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A Detailed Lesson Plan In

Technology and Livelihood Education

(Mechanical Drafting)

I. Objectives:
At the end of the lesson the students should be able to:
a. Identify the drafting tools and drawing instruments;
b. Explain the difference uses of drafting instruments; and
c. Participate in the classroom activity.

II. Values Integration:


The tools and instruments used in drafting will apply in real life by observing the
concepts and reflecting what’s been thought after the lessons are clarified. With
this process, it assures the students to manipulate things in proper ways.
III. Subject Matter
A. Topic: Drafting tools and drawing instrument
B. Materials: Book, Laptop, Projector/ LED TV, Visual aids
C. References: Suratos, Cesar P. and Peralta, Joana C., Technology and
Livelihood Education Grade 7 pp. 464- 472, (Based on the K to 12 BEC)

IV. Learning Procedure


Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity

A. Motivation
Today before we start our lesson, we will
have a simple game. Are you familiar in 4-
pics, 1- word game?
Yes sir.
Here is the instruction, I will flash a picture
and add the second picture to get the correct
answer. Let’s start!
(students participate)

Very good!
Seems like you’re ready in our new topic.
B. Lesson Proper

Our topic for today is all about Drafting and


its drawing instruments. But before that,
I’m going to distribute to you the different
tools and instruments that I have.

Drafting is a means of communication often


referred to as the language of industry. It is
a language every technical person uses to
clearly communicate his/ her ideas to
others. It is a process of thinking, planning,
and setting thoughts down on paper in
graphic form. These appear as one of
several kinds of drawings: multi- view,
pictorial, pattern, chart, or schematic.

What are drafting tools and instruments,


Bryan?
Drafting tools and instruments may be
used for measurement and layout of
drawings, or to improve the consistency
and speed of creation of standard
drawing elements.
Correct!
These are the basic requisites for any
beginning draftsman. It is used for drawing
fine drawings. Using the appropriate
materials and tools for any drafting
application will result to producing fine
drawing.
Now, anyone who’s holding the item
number four to please stand up and show us
the tool.
Missy, tell something what is you’re
holding. Drawing pencil, it is used for drawing
and it is one of the most important tools
in drafting. It comes in various grades.
The grade of the pencil to be used
depends on the quality of the paper and
the type of the line or word required.
Thank you so much, and there are three
classifications of pencils, the hard, medium
and soft.
Hard pencil, it ranges from 4H to 9H, 9H is
the hardest pencil grade. It is used where
extreme accuracy is required, as on
graphical computations, charts, and
diagrams. The softer pencils are used by
some draftsmen for line work on
engineering drawings but their use is
restricted as the lines tend to be too light.
Here are the examples of Hard pencil grid
from 4H to 9H.

What do you observed in the picture, Dan?


I observed that the higher the number
the lighter its colour sir.
That’s correct!
Next, we have also medium, can you define
it Carlo?
The medium ranges from B to 3H, with
3H being the hardest in this group. It is
used for general purpose work in
drafting. The softer grades are used for
technical sketching, lettering,
arrowheads, and other freehand work on
mechanical and architectural drawing.
The H and 2H pencils are widely used
on pencil tracing for blueprinting.
Thank you so much.
Here are the examples of shades from B to
3H.

Let’s proceed to the soft grade of pencil,


can you define, Jana?
Soft ranges from 7B to 2B, with 2B as
the hardest in this group. Soft pencils are
too soft for mechanical drafting,
resulting in smudged, rough lines that
are difficult to erase. Also, these pencils
need constant sharpening. These grades
are used for artwork of various kinds
and for full- size details in architectural
drawing where shading is required.

Very good!
So this are shades of soft from 2B to 9B

So as you can see in the picture, 9B is the


darkest shade among the drawing pencils.

Anyone holding number 6?


Sir!
What you are holding is the mechanical
pencil. Can you please show us the tool
Brenn, and tell something about that tool.
Mechanical pencils are pencils with a
thin replaceable graphite- based core or
lead, which is available in all grades.
Perfect!
Mechanical pencils with sizes from 0.3 to
0.9 mm do not require sharpening. As its
sharp point is worn away, the lead can be
extended by twisting the plastic or metal
outer casing of the pencil or pressing on the
eraser cap.
Those are the basic types of pencils used in
drafting.

Next tool is the masking tape. Item number


2 please stand and show to the class. Do
you have any idea what is the use of
masking tape in drafting, Brenda?
Masking tape is used for fastening the
drawing paper on the drawing table or
drawing board because it does not
damage the board and it will not damage
the paper if it is removed by pulling it
off.
Exactly! This is how it used.

Next one is the pencil sharpener. Someone


who’s holding the item number 5, can give
the definition, Yes Marla?
It is used for keeping the pencil lead
sharp. They have various types and
designs, most of which are available in
supply stores.
Perfect.
Always remember that keep your drawing
pencils sharp in order to produce clear and
clean- cut lines.

Another is number 7, the eraser, of course


that is always the partner of pen or pencil,
but don’t know that there are 2 types of
eraser in drafting? The ink and soft eraser.
Can you define the ink eraser, Joey?

Ink erasers are used for removing ink


from a writing surface and are made of
an abrasive soft rubber.
How about the eraser for pencil, Dan?

On the other hand, soft erasers are used


for removing pencil marks and smudges.
A medium rubber eraser is used for
correcting errors in the drawing.

Alright.
This is the example of ink eraser,

And the other one is the soft eraser.

We have also dusting brush, number 1


please stand and show us the tool. John
what is the use of this tool?
Eraser crumbs are removed using a
dusting brush to avoid smudging the
drawing.
Thank you!
Next is the ruler, and it is used for
measuring and for making straight lines.
Rulers can be made of wood, plastic,
aluminium, or stainless steel.

