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CHAPTER # 03 VECTORS

Numerical Problems

*3 The x component of vector ⃗𝑨 ⃗ is -25.0 m and the y component is +40.0 m. (a) What is the
⃗⃗ ? (b) What is the angle between the direction of 𝑨
magnitude of 𝑨 ⃗ and the positive direction
of x?
Solution:
(a)

|𝐴| =  (-25.0)2 + (40.0)2

|𝐴| =  2225

|𝐴| = 47.2m
(b)
𝐴𝑦
𝜃 = tan-1 (𝐴𝑥 )
+40𝑚
𝜃 = tan-1 (−25𝑚)
8
𝜃 = tan-1 ( −5) = −57.9° = −58°

tan𝜃 is negative in second and fourth quadrants but according to 𝑥 and 𝑦 components of vectors
𝜃 = 180° − 58° = 122°
Check:
𝐴x = A cos 𝜃 = 47.2 cos 122° = −25.0 m
Ay = A sin 𝜃 = 47.2 sin 122° = +40.0 m
*4 Express the following angles in radians: (a) 𝟐𝟎. 𝟎°, (b) 𝟓𝟎. 𝟎°, (c) 100°. Convert the
following angles to degrees: (d) 𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟎 𝒓𝒂𝒅, (e) 𝟐. 𝟏𝟎 𝒓𝒂𝒅, (f) 𝟕. 𝟕𝟎 𝒓𝒂𝒅.
Solution:
𝜋
180
𝜋
(a) 20° = (20) (0.01745) = 0.349 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑
9
5𝜋
(b) 50° = (50) (0.01745) = 0.873 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑
18
5𝜋
(c) 100° = (100) (0.01745) = 1.745 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑
9

180
= 57.3°
𝜋
(d) 0.330 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = (0.330) (57.3°) = 18.9° ≈ 19°
(e) 2.10 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = (2.10) (57.3°) = 120°
(f) 7.70 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = (7.70) (57.3°) = 441° or 0.770 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 441° − 360° = 81°
*5 A ship sets out to sail to a point 120 km due north. An unexpected storm blows the
ship to a point 100 km due east of its starting point. (a) How far and (b) in what
direction must it now sail to reach its original destination?
Solution:
(a) A right triangle is formed
(dn)2 = 1202 + 1002 (where dn is distance of ship from original destination)
(dn)2 = 24400
dn = 156.2 km
(b) Direction:
120
Using 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 = = 1.2
100

𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1(1.2)
𝜃 = 50.2°
*6 In Fig.3-27, a heavy piece of machinery is raised by sliding it a distance d = 12.5 m
along a plank oriented at angle 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟎. 𝟎° to the horizontal. How far is it moved (a)
vertically and (b) horizontally?
d

Fig 3-27 Problem 6

Solution:
𝑑x = d sin 𝜃 = 12.5 sin (20 °) = 12.5 × 0.342 = 4.3 𝑚
𝑑y = d cos 𝜃 = 12.5 cos (20°) = 12.5 × 0.9397 = 11.7 𝑚
**7 A room has dimensions 3.00m (height) × 3.70 m × 4.30 m. A fly starting at one
corner flies around, ending up at the diagonally opposite corner. (a) What is the
magnitude of its displacement? (b) Could the length of its path be less than the
magnitude? (c) Greater (d) Equal? (e) Choose a suitable coordinate system and express
the components of the displacement vector in that system in unit-vector notation. (f) If
the fly walks, what is the length of the shortest path? (Hint: This can be answered
without calculus. The room is like a box. Unfold its walls to flatten them into a plane.)
Solution:
(a)
d = (3.00)2 + (3.70)2 + (4.30)2
d = 41.18
d = 6.42 m

Height(h)
d (shortest)

Width(w)

Length(l)

(b)
If the cube represents a room then the shortest path is a straight line and and no other path
is shorter than this path.
(c)
The fly follows a random path so that path can be greater than the shortest diagonal path.
(d)
If the fly follows the shortest diagonal path (displacement vector) then it could be equal.
(e)
As we know the magnitudes of 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 vectors (width, height and length). So, add the

corresponding 𝑖̂, 𝑗̂ and 𝑘̂ for each component.

