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Typical Components of a Biomass-fired Power Plant:

Pellet Mill

A pellet mill also known as pellet machine or pellet press is used for making pellets from different powdered
materials. It is usually composed of pellet die and rollers. In able to form the pellets, the feedstock are force
through the die holes by the rotating rollers or dies.

Figure 2. Pellet Mill

(Source: Jack Huang, 2014)


In a thermal power plant, boilers are needed in able to produce a high pressure steam. A biomass-fired power
plant is a type of thermal power plant in which biomass fuels are fed and burned inside the combustion
chamber of a boiler in able to produce heat. The heat produced from the biomass fuels will be absorbed by
water; this will make the water evaporate and turn into steam.

Classification of boilers based on tube content:

1. Fire-tube boilers

In a fire-tube boiler, hot gases flow through tubes which are surrounded or enclosed by water.
The heat coming from the hot gases flowing through the tubes will make the water turn into
steam. Fire-tube boilers are usually used in small scale industries. One of the advantages of a
fire-tube boiler is its simple design. It is easier to maintain than a water-tube boilers which has a
complex design.

Types of fire-tube boilers:

 Cornish boiler
 Lancashire boiler
 Locomotive boiler
 Scotch marine boiler
 Admiralty-type direct tube boiler
 Horizontal return tubular boiler
 Immersion fired boiler
 Vertical fire-tube boiler

Figure 2. Fire-tube Boiler Diagram

(Source: “How Steam Engines Work” by Michael Brain, 2000)

2. Water-tube boilers

In water-tube boilers, water flows through tubes that are surrounded by hot gases. Water-tube
boilers are the most widely used type of boiler today because of their fast steam generation
process. Aside from this, water-tube boilers have higher efficiency than fire-tube boilers.

Types of water-tube boilers:

 Horizontal Straight Tube Boiler
 Bent Tube Boiler
 Cyclone Fired Boiler
Figure 2. Water-tube Boiler Diagram
(Source: “How Steam Engines Work” by Michael Brain, 2000)
According to NREL, there are three common types of furnace used in biomass power generation, namely:
Grate Stoker Furnace, Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC), and Cyclone Furnace. In both design options, the
type of furnace in the boilers will be FBC.
In a fluidized bed combustor, the biomass fuels are suspended in the air due to the combustion air flowing
upward. This feature in FBCs decreases the fluctuations in steam production associated with inconsistent
feedstock. Also, FBCs need lower combustion temperature than the two other types of furnaces. Thus, there
are lesser pollutants formed in FBCs. However, FBCs have higher capital and O&M costs than the two other
types of furnaces. (Jennie Jorgenson Et al., 2011)
Steam Turbine

The purpose of a steam turbine is to convert thermal energy coming from the steam into kinetic energy. The
high pressure steam will make the turbine rotate thus producing mechanical energy. The steam turbine is
connected into a generator that will convert the produced mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Classification of steam turbines:

1. Impulse Turbine

In impulse turbines, high velocity superheated steam flowing out from fixed nozzles strikes the blades
or buckets; this will cause the turbine shaft to rotate. The high pressure and intermediate pressure
stages of a steam turbine are usually impulse turbines.

2. Reaction Turbine

In reaction turbines, the steam passes from fixed blades of the stator through the shaped rotor blades
nozzles causing a reaction and rotating the turbine shaft. The low pressure stage of a steam turbine
is usually a reaction type turbine.

Figure 2. Impulse and Reaction Turbine Principle

(Source: Mechanical Engineering Site, 2017)

In thermal power plants, generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The generator shaft is
coupled to the turbine shaft where the mechanical energy is produced.

Figure 2. Turbine and Generator Diagram

(Source: Shubham Thakur, 2014)

Steam condenser is an equipment used to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine by means of a
cooling water. The cooling water will absorb the heat from the exhaust steam; this will make the exhaust
steam condense.