Another one is the triangular scales, and


that is number 8 please show us the tool and
observe, can you define it Maya?
This is a tool generally used when
reproducing a drawing in an enlarged or
reduced form to some regular
proportion. The architect’s scale is the
most commonly used for general
drawing. Its main function is to
reproduce the measurements of an object
in full size, reduced size, and enlarged
size.
This is the image of triangular scale, who
among you have seen this tool already?

Sir me, and they actually used in


drafting works sir.

That’s right! This is very useful to resize


the object when you are going to draw it.

Another number is 9, please stand and show


the erasing shield. What is the use of this
tool, Jack? This tool is made up of metal with
irregular holes. It is a useful tool to
protect the rest of the drawing when
clearing up smudges, unnecessary pencil
lines and other erasures.

Correct! In other words, it is used to protect


the drawing in erasing unwanted lines and
figures.
Next one is the T- square, number 10 please
stand up and show us the instrument. What
is the use of this instrument, Henry?
It is a drawing instrument used when
making horizontal lines. It is also used
for guiding triangles when drawing
vertical lines. It is made of wood,
plastic or the combination of both.
Exactly! there are three types of T- square,
the Fixed head, Movable or adjustable
head, and the Detachable or removable
head.
Can you describe the differences of these
three types of T- square, Baki?
First one is the Fixed Head. The head is
fastened to the blade. It is used for
ordinary work.
Second is the Movable Head or
Adjustable Head. It has one fixed and
one adjustable head and used only for
occasional drawing.
And lastly, the Detachable Head or
Removable Head. It is designed for
comfort when carrying the T-square.
Very good! Now let’s proceed to the
triangle, please stand number 12 and show
this tool. What is the use of this tool in
drafting, Jake?
If in use, the base of the triangle must
rest on the blade of the T- square.
Drawing a line always starts from the
point near the base going upward.

Thank you so much!


It is a three-sided ruler, which typically has
two equal sides meeting at a 90 degree
angle and to a third side at 45, 30, including
60 degree angles. It is usually made of
plastic and comes in different sizes.

This is the 45 by 45 degrees triagle,

And this is the 30 by 60 degrees triangle.

I think most of you have already seen these


tools, right?
Yes sir!
Alright then, we have also a tool called
compass. Can you please stand and show us
the tool, number 14 and tell us what is the
use of this tool?
This drawing instrument is used when
drawing arcs and circles sir.
Exactly!
It is composed of one with the pen leg and
the needle point leg being held together
with a handle. This drawing instrument can
be used for both penciling and inking.
Here is the larger image of compass.

Now we have also divider, the number 13


please show us the tool and give the
definition, Joy?
This is a drawing instrument used when
transferring measurements, dividing
lines and arcs into the desired number of
equal parts. It can easily transfer
accurate measurements by adjusting the
divider points. Constant correct practice
is necessary before doing an actual work
for a quick and easy control when use.
This tool has similarities to compass.
Lastly, the lucky number 15, please stand
and show us the protractor. Can you tell us
what is the use of this tool, Kaye?
It is a semi-circular instrument divided
into 180 equal parts, each of which is
called a degree. It is used to determine
gradations of the degrees when
measuring arcs, angles and circles. High
quality protractor is usually made of
plastic.
Perfect!
Here is the larger image of protractor.

C. Generalization

Now from what we have discussed about


tools and drawing instruments there are
more than fifteen items basically used in
drafting. As a review about our topic, can
you please enumerate them, Jackie?

Drawing paper and pencil


Correct!
Erasers and erasing shield
Perfect!
Erasing brush
Aha!
Anymore?
Masking tape and T- square
Correct!
How about you, Jenny?
Ruler and triangular scale
Exactly!
Triangle and protractor
Very good!
Sharpener
Alright!
Seems like everyone is in the same page.
Let’s proceed to our activity.
D. Application
Our activity for today is called “the pick
and Paste”, I will randomly ask someone to
come in front and pick a definition in the
box and paste to their corresponding
pictures.

(students are preparing)


Alright, I think everyone is ready.
So you may now start!

Yes sir!

E. Assessment:

Please go to your seats and let’s have a short quiz. Bring 1/4 sheet of paper and observe
proper distances.

Direction: Write T if the statement is True and write F is the statement is False. I will read the
questions twice only so listen carefully.
1. The lead of a mechanical pencil can be replaced and you do not need to sharpen.
2. Ruler is the most important tool in drafting.
3. There are three grades of pencil, Soft, Medium, and Hard.
4. You can create circle shape by using compass.
5. Triangle is a tool used to measure angles.
6. Fixed Head is a T- square that the head is fastened to the blade. It is used for ordinary
work.
7. Soft erasers are used for removing ink marks and smudges.
8. In drafting, 2B to 7B is the grade of Soft range pencil.
9. 9H pencil grade are belong to hard pencil.
10. Pencil sharpener is a tool used for removing pencil’s lead.

Answer keys
1. T 6. T
2. F 7. F
3. T 8. T
4. T 9. T
5. T 10. F

F. Assignment:
Research the meaning of the following words and write in a ½ sheet of paper crosswise:
1. Drawing
2. Assembly drawing
3. Detailed drawing
4. Dimensioning
5. Sketch

Reference/s:
https://www.slideshare.net/kenjoyb/k-to-12-mechanical-drafting-learning-module

www.depedbataan.com/resources/.../k_to_12_mechanical_drafting_learning_module....
Checked by:
Prepared by:
LORD JIM B. IGNACIO
A Detailed Lesson Plan

In

Technical- Vocational-Livelihood

Prepared by

Lord Jim B. Ignacio

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