(f)
When the fly walks along the floor then it reaches the corner of the room with height
zero (l + w) and then it covers the height h to reach the top corner.
Ls = (3.00)2 + (3.70 + 4.30)2
Ls = 73 = 8.54 m

*9 Two vectors are given by

̂
⃗ = (4.0m)𝒊̂ – (3.0m) 𝒋̂ + (1.0m)𝒌
𝒂

and ⃗ = (–1.0m) 𝒊̂ + (1.0m)𝒋̂ + (4.0m)𝒌

𝒃 ̂

⃗ + ⃗𝒃 ,(b) 𝒂
In unit vector notation,find(a) 𝒂 ⃗ − ⃗𝒃 and (c)a third vector c such that 𝒂
⃗ − ⃗𝒃 +
⃗ = 𝟎.
𝒄
Solution:

(a) 𝑎 + 𝑏⃗ = (4.0m + (–1.0m)) 𝑖̂ + (–3.0m + 1.0m) 𝑗̂ + (1.0m + 4.0m) 𝑘̂

𝑎 + 𝑏⃗ = (3.0m) 𝑖̂ – (2.0m) 𝑗̂ + (5.0m) 𝑘̂
(b) 𝑎 − 𝑏⃗ = (4.0m – (–1.0m)) 𝑖̂ + ((–3.0m) – 1.0m) 𝑗̂ + (1.0m – 4.0m) 𝑘̂
𝑎 + 𝑏⃗ = (5.0m) 𝑖̂ – (4.0m) 𝑗̂ – (3.0m) 𝑘̂
(c) 𝑎 − 𝑏⃗ + 𝑐 = 0
𝑐 = − (𝑎 − 𝑏⃗)

𝑐 = (−5.0m) 𝑖̂ + (4.0m) 𝑗̂ + (3.0m) 𝑘̂

⃗ in Fig. 3-28 have equal magnitudes of 10.0m and the
⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
*15 The two vectors 𝒂
angles are 𝜽1 = 30° and 𝜽2 = 105°. Find the (a) 𝒙 and (b) 𝒚 components of their
⃗ , (c) magnitude of 𝒓
vector sum 𝒓 ⃗ , and (d) the angle 𝒓
⃗ makes with the positive
direction of the 𝒙 axis.
Solution:

(a) and (b):

According to figure,
𝑎x = a cos 𝜃 = 10 . cos 30° = 8.66 m
𝑎y = a sin 𝜃 = 10 . sin 30° = 5 m

𝑏⃗y = b cos 𝜃 = 10 . cos 45°= 7.07 −7.07 (45° = 180° − 105° − 30° from fig. 3-28)

𝑏⃗y = b cos 𝜃 = 10 . cos 45°= 7.07

𝑟x = 8.66 − 7.07 = 1.59 m
𝑟y = 5 + 7.07 = 12.07 m

|𝑟| = √1.592 + 12.072 = 12.17 m

12.07
𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1 ( 1.59 ) = 82.5°

*17 Three vectors 𝒂⃗ , ⃗𝒃 and 𝒄

⃗ each have a magnitude of 50 m and lie in an 𝒙 𝒚
plane. Their directions relative to the positive direction of the 𝒙 axis are 30°,
195° and 315° respectively. What are (a) the magnitude and (b) the angle of the
⃗ +𝒃
vector 𝒂 ⃗ +𝒄
⃗ , and (c) the magnitude and (d) the angle of the vector
⃗ −𝒃
𝒂 ⃗ +𝒄⃗ ? What are the (e) magnitude and (f) the angle of a fourth vector 𝒅 ⃗
⃗ ) – (c + d) = 0?
⃗ +𝒃
such that (𝒂
Solution:
𝑎 = (50 . cos (30) 𝑖̂ + (50 . sin (30)) 𝑗̂) m = (43.3 𝑖̂ + 25.0 𝑗̂) m

𝑏⃗ = (50 . cos (195) 𝑖̂+ (50 . sin (195)) 𝑗̂) m = (–48.3 𝑖̂ + (–12.9) 𝑗̂) m
𝑐 = (50 . cos (315) 𝑖̂ + (50 . sin (315)) 𝑗̂) m = (35.4 𝑖̂ + (–35.4) 𝑗̂) m

(a) | 𝑎 + 𝑏⃗ +𝑐| = (30.4)2 + (–23.3)2 = 38.3 m

–23.2
(b) 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1 ( 30.4 ) = –37.56
𝑎 – 𝑏⃗ +𝑐 = (127 𝑖̂ – 2.60 𝑗̂) m

(c) |𝑎 – 𝑏⃗ +𝑐 | = (127)2 + (–2.6)2 = 130 m

2.6
(d) 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1 (127) = 1.2

(e) (𝑎 + 𝑏⃗) – (c + d) = 0

d = 𝑎 + 𝑏⃗ – 𝑐
d = (–40.4 𝑖̂ + 47.4) m
|d| = (– 40.4)2 + (47.4)2 = 62 m
47.4
(𝒇) 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1 ( ) = 130
–40.4

