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Review of Related Literature

This activity includes the ideas, finished thesis, generalization or conclusions, methodologies and
others. Those that were included in this activity helps in familiarizing information that are relevant and
similar to the present study.

Related Literature

According to the Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2016), Pines are softwoods, but
commercially they may be designated as soft pines or hard pines. Soft pines, such as white, sugar, and
piñon pines, have relatively soft timber, needles in bundles of five (less commonly, one to four), stalked
cones with scales lacking prickles, and little resin. Their wood is close-grained, with thin, nearly white
sapwood; the sheaths of the leaf clusters are deciduous, and the leaves contain a single fibrovascular
bundle. Hard pines, such as Scotch, Corsican, and loblolly pines, have relatively hard timber, needles in
bundles of two or three (rarely, five to eight), cone scales with prickles, and large amounts of resin. Their
wood is coarse-grained and usually dark-coloured, with pale, often thick sapwood; the sheaths of the
leaf clusters are persistent, and the leaves have two fibrovascular bundles.

Pine (genus Pinus), stone pine [Credit: Andrew Brown-Ecoscene/Corbis] genus of about 120
species of evergreen conifers of the pine family (Pinaceae), distributed throughout the world but native
primarily to northern temperate regions. The chief economic value of pines is in the construction and
paper-products industries, but they are also sources of turpentine, rosin, oils, and wood tars. Edible pine
seeds, which are sold commercially as pine nuts, piñons, or pinyons, are produced by several species.
Many pines are cultivated as ornamentals, including black, white, Himalayan, and stone pines, and some
are planted in reforestation projects or for windbreaks. Pine-leaf oil, used medicinally, is a distillation
product of the leaves; charcoal, lampblack, and fuel gases are distillation by-products.

Young pine trees are usually conical, with whorls of horizontal branches. Older trees may have
round, flat, or spreading crowns. Most species have thick rough furrowed bark. Pines have two types of
branches, long shoots and short shoots, and three types of leaves, primordial, scale, and adult. Seedling
plants bear the lance-shaped spirally arranged primordial leaves. The triangular scale leaves, also lance-
shaped, are borne on the long shoots of older trees. Both long and short shoots develop in the axils of
the deciduous scale leaves. The needlelike photosynthetic adult leaves, with two or more resin canals,
are borne in fascicles (bundles) of two to five (rarely, up to eight or solitary) at the tip of each short
shoot; they remain on the tree 2 to 17 years.

Araucaria is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae. A handsome,

statuesque tree. Due to its size and form the Norfolk Island Pine can provide a good contrast to other
landscape elements and is a feature of many Australian coastal towns. It is one of the species of
Araucariaceae. This large evergreen has a single upright trunk, tiered branching habit, and a narrow
pyramidal or columnar shape. Eventually reaching a height of about 80 feet, the tree possesses a rapid
growth rate.

The dark green, 1/2- inch-long, individual leaves on young trees are lanceolate and look
somewhat like spruce or fir needles at first glance. Mature leaves are somewhat contorted on twisted
branches. Both leaf types appear on the tree at the same time. The trunk is often curved and swollen at
the base and black. The large, spiny, 10 to 15-pound cones are rare in cultivation. The most widely
cultivated of the araucarias. Norfolk Island Pine is well suited to coastal situations where, in Australia, it
has become an iconic species. Possibly used in coastal towns as landmarks for shipping. Species is suited
to urban landscapes, both coastal and inland. Also used as street tree where space allows (Zone of
upheaval 4.0m to 5.0m diameter) .
Good tree for open space. Norfolk Island Pine can also be used as an indoor plant and is often
seen as a Christmas tree. Prune to central trunk otherwise little pruning is required. Supplemental
irrigation to establish trees is essential. Roots are surface orientated and can lift hard surfaces.
Consideration will need to be given to allowing room for both upper crown development and root
buttress expansion.

