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Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

All sample answers were written by the authors.

Biology

Chapter B1 Cells

1 movement, growth, nutrition, sensitivity, excretion

b

2 a

a

reproduction, respiration

chloroplast

b

mitochondrion

c

cell membrane

d

nucleus vacuole

e

cell wall

3 A chloroplast is an organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll. (A chloroplast is surrounded by two membranes. Folded membranes inside the chloroplast have molecules of chlorophyll on them.) Photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts, with the help of chlorophyll, which absorbs energy from light.

a

b

All cells have a cell membrane, which is a thin layer of protein and lipid that surrounds the cell and controls what enters and leaves it. Plant cells (and bacterial cells) also have a thicker layer surrounding them. In plant cells, this is made of cellulose. Cell membranes are partially permeable. Cell walls are fully permeable.

4 a

are partially permeable. Cell walls are fully permeable. 4 a b • be drawn with unbroken

b

be drawn with unbroken lines (no gaps in the line)

have the correct proportions

show each structure accurately and clearly

Measured diameter on diagram = 36.5 mm actual size = image size ÷ magnification

[5]

= 36.5 ÷ 0.6

= 60.8 mm (or 6.08 or 6.1 cm)

5

a

A

cell wall;

 

B chloroplast;

[2]

 

b

they have cell walls;

 

they have chloroplasts;

[2]

 

c

i Measured diameter on image = 20.5 mm [1]

(Note: the measurement depends on where the outer limit of the cell is considered to be. It should be the middle point of the two cell walls around the adjacent cells. If the measurement has been made from cell membrane to cell membrane, it will be 19.1 mm. If it has been made from the midpoints of the triangle of extracellular space at each corner, it will be 21.1 mm.)

ii actual size = image size ÷ magnification

= 20.5 ÷ 250

= 0.082 mm or 82 µm

[2]

Chapter B2 Movement in and out of cells

1 Osmosis. Water is at a high water potential (dilute solution) in the soil and at a lower water potential (concentrated solution) inside the root cells. It moves through the partially permeable cell membrane, down its water potential gradient.

Neither. In this case, all the molecules in the saliva move as one, like water flowing in a river. Both diffusion and osmosis involve the random, individual movement of molecules or ions.

Diffusion. The ink particles move randomly, bumping into each other and into the water particles, gradually spreading throughout the water.

a

b

c

Diffusion. The carbon dioxide particles move randomly, and some will ‘bump into’ a stoma in the underside of the plant leaf. There is a low concentration of carbon dioxide inside the leaf, because the plant uses it up very quickly in photosynthesis. The carbon dioxide diffuses down its concentration gradient, from the air into the leaf.

2 The sugar solution as a whole does not do anything. We need to think about the individual particles in the sugar solution – the water molecules and the sugar molecules. Both of these move about randomly. The water molecules can get through the tiny holes in the tubing, but the sugar molecules are too big. What will happen is that the water molecules will move

d

a

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

randomly back and forth through the holes. Because there are more of them in the water than in the sugar solution, their net movement will be into the tubing. So the corrected sentence could be:

If Visking tubing containing a sugar solution is put

into a beaker of water, water will move from the water into the sugar solution, by osmosis.

 

b

It

is true that plant cells do not burst in pure water,

 

but this is because the cell wall is strong enough to prevent this happening. The cell wall is fully permeable, and cannot stop water molecules going through it. So the corrected sentence could be:

Plant cells do not burst in pure water because, although water enters the cell by osmosis, the strong wall prevents the cell from bursting.

 

c

It

is true that water will move out of a plant cell

 

by osmosis, if the cell is placed in a concentrated sugar solution. However, the cell wall is not partially permeable – it is fully permeable. So the corrected

sentence could be: When a plant cell is placed in a concentrated sugar solution, water moves out of the cell by osmosis, through the partially permeable cell membrane.

 

d

Plasmolysis is the result of placing a plant cell in

 

a

concentrated sugar solution. So much water

moves out of the cell by osmosis that the contents shrink, and the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall. As animal cells do not have a cell wall, they cannot undergo plasmolysis. So the corrected sentence could be either:

Animal cells shrink when placed in a concentrated sugar solution. OR Plant cells plasmolyse in a concentrated sugar solution.

3

a

Diffusion is a result of the random movement of molecules or ions. At higher temperatures, these have more kinetic energy and move faster, so diffusion happens faster.

b

During daylight, plants photosynthesise. They produce oxygen in their leaves, so the oxygen concentration inside the leaf is higher than the oxygen concentration in the air outside. Oxygen therefore diffuses down its concentration gradient, from the leaf and into the air.

c

Visking tubing is a partially permeable membrane. It has tiny, molecule-sized holes in it. Water molecules are even smaller than the holes, so they can pass through. Sugar molecules are much bigger than the holes, so they cannot pass through.

d When it is placed in pure water, an animal cell absorbs water by osmosis. This is because there is a higher water potential outside the cell than inside it. The extra water makes the cell swell, until it bursts.

e Plant cells are held in shape by their full vacuoles, which push outwards against the strong cell wall, producing a very firm structure. A plant cell like this is said to be turgid. Turgid cells pressing against each other make plant tissues strong and firm. When the cells are not full of water, they are no longer turgid, and their contents do not press outwards on the cell wall. The cells, and the tissues in the leaves that they make up, become soft and floppy. This is why the plant wilts.

4 the movement of molecules / ions, down a concentration gradient / from a high
4 the movement of molecules / ions, down a
concentration gradient / from a high concentration
to a low concentration;
as a result of their random movement;
a
b i
70
60
50
40
sample A
30
20
sample
B
10
0 024
6
8
10
12
14
16
Time for litmus to go blue / s

Distance along tube / cm

[2]

all points correctly plotted; lose one mark for any incorrect point

neat best-fit line drawn;

ii ammonium hydroxide is alkaline;

iii A;

iv C’s concentration was between A and B;

specific evidence quoted to support this statement, e.g. it took less time for it to travel 10 cm than A and more time than B.