** 20 An explorer is caught in a whiteout (in which the snowfall is so thick that the
ground cannot be distinguished from the sky) while returning to base camp. He was
supposed to travel due north for 5.6 km, but when the snow clears, he discovers that he
actually travelled 7.8 km at 50 north of due east. (a) How far and (b) in what direction
must he now travel to reach base camp?
Solution:

𝑃⃗2 = 5.014 (km) 𝑖̂ + 5.98 (km) 𝑗̂

Now, the explorer must travel from P2 to P1 through P3, where P3 is:

𝑃⃗3 = – 5.014 (km) 𝑖̂ –0.38 (km) 𝑗̂

(a) The magnitude of P3 is given by:
|𝑃⃗3| = (–5.014)2 + (–0.38)2 = 5.03 km
The explorer has to travel for 5.03 km to his desired destination.
(b) The angle of 𝑃⃗3 is given by:
–0.38
𝜃3 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1 (–5.014) = 4.33
The explorer has to go 4.33 south of due west.

**21 An ant, crazed by the Sun on a hot Texas afternoon, darts over an xy plane
scratched in the dirt. The x and y components of four consecutive darts are the
following, all in centimeters: (30.0, 40.0), (bx, –70.0), (–80.0, –70.0). The overall
displacement of the four darts has the xy components (–140, –20.0). What are (a) bx and
(b) cy ? What are the (c) magnitude and (d) angle (relative to the positive direction of
the x axis) of thee overall displacement?
Solution:
(a) For 𝑥 component: 30 + bx –20 –80 = –140
(b) For 𝑦 component: 40 – 70 + cy –70 = –20
(c) |d| = (– 140)2 + (–20)2
|d| = 141.4 cm (or |d| = 1.414 m)
–20
𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛-1 (–140) ≈ 8.13

𝜃 = 180 + 8.13 = 188.13
**24 Vector ⃗𝑨
⃗ , which is directed along an x axis, is to be added to vector ⃗𝑩
⃗ , which
has a magnitude of 7.0 m. The sum is a third vector that is directed along the y axis,
with a magnitude that is 3.0 times that of ⃗𝑨. What is that magnitude of ⃗𝑨?

Given: |𝐴| = |𝐴| 𝑖̂

⃗|=7m
|𝐵
⃗ = 3|𝐴| 𝑗̂
𝐴 +𝐵
Calculations:
Let B = Bx 𝑖̂ + By 𝑗̂
⃗ = 3|𝐴| 𝑗̂
𝐴 +𝐵

|𝐴| 𝑖̂ + Bx 𝑗̂ + By 𝑗̂ = 3|𝐴| 𝑗̂

By = 3|𝐴|

and Bx = –|𝐴|
⃗ | = 7 m, then
Here |𝐵
7 =  Bx2 + By2

7 =  (–|A|)2 + (3|A|)2
Squaring both sides
49 = |A|2 + 9|A|2
49 = 10|A|2

|𝐴| =  (49/10)

|𝐴| = 2.2 m
⃗ | = 2.2 m.
Therefore, the magnitude of |𝑨

⃗ = (4.0 m)𝒊̂ – (3.0 m)𝒋̂ and ⃗𝒃 = (6.0 m) 𝒊̂ + (8.0 m) 𝒋̂.

𝒂
⃗ ? What are (c)
What are (a) the magnitude and (b) the angle (relative to 𝒊̂) of 𝒂

the magnitude and (d) the angle of ⃗𝒃? What are (e) the magnitude and (f) the
⃗ + ⃗𝒃; (g) the magnitude and (h) the angle of ⃗𝒃 – 𝒂
angle of 𝒂 ⃗ ; and (i) the
⃗ ? (k) What is the angle between the
⃗ –𝒃
magnitude and (j) the angle of 𝒂