The main function of a condenser is to convert gaseous form of exhaust steam into liquid form at a pressure
of below atmosphere. Usually, water is used as a cooling medium to convert steam into water. (Dr. Parvez,

Benefits on using a condenser according to Dr. Parvez:

 It increases the efficiency of the power plant due to increase enthalpy drop
 It reduces back pressure of the steam which results in more work output
 It reduces temperature of the exhaust steam which also results in more work output
 The condensed steam can be reused as feed water for boiler which reduces the cost of power
 The temperature of the condensate is higher than of the fresh water which reduces the heat supplied
per kilogram of steam produced
Figure 2. Condenser Diagram
(Source: “Utilizing TE Pellet as the Condenser of Thermal Power Plant” by Mehran Rafiee, 2012)

Feed water pump

The main function of a feed water pump is to supply pressurized feed water into the boiler. Usually, centrifugal
pumps are used as a feed water pump since it can transport a higher volume of fluid than a positive
displacement pump.

Figure 2. Feed Water Pump

(Source: India MART)
Cooling water pump

In a thermal power plant, cooling water pumps are used to transport water with low temperature coming from
the cooling towers into the condensers. Centrifugal pumps are used as a cooling water pumps due to its high
volume flow capacity.

Figure 2. Cooling Water Pump

(Source: Grundfos Pumps)

Cooling Tower

Cooling tower is a device commonly used to cool condenser water in power and refrigerating plants. (Hipolito
Sta. Maria, 2001)

It is a type of equipment that transfers heat from hot water into the air. This will reduce the temperature of
the water. The hot water coming to the cooling tower usually came from the condenser; the water has a high
temperature since it absorbed the heat coming from the steam. After the cooling process, low temperature
water will be sent back into the condenser from the cooling tower.
Figure 2. Cooling Tower Diagram
(Source: Cooling Tower Products)


De-aerators are used to physically remove dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide from the condensate/make-
up water. De-aerators reduce the oxygen content to levels low enough to avoid premature corrosion failures.
De-aerators operate on the principle of Henry’s law of partial pressures (the solubility of any gas dissolved in
liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid). Thus, the dissolved gases
in the feed water can be removed by spraying the water into a steam environment in which the partial pressure
of the gas is reduced. The de-aerated feed water eventually flows out of the de-aerator into a storage tank
while the oxygen and carbon dioxide are vented to the atmosphere, carried by a small amount of steam.
(Bradley N. Jackson, 2017)
Figure 2. De-aerator
(Source: Mechanical Engineering Site)

Electro Static Precipitator

A type of filter that uses static electricity to extract soot and ash from exhaust fumes before they exit the
smokestacks. It is a common air pollution control device. It is typically used in power stations that burn fuels
to generate electricity. Smoke consists of tiny particles of soot that are suspended in hot and rising air. These
unburned particles of carbon are pulled out of the smoke by using static electricity in the precipitators, leaving
clean and hot air to escape the smokestacks. It is vital to remove this unreacted carbon from the smoke, as
it can damage buildings and harm human health - especially respiratory health. (Jordan Hanania et al., 2018)

Figure 2. Electro Static Precipitator Diagram

(Source: “Micro-plasmas: Environmental and Biological Applications” by Kurt Becker, 2017)
Flue Gas Stack

A flue gas stack is a kind of structure through which combustion product gases or flue gas are exhausted into
the atmosphere. Flue gases are produced from the burning of fuels such as biomass fuels. Flue gases contain
carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. Pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides
can also be contained by flue gases. In able to disperse exhaust pollutants over a greater area, flue gas
stacks have height of up to 400 meters or more.