[3]

[1]

[1]

[2]

[1]

b table is drawn with a ruler and has rows and columns for dimensions of block and time taken to go colourless; headings for both quantities include correct units – including time / s;

a

5 the pH is greater than 8;

times to go colourless are correctly recorded as 128

and 72 (with no units);

[3]

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

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c diffusion;

i

[1]

ii

hydrochloric acid neutralised the alkaline substance in the agar / the pH became less than 8;

[1]

d block B had a greater surface area to volume ratio / the distance for diffusion to the centre of the block was smaller in block B;

[1]

Chapter B3 Biological molecules

1 monosaccharide, found in both plants and animals, used as fuel in respiration

a

b

polysaccharide, found in plants only, used as an energy store in plant cells

c

polysaccharide, found in plants only, used to make cell walls

d

polysaccharide, found in animals only, used as an energy stores in (liver) cells

2 a

nitrogen (or sulfur)

b

amino acids

c

Benedict’s

d

lipid (fat) sucrose

e

sucrose

f

metabolism or metabolic reactions

3 Measure equal volumes of each solution into two identical test tubes. Add equal volumes of Benedict’s solution to each one.

Place both tubes into a water bath at about 80 °C. Do this at exactly the same time. Watch carefully. The one that changes to green or orange first, or the one that is the darkest orange after a set length of time, is the one that has the most concentrated solution of reducing sugar.

4 Elements

Substance

 

Carbohydrate, fat or protein?

How to test for it

One

it contains

function

haemoglobin

C, H, O, N

protein

biuret test

carries

oxygen in

the blood

glucose

C, H, O

carbohydrate

Benedict’s

to provide

test

energy

starch

C, H, O

carbohydrate

iodine test

stores

energy in

plant cells

enzyme

C, H, O, N

protein

biuret test

speeds up

reactions

5

a a protein catalyst, which speeds up the rate at which metabolic reactions take place

b a term used to describe the state of a protein molecule that has lost its shape – often caused by high temperature or extremes of pH; a denatured enzyme molecule is unable to catalyse its reaction because the substrate no longer fits into its active site

 

c the substance that is changed into products by an enzyme; the substrate fits into the enzyme’s active site

 

d a new substance formed in an enzyme-catalysed reaction

e the part of an enzyme molecule into which a substrate molecule fits

6

a About 37 °C – human body temperature.

b About 2 – hydrochloric acid has a very low pH.

c At low temperatures, molecules have low kinetic energy and move slowly. This means that the frequency of collisions between enzyme molecules and substrate molecules is also low.

 

d Above the enzyme’s optimum temperature, the enzyme molecule begins to lose its shape – it is denatured. This means that the substrate molecule does not fit into the active site, so the enzyme cannot catalyse the change of the substrate into products.

7

a calcium;

 

[1]

b water;

[1]

c they both contain protein;

 

[1]

d orange-brown; it does not contain starch;

[2]

e protein, fat and carbohydrate;

[1]

8

a blue-black;

 

[1]

b the blue-black colour would have disappeared from parts of the plain paper.

 

[1]

c i

Time/

Number of new areas where there had been a reaction

Total number of areas where there had been a reaction

[2]

 

minutes

 
 

1 14

14

 

2 28

42

 

3 18

60

 

4 12

72

 

5 6

78

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

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ii

iii

30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of new areas where
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Number of new areas where
there had been a reaction

Time / minutes

time on x-axis and number of new areas on y-axis; scales on both axes go up in even steps (e.g. 1, 2, 3 etc. on x-axis, 10, 20, 30 etc. on y-axis); both axes fully labelled including units; all points accurately plotted with small, neat crosses or circles with a ring around them; straight lines drawn between

[5]

the points / good best-fit line drawn;

any two sensible suggestions about differences between the goats, e.g. different ages, different genders, different breeds, different concentrations of enzyme in their saliva, how hungry they were when the saliva was collected;

[2]

 

d

continue for longer; take readings more often than one minute intervals; include some discs that have no enzyme in them / have boiled enzyme in them;

 

repeat the experiment two more times;

[max 3]

9

a

sucrose molecules and enzyme molecules move

 

randomly; sucrose molecule collides with enzyme’s active site; enzyme causes sucrose molecule to split into glucose and fructose; reference to involvement of water in this reaction; products / glucose and

fructose, leave the active site;

[max 3]

 

b

i optimum temperature for enzymes; temperature kept constant because, pH is the independent variable / temperature is a control variable;

[2]

ii no activity below pH 3; optimum / greatest activity, is at pH 7; no activity above pH 11;

[3]

Chapter B4 Plant nutrition

1

 

Obtained from

Used for

Nitrates

the soil

making amino acids and proteins

Water

the soil

photosynthesis, maintaining turgor / supporting tissues, transporting substances

Magnesium

the soil

making chlorophyll

Carbon

the air

photosynthesis

dioxide

2 A chloroplast is an organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts, with the help of chlorophyll, which absorbs energy from light.

a

b

c

d

The palisade mesophyll is closer to the upper surface of the leaf than the spongy mesophyll. The cells in the palisade mesophyll are tall and thin, while the cells in the spongy mesophyll are more rounded. The palisade cells contain more chloroplasts than the spongy cells. More photosynthesis takes place in palisade cells than in spongy cells. There are larger air spaces in the spongy mesophyll than in the palisade mesophyll.

Organic substances have been made by living organisms, e.g. carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins. Inorganic substances have not been made by organisms, e.g. magnesium ions, water.

Guard cells are pairs of sausage-shaped cells found in the epidermis of leaves (usually in the lower epidermis). The hole in between the pair of guard cells is a stoma.

3 carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen

a

b

Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through stomata, by diffusion from the air. Water enters the root hairs, by osmosis from the soil and is then transported up the xylem to the leaf.

Glucose is used to make starch, or to provide energy by respiration. Oxygen diffuses out of the leaf into the air, through the stomata.

4 Carbon dioxide diffuses through the stoma and then through the air spaces, allowing it to reach the cells in the palisade layer. Oxygen diffuses in the opposite direction when photosynthesis is taking place. (When you have learnt about transport in plants, you will also find out that the air spaces are important for allowing the movement of water vapour out of the leaf.)

c

a

b

c

d

This means that light can pass straight through these cells, so little light is lost before it reaches the palisade cells, where it is used in photosynthesis.

The larger the surface area, the more sunlight will hit the leaf. This means that more energy can be absorbed by chlorophyll, so more photosynthesis can take place.

The veins bring water from the soil to the leaf cells. By branching, they can bring water close to every cell. The cells need water for photosynthesis, and to maintain their turgor, helping the leaf to be held out straight.