Araucaria is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae. There are 19
extant species in the genus, with a Gondwanan natural distribution in New Caledonia (where 13 species
are endemic), Norfolk Island, eastern Australia, New Guinea, Argentina, Chile, and southern Brazil.

Araucaria is the most diversified genus in the family, being disjunctively distributed throughout
the Southern Hemisphere (Chile, Argentina, southern Brazil, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Australia,
and New Guinea). Although this distribution from a southern Pacific-Antarctic link to South America is
generally taken as the result of a vicarious event and/or long-distance dispersal (Pole, 1994; Macphail,
1997), araucarian fossils have been widely excavated not only from the Southern but also the Northern
Hemisphere. Further, they had been a major component of the Mesozoic forests (Miller, 1977;
Stockey,1982; Stocky, and Nishida, 1992; Hill,1995). Therefore, Araucaria’s present distribution might be
considered as the relic type, although its extant species show a distribution pattern very similar to that
of Nothofagus and other Gondwanan groups.

The Araucariaceae, with an extensive fossil record dating to the Mesozoic, has long been of
interest to palaeobotanists and plant geographers. Extant members of the family (Araucaria Juss.,
Agathis Salisbury, and Wollemia WG Jones, KD Hill & JM Allen) are confined predominantly to southern
regions but as first recognised nearly a century ago (Seward and Ford 1906), the family was formerly
distributed over wide areas of both hemispheres. At that time, the family comprised two extant
genera—Araucaria and Agathis—and was considered to occupy an isolated position amongst the

The first European known to have sighted Norfolk Island was Captain James Cook, in 1774 on his
second voyage to the South Pacific in HMS Resolution. Cook noted the presence of large quantities of
tall, straight trees which appeared to be suitable for use as masts and yards for sailing ships. However,
when the island was occupied in 1788 by convicts transported from Britain, it was found that Norfolk
Island Pine was not resilient enough for these uses and the industry was abandoned.

In the late 1950s a trial shipment of Norfolk Pine logs was sent to Sydney plywood
manufacturers in the hope of developing a timber export industry for the Island. Although the plywood
companies reported excellent results the industry was deemed not sustainable by the Norfolk Island
Advisory Council who decided to reserve local timber production for use on the Island. The timber is
good for woodturning, and is extensively used by Hawaiian craftspeople.

(Daniel Barker, 2015) The pine is one of the most useful trees on the planet, providing food,
shelter, medicine and fuel. Knowing how to utilize this versatile resource could someday be the key to
your very survival if you find yourself alone in the wilderness. There are many species in the pine family
(or genus Pinus), and they can be found virtually everywhere in the world. Here are just a few of the
many uses for pine trees (or conifers):

Food — Many types of pine needles can be used to make a tea rich in vitamin C. Simply steep a
handful of needles for 5-10 minutes. The longer you steep them, the less vitamins will remain, so don't
overdo it. It's important to note that some pine needles are poisonous -- be sure to avoid consuming the
needles from the Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla), the Yew (Taxus) and the Ponderosa Pine
(Pinus ponderosa -- also known as Western Yellow Pine, Bull Pine and Blackjack Pine). Make sure to
learn the differences between the edible and non-edible varieties before making pine needle tea.
Pine nuts from all varieties of pine are edible, although some are small and not typically
harvested. They can be a little tricky to harvest and perish quickly once they are shelled but can be
stored longer if left in their shells or roasted. Inner pine bark and pine resin are edible; male pine cones
and their pollen can also be eaten. Native Americans chewed pine resin as sort of a natural chewing
gum. The inner bark of large pine trees is edible, and the bark from young pine twigs can be eaten as
well. Be careful not to damage or kill a pine tree by tearing off too much bark, and never "ring" the bark
from a pine tree. Instead, tear off small pieces of bark or look for branches that have already fallen. The
inner bark can be eaten raw -- it can also be boiled, fried or cooked over a flame.

