon.
furfural synthesis process, mixing solid waste with
adhesive, shaping, and drying briquette.

Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto EN 112 ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

quality of briquettes. Waste in the process of


synthesis fufural taken at variable heating 4 hours.
Data water content for briquetting mixture of solid
waste and blotong on some waste composition
ratio: blotong and adhesive samples as in Table 2.

Figure 3. Blotong briquettes Table 2. The water content of the briquette from
solid waste of furfural synthesis process and
The results of water content test of briquettes blotong mixture on several compositions
in various variables as in Table 1. Composition Composition Average
solid Waste adhesive water
Table 1. Water levels Briquettes from solid waste and blotong sample content (%)
furfural synthesis process and blotong 3:10 4.97
10:40
Composition Average water content (%) 7:10 4.47
adhesive Solid wasted Blotong 3:10 7.13
20:30
sample furfural briquette briquette 7:10 7.63
3:10 9.90
3 : 10 7,72 7,53 25:25
7:10 9.43
5 : 10 9,43 4,93
3:10 11.17
7 : 10 10,73 8.30 30:20
7:10 10.90
Comparison between the water content of
Based on Table 2 an increase in the quality of
briquette from solid waste furfural synthesis
process and blotong briquettes diagrams presented briquettes with decreasing of water content in solid
in Figure 4. waste blotong ratio 10:40 and 20:30. The higher
composition of the solid waste the water content of
the briquettes cause higher also. In addition beside
12
Water content (%)

water content also performed well for the


10
8 determination of the ash content of the briquette
6 furfural solid from solid waste furfural synthesis process, blotong
4 waste briquette
and mixing briquette of solid waste of furfural
2
0 blotong synthesis processes and blotong.
briquette
A:S A:S A:S
3:10 5:10 7:10 Table 3. The ash content of the solid waste
briquettes and briquettes furfural blotong
Figure 4. Diagram of water content briquettes Composition Average ash content (%)
comparison from solid waste of furfural synthesis adhesive Solid wasted Blotong
and blotong sample furfural briquette briquette

Based on Table 1 and Figure 4 water content 3 : 10 16,536 37.75


of briquette from solid waste furfural synthesis 5 : 10 22,637 37.74
processes that meet the standards of the briquette 7 : 10 23,384 38.06
water content sample only the adhesive sample Based on Table 3 ash content of the briquettes from
composition on 3:10, while briquettes blotong with solid waste of furfural synthesis process and
adhesive sample ratio : 3:10 and 5:10 shave met the blotong that no meets the standards of briquette ash
standard briquettes according SNI standard, and the content up to 15% according SNI (SNI 01-6235-
blotong briquette by comparison 7:10 of adhesive 2000). However, when compared blotong briquette
sample was slightly higher, maximum water ash content higher than the briquettes from solid
content of 8% (SNI 01-6235-2000). In general, the waste furfural synthesis process as described in
water content of the briquettes from solid waste Figure 5.
furfural synthesis process higher than the water
content of blotong briquettes. The higher the
adhesive (tapioca) content also increases the water
content of the briquettes produced. This is due to
properties of tapioca can absorb water from the air
[6]. Furthermore it was done the mixing of the solid
waste furfural synthesis processes for improving the

ISBN 978-602-14930-0-7 EN 113 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto


Proceedings of International Conference
On Education, Technology and Science 2013
Purwokerto, December 28th, 2013

40
alsocarried out onthe briquette from solid waste of
furfural synthesis processand blotong briquette as
Ash content (%)

30
well as mix briquettes. Data caloric value of
20 solid waste
briquette
briquette on many variables in Table5.
10
blotong briquette
0 Table 5. The calorific value of briquettes from
A:S A:S A:S furfural solid waste and blotong
3:10 5:10 7:10 Composition Caloric Value (Kcal/Kg)
adhesive Solid wasted Blotong
Figure 5. Diagram of comparison ash content of sample furfural briquette briquette
briquettes from the solid waste furfural synthesis
3 : 10 2157 2355
process and blotong
5 : 10 2171 2441
Based on Figure 5 clearly seen ash content of 7 : 10 2291 2524
blotong briquette is much higher than the ash
content of the briquettes from solid waste furfural Table 6. Caloric value of briquette from mixture of
synthesis processes. High levels of ash content filter solid waste furfural synthesis processes with
blotong briquette was caused of water conten of heating time of 4 hours and blotong
blotong itself was relatively high at 9-20% [4]. Composition Composition Average
Figure 4 and 5 seem obvious difference water solid Waste and adhesive caloric
content of briquettes from solid waste furfural blotong sample value (%)
synthesis process whereas higher while ash content 10:40 3:10 3161,44
briquettes blotong higher. Thus if done mixing 20:30 3:10 2896,15
expected to improve the quality of both. Ash 25:25 3:10 2825,55
content briquettes mixture of solid waste furfural 30:20 3:10 2608,11
synthesis processes and blotong included in the 10:40 7:10 3242,57
comparison of the lowest and highest adhesive 20:30 7:10 2956,33
samples are 3:10 and 7:10. Data ash content as in 25:25 7:10 2771,05
Table 4. 30:20 7:10 2655,28
Based on Table 6 the highest caloric value of
Table 4. Ash content of briquettes mixture from briquette mix with composition of solid waste :
solid waste furfural synthesis process and blotong blotong at 10:40 with 7:10 sample adhesive
on multiple compositions composition is 3242.57 Kcal/Kg. From all variables
Composition Composition briquette making in this study no one has met the
Average Ash
Solid Waste Adhesive minimum requirement according to SNI standard
Content (%)
and Blotong Sample briquettes caloric value at least 5000Kcal/Kg ( SNI
10:40 3:10 34.86 01-6235-2000 ), but admixture briquettes already
7:10 35.43 increased in the quality of each parameter water
20:30 3:10 30.00 content, ash content, and the caloric value than
7:10 29.61 each briquettes from solid waste of furfural
25:25 3:10 26.50 synthesis process or blotong.
7:10 25.05
The opposite ofwater contentforthe higherash