5 sucrose. This is a soluble sugar, which can dissolve in water for transport. It is not too reactive.

a

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b starch. This is an insoluble polysaccharide, which can be stored as solid grains in cells and will not interfere with the reactions that take place in the cell. (It also does not affect the water potential of the cell; if sucrose was stored, this would tend to draw excess water into the cell by osmosis.)

6 Leaf from plant A: all orange-brown; Leaf from plant B: uncovered part blue-black;

a

b

covered part orange-brown;

i to break down the cell membranes so that iodine

[3]

solution and starch can come into contact;

[1]

ii to remove the chlorophyll;

[1]

c

i cover other areas with a simlar material that is

transparent (so that the only difference is whether

[1]

light can reach the leaf);

ii it controls a significant variable – having different plants could affect the results / because one plant might respond differently from another;

[1]

d use a plant with variegated leaves; destarch it;

then leave in the light long enough for it to make starch;

test a leaf for starch;

would expect green parts to go blue-black, white

 

parts to be orange-brown;

[max 3]

 

7 a

i

F;

[1]

ii

A;

[1]

iii

D.

[1]

b

i

little light is lost before it reaches the palisade cells, where it is used in photosynthesis;

[1]

ii

the waxy cuticle prevents water loss through this

 

surface of the leaf;

[1]

 

iii

bring water to the leaf; take sucrose away from

 

the leaf; help to support the leaf.

[max 2]

c

i

carbon dioxide; water

[2]

ii

some is used in respiration to release energy; some is converted to starch for storage; some is used to make cellulose cell walls for new cells;

some is converted to sucrose for transport to other parts of the plant; some is converted, with the addition of nitrogen, to amino acids; some is

converted to, fats / lipids

[max 4]

Chapter B5 Animal nutrition

1

a

i

calcium, vitamin D

 

ii

carbohydrate, fat, protein

iii protein

iv fibre

v protein, iron

vi vitamin D

b

There is a very wide range of possible answers. Images B5.02 to B5.04, and Tables B5.02 and B5.03, provide some examples. Answers can also be checked against a table of nutrient values of foods. Search on the internet for: 'food nutrient content table' and select one that covers foods commonly eaten in the relevant country.

2 Digestion is the breaking down of large food molecules into small ones. Absorption is the movement of these small molecules through the wall of the small intestine and into the blood.

a

b

The small intestine is longer and narrower than the large intestine. It is made up of the duodenum and ileum, whereas the large intestine is made up of the colon and rectum. Digestion and absorption of all types of food molecules – including water – takes place in the small intestine. Only water absorption takes place in the large intestine.

c

Enamel is the exceptionally hard outer layer of a tooth. Dentine is a softer layer beneath the enamel. Dentine contains living cells, but enamel does not.

d

Bile is a greenish liquid made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder, whereas pancreatic juice is made in the pancreas. Both liquids flow along ducts into the duodenum. Bile contains bile salts, which are not enzymes but which help to emulsify fats (break large droplets into small ones). Pancreatic juice contains several different digestive enzymes that digest fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Both bile and pancreatic juice also contain sodium hydrogencarbonate, which neutralises the acid from the stomach.

3 A salivary gland

a

B oesophagus

C stomach

D pancreas

E duodenum

F ileum

G colon

H rectum

 

I anus

J

liver

b

i

A and D

ii

C and D

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iii D

iv C

v F and G

vi I

4 ingestion

amylase

starch

mucus

oesophagus

hydrochloric

proteins

duodenum

small

pancreas

gall

fatty acids

glycerol

5 vitamin C and vitamin D; a [1] b they all already are small molecules;
5 vitamin C and vitamin D;
a
[1]
b
they all already are small molecules; which can
pass through the walls of the ileum;
[2]
c
any two dairy foods, bread;
[1]
d
helps calcium to be absorbed; needed for making,
bones / teeth;
[2]
e
anaemia; lack of energy;
iron is needed to make haemoglobin;
which transports oxygen around the body;
lack of oxygen means less respiration;
[max 3]
6 A
a
incisor;
B
canine;
C
molar;
[3]
b
tooth A: cut off pieces of food; to help with ingestion;
tooth C: crush / grind, food; to increase surface area
for enzyme action;
[4]
c

diagram shows a molar tooth; correct labels to:

enamel; dentine; pulp cavity; nerves and blood vessels; crown / root;

[6]

7

a i blue-black;

[1]

ii

starch is present;

[1]

iii

rows 2, 3 and 4 show sugar absent, starch absent and sugar absent;

rows 5, 6, 7 and 8 show starch absent, sugar present, starch absent, sugar present;

[2]

i

b breaks down starch to sugar;

[1]

ii

results show there is sugar in the water in the beaker;

so sugar molecules have moved through the membrane;

sugar molecules are small enough to pass through the holes in the membrane;

[2]

i

c small intestine / duodenum / ileum;

[1]

ii

blood / blood plasma / capillaries;

[1]

d its molecules are too big to be absorbed / to pass through the wall of the small intestine;

[1]

8

a breakdown of large / insoluble molecules;

to small / soluble molecules;

[2]

b amylase;

[1]

c i at the beginning;

[1]

ii

maltose;

[1]

iii

line is of similar shape;

line is above the 35 ºC line;

[2]

d to produce molecules that are small enough to be absorbed / because starch molecules are too large to be absorbed;

[1]

Chapter B6 Transport in plants

1

a xylem vessel

b xylem vessel

c root hair

d transpiration

e stoma

f potometer

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

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2 a and b root hairs root cortex cells xylem liquid liquid liquid leaf mesophyll
2
a and b root hairs
root cortex cells
xylem
liquid
liquid
liquid
leaf mesophyll cells
liquid
air spaces in leaf
gas
stomata
gas
3
a
a section cut across something
b, c and d
4
a
20;
[1]
b
as wind speed increases, water uptake increases;
any use of manipulated figures (e.g. doubling of wind
speed from 2 to 4 metres per second results in 1.7
times the rate of water uptake);
[2]
c
light intensity; temperature; humidity;
[max 2]
5
a
i more root hairs;
shorter root hairs;
[2]

ii both show same increase in number of root hairs (per unit area);

decrease in length of root hairs is (much) greater

for plant B;

[2]

iii less surface area;

so less uptake of mineral ions / water;

so less photosynthesis;

less glucose / starch / carbohydrate synthesised;

so less fuel for respiration / less energy available;

less nitrate reduces protein synthesis;

[max 3]

b so plants can make more amino acids / proteins;

to make more cells for growth;

[2]

Chapter B7 Transport in animals

1 vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta

b vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery

2 Arteries take blood away from the heart; veins take blood towards the heart. Arteries have thick, elastic walls; veins have thinner walls. Arteries have a narrow lumen; veins have a wider lumen. Arteries do not have valves; veins have valves.

a

a

b

Oxygenated blood contains a lot of oxygen (combined with haemoglobin inside the red blood cells) and is bright red. Deoxygenated blood contains less oxygen, and is a duller purplish-red.

c

An atrium is one of the upper chambers of the heart, which receives blood and which has thin walls. A ventricle is one of the lower chambers of the heart, which has thick walls that pump blood out of the heart.

d

A red blood cell is a small cell with no nucleus, indented, and containing a large amount of haemoglobin. Its function is to transport oxygen. There are several types of white blood cells, but most are larger than red blood cells and they all have a nucleus. They do not contain haemoglobin. Their function is to fight pathogens.