directions of ⃗𝒃 – 𝒂 ⃗ – ⃗𝒃?
⃗ and 𝒂
Solution:
(a) The magnitude of 𝑎 is:
|𝑎 | = 42 + (– 3)2
|𝑎| = 5 m
(b) The angle of 𝑎 measured counter clockwise from +𝑥 axis (relative to i) is
–3
𝜃a = tan-1 ( 4 ) = –36.9
𝜃a = 360 – 36.9 = 323.1
(c) The magnitude of 𝑏⃗ is:
|𝑏⃗| = 62 + (8)2
|𝑏⃗| = 10 m
(d) The angle of 𝑏⃗ measured counter clockwise from +𝑥 axis (relative to 𝑖̂) is
8
𝜃b = tan-1 (6) = 53.1
(e) The magnitude of the summation of two vectors is:
|𝑎 + 𝑏⃗| = 102 + 52
|𝑎 + 𝑏⃗| = 11.18 m
(f) The angle of 𝑎 + 𝑏⃗ measured counter clockwise from +𝑥 axis (relative to 𝑖̂) is
5
𝜃a + b = tan-1 (10) = 26.6
(g) The subtraction of 𝑎 from 𝑏⃗ is:
𝑏⃗ – 𝑎 = (6 – 4) 𝑖̂ + (8 – (– 3)) 𝑗̂
= (2 m) 𝑖̂ + (11m) 𝑗̂
The magnitude of the subtraction of 𝑎 from 𝑏⃗ is:
|𝑏⃗ – 𝑎| = 22 + 112
|𝑏⃗ – 𝑎| = 11.18 m
(h) The angle of 𝑏⃗ – 𝑎 measured counter clockwise from +𝑥 axis (relative to 𝑖̂) is
11
𝜃b - a = tan-1 ( 2 ) = 79.7

(i) 𝑎 – 𝑏⃗ = (4 – 6) 𝑖̂ + (–3 – 8) 𝑗̂ = – (2 m) 𝑖̂ – (11m) 𝑗̂

The magnitude of the subtraction of b from a is:
|𝑎 – 𝑏⃗| = (– 2)2 + (– 11)2 = 11.18 m
(j) The angle of a – b measured counter clockwise from +𝑥 axis (relative to 𝑖̂) is
–11
𝜃a - b = tan-1 ( –2 ) = 79.7
𝜃a - b = 180 + 79.9 = 259.7
(k) The angle between the directions of (𝑎 – b) and (b – 𝑎) is
𝜃 = 259.7 – 79.7 = 180
𝜃 = 180

*33 For the vectors in Fig. 3-32, with a = 4, b = 3 and c = 5, what are (a) the

⃗ x ⃗𝒃,(c) the magnitude and (d) the

magnitude and (b) the direction of 𝒂

⃗ x𝒄
direction of 𝒂 ⃗ x𝒄
⃗ , and (e) the magnitude and (f) the direction of 𝒃 ⃗?
(The z axis is not shown.)
Solution:

(a) |𝑎 x 𝑏⃗| = ab sin 𝜃 = (4)(3) sin(90) = 12

(b) The direction of 𝑎 x 𝑏⃗ is determined to be 𝑘̂ using the Right-Hand Rule.
(c) 𝑐 = (– 𝑎 – 𝑏⃗)
|𝑎 x 𝑐| = |𝑎 x (– 𝑎 – 𝑏⃗)
|𝑎 x 𝑐| = |(𝑎 x – 𝑎) + (𝑎 x – 𝑏⃗) = |0 + –(𝑎 x 𝑏⃗)| = |(𝑎 x 𝑏⃗)|
|𝑎 x 𝑐|= | (𝑎 x 𝑏⃗) | = 12
(d) Again, the direction of 𝑎 x 𝑐 is determined to be – 𝑘̂ using the Right Hand
Rule.
(e) 𝑐 = (– 𝑎 – 𝑏⃗)
|𝑏⃗ x 𝑐| = |𝑏⃗ x (– 𝑎 – 𝑏⃗)
|𝑏⃗ x 𝑐| = |(𝑏⃗ x – 𝑎) + (𝑏⃗ x – 𝑏⃗ ) = |–(𝑏⃗ x 𝑎) + 0| = |𝑎 x 𝑏⃗|
|𝑏⃗ x 𝑐|= | (𝑎 x 𝑏⃗) | = 12
(f) Again, the direction of 𝑏⃗ x 𝑐 is determined to be 𝑘̂ using the Right Hand Rule.
⃗ 1 = 3𝒊̂ – 2𝒋̂ +4𝒌
*36 If 𝒅 ̂ and 𝒅
⃗ 2 = –5𝒊̂ + 2𝒋̂ – 𝒌
̂ , then what is

⃗ 1 + ⃗𝒅2) . (𝒅
(𝒅 ⃗ 1 x 4𝒅
⃗ 2)?

