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The open window

"The open window" is a short story written by H.H Munro (Saki) .


The number of its words is one thousand two hundred eleven (1.211)
words. It is a static short story because the characters are flat. They don't
change. The story is told from the third-person point of view, meaning
that its action is presented by a narrator who is not himself involved in the
story. The structure of the story is that of a story-within-a-story.
The story is set in the English country house of Mrs. Sappleton. The
home has a huge French window. Time was in winter, October
afternoon "You may wonder why we keep that window wide open on an
October afternoon,...". The atmosphere is sad, confusing and depressing.
The central theme of the story is the Appearance and Reality. Vera, Mrs.
Sappleton's niece tells a very convincing story to Mr. Frampton Nuttel, she
is so genuine in her description that his frame of reality about the family is
created through her story. The point of this theme is that what an
individual perceives becomes his reality. Frampton Nuttel expected to see
three ghosts come through the window, so when he saw the men coming
towards the house, he could not get out of there fast enough. Deception
is another theme. vera obviously deceives Frampton Nuttel when