3 a

plasma

b

white cells

c

red cells

d

platelets and plasma

e

plasma

4 Arteries: thick walls to withstand high-pressure blood; elastic walls to withstand pulsing blood; narrow lumen so blood moves through fast

Veins: valves to keep low-pressure blood moving in one direction; wide lumen to provide least resistance to blood flow

Capillaries: very narrow, so red blood cells have to squeeze through and are brought close to cells that require oxygen; very thin walls with gaps, so substances can easily move between blood and tissue fluid

Xylem vessels: dead and hollow so nothing in the way of water movement; narrow, so a tall column of water

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can be supported without breaking; lignin in walls to make them waterproof and to provide strength; pits in walls to allow water to move sideways

Phloem tubes: living but with no nucleus and only

a small amount of cytoplasm, so sap can flow

through; perforated end walls to allow sap to flow through

5

a contains haemoglobin that combines with oxygen;

collects oxygen in lungs, releases it in body tissues; [2]

b protects against, disease / pathogens;

takes in and kills micro-organisms / bacteria / pathogens;

[2]

c to deliver requirements to body cells; e.g. oxygen / glucose / other named nutrient; to remove waste products from body cells; e.g. carbon dioxide /

other named waste product;

[max 2]

6

a Red cell in diagram measures 23 mm;

so magnification = 23 / 0.007;

= × 3285.

[3]

b it has no nucleus;

it

has a depression in the centre / is a biconcave disc;

it

contains haemoglobin.

[3]

i

c transporting oxygen;

ii

it contains haemoglobin; which combines reversibly with oxygen; it has a large surface area to volume ratio; which speeds up the movement

of oxygen into and out of the cell; it is small; which allows it to squeeze through very small capillaries; it has no nucleus; which makes more room for

haemoglobin.

[max 3]

7

a 2;

[1]

i

b about 0.75 s;

[1]

ii

explanation of measuring time between two equivalent points;

[2]

c ventricle volume decreasing; because the muscle is contracting;

[2]

d when the ventricle contracts, the valve shuts; because of the pressure of the blood pushing upwards on it;

when ventricle relaxes, valve opens;

[3]

e line follows the same pattern as the first, at the same

times, but does not rise to such a high volume;

[2]

8

a left atrium;

A

B

bicuspid valve / atrioventricular valve;

C

semilunar valve;

D

right ventricle;

[4]

b vena cava;

E

 

F

aorta;

[2]

c coronary (arteries); plaques / cholesterol / fat deposit, in artery wall; partly blocks artery; less blood can flow through; less oxygen carried to heart muscle; increased likelihood of blood clotting;

[max 3]

d to keep the blood moving; to keep the blood oxygenated; to remove carbon dioxide from the blood;

e has a septum dividing the two sides of the heart; oxygenated blood on the left and deoxygenated on

[max 2]

the right; both sides contract at the same time; more muscle on the left side; so more pressure produced on the left side; high pressure to most of body; low

pressure to lungs;

[max 4]

Chapter B8 Gas exchange and respiration

1 protein synthesis, cell division, growth, movement, passage of nerve impulses, maintaining a constant body temperature

a

b respiration

c glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

2 inspired air has more oxygen; inspired air has less carbon dioxide; inspired air usually has less water vapour

a

b Oxygen is used by body cells in respiration. Carbon dioxide is produced by body cells in respiration. Water evaporates from the lining of the lungs into the air, so it is breathed out in expired air.

3 the movement of oxygen into the body and the loss of carbon dioxide

a

b

the alveoli in the lungs

b

any three of: large surface area; thin; good supply of air containing oxygen; good blood supply

4 a

anaerobic

b

both

c

aerobic only in humans; both in yeast

d

both

5 The following sequence should be shown, in a diagram or words: down trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, into alveolus (by mass flow of air), across wall of alveolus into the blood, by diffusion into a blood capillary into a red blood cell, combines with haemoglobin, carried along the pulmonary vein to the left atrium of the heart then to the left ventricle, pumped out of the heart into the aorta, then to a capillary in the arm muscle, diffuses out of the red blood cell, diffuses out of the capillary, diffuses into the muscle cell

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

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6 i

a

to make sure all the carbon dioxide had been

removed;

[1]

ii

clear;

[1]

b

i

to see if any carbon dioxide had been produced;

[1]

ii

cloudy;

[1]

c

have another apparatus in which flask 4 has no insects;

[1]

d

i

red / orange;

[1]

ii

carbon dioxide present;

dissolves / reacts with water;

to produce an acidic solution;

[3]

e

respiration ;

[1]

7 12;

a

[1]

b

21;

[1]

c

0.5 dm 3 ;

[1]

d

1.1 dm 3 ;

[1]

e

more rapid breathing brings fresh air into the lungs more often; deeper breathing brings a larger volume of fresh air into the lungs; more oxygen can diffuse into the blood more quickly; supplying more oxygen

to the muscles; so they can respire faster; releasing

 

more energy from glucose;

[max 4]

f

brain senses the pH of blood; pH decreases during exercise; because more carbon dioxide is dissolved

in the blood plasma; brain responds by sending more frequent impulses to the breathing muscles; so they

contract harder and more frequently;

[max 4]

 

8 12.5 breaths per minute at start, 25 breaths per minute during exercise; so increase is 12.5 breaths per minute;

a

[2]

b

from just before 11 minutes to just before 16 minutes;

5 minutes;