Solution:
Given:

(𝑑1 + 𝑑 2) = (3 – 5) 𝑖̂ + (–2 + 2) 𝑗̂ + (4 – 1) 𝑘̂

𝑑 1 x 4𝑑2 = (3 x 8)( 𝑖̂ x 𝑗̂) + (3 x –4)( 𝑖̂ x𝑘̂) + (– 2 x – 20)( 𝑗̂ x 𝑖̂)

+ (–2 x – 4)( 𝑗̂ x 𝑘̂) + (4 x – 20)( 𝑘̂ x 𝑖̂) + (4 x 8)( 𝑘̂ x 𝑗̂)

𝑑1 x 4𝑑2 = 24𝑘̂ – 20(– 𝑗̂) + 40(– 𝑘̂) + 8𝑖̂ –80𝑗̂ +32(– 𝑖̂)

𝑑1 x 4𝑑2 = – 24𝑖̂ – 60𝑗̂ –16𝑘̂

(d1 + 𝑑2) . (d1 x 4d2) = (–2𝑖̂ + 0𝑗̂ + 3𝑘̂) . (– 24𝑖̂ – 60𝑗̂ –16𝑘̂)

(𝑑1 + 𝑑 2) . (d1 x 4d2) = (–2)(– 24)(𝑖̂ . 𝑖̂) + (0)( – 60)( 𝑗̂ . 𝑗̂) + (3)( –16)( 𝑘̂ . 𝑘̂)

(𝑑1 + 𝑑 2) . (d1 x 4d2) = 0

̂ , ⃗𝒃 = –1.0𝒊̂ – 𝟒. 𝟎𝒋̂ +2.0𝒌
*37 Three vectors are given by ⃗𝒂 = 3.0𝒊̂ + 3.0𝒋̂ – 2.0𝒌 ̂

and 𝒄 ̂ . Find (a) 𝒂

⃗ = 2.0𝒊̂ +2.0𝒋̂ +1.0𝒌 ⃗ x𝒄
⃗ . (𝒃 ⃗ .( ⃗𝒃 + 𝒄
⃗ ), (b) 𝒂 ⃗ ) and 𝒂 ⃗ +𝒄
⃗ x (𝒃 ⃗ ).
Solution:
(a)

(𝑏⃗ x 𝑐 ) = (–1.0𝑖̂ – 4.0𝑗̂ + 2.0𝑘̂) x (2.0𝑖̂ + 2.0𝑗̂ + 1.0𝑘̂)

(𝑏⃗ x 𝑐 ) = (–1.0 x 2.0)( 𝑖̂ x 𝑗̂) + (–1.0 x 1.0)( 𝑖̂ x 𝑘̂) + (– 4.0 x 2.0)( 𝑗̂ x 𝑖̂) +

(– 4.0 x 1.0)( 𝑗̂ x 𝑘̂) + (2.0 x 2.0)( 𝑘̂ x 𝑖̂) + (2.0 x 2.0)( 𝑘̂ x 𝑗̂)

(𝑏⃗ x 𝑐 ) = –2.0𝑘̂ – 1.0(– 𝑗̂) + –8(– 𝑘̂) – 4𝑖̂ +4𝑗̂ +4(– 𝑖̂)

𝑎 . (𝑏⃗ x 𝑐) = (3.0𝑖̂ + 3.0𝑗̂ – 2.0𝑘̂) . (– 8.0𝑖̂ + 5.0𝑗̂ +6.0𝑘̂)

= (3)(–8) (1) + (3)(5) (1) +(–2)(6) (1)
= –24 + 15 –12

𝑎 . (𝑏⃗ x 𝑐) = –21
(b)

𝑎 . (𝑏⃗ + 𝑐 ) = (3.0𝑖̂ + 3.0𝑗̂ – 2.0𝑘̂) . (1.0𝑖̂ – 2.0𝑗̂ + 3.0𝑘̂)

= (3)(1) + (3)( –2) + (–2)(3)

𝑎 . (𝑏⃗ + 𝑐 ) = –9.0
(c)

𝑎 x (𝑏⃗ + 𝑐 ) = 5𝑖̂ – 11𝑗̂ –9𝑘̂

**39 Vector A has a magnitude of 6.00 units, vector B has a magnitude of 7.00
units, and A.B has a value of 12.0. What is the angle between the directions of
A and B?
Solution:

|𝐴| = A = 6.00
⃗ | = B = 7.00
|𝐵
⃗ = 14.0
𝐴. 𝐵
⃗ = AB cos𝜃
𝐴. 𝐵

𝐴.𝐵
= cos𝜃
𝐴𝐵

𝐴.𝐵
𝜃 = cos-1 ( 𝐴𝐵 )
14
𝜃 = cos-1 ((6)(7)) = 70.5°