Figure 2. Flue Gas Stack

(Source: James Engineering)

Figure 2. Biomass-fired Power Plant Typical Layout

(Source: “Energy Analysis of a Biomass Direct-fired Power Plant in Mongolia” by Gengyuan Liu, 2013)
All of the potential biomass fuel suppliers that surround the selected site location are rice mills; it is safe to
say that the proposed biomass power plant will be a rice husk-fired power plant. The proponents used the
ultimate analysis of rice husk briquettes to solve for its higher heating value and compare it to the higher
heating value of rice husk pellets.

Carbon 45.20%
Hydrogen 5.8%
Oxygen 47.60%
Nitrogen 1.02%
Sulfur 0.21%
Table 2. Ultimate Analysis of Rice Husk Briquettes
(Source: Andrew Ndudi Efomah & Agidi Gbabo, 2015)

Table 2. Proximate Analysis of Rice Husk Briquette

(Source: Andrew Ndudi Efomah & Agidi Gbabo, 2015)

Higher heating value of rice husk pellets: 15.129 𝑡𝑜 17.589
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
Note: Moisture content is inversely proportional to the calorific value

(Source: “Production and Characterization of Rice Husk Pellets” by Japhet, J.A., Tokan A., and
Muhammad, M.H., 2015)
Table 2. Rice Husk Pellet Specification
(Source: Season Tian, 2016)

Based on several studies, rice husk pellets have a higher calorific value than rice husk briquettes. Aside from
having a higher calorific value than rice husk briquettes, rice husk pellets are also easier to store. The
proponents have decided to use rice husk pellets as the main fuel of the biomass-fired power plant.
Therefore, the calorific value of rice husk pellets will be used in the computations.

2.1.2 Working Formulas

Higher Heating Value

𝑸𝒉 = 33,820𝐶 + 144,212 (𝐻 − ) + 9,304𝑆

𝑸𝒉 – Higher Heating Value in 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
C – Carbon Content in %
H – Hydrogen Content in %
O – Oxygen Content in %
S – Sulfur Content in %
Theoretical Air-fuel Ratio

( ) = 11.5𝐶 + 34.5 (𝐻 − ) + 4.3𝑆
𝑭 𝒕 8

𝑨 𝑄ℎ
( ) =
𝑭 𝒕 3117
𝑸𝒉 – Higher Heating Value in 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙

𝑨 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟
(𝑭) - Theoretical air-fuel ratio in 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
C – Carbon Content in %
H – Hydrogen Content in %
O – Oxygen Content in %
S – Sulfur Content in %

Actual Air-fuel Ratio

( ) = ( ) (1 + 𝑒)
𝑭 𝒂 𝐹 𝑡

𝑨 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟
(𝑭) - Actual air-fuel ratio in 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙

𝑨 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟
(𝑭) - Theoretical air-fuel ratio in 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙

e – Excess air in %

Weight of Flue Gas

𝑾𝒇𝒈 = 𝑊𝑎 + 𝑊𝑓

𝑊𝑓𝑔 – Weight of flue gas

𝑊𝑎 – Weight of air

𝑊𝑓 – Weight of fuel
The Ideal Rankine Cycle is a theoretical and the simplest process of a steam power plant.

Figure 2. Ideal Rankine Cycle

(Source: Vundela Siva Reddy, 2010)

Heat Added

Heat addition occurs inside the boiler. Using energy balance:

𝑸𝒂 = ℎ3 − ℎ2 ;

𝑸𝒂 = 𝑚(ℎ3 − ℎ2 )

𝑄𝑎 – Heat Added in kW
ℎ3 – Enthalpy of Steam in 𝑘𝑔
ℎ2 – Enthalpy of feed water in 𝑘𝑔
m – Mass flow rate of steam in 𝑠
Heat Rejected

In a Rankine Cycle, heat rejection occurs in the condenser. Using energy balance:

𝑸𝒓 = ℎ4 − ℎ1 ;

𝑸𝒓 = 𝑚(ℎ4 − ℎ1 )