[2]

c

during exercise not enough oxygen was supplied to muscles; so they respired anaerobically (as well as aerobically); producing lactic acid; which was broken down by combining with oxygen (when exercise finished); reference to paying back the

oxygen debt ;

[max 4]

d

would follow a pattern similar to that of breathing rate; heart pumps oxygenated blood to the muscles; more oxygen required by muscles as they exercise; so that they can respire faster; more carbon dioxide needs to be removed from the muscles; continuing need for more

oxygen after exercise to pay off oxygen debt;

[max 4]

 

9 axes correctly labelled; x-axis scale uses the ranges from the table; good scale on both axes that uses

a

most of the graph paper provided; each bar drawn neatly and precisely;

[4]

b the more cigarettes smoked per day, the greater the chance of dying between the ages of 40 and 60 years old;

the younger a person is when they start smoking, the greater the chance of dying between the ages of 40 and 60 years old;

the number of cigarettes smoked per day seems to increase the chance of dying between 40 and 60 more than the age at which smoking started;

[3]

Chapter B9 Coordination and homeostasis

1 a reflex action

a

b

The stimulus from the sharp object is detected by a receptor in the foot. This sends an electrical impulse along a sensory neurone to the brain or spinal cord. The impulse is passed along a relay neurone and then to a motor neurone. This transmits the impulse to an effector, the muscles in your leg, and makes them contract.

2 a

motor and relay

b

sensory

c

sensory

d

motor, relay

e

relay

3 a

motor neurone

b

receptor

c

cornea

d

retina

e

contraction

f

circular

4 Keeping the body temperature constant is just one part of homeostasis, which is the maintenance of a constant internal environment. Homeostasis also involves the regulation of blood glucose concentration, as well as the water content of the body.

b The hairs do stand on end when the body is too cold, but in humans we do not have enough hair for this to help to keep us warm. In other hairier mammals, the raised hairs trap a layer of insulating air next to the skin.

a

c Air of any kind cannot get into the body through the skin. The fat layer prevents heat leaving the body by conduction, as it is an insulator.

d The sweat glands do secrete sweat onto the surface of the skin when we are too hot, but this liquid is not cold. It cools the body because the water in the sweat evaporates, and this process takes heat energy from the skin.

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

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e

The blood capillaries do not move at all. The arterioles that supply the blood capillaries near the surface of the skin get wider (dilate) when you are too hot. This allows more blood to flow through these capillaries, allowing heat to radiate from the blood into the air.

f

Insulin is a hormone, not an enzyme. Enzymes catalyse reactions, but insulin is not a catalyst. Insulin causes enzymes in liver cells to convert glucose to glycogen.

 

5 A 37.4 °C;

a

B

37.5 °C.

[2]

b

homeostasis; humans are endothermic; body

produces more heat to maintain body temperature;

shivering; vasoconstriction;

[max 4]

c

air is more insulating than water; heat lost more easily from the body in water than in air; by conduction;

[max 2]

d

person A was moving but person B remained still; idea that ‘new’ cold water was constantly

 

coming into contact with A’s skin; water around

B’s

body warms up (as heat is lost from his body to

the water); heat transfers from hot object to cold

object; so more heat lost from A’s body than B’s

body;

[max 3]

6 for respiration; by combining it with oxygen to

a

provide energy; (not ‘produce’ energy) for named

function (e.g. movement, active transport);

[max 3]

b

pancreas;

[1]

c

i starch digested to glucose; by enzymes / amylase and maltase; absorbed into the blood from, the

 

small intestine / ileum;

[3]

ii insulin secreted; causes liver to take up glucose from the blood; liver converts glucose to glycogen; (also) glucose used by body cells in

 

respiration;

[max 3]

d

negative feedback is a process that brings concentration back to normal when it gets too high or too low; when blood glucose concentration rises

too high, insulin is secreted and reduces it to normal; when blood glucose concentration drops too low,

glucagon is secreted and raises it to normal;

[3]

7 ability to detect changes in the environment;

a

and respond to them;

[2]

b

i gravitropism;

[1]

ii better access to water;

 

firm anchorage in the soil;

[2]

leaves have more light;

 

for photosynthesis;

[2]

iii

builds up on the lower side;

causes cells in stem to elongate more;

causes cells in root to elongate less;

[3]

Chapter B10 Reproduction in plants

1 a

gamete

b zygote

c asexual

d pollination

e seed

f fertilisation

g sexual

2

Asexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction

only one parent involved all offspring genetically identical

one or two parents involved involves gametes involves fertilisation zygote formed genetic variation among offspring

3

4

a age of seeds;

i

[1]

ii

water; oxygen; warm temperature;

[3]

(if light also given, max 2 marks)

b young plants will get light for photosynthesis;

i

[1]

ii

D;

[1]

a i

a sex cell;

joining together of nuclei of male and female gametes;

[2]

ii

A – sepal;

B – produces pollen;

[2]

iii

wall of ovary;

[1]

b B and C;

they have water;

they have a suitable temperature;

they do not need light;

[max 3]

i

c tropism;

negative gravitropism;

[2]

ii

better photosynthesis;

because leaves can get more light;

flowers held up higher;

where insects can access them;

[max 3]

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

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5

a asexual;

[1]

b produces new banana plants that are identical to the parent (so the bananas will be exactly the same variety); produces large new plants quickly;

[2]

4 a

c all new plants will be genetically identical; if the parent did not have resistance to the disease then nor will the offspring;

[2]

Chapter B11 Reproduction in humans

1

a oviduct

b ovary

c uterus

d cervix

2

a uterus wall

A

 

B

oviduct

C

amnion

D

amniotic fluid

 

E

fetus

F

placenta

G

umbilical cord

 

H

cervix

I vagina

b It produces amniotic fluid, in which the fetus floats. This fluid protects it from bumps and knocks.

 

c The placenta brings the mother’s and fetus’s blood close together, but does not allow them to mix. In the placenta, useful substances such as oxygen and glucose diffuse from the mother’s blood to the fetus’s blood. Wastes such as urea and carbon dioxide diffuse from the fetus’s blood to the mother’s blood.

