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Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Learning Objectives:

Calculus 2 for Engineers At the end of the lesson, students should be


able to:
A. Review the INTEGRATION FORMULAS
B. Integrate functions whose antiderivatives involve inverse
trigonometric functions.
C. Use the method of completing the square to integrate a function.
MAT 076 D. Integrate functions whose antiderivatives involve hyperbolic
functions.
E. Integrate functions using general power formula and constant of
integration.
F. Define definite integral
Prepared by: EMT G. Evaluate definite integral

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INTEGRATION FORMULAS INTEGRATION FORMULAS

Basic Integration Rules TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS


 cos ax
1. ∫ = +  sin(ax)dx  a
C

2. ∫ ( ) = ∫ ( ) sin ax
 cos(ax)dx  a  C
3. ∫ ( )± ( ) =∫ ±∫  cot ax
tan ax 2
2
 sec (ax)dx  a  C  csc (ax)dx  a
C
4. ∫ = +
sec ax
 (sec ax tan ax)dx  a  C
 csc ax
 (csc ax cot ax)dx  a  C
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INTEGRATION FORMULAS INTEGRATION FORMULAS

LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS


1. ∫ = ln + 1. ∫ = +
2. ∫ = +
2. ∫ = ln + , >0
3. ∫ = +
3. ∫ = ln(− ) + , <0
4. ∫ = +
4. ∫ = ln + , ≠0

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MAT 076 1
Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Integration Formulas for INVERSE


TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
1. Integration Let be a differentiable function of , and
let > 0.
Concepts/Formulas
1) = arcsin +

1
2) = arctan +
+

1
3) = arcs +

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Examples: Examples:
= 4, =
2 =9 =4
= arcsin + = 4 =
. = = 9 = 4
2 = 2, = ,
4 −9 2 2 − 3 = 3, =2 ,
then = . then =2 .
1 2
= arcsec +
1 3 3 3
=
3 2 + 3
= 2, =9
= 2 = 9
. =
1 1 3 = 2, =3 , cos 5 − 3 tan 5 − 3 tan
= arctan + then =3 .
1 3
3 2 2 =
3 5 − 3 tan
1 3 =5 = 3tan
= arctan + = 5 = 3tan 1 3 tan
3 2 2 = 5, = 3 tan , = arcsin +
then = 3sec . 3 5
9 10

Completing the Square Example:


Completing the square helps when quadratic ∫
You can write the denominator as the sum of two
squares, as follows.
functions are involved in the integrand.
−4 −4
−4 +7= −4 + − +7
2 2
2 = + − +7= −2 −4+7
For example, the quadratic + + can
= −2 +3
be written as the difference of two squares by
= 3, =( − 2)
adding and subtracting . ∫ =∫ = 3 = ( − 2)
= 3, = − 2,

+ + = + + − +c = arctan + then = .

2 2

= + − +c
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MAT 076 2
Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Example: Cont…
Let = + 16, = 16 and = + 1 2.
( ) You can write the denominator as the sum of two = 4 and = +1
∫ Then =2 and =
squares, as follows. 1 2
=3 −5
2 2 2 + 16 +1 + 42
+ 2 + 17 = +2 + − + 17
2 2 3
2 2 = −5
= + − + 17 = +1 − 1 + 17 2 +1 + 42
2 2 3 1 +1
= ln +1 2 + 16 − 5
arctan +
= +1 + 16
( ) ( ) 2 4 4
∫ =∫ 3 5 +1
= ln + 2 + 1 + 16 − arctan +
2 4 4
( ) ( ) 3 5 +1
=∫ =∫ = ln + 2 + 17 − arctan +
2 4 4
( )
=∫ −∫
( )
= 3∫ −5∫
Let = + 16, = 16 and = + 1 2.
= 3∫ − 5∫ = 4 and = +1
Then =2 and =

13 14

Example: Cont… /
Let =9− , = 9 and
= 3 and
= + 4 2.
= +4
= ∫ 9− −∫ Then = −2 and =
You can write the denominator as the sum of two 1

squares, as follows. = 9− (−2 )−4
−2 9− +4
−8 −8
−7 − 8 − = − − 8 − + −7
2 2 1 9− x+4
= − − 8 − 16 + 16 − 7 = − + 8 + 16 + 16 − 7 =− − arcsin +
2 1 3
= − +4 +9 = 9− +4 2
1 2 x+4
=− 9− − arcsin
+
2 1 3
∫ =∫ x+4
= 9, = ( + 4)
=− 9− +4 − arcsin +
= 9 = ( + 4) 3
=∫ = 3, = + 4, x+4
=− 9− + 8 + 16 − arcsin +
= − 4, then = . 3
=∫ −∫ x+4
=− 9− − 8 − 16 − arcsin +
3
=∫ −∫ x+4
=− −7 − −8 − arcsin +
3
x+4
=∫ / −∫ =− −7 − 8 − − arcsin +
3
/
=∫ 9− −∫ 15 16

