Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Measures of Position

There are times when we want to know the position of a value relative to the other observations
in a data set. For instance, you took a 100-item test. You might want to know how your score of 88
compares to the scores of others.

Standard Scores or Z Scores


A z score measures the distance between an observation and the mean, measured in units of
standard deviation. Suppose that the student got a grade of 78 in her Math test and 55 in her Science
test. The score cannot be compared directly since the exam may not be equivalent in terms of number
of questions, value of each question and so on. But the relative position of the scores can be made
using the z scores. If the z score is positive, the score is above the mean. If the z score is zero, the
score is the same as the mean. If the z score is negative, the score is below the mean.
Formula:
xx
z ; where x is the arbitrary value, x is the mean and s is the standard deviation
s
Ex. 1
An IQ test has a mean of 105 and a standard deviation of 20. Find the corresponding z score of
88, 122 and 110.
Ex. 2
Which of the following exam grades has a better relative position?
A grade of 43 on an Algebra test with x = 40 and s = 3 or
A grade of 75 on a Geometry test with x = 72 and s = 5?

Quartiles, Percentiles and Deciles

The quartiles divide the distribution into four equal parts (Q1, Q2, Q3).
Formula:
Q1  0.25n  1 ; Q2  0.50n  1 ; Q3  0.75n  1

Ex.
Find Q1 , Q2 and Q3 of the following set of data.
19,12,16,0,14,9,6,1,12,13,10,19,7,5,8

The percentiles divide the distribution into one hundred equal parts (P1, P2, P3 ...P99).
Formula:
Percentile = ( number of values below x ) + 0.5 x 100%
total number of values
np
c ; where n is the total number of values and p is the percentile
100

Ex.1. Find the percentile rank of a test score of 49 in the data set.
12, 28, 35, 42, 47, 49, 50
Ex. 2. The following are scores in a Statistics test: 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20
Find the value corresponding to the 25th percentile.

The deciles divide the distribution into ten equal parts (D1, D2 ...D9).

Ex. Find the value corresponding to D6 for the given data set.
80 68 53 58 76 73 85 88 91 79

Grouped data:
For grouped data, the quartiles, deciles or percentiles can be determined using the following formula:
 kn  cf 
L   w
 f 
Where k is equal to
i i i
for quartiles; for deciles; for percentiles
4 10 100
i ---the ith quartile, decile or percentile
L ---lower boundary of the quartile, decile or percentile class
n ---total number of observations
w ---class width
cf ---frequency of the preceding class
f ----frequency of the quartile, decile or percentile class

Ex. Find the 3rd quartile, 4th decile and 70th percentile for the given frequency distribution below.

Class boundaries frequency cf

52.5-63.5 6 6

63.5-74.5 12 18

74.5-85.5 25 43

85.5-96.5 28 71

96.5-107.5 14 85

107.5-118.5 5 90

Solution:
1. Q3 = ? i = 3; k = ¾

kn 
3
90  67.5 0r 68th observation is the class with interval 85.5- 96.5
4
 kn  cf
Q3  L  

w  85.5 
67.5  43 11  95.1
 f  28
2. D4 = ? i = 4; k = 4/10

kn  90  36 0r 36th observation is the class with interval 74.5 -85.5


4
10

 kn  cf 
D4  L   w  74.5 
36  18 11  82.4
 f  25
3. P70 = ? i = 70; k = 70/100

kn 
70
90  63 0r 63rd observation is the class with interval 85.5- 96.5
100
 kn  cf
P70  L  

w  85.5 
63  43 11  93.4
 f  28