3

a they are haploid / they have only one set of chromosomes;

i

[1]

ii

it contains food stores for the developing embryo;

 

[1]

 

iii

the food stores will soon run out; (once attached) it obtains nutrients; and oxygen; from the

mother’s blood; through the placenta;

[max 4]

i

b umbilical cord;

A

 

B

amnion;

C

cervix;

[3]

ii

the (beating of the) fetus’s heart;

[1]

iii

support / protect, the fetus;

[1]

iv

mother to fetus: any two of oxygen / glucose / amino acids / water / other named soluble nutrient;

[2]

b

c

a

b

c

fetus to mother: carbon dioxide and urea;

nucleus cytoplasm cell membrane flagellum digestive enzymes
nucleus
cytoplasm
cell membrane
flagellum
digestive enzymes

[2]

all five labels correct three marks

four labels correct two marks two or three labels correct one mark

[3]

acrosome contains enzymes which digest through the jelly surrounding the egg; mitochondria release energy by aerobic respiration (for swimming); flagellum propels the sperm forwards; nucleus contains the haploid number of chromosomes so

the normal diploid number is restored at fertilisation; shape is streamlined to reduce energy needed

for swimming;

[max 4]

nucleus contains the haploid number of chromosomes so the normal diploid number is restored at fertilisation; it contains food stores to

provide for the young fetus (until it is implanted); it is

[3]

surrounded by a protective layer of jelly;

5 increased and then decreased; peaks in 2004 and 2007; any figure quote using both year and number of

[3]

people recently infected with HIV show no symptoms;

[2]

people infected read from the graph;

may not have had their blood checked;

more awareness of AIDS; people with HIV/AIDS now knew that they had it and avoided passing it on; people who were not HIV positive modified their behaviour to reduce the risk of becoming infected

with HIV; example – avoided having multiple partners / used condoms / did not share contaminated needles; use of antiretroviral drugs to treat AIDS;

other valid point.

[max 4]

Chapter B12 Inheritance

1

a a large letter for the smooth fur allele and a matching small letter for the rough fur allele, using letters that look different from each other, e.g. A and a (not S and s)

b AA, Aa and aa

c AA smooth fur, Aa smooth fur, aa rough fur

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

2

a a large letter for the red colour allele and a matching small letter for the white colour allele, using letters that look different from each other, e.g. R for the red colour allele and r for the white colour allele

b R is dominant, because this is the allele that has an effect in a heterozygous plant.

c RR, red; Rr, red; rr, white

3

a A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a particular protein; an allele is one of two or more forms of a gene.

b A dominant allele shows its effect in a heterozygous organism; a recessive allele only has an effect when no dominant allele is present.

c A homozygous organism has two identical alleles of a gene, e.g. AA; a heterozygous organism has two different alleles of a gene, e.g. Aa.

d The genotype shows the alleles of a gene that an organism possesses; the phenotype describes the characteristics of the organism.

e Mitosis is a type of nuclear division in which genetically identical daughter cells are produced; meiosis is a type of nuclear division that produces daughter cells with only half the full number of chromosomes, and that are genetically different from one another. Mitosis is used in growth, repair and asexual reproduction; meiosis is used to produce gametes.

5

f A haploid cell has one full set of chromosomes; a diploid cell has two full sets.

4

a symbols should be the same letter, large and small, and easily distinguishable, e.g.

EE for indented edges;

ee for smooth edges;

[2]

b parents’ phenotypes

indented

smooth

parents’ genotypes

EE

e e

gametes

E
E
e
e
spring genotypes and phenotypes

spring genotypes and phenotypes

all E e indented

parents’ genotypes correct;

gametes correct and placed inside circles;

 

offspring genotype and phenotype correct;

entire genetic diagram laid out correctly with all headings;

[4]

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

c parents’ phenotypes

indented

indented

parents’ genotypes

E e

E e

gametes

E
E

and

e
e
E
E

and

e
e
E e E e gametes E and e E and e spring genotypes and phenotypes E

spring genotypes and phenotypes

E e EE E e E indented indented E e e e e indented smooth
E
e
EE
E
e
E
indented
indented
E
e
e
e
e
indented
smooth

parents’ genotypes correct; all gametes correct and shown inside circles; genotypes of offspring correct; phenotypes of offspring correctly associated with genotypes; 99 : 302 is approx. 3 : 1 and genetic

diagram shows 3 indented : 1 smooth;

i

[5]

a white is dominant and himalayan is recessive – no mark

upper case and lower case version of the same letter chosen;

upper case for white and lower case for himalayan;

[2]

ii parents’s genotypes shown as Aa and Aa (or whatever letters have been chosen in part a);

gametes from both parents shown as A and a with circles around them;

offspring genotypes shown as AA, Aa, Aa and aa;

AA and Aa offspring identified as white, and aa as himalayan;

ratio stated as 3 : 1 white to himalayan and

matched to three quarters white and one quarter

 

himalayan;

[5]

b i

respiration;

oxidation of glucose / equation;

[2]

ii

air trapped between hairs;

insulation;

reduces heat loss;

[max 2]

iii extremities / ears/ paws / nose, colder than other parts of the body;

enzyme active only in these parts so black pigment only produced there;

[2]

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Chapter B13 Variation and natural selection

1 species, discontinuous, genes, continuous, mutation, adapted

2 In continuous variation, an individual can fit anywhere within a range of a particular characteristic, with no sharp dividing lines. In discontinuous variation, there are a small number of distinct categories into which any individual fits.

a

b

Natural selection is the increased chances of individual organisms with particular variations surviving and reproducing in their environment, because of selection pressures that act on them. Artificial selection is the choice, by humans, of individuals with particular variations to be allowed to breed together.

3 Sexual reproduction allows mixing of alleles from different parents. There is genetic variation in the population. Different combinations of alleles may give different features that make some individuals better able to survive and reproduce in the changing environment than their parents. Asexual reproduction, however, produces offspring with exactly the same combinations of alleles as their parent; there is no genetic variation.

a

 

(In both sexual and asexual reproduction, mutation may occur, which could form new alleles that might give an advantage to an organism and be selected for. This is no more likely in sexual than in asexual reproduction.)

b

Mutation may produce new alleles that were not present before. Although mutations usually produce new characteristics that are less good than the normal ones, just occasionally a new feature that gives an organism a survival advantage may occur. If so, then this will be selected for (its owners will be more likely to survive and reproduce) and passed on to the next generation.

