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# Vehicle

Dynamics for
BAJA

## Thomas D. Gillespie, Ph.D.

Mechanical Simulation Corporation

1
A
Approach
h
• Review the mechanics influencing vehicle dynamic behavior
• Suggest areas where simulation can help development of Baja race
cars

Topics
• Weight distribution
• Acceleration/powertrain
• Braking
• Turning
• Ride
• Suspensions

Agenda 2
Weight
g Distribution

c
W fs = W
L h M gc

b B A

Wrs = W b
L
c
L Wf Wr

h h
– Grades (θ ) W f = W fs − W θ Wr = Wrs + W θ
L L
θ
h ax h ax
– Accelerating W f = W fs − W Wr = Wrs + W
L gc L gc

3
Simple
p Acceleration Model
W
Fx = M ⋅ ax = ax .30
gc 10% Passenger
C 40 lb/h
Car, lb/hp
.25
and P = Fx ⋅V
.20
g P gc ax
ax = Fx c = g .15
W VW
.10 Typical Heavy Truck,
ax 1 P
= .05
250 lb/hp
gc V W
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
• Acceleration is: Speed (km/hr)
Speed (mph)
– Proportional to power-to-weight ratio
– Inversely
I l proportional
ti l tto speed
d
– Efficiency in utilizing available power depends on
• Minimmizing friction losses and
• Ability
Abilit tto kkeep engine
i att peak
k power

Powertrain 4
Mobility
y
• Powertrain is key to good mobility performance
– Vehicle launch
– Operation on slippery terrain

Powertrain 5
Typical Braking System

Rear
Brake Vacuum
Assist
Brake Master
Rea Pedal Cylinder
r bra
k e lin
es

## Parking Brake Combination

Valve

s
t line
B k Proportioning
Brake P ti i o n
Fr rake
b Front
Design a system Brake
(brakes and pressure delivery)
Utilize available tire friction

## Brake System Mechanics 6

Maximum Brake Force
Front Lockup Boundary:
Fxf ≤ μ pW f h
μ p [W fs + Fxr ]
Fxf max ≤ L
hW
≤ μ p [W fs + Dx ] 1− μp
h
L gc L
h W Fxf + Fxr
≤ μ p [W fs + ] Rear Lockup Boundary:
L gc M
h
h
≤ μ p [W fs + ( Fxf + Fxr )] μ p [Wrs − Fxf ]
L Fxr max ≤ L
h
h h 1+ μp
Fxf − μ p Fxf ≤ μ p [W fs + Fxr ] L
L L
Intersection Points:
h h
Fxfi = μ p [W fs + μ pW ] Fxri = μ p [Wrs − μ pW ]
L L

## Brake System Analysis 7

Performance Triangles
g
h
μ p [W fs + Fxr ] μ pW fs μp h L
Fxf max ≤ L Slope =
h
h 1− μp 1− μ p h
1− μp L L
L
2000
−μ p h
Force

Slope = L
1+ μ p h
L
ont Brake F

1500

Proportioning
Range
1000
Fro

500
h
μ p [Wrs − Fxf ]
μ pWrs L
Fxr max ≤
h h
1+ μp
L
1+ μp
0 L
0 500 1000 1500 2000

## Rear Brake Force

Brake Proportioning 8
Cornering
g Behavior

• Low-speed
p
– Emphasis on steering system design
• High speed
– Stability (understeer/oversteer)
– Tire cornering properties
– Suspension properties

9
Low-speed
p

δo L = −−−−−
δ o= tan-1 −−−−− L
δi R+t/2
/2 R+t/2
L = −−−−−
δ i = tan-1 −−−−− L
R-t/2 R-t/2
For large
L
δAck = −−
R
L
R

t/2 2 Center
Δ≅ L
2R

Cornering 10
Steering
g Geometry
y

Right turn

Left turn

## • There is no actual Ackerman Geometry

• B t
Between-wheels
k approximate
i t A Ackerman
k
• Illustrated with trapezoidal linkage of truck system
• Rule of thumb that tie-rod arms should point to rear axle

Ackerman 11
High
g Speed
p
Tires must develop lateral forces
– They do so by developing a slip angle
– They no longer travel in direction they are pointed

F M
y z

Pneumatic Trail, P

Slip Angle, α
Directio
n of Trave
l
Slip Region Contact Patch

Cornering 12
Tire
e co
cornering
e g sstiffness
ess
– A key tire property
– Slope of the lateral force vs. slip angle curve