Integration Formula for Hyperbolic Hyperbolic Identities


cosh − sinh = 1
functions 

 tanh − sech = 1
Let be a differentiable function of .  coth − csch = 1
 ∫ sinh = cosh +  sinh + = sinh cosh + cosh sinh
 sinh − = sinh cosh − cosh sinh
 ∫ cosh = sinh +
 cosh + = cosh cosh − sinh sinh
 ∫ sech = tanh +  cosh − = cosh cosh + sinh sinh
 ∫ csch = −coth +  sinh = cosh =

 ∫ sech tanh = −sech +  sinh 2 = 2 sinh cosh


 cosh 2 = cosh + sinh
 ∫ csch coth = −csch +
 sinh = , cosh = , tanh =

17  sinh = , cosh = , tanh = 18

MAT 076 3
Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Example: Example:
cosh cosh − sinh = 1 sinh (cosh ) Let = cosh . Then = sinh
cosh − 1 cosh − 1 = sinh

cosh cosh
= Let = sinh . Then = cosh sinh (cosh ) = (cosh ) sinh
cosh − 1 sinh
cosh
= = = =
sinh
1
= + =− + Back-Substitute = + Back-Substitute
−1 3
1 cosh
=− + = +
sinh 3
= − csch +

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Example: Example:
sinh csch
Let = . Then = Let = . Then =

sinh
=2 sinh csch
2 =2 csch
=2 sinh 2
=2 csch
= 2 cosh +c
Back-Substitute
= −2 coth + Back-Substitute
= 2 cosh +c
= −2 coth +

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General Power Formula: Finding u:

General Power Formula. For any real number  A term with power
, where ≠ −1, the indefinite integral of is,  Find the term that will give a derivative
exactly the same with the remaining terms.
 If rational, mostly your u is the denominator.
= +  If rational function has a numerator of degree
+1
greater than or equal to that of the
denominator, then use long division.

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MAT 076 4
Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Example: Example:

Let = sin . Then = cos Let = sin 4 . Then =


/ sin 4 1 4
= sin 4
= + 1 − 16 4 1 − 16
4
3 1
=
4
1
= +c
4 2
1
= sin 4 +c
8

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Example: Example:
= 2 1− /

Let = 3 + ln 2 . Then = Let =1− . Then =

3 + ln 2 / /
= 3 + ln 2 2 1− =2 1−
/
=2
=
/
=2 +c
= +c 3
4 2
3 + ln 2 2
= +c =2 1− /
+c
4 3
4 /
= 1− +c
3

27 28

Constant of Integration Example: Find the constant integration if


= 14 + 10 −3 + 7 and 1 = 13?
 Constant of Integration is a constant that is added at
the end of the result obtained by evaluating the =
indefinite integral of a given function. = 14 + 10 −3 +7

 The derivative of a constant is 0. But, when you integrate, you = 14 + 10 − 3 + 7 +


should consider that there is a constant involved, but we don’t 7 5 3
=2 +2 − +7 +
know what it is for a particular function. and 1 = 13, then
1 =2 1 +2 1 − 1 +7 1 +
 Therefore, you can just use to represent the value. That
13 = 10 +
arbitrary constant ‘ ’ is called Constant of Integration.
c=3

=2 +2 − +7 +3

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MAT 076 5
Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Example: Find the constant of integration if Example: Find the constant of integration if
=3 and 1 = −3? = −4 and 0 = −32?

= =

= 3 =3 = −4 = −4
= 3 ln + = −4 +

= 3 ln + = −4
and 1 = −3, then and 0 = −32, then
1 = 3 ln 1 + 0 = −4 +c
−3 = 0 + −32 = −4 +
c = −3 c = −28

= 3 ln −3 = −4 − 28

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Definite Integral
upper limit of integration
 A definite integral is an integral

Integration b


with upper and lower limits.
The first fundamental theorem of calculus
Symbol
 f  x  dx
a
allows to be computed in
integrand
terms of indefinite integrals, since if is the variable of integration
indefinite integral for a continuous function lower limit of integration
( ), then
= F b − F(a)
33 34 

Definite integral Definite Integral

b The method for evaluating the definite integral is:


 f ( x)dx
a  Find the indefinite integral but omit C

This is read as “the integral from to of of  Draw a vertical line and hang the
limits on the end
dee ” or sometimes as “the integral from
to of of with respect to .”  Replace x with
• the top limit
• the bottom limit

 Subtract and evaluate

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MAT 076 6
Calculus 2 for Engineers 6/11/2019

Examples:
5
5 5(5) 5 1 125 5 120
5 = = − = − = = 60
2 2 2 2 2 2
1

2
3 2 1 3
= − =− − − = − − − − = 1.37
3 6 2 2
6

4
3 4 3(4) 3 3(3)
+3 −2 = + −2 = + − 2(4) − + − 2(3)
3 2 3 2 3 2
3

37.33 − 16.5 = 20.83

32 3
1 −5 2 5 5
= = = = − − − = 2.5
1 2 1
− 1 1
5
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MAT 076 7