𝑄𝑟 – Heat Rejected in kW
ℎ4 – Enthalpy of Exhaust Steam in 𝑘𝑔
ℎ1 – Enthalpy of condensate water in 𝑘𝑔
m – Mass flow rate of steam in 𝑠

Turbine Work

In a Rankine Cycle, work is generated in the turbine. Using energy balance:

𝑾𝒕 = ℎ3 − ℎ4 ;

𝑾𝒕 = 𝑚(ℎ3 − ℎ4 )


𝑊𝑡 – Turbine Work in kW
ℎ3 – Enthalpy of Steam in 𝑘𝑔
ℎ4 – Enthalpy of Exhaust Steam in 𝑘𝑔
m – Mass flow rate of steam in 𝑠

Pump Work

In a Rankine Cycle, pump work is necessary in able to transport the feed water into the boiler. Using energy

𝑾𝒑 = ℎ2 − ℎ1 ;

𝑾𝒑 = 𝑚(ℎ2 − ℎ1 )

𝑊𝑝 – Pump Work in kW

ℎ2 – Enthalpy of feed water in 𝑘𝑔
ℎ1 – Enthalpy of condensate water in 𝑘𝑔
m – Mass flow rate of steam in 𝑠

For approximate pump work:

𝑾𝒑 = 𝑚𝑉𝑓 (𝑃𝐵 − 𝑃𝐶 )

𝑊𝑝 – Pump Work in kW

m – Mass flow rate of steam in 𝑠
𝑉𝑓 – Specific volume of condensate in 𝑘𝑔
𝑃𝐵 – Boiler pressure in kPa
𝑃𝐶 – Condenser pressure in kPa

For actual pump work:

𝑾𝒂𝒑 =
𝛈𝒑 – Pump efficiency
𝑊𝑎𝑝 – Actual Pump Work

Net Cycle Work

Net cycle work is the theoretical work produced in an ideal Rankine cycle.

𝑾𝒏𝒆𝒕 = 𝑊𝑡 − 𝑊𝑝 = 𝑄𝑎 − 𝑄𝑟
Thermal Efficiency
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑄𝑎 − 𝑄𝑟 𝑄𝑟
𝛈𝒕𝒉 = = =1−
𝑄𝑎 𝑄𝑎 𝑄𝑎


𝛈𝒕𝒉 – Thermal Efficiency

Boiler Efficiency

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
𝛈𝑩 =
𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦

Turbine Efficiency

𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
𝛈𝑻 =
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦

Generator Efficiency

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
𝛈𝑮 =
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
𝑶𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚 = (𝛈𝑩 )(𝛈𝑻 )(𝛈𝑮 ) =
𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
(Source: Dutton, 2011)

Steam Rate (S.R)

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚

𝑺. 𝑹. =
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

Heat Rate (H.R.)

(𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙)(ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙)

𝑯. 𝑹. =
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

Specific Fuel Consumption (S.F.C.)

It is the ratio of the mass of fuel consumed to the generated energy.

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑; 𝑘𝑔

𝑺. 𝑭. 𝑪. =
𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑; 𝑘𝑊 − ℎ
Relationship between Condenser and Cooling Water

𝑸𝑹𝒆𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒆𝒓 = 𝑸𝑨𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒅 𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓

𝑚𝑠 (ℎ4 − ℎ1 ) = 𝑚𝑤 𝐶∆𝑇
𝑚𝑠 – Mass flow rate of steam in 𝑠
ℎ4 – Enthalpy of Exhaust Steam in 𝑘𝑔
ℎ1 – Enthalpy of condensate water in 𝑘𝑔
𝑚𝑤 – Mass flow rate of cooling water in
𝐶 – Specific heat of water, 4.187 𝑘𝑔 °𝐾
∆𝑇 – Change in temperature, ˚K or ˚C