800
Direction
ateral Forcce, Fy (lb)

of Travel
600 Slip Angle (-)
α
400
F = Cα α
y
200 F
y
d Fy
La

Cα C α= -
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 dα α=0
Slip Angle, α (deg)
C α is positive

Cornering 13
Turning
u g Equation
qua o δ L/R
δ

α
f
α αr
f
• NSL for force and moment analysis F
f
• Geometryy for steer angle
b
V

W V2 R

## From Newton’s Second Law gR

W V2 V2 c
∑ Fy + Ff + Fr = g R
αr
Ff = Wfs
R ⋅ gc
c Fr
V2
∑T cg = Ff ⋅b + Fr ⋅ c = 0 Fr = Wrs
R ⋅ gc
L
From tire properties From the geometry: δ = 57.3 +α f −αr
R
Ff Wfs V 2 L Wfs V 2 Wrs V 2
αf = = δ = 57.3 + −
Cα f Cαf R ⋅ gc R Cαf R ⋅ggc Cα r R ⋅ gc
L Wfs Wrs V 2
δ = 57.3 + (
2
αr =
Fr W V
= rs − )
Cαr Cα r R ⋅ gc R Cαf Cα r R ⋅ gc

High-speed Cornering 14
Understeer

L Wfs Wrs V 2
δ = 57.3 + ( − )
R Cαf Cα r R ⋅ gc
• Positive – understeer
• Zero – neutral steer
• Negative – oversteer
– Has a critical speed
– Vehicle is unstable
• Oscillatory
• Divergent

High-speed Cornering 15
Stability
S ab y Limit ((with O
Oversteer)
e s ee )
L V2
δ = 57.3 + K ⋅ ay ay =
R R
L ⋅g
δ = 57.3 2 ay + K ⋅ ay
V
V2 Critical speed (Oversteer)
ay 57.3L ⋅ g
= Vcrit = −57.3L ⋅ g / K
δ 1+ K
2
V
57 3L ⋅ g
57.3L = Stability Limit

## CONSTANT Limit Understeer

g)

er Angle//Steering Ratio(deg

Neutral Steer

Oversteer
Understeer

K (deg/g)
Limit
Stee

Oversteer

## Lateral Acceleration (g)

Understeer Measurement 17
Roll
o Moment
o e Distribution
s bu o
• Lateral load transfer on an axle (roll moment) causes a loss of
cornering force at a given slip angle
• Total inside to outside load transfer is determined by ratio of
CG height to track width
• Suspension design controls 500
the distribution of roll

orce (lb)
moment of between front 400
360
and rear axles 320

Lateral Fo
300
understeer influence 200

## • Rear load transfer is Slip Angle 3 deg

100
oversteer influence
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

Understeer Mechanisms 18
Tire
e Ca
Camber*
be
• Tires produce a lateral force
Fz = 1000 lb

## Lateral Force (lb)

(camber thrust) when inclined 200 Zero Slip Angle
• Characterized by camber 150 γ
stiffness, Cγ
100
• Camber arises from

L
50
– Chassis roll Cγ
– Suspension camber in jounce 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
• Outward inclination on front Camber Angle (deg)
tires is understeer
γ γ
gi
• Outward inclination on rear φ
go
γ φ
tires is oversteer bi φ γ
bo

## * Inclination is tire angle relative to the road

Camber is tire angle relative to the vehicle
Positive camber – tires lean outward
Negative camber – tires lean inward
t/2

Understeer Mechanisms 19
Roll Steer
• All suspensions steer with roll β

## • Steer to the outside is:

– Understeer on front
– Oversteer on rear ∂φ
Kroll steer = ( ε f - ε r)
∂ ay
• Solid axle example:
φ
– Depends on trailing arm angle