4 correct answer given (you will need to get someone

a

to check!);

[1]

b

i

shape of ear lobes shows discontinuous variation;

so it is caused by genes

[2]

ii

approximately 3 : 1; free : attached;

[2]

iii

allele for free ear lobes likely to be dominant; and allele for attached ear lobes likely to be recessive;

[2]

i

5 There are no distinct categories; individuals can have any wing length within the range from 63 mm or less to 70 mm or more;

a

[2]

ii

for example: body mass / body length / beak length;

[1]

b the largest number of birds trapped has wing lengths of 66 or 67 mm; suggesting that most birds had these wing lengths; comparative data quoted for birds with these wing lengths and others; birds with these wing lengths had greater mean ages when trapped; suggesting that they lived longer than others; comparative age data quoted for

i

 

birds with these wing lengths and others;

[max 4]

ii

repeat measurements for a larger number of birds; repeat in countries other than Sweden; check wing lengths of birds that are breeding; follow individual marked birds throughout their

lives to measure wing length and length of life;

measure the wing length of dead birds;

[max 3]

c birds with this wing length survive for longer; more likely to reproduce than birds with smaller wings; wing length determined by genes / alleles which are

passed on to offspring;

[max 4]

Chapter B14 Organisms and their environment

1 A producer is an organism that makes its own organic food materials from inorganic ones; plants are producers, as they make organic nutrients by photosynthesis. A consumer is an organism that depends on organic nutrients made by producers; animals and fungi are consumers.

a

b A primary consumer obtains its energy by feeding on plants; it is a herbivore. A secondary consumer obtains its energy by feeding on primary consumers; it is a carnivore.

c A food chain shows how energy is transferred from one organism to another, showing only one species at each trophic level. A food web shows many interlinking food chains, with more than one species shown at each trophic level.

2 to make carbohydrates, fats and proteins

a

b by photosynthesis; carbon dioxide from the air is used to make carbohydrates

c They are given out from the plant as carbon dioxide.

d They break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins and other carbon-containing materials in dead organisms or waste products from them; they then respire, giving out carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

3 a

i

sunlight;

[1]

ii

chemical energy;

[1]

b

i

respiration;

[1]

ii

movement / muscle contraction; active transport; generating heat to keep the body warm; transmission of nerve impulses; building large

 

molecules from small ones;

[max 3]

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

 

c

i the food web should show an arrow going from

c increasing quantities of untreated sewage running

i

 

the wildebeest to ticks, another arrow going from the ticks to the oxpeckers; and an arrow going

into the river; build-up of nutrients in the water; so larger bacteria populations used up more

from the wildebeest to the oxpeckers;

[1]

oxygen;

[max 2]

ii energy is lost between trophic levels; 90% of

ii

sewage treated before entering the river; fewer

energy lost / only 10% of energy passed on; lost,

nutrients for bacteria; so fewer bacteria / less use

in respiration / as heat; so fewer organisms can

of oxygen by bacteria;

[max 2]

be supported at each trophic level;

[max 3]

d they would die / leave the river;

[1]

4

a

photosynthesis by aquatic plants; dissolving from the air;

[2]

e cause unpleasant smells; introduce pathogens to the water that could cause disease in humans;

b

bacteria feed on the sewage; so their populations

e.g. cholera bacterium; e.g. polio virus; other example

increase; bacteria respire; aerobically; use up oxygen

from the water;

[max 4]

of water-borne disease-causing organism;

[max 2]

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chemistry

Chapter C1 Planet Earth

1 a i nitrogen 78% Percentage in unpolluted air oxygen 21% other gases 1% [2]
1 a
i
nitrogen 78%
Percentage in
unpolluted air
oxygen 21%
other gases 1%
[2]
ii
carbon dioxide, argon, helium
[1]
b
i
N 2 + O 2 → 2NO
[2]
ii
that natural rain water is slightly acidic [1] /
from dissolved carbon dioxide [1] / after
thunderstorm more acidic because of
dissolved nitric acid [1]
[3]

2 use cobalt chloride paper – turns from blue to pink; or use anhydrous copper sulfate powder – turns from

a

 

white to blue

[2]

b

as a coolant, or any other correct industrial use

[1]

c

a substance that dissolves another to form a solution

[1]

d

i

burning coal in power stations or other correct source

[1]

ii

kills fish in lakes, erodes statues/buildings

[2]

iii

64

[1]

e

1: filtration to remove solid particles

[2]

2: chlorination to kill bacteria/germs

[2]

f

21%

[1]

3 lower proportions of oxygen and nitrogen; higher proportion of carbon dioxide

a

[1]

b

acid rainfall causing damage to trees [1] / acidification of lakes [1]

[2]

c

add drops of the liquid to anhydrous copper(II) sulfate powder (1); powder turns from white to blue (1) OR add drops of the liquid to cobalt chloride paper (1); colour change from blue to pink (1)

[2]

d

methane

[1]

e

burning of fossil fuels / volcanic activity

[1]

f

neutralisation

[1]

g

heating (thermal decomposition of) limestone in furnace (kiln) [1]

CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2

[2]

Chapter C2 The nature of matter

1

a Both ways of categorising substances have their use to a chemist.

Knowing whether a substance is a solid, liquid or gas at room temperature – and how easily a substance can change its state – helps us in handling the different substances and in separating them and purifying them from mixtures. It is important to realise that any substance can exist in any of the three states, depending on the conditions of temperature and pressure.

Knowing whether a sample is an element, compound or mixture helps us in knowing and predicting the chemical properties of a substance. These distinctions are mutually exclusive and therefore are more fundamental to our understanding.

b The word ‘particle’ is needed when talking in generalisations about the structure and movement of the constituents of matter. The context should always be defined to distinguish this scientific use of the word from the more everyday use when it can be a speck of dust, etc. The one key experiment where the two uses interact is in the description of Brownian motion.

Here the unseen motion of atoms and molecules in a fluid is demonstrated by the jerky, random motion of the dust particles as they are hit by the sub- microscopic particles that make up matter.

One aspect that can be discussed, and needs to be referred to, is the key definition of the size of the ‘particles’ involved when the term is used. Descriptions such as ‘sub-microscopic’ and ‘subatomic’ are useful.

2

a The particles are in fixed positions [1]; they vibrate

i

about their fixed position [1].

[2]

ii

Add water, stir to dissolve salt and filter to obtain

sand as the residue.

[3]

b distillation, lower, volatile, condenser, vapour

[5]

3

a seawater

[1]

b evaporation [1]; freezing (solidification) [1]

[2]

4

a A: thermometer; B: beaker

[2]

b to keep the temperature the same throughout

[1]

i

c 48 °C

[1]

ii

72 °C

[1]

d The particles are close together but irregular [1]; the molecules are able to move about with slow movement [1].