Cooling Tower Efficiency

Cooling towers serve the vital role of cooling water for power plant heat exchange equipment. Sustaining
excellent system performance is important because a one-degree increase in water temperature can cause
a 2% increase in energy usage. Proper maintenance and a few upgrades could improve a cooling tower’s
efficiency, while also saving water in the process. (Abby L. Harvey, 2017)

𝑪𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑻𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚 =
𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ
𝑹𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 = 𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑨𝒑𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒂𝒄𝒉 = 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Height of Stack

𝐷𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
𝑯𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒄𝒌 =
𝜌𝑎 − 𝜌𝑔
𝐷𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = (𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝐻2 𝑂)(𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 )
𝜌𝑎 – Density of air in 𝑚3
𝜌𝑔 – Density of flue gas in 𝑚3
Diameter of Stack

𝑸𝒈 = 𝐴𝑉

(𝜋)(𝐷2 )
𝑸𝒈 = ( ) (𝑉)


D – Diameter of Stack
𝑄𝑔 – Volume flow rate of flue gas
V – Velocity of flue gas

For Machine Foundation:

Length of the Foundation (L)

𝑳 = 𝐿𝐵 + 2𝑐

𝐿𝐵 – Length of the machine’s bed plate

c – Clearance

Upper Width of the Foundation (a)

𝒂 = 𝑤 + 2𝑐

w – Width of the machine’s bed plate

Weight of Foundation (𝑾𝒇 )

𝑾𝒇 = (3 𝑡𝑜 5)(𝑊𝑚 )

𝑊𝑚 – Weight of the machine

Volume of the Machine Foundation (𝑽𝒇 )

𝑽𝒇 =
𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

Lower Width of the Machine Foundation (b)

𝑁(𝑊𝑚 + 𝑊𝑓 )
(𝑆𝑏 )(𝐿)

N – Factor of safety
𝑆𝑏 – Soil bearing capacity

Depth of the Machine Foundation (h)

(𝑎 + 𝑏)𝐿

Weight of Steel bar Reinforcements (𝑾𝑺𝑩 )

𝑊𝑆𝐵 = (0.5% 𝑡𝑜 1%)(𝑊𝑓 )

Power Plant Economics:

Capital Cost

𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒊𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒕 = Σ Fixed Costs

Fixed Costs include the following:

 Total Power Plant Equipment Cost
 Total Land Cost
 Total Construction Materials Cost
 Total Miscellaneous Cost (Insurance, Legal Services, Permitting, Construction and Project
Annual Generation Income (AGI)

Figure 2. NPC-SPUG Effective Generation Rate

(Source: NAPOCOR, 2019)

𝑮𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝑹𝒂𝒕𝒆 = 4.8024
8760 ℎ𝑟𝑠
𝑨𝑮𝑰 = (𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒)(𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑; 𝑘𝑊) ( )
1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

Annual Feed-in-Tariff Income (Annual FiT Income)

𝑃ℎ𝑝 8760 ℎ𝑟𝑠

𝑨𝒏𝒏𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝑭𝒊𝑻 𝑰𝒏𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒆 = (𝐹𝑖𝑇 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒; )(𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑; 𝑘𝑊) ( )
𝑘𝑊ℎ 1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
Figure 2. Feed-in-Tariff Rates as of 2018
(Source: National Transmission Corporation, 2018)

Annual Total Income (𝑰)

𝑰 = 𝐴𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒 + 𝐴𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐹𝑖𝑇 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒

Annual Total Expenses (𝑬)

𝑬 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 & 𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡

Annual Total Profit (𝑷)


Rate of Return of Investment (ROI)

𝑹𝑶𝑰 = 𝐱 𝟏𝟎𝟎%
𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒊𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒕
2.1.3 Equipment Specifications


