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4 Oct, 2018 RefComm Valencia 1

SRU Thermal Reactor Chemistry & Design


Roelof ten Hooven
Area Sales Manager

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Company Profile
• Engineering company specialized in process
combustion equipment
• Founded in 1919
• ± 75 employees

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Goals of the SRU
• Recover elemental sulfur (S2-8) from all sulfur species in the feed gases
(AAG and/or SWSAG).
• Destruct other harmful components of the feed gases.
• Limit the formation of new harmful substances.

Basically, comply with emissions regulations!

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Typical Sulfur Recovery Unit
WASTE HEAT
ACID GAS MAIN REACTION
RECOVERY CONDENSER SULFUR
COMB AIR BURNER FURNACE
SECTION

FUEL GAS 1st LINE MIXING CATALYTIC


CONDENSER SULFUR
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER CONVERTOR

FUEL GAS 2nd LINE MIXING CATALYTIC


CONDENSER SULFUR
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER CONVERTOR

ABSORBER
QUENCH

REGEN
FUEL GAS RGG MIXING REDUCTION
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER REACTOR

WASTE HEAT
FUEL GAS INCINERATOR INCINERATOR
RECOVERY
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER
SECTION

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Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Stage
WASTE HEAT
ACID GAS MAIN REACTION
RECOVERY CONDENSER SULFUR
COMB AIR BURNER FURNACE
SECTION

FUEL GAS 1st LINE MIXING CATALYTIC


CONDENSER SULFUR
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER CONVERTOR

FUEL GAS 2nd LINE MIXING CATALYTIC


CONDENSER SULFUR
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER CONVERTOR

ABSORBER
QUENCH

REGEN
FUEL GAS RGG MIXING REDUCTION
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER REACTOR

WASTE HEAT
FUEL GAS INCINERATOR INCINERATOR
RECOVERY
COMB AIR BURNER CHAMBER
SECTION

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Thermal Stage Objectives

• 65-70% Sulfur Recovery

• Ammonia Destruction

• Hydrocarbon Destruction

• By-product Conversion

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Sulfur formation in the Reaction Furnace

Claus reaction:
Acid
gas
2H2S + SO2 1½S2 + 2H2O
Hydrogen Sulfur Sulfur water
sulfide dioxide

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Sulfur formation in the Reaction Furnace
Combustion zone
H2S + 1½O2 SO2 + H2O
Hydrogen Oxygen Sulfur Water
Acid Air
sulfide dioxide

gas Reaction zone


2H2S + SO2 1½S2 + 2H2O
Hydrogen Sulfur Sulfur water
sulfide dioxide

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Acid gas
Sulfur formation Acid gas
H2S Partial
H2S

½O2 H2S oxidation ¼O2 Oxygen


Oxygen
½H2O Water
H 2O
Water Sulfur ½H2 Hydrogen
H2S cracking SO2 reduction
2H2O
H 2S SO2
H2 2H2
Acid gas Hydrogen Sulfur dioxide
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Ammonia destruction
NH3 + ¾O2 ½N2 + 1½H2O

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Ammonia destruction
NH3 + ¾O2 ½N2 + 1½H2O

NH3 ½SO2 ½H2O


Ammonia Sulfur dioxide Water
Acid gas
Hydrogen sulfide Air
½N2 ½H2S ¾O2
Nitrogen H O+
2
Oxygen
Water H2S oxidation
Ammonia conversion
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Ammonia destruction
Remaining NH3 at MRF outlet:
• Expected < 20 ppm
• Guaranteed < 100 ppm
Provided:
• MRF operating temperature > 1300°C (2372°F)
• Residence time > 1 sec

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Hydrocarbon destruction
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

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Hydrocarbon destruction
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
CH4 conversion CS2 conversion
CH4 CS2 CO2
Methane Carbon Carbon
disulfide dioxide

Sulfur 2H2S SO2 Sulfur


Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide
Air
Water Oxygen
2H2O 2O2
Oxidation
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SRU Combustion Basics
The degree of combustion depends on 3 factors, the three T’s of
combustion:
• Temperature
• (Residence) Time
• Turbulence

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SRU Temperature
The overall temperature in the main reaction furnace depends
on:
• Chemical reactions
– Heat release and absorption
– The stoichiometry
• Design conditions (set by process licensor)
– Pre-heating of the combustion air / acid gas
– Oxygen enrichment
– Co-firing of fuel gas
– Bypassing part of the amine acid gas

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SRU Residence Time
Minimum: determined by reaction kinetics
Longer: better destruction of impurities.

Residence time section

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SRU Turbulence
The flow pattern determines the shape of the flame, the degree
of mixing as well as the flame stability. Mixing is achieved
through:
• Burner geometry
– E.g. physical restrictions, swirlers, constrictions, etc.

• Pressure drop
– Higher pressure drop = more energy!

• Design principle
– Pre-mixing vs. diffusion flame principle

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Resulting Burner Requirements
• Intense mixing of acid gas and oxygen

• Recirculation of flue gas

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LMV Main Burner

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LMV Main Burner

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LMV Burner Axial Velocity

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Turbulent combustion

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