[2]

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

 

i

e The third statement is correct: its melting point is

 

different from pure stearic acid.

[1]

 

ii

in testing medicines or food additives, or other correct

[1]

5

a balloons

 

[1]

i

b nucleus

[1]

ii

The third statement is correct: helium has a complete outer shell of electrons.

[1]

iii

34

[1]

 

34

 

iv

18

Ar

[1]

c The atoms are arranged irregularly [1] and are close together/touching [1].

[2]

6

a electrons

 

[1]

b P has 2 protons and 2 neutrons (= 4 nucleons)

[1]

c atoms are electrically neutral because they have equal numbers [1] of protons

and electrons [1]

[2]

d R

[1]

e 2.2

[1]

Chapter C3 Elements and compounds

1

a helium / aluminium / chlorine

[3]

b i

B and C

[1]

ii

C

[1]

iii

D

[1]

2

a Period 2

 

[1]

b i

O

ii

F

iii

Li

iv

C

v

Be

vi

N

[6]

c atoms, protons

[2]

3

a hydrogen

 

[1]

b P is in Group I / Q is in Group VIII (or 0) / R is in Group VII [1]

i

 

the Group number is given by the number of outer electrons in the atom [1]

[2]

 

ii

Q is the least reactive as it is a noble gas

[1]

iii

P is a good conductor of electricity as it is a metal

[1]

4

a i

D

ii

E

iii

F

iv

B

v

A

[5]

b Correct electron structure of the F ions (electrons from outer orbit of C moved to the two F atoms, one electron to each to give eight electrons in

i

 

the outer shell of each)

 

[1]

Correct charges on each ion: – on F and 2+ on C

[2]

 

[

C] 2+

F
F

 
F
F

ii

high melting point, soluble in water, conducts when dissolved or molten, brittle (any two of these possible answers)

[2]

5

i

a X conducts electricity, Z does not; or X reacts with water, Z does not

[1]

ii

Y reacts with X, Z does not

 

[1]

i

b the elements are too reactive

[1]

ii

An electron is transferred (donated) from a sodium atom to a chlorine atom [1]; the sodium becomes a positive ion and the chlorine a negative (chloride) ion [1]

[2]

Chapter C4 Chemical reactions

1

a There is a colour change which shows that there might be a reaction, and new substance(s) are formed / a gas is given off.

b The most reliable evidence for a chemical reaction is that a gas is given off which can be identified as carbon dioxide.

c copper carbonate → copper oxide + carbon dioxide

zinc carbonate → zinc oxide + carbon dioxide

d Zinc oxide is a white solid which turns yellow when heated. When cooled, the solid turns white again.

e No, it is a physical change.

Cambridge IGCSE Combined and Co-ordinated Sciences

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

2 black solid

a

[1]

b

magnesium + carbon dioxide → magnesium oxide + carbon

[1]

c

i carbon dioxide

[1]

ii magnesium

[1]

d

MgO + 2HCl → MgCl 2 + H 2 O [correct formulae but unbalanced = 1]

[2]

e

i Zn 2+ + Mg → Mg 2+ + Zn

[2]

ii Magnesium reduces zinc ions [1] by donating/ giving electrons to them [1]

[2]

3 sulfur + oxygen → sulfur dioxide [1 for reactants; 1 for product]

a

[2]

b

SO 2 is oxidised to SO 3 and O 3 is reduced to O 2

[2]

c

SO 3 + H 2 O → H 2 SO 4

[1]

4 aqueous sodium chloride, copper, graphite [deduct 1 for each incorrect answer]

a

[3]

b

insulator

[1]

c

i

anode

[1]

ii

negative = zinc [1] ; positive = chlorine [1]

[2]

iii

carbon

[1]

5 carbon/platinum [1] because unreactive [1]

a

[2]

b

bubbles [1] at both electrodes [1]

[2]

c

hydrogen at cathode [1], chlorine at anode [1]

[2]

Chapter C5 Acids, bases and salts

1

a pH 11

[1]

b slaked lime

[1]

c to help plants grow better (or words to that effect)

i

[1]

ii

sulfur dioxide [1] from power stations [1] or

nitrogen oxides [1] from car exhausts [1]; dissolves

in rain [1]

[3]

i

d neutralisation

[1]

ii

Measure the calcium hydroxide/alkali with a pipette [1], add indicator [1] and add acid from burette until there is a colour change [1].

[3]

2

a pH 3 [1]

b Add blue (or neutral) [1] litmus [1]; if it turns red, it is acidic [1].

[3]

i

c calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid → calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water [1 mark for each

 

product]

[3]

ii

in a blast furnace for producing iron

[1]

iii

lime/calcium oxide, or slaked lime/ calcium hydroxide

[1]

d

Fe + 2HCl → FeCl 2 + H 2

[2]

3 Step 2: Filter to remove excess solid [1]

Step 3: Evaporate to crystallisation point [1]

Step 4: Leave solution to cool [1]; dry crystals on filter paper [1]

[2]

i

4 ammonia gas is produced by the reaction [1]; ammonia turns moist red litmus blue [1]

a

[2]

ii

no reaction if solid is ammonium nitrate [1]

white precipitate if solid is ammonium sulfate [1]

[2]

b

calcium carbonate reacts with acids [1]; calcium carbonate will neutralise acidic soil [1]

[2]

5 acidic: < 7, any appropriate e.g. SO 2 basic: > 7, any appropriate e.g. CaO neutral: 7, any appropriate e.g. H 2 O

a

[6]

b

i

an oxide/substance that will react with/ dissolve

in both acids and alkalis

[1]

ii

any strong acid (e.g. HCl) + any strong alkali (e.g. NaOH)

[2]

Chapter C6 Quantitative chemistry

1 ammonia + sulfuric acid → ammonium sulfate

a

[1]

b

8

[1]

c

98

[1]

d

6.6 g

[2]

2 1.0 kg = 1000 g of conc. H 2 SO 4 solution

a

 

mass of H 2 SO 4 = (1000 × 98) / 100 = 980 g (molar mass H 2 SO 4 = 98 g/mol)

number of moles H 2 SO 4 = 980 / 98 = 10 moles

[3]

b

i

molar mass of CaO = 56 g/mol [1]

number of moles CaO = 168 / 56 = 3 moles [1]

[2]

ii

molar mass of H 2