- Inclination of
Suspension Roll Axis Roll Center

Overstee
r
Neutral Steer
steer
U nder

Front of Vehicle

Understeer Mechanisms 20
Lateral Force Compliance Steer

## • All suspensions steer due to a lateral force

• Minimize compliance steer
A = δc /Fy
K lfcs = A f Wf - Ar Wr

## Deflection Oversteer Deflection Understeer

Turn
Turn

Cornering
Cornering Force
Force

Yaw center
Understeer Mechanisms 21
Aligning
g g Torque
• Always understeer in the linear range of tire forces
– I.e., when pneumatic trail, p, is as shown
– May change direction at high cornering levels
• Effect on steering system is more significant
δ

p C αf + C αr
Kat = W L
C C
P
F
f αf αr
V
b

2 R
WV
gR

F
r
P

Understeer Mechanisms 22
Suspension Properties

Roll Steer

Camber Effects

## Suspension Properties in CarSim 23

Steering
g System
y Compliance
p
• Steering systems have
compliance between hand
• Force and moment inputs at
the tires try to steer the K ss K ss

wheels
To steering wheel
• Lateral force acts to resist turning
– Caster angle
g in steering
g system
y
– Aligning moment
• Result is an understeer mechanism

Fyr
ν
r tanν

Understeer Mechanisms 24
( )

Li it U
Limit Understeer
d t

at the steering wheel

## Understeer Simulation in CarSim 25

Ride -- Bounce and Pitch Modes
• Car has two modes of ride motion determined by motion centers
– One inside and one outside of the wheelbase
– One in front and one behind CG

θ
b c
M, Iy vehicle
Fig. 5.32 Pitch plane model for a motor

Kf Kr
Z

Predominant Modes

Bounce Pitch

26
Pitch Plane Model
• Next level of modeling includes pitch motion
• Wheelbase selectively filters inputs for bounce and pitch motions

BOUNCE PITCH

WB 2 WB

WB 2 WB
2 3

WB 2 WB
3 5

1 1
Gain
Gain

0 0
0 1 2 0 1 2

27
Bump
p Response
p

## • Front wheels hit bump first

• Front of vehicle pitches upward
• Rears hit the bump
• Vehicle pitches downward
• Front/rear suspension balance determines landing attitude

A
Front Suspension
Rear Suspension
Amplitude

Time
t

Bump at 15 kph.exe

28
Suspension
p Functions

• Provide vertical compliance so the wheels can follow the uneven road
– Isolates the chassis from roughness
– Maintains tire contact for good friction coupling
• Maintain the wheels in proper steer and camber attitudes
• React the control forces produced by the tires
– longitudinal (accelerating and braking)
– lateral (cornering)
– braking
– driving torques
• Resist
R i t rollll off th
the chassis
h i

Suspensions 29
MacPherson Strut Suspension
• Wheel is mounted rigidly to the strut
• Strut experiences overturning moment from load offset
• Limited camber gain in jounce (<1 deg/25 mm)

Front suspension
(MacPherson Strut)

30
Short-Long
g Arm Suspension
p
• Very “tunable” – has 6 geometry points to adjust
• Good camber gain in jounce (>1 deg/25 mm)
• Hard to package

Suspension Types 31
Semi-trailing Arm Suspension

• Characteristics • Shortcomings
– Frame mounted differential – Tire steers in jounce
– Trailing arms – Tire cambers in jounce
– Pivot axis skewed

Suspension Types 32
Swing Arm Suspension

• Characteristics • Shortcomings
– Frame mounted differential – Jacking forces
– Swing arms – Tire cambers in jounce
– Pivot axis longitudinal

Application:
VW Corvair
VW, C i

Suspension Types 33
Roll Axis of a Vehicle

Roll Center

Suspension
Roll Axis
Roll
Center
H i ht
Height

Rear Roll
Front Roll Center
Center xis
Vehicle Roll A

Suspensions 34
Roll Center - SLA Suspension
• Roll center is point where lateral forces react on the chassis
• Elevated roll center causes a “jacking” force lifting chassis
• Try to keep roll center near the ground

cL

Reaction
Point

Roll
Center

See Animation

Suspensions 35
Roll Center - MacPherson Strut

cL

Roll
Center

Suspensions 36
Roll Center - Swing Arms

cL

Roll
Center

Suspensions 37
Concluding
g Thoughts
g
• Tires are the most important component controlling cornering
behavior
– Also, the last opportunity to tune
• Outside tire does all the work in hard cornering
– May carry 80% of the axle load
– Must perform well when overloaded
• Suspensions need negative camber in jounce
– Keeps tire upright on road
– Maximizes tire performance
• Control suspension kinematics and compliances
– Prevent unwanted steer in cornering
g
• Tune suspension stiffness and damping
– Keep the tires on the ground – minimize load variations
– Control pitch and bounce dynamics