Medicine— Pine resin is a natural antiseptic and disinfectant. It also has antimicrobial and
antifungal properties. It can be directly applied to wounds or sores and helps keep germs out. Pine resin
can also be used to staunch the flow of blood. The resin can also be used to extract splinters -- just dab
some on the skin where the splinter is embedded and within a day or two the splinter should come out
on its own.

Fuel— Pine resin makes a great fire starter, particularly in damp settings. You can usually find a
spot on a pine tree where resin is oozing out from a break in the bark -- try not to injure the tree to
collect pine resin, but if necessary, make a small break in the bark or break a branch. The resin will begin
to ooze out as protection for the tree. If you are in an area where there are pine stumps, look for places
on the stump where resin has soaked the wood and made it sticky. Tear small strips of the stickiest
wood from the stump and save them as aids for starting fires.

Shelter— Pine boughs can be used to create shelter and pine needles can be used to make a
soft, warm and dry bed.

Waterproofing and other uses— Pine resin can be used as a waterproofing agent and works well
on tent seams, boots and mittens. Heat pine resin up and mix with ashes or charcoal from your campfire
to make glue. Once cooled, the glue will harden but can be easily heated up again when it is needed.

Araucaria heterophylla, or Norfolk Island Pine, has already been discussed in a previous article
about indoor Christmas palms. This is one of the smaller Araucarias, at least here in California where it
seems unable to reach its potential like it does in a tropical climate (such as Hawaii or south
Florida). This is probably the most commonly grown member of the Araucariaceae in cultivation. It is
sold in huge numbers as in indoor Christmas tree, and as a landscape tree in frost free zones all across
the US. For those who want a user-friendly (at least in terms of leaves not being sharp), smaller tree that
will never get out of control, and you live in the warmer western US, this might be a good choice for
you. Here in southern California most do not grow much over 60'.They make a ‘cute' symmetrical tree,
though they usually end up leaning a bit (depends on the direction of the strongest winds).However, in
the eastern US this is a much faster grower and becomes a much larger tree growing as tall as 150'. The
problem with that is this is also a pretty weak tree, and hurricanes easily topple them, or rip of their
weak, floppy branches, making the trees a hazard in inclement weather.

In Hawaii, where there are less hurricanes, this tree is still a bit of a problem as it has become a
minor weed in some areas (still considered a low risk problem, though). The name of this tree refers to
its leaves. Juvenile trees have needle-like leaves, though they are soft and pretty harmless. But as the
tree ages the leaves become much more closely spaced and flatter, more scale-like. So it has
heterogeneous leaves depending upon its age, hence the name heterophylla (note: Araucaria
columnaris have these heterogernous leaves as well, further adding to the confusion between these two
species). This is not a very cold hardy palm, and mine got severely burned during our freeze a few years
ago (lost 90% of its leaves at about 27F, though recovered). One can see that freezes don't occur
commonly here in Los Angeles are there are many mature trees in the landscape. A freeze in the low 20s
would probably kill most of these trees I would think. However I do not know if defoliating at one
temperature allows one to assume death not too far below that.

1. The Fatal Shore. The epic of Australia's founding, Robert Hughes, 1987, Harvill Press

2. Christopher J. Earle (December 12, 2010). "Araucaria Jussieu 1789". The Gymnosperm


3. "Practical Seedling Growing: Growing Araucaria from Seeds". Arboretum de


4. Michael G. Simpson (2010). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. p. 151.

5. Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson (2006), Araucaria heterophylla: Norfolk-Island-

Pine http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/assessment.html.

6. Rowell, R. J. (1996) Ornamental conifers for Australian gardens. UNSW Press.

7. Spencer, R. (1995) Horticultural flora of South-Eastern Australia. Ferns, conifers & their

allies. UNSW Press.

8. Mary E. Dettmann and H. Trevor Clifford. Biogeography of Araucariaceae

9. Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson. Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk-Island-Pine