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2. 25 Water at 301.

15 K (28ºC) flows in a straight horizontal pipe in which there is no exchange


of either heat or work with the surroundings. Its velocity is 14 ms-1 in a pipe with an internal
diameter of 2.5 cm until it flows into a section where the pipe diameter abruptly increases. What
is the temperature change of the water if the downstream diameter is 3.8 cm ? If it is 7.5 cm ? What
is the maximum temperature change for an enlargement in the pipe ?

Solution :
∆𝑢2
∆𝐻 + + 𝑔. ∆𝑧 = 𝑄 + 𝑊𝑠
2

There is no exchange of either heat or work :


∆𝑢2
∆𝐻 + =0
2

Continuity equation :
𝜌1 . 𝑢1 . 𝐴1 = 𝜌2 . 𝑢2 . 𝐴2
𝑢2 𝐴
= 𝐴1
𝑢1 2

𝐴
𝑢2 = 𝐴1 . 𝑢1 ………… (2)
2

The velocity change :


∆𝑢 = 𝑢2 − 𝑢1
Subtitute equation (2) :
𝐴
∆𝑢 = 𝐴1 . 𝑢1 − 𝑢1
2

𝐴
∆𝑢 = 𝑢1 (𝐴1 − 1)
2

𝐴 2
∆𝑢2 = 𝑢12 [(𝐴1 ) − 12 ]
2
𝐷 4
∆𝑢2 = 𝑢12 [(𝐷1) − 1 ] ………… (3)
2

∆𝐻 = 𝐶𝑝. ∆𝑇
∆𝑢2
𝐶𝑝. ∆𝑇 + =0
2

∆𝑢2
𝐶𝑝. ∆𝑇 = − 2

∆𝑢2
∆𝑇 = − 2.𝐶𝑝

Subtitute equation (3) :


𝑢2 𝐷 4
1
∆𝑇 = − 2.𝐶𝑝 [(𝐷1) − 1 ]
2

𝑢2 𝐷 4
1
∆𝑇 = 2.𝐶𝑝 [1 − (𝐷1) ]
2

If D2 = 3.8 cm,
𝑚
(14 )2 2.5 𝑐𝑚 4
𝑠
∆𝑇 = 𝑘𝐽 [1 − ( ) ]
2 (4.18 ) 3.8 𝑐𝑚
𝑘𝑔℃

∆𝑇 = 0.019℃

If D2 = 7.5 cm,
𝑚
(14 )2 2.5 𝑐𝑚 4
𝑠
∆𝑇 = 𝑘𝐽 [1 − (7.5 𝑐𝑚) ]
2 (4.18 )
𝑘𝑔℃

∆𝑇 = 0.023℃

Maximum T change occurs for infinite D2 :


If D2 = ~
𝑚
(14 )2 2.5 𝑐𝑚 4
𝑠
∆𝑇 = 𝑘𝐽 [1 − ( ~ 𝑐𝑚 ) ]
2 (4.18 )
𝑘𝑔℃

∆𝑇 = 0.023℃
3.1 Express the volume expansivity and the isothermal compressibility as functions of density ρ
and its partial derivatives. For water at 323.15 K (50ºC) and 1 bar, κ = 44.18 x 10-6 bar-1. To what
pressure must water be compressed at 323.15 K (50ºC) to change its density by 1% ? Assume that
κ is independent of P.
Solution :
The equation for volume expansivity as follows :
1 𝜕𝑉
𝛽 = 𝑉 (𝜕𝑇 ) ………….(1)
𝑃

Here,
β = coefficient of thermal expansion
T = temperature
V = volume
P = pressure

Substitute 1/ρ for V in equation (1) to obtain the following relation.


1
𝜕 (𝜌)
𝛽 = 𝜌( )
𝜕𝑇
𝑃

−1 𝜕𝜌
𝛽 = 𝜌( )( )
𝜌2 𝜕𝑇 𝑃
1 𝜕𝜌
𝛽=− ( )
𝜌 𝜕𝑇 𝑃

The equation for isothermal compressibility as follows :


1 𝜕𝑉
𝜅 = − 𝑉 (𝜕𝑃 ) ………….. (2)
𝑇

Here,
κ = isothermal compressibility

Substitute 1/ρ for V in equation (2) to obtain the following relation.


1 𝜕𝑉
𝜅=− ( )
𝑉 𝜕𝑃 𝑇
1
𝜕 (𝜌 )
𝜅 = −𝜌 ( )
𝜕𝑃
𝑇

−1 𝜕𝜌
𝜅 = −𝜌 ( )( )
𝜌2 𝜕𝑃 𝑇
1 𝜕𝜌
𝜅= ( )
𝜌 𝜕𝑃 𝑇

Therefore, the required relations are :


1 𝜕𝜌
𝛽=− ( )
𝜌 𝜕𝑇 𝑃

And,
1 𝜕𝜌
𝜅= ( )
𝜌 𝜕𝑃 𝑇

The relation between isothermal compressibility and density is as follows :


𝜌2 𝑃2
𝑑𝜌
∫ = ∫ 𝜅. 𝑑𝑃
𝜌
𝜌1 𝑃1

𝜌2
ln (𝜌1) = 𝜅(𝑃2 − 𝑃1 ) ……..(3)

Isothermal compressibility (κ) is 44.18 x 10-6 bar-1


Final density, ρ2 is 1.01 times the initial density, ρ1.
Initial pressure, (P1) is 1 bar.

Subtitute the corresponding value in equation (3) to calculate the final pressure
𝜌2
ln ( ) = 𝜅(𝑃2 − 𝑃1 )
𝜌1
ln(1.01) = 44.18 𝑥 10−6 𝑏𝑎𝑟 −1 (𝑃2 − 1 𝑏𝑎𝑟)
𝑃2 − 1 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 252.2
𝑃2 = 256.2 𝑏𝑎𝑟