Steam Boiler


Type of Furnace Fluidize Bed Combustor

Capacity 75 t/h

Pressure 3.82 MPa

Steam Temperature 450˚C

Fuel Straw, Rice husk, Palm shell, Peanut shell, and

other biomass

Table 2. Steam Boiler 1 Parameters

(Source: Zhengzhou Boiler Group)
Steam Turbine Generator Set


Power output range 5,000 kW to 18,000 kW

Rotational speed range 5,000 to 6,000 rpm

Steam inlet pressure range 0.4 to 12.3 MPa

Steam inlet temperature Saturated temperature up to 540˚C

Exhaust pressure range 400 to 722 mmHg

Output shaft speed range 900 to 3600 rpm

Dimensions (L x W x H) 6.8m x 4m x 3m

Approximate weight 30,000 kg

Table 2. Steam Turbine and Generator Set 1 Parameters

(Source: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Group)
Cooling Water Pump

Figure 2. Cooling Water Pump 1 Parameters

(Source: Goulds Pumps)

For Condenser Specifications

Surface Area 774.3029 sq. meter

Transmission Surface Material Copper

Pressure 0.065 MPa

Inlet Temperature 28 ˚C

Outlet Temperature 42.8961 ˚C

Circulating Water 2,725


Table 2. Condenser 1 Design Conditions

Note: According to windy.com, a site with an application where water temperature can be measured, the
temperature of Allah River most of the time is 28 ˚C.

Note: Copper or copper alloys like copper-nickel alloy is recommended by the proponents as the main
material for the condenser tubes due to its high resistance to corrosion, high thermal conductivity, and low
maintenance cost.

For Cooling Tower Specifications

Inlet Temperature 42.8961 ˚C

Outlet Temperature 28 ˚C

Range 14.8961 ˚C

Approach 4 ˚C

Cooling Tower Capacity 7,446.7164 Tons

Table 2. Cooling Tower 1 Design Conditions

Note: According to PAGASA, the average air temperature in Isulan, Sultan Kudarat is 27 ˚C and the average
humidity in the Philippines is 78%; using these data, the computed average wet bulb temperature in Isulan
is 23.97 ˚C or approximately 24 ˚C.



Type of Furnace Fluidized Bed Combustor

Capacity 75 t/h

Pressure 5.3 MPa

Steam Temperature 485 ˚C

Fuel Biomass

Table 2. Steam Boiler 2 Parameters

(Source: Zozen Boiler)
Steam Turbine Generator Set


Power output Up to 20 MW

Rotational speed 13,300 rpm

Steam inlet pressure Up to 103 Bar

Steam inlet temperature Up to 505 ˚C

Exhaust steam pressure 0.25 Bar

Dimensions (L x W x H) 12m x 4m x 5m

Weight 55 Tons

Table 2. Steam Turbine and Generator Set 2 Parameters

(Source: Siemens)
Cooling Water Pump


Type Horizontal split case, double-suction, single stage


Capacity 𝑚3
3,975 ℎ𝑟

Fluid Temperature Less than 80 ˚C

Rated Speed 2,960 rpm

Max. Head 230 meters

Table 2. Cooling Water Pump 2 Parameters

(Source: Kaiyuan Pumps)
For Condenser Specifications

Surface Area 1,266.4119 sq. meter

Transmission Surface Material Copper

Pressure 0.025 MPa

Water Inlet Temperature 28 ˚C

Water Outlet Temperature 38.1369 ˚C

Circulating Water 𝑚3
3,975 ℎ𝑟

Table 2. Condenser 2 Design Conditions

For Cooling Tower Specifications

Inlet Temperature 38.1369 ˚C

Outlet Temperature 28 ˚C

Range 10.1369 ˚C

Approach 4 ˚C

Cooling Tower Capacity 7,392.1033 Tons

Table 2. Cooling Tower 2 Design Conditions


Ring Die Biomass Pellet Mill


Capacity 5-6 T/h

Raw Material Rice Husk, Wood Wastes, Peanut Shell, etc.

Power 360 kW

Final Pellet Size 4-12 mm Ø

Table 2. Biomass Pellet Mill Parameters

(Source: Shandong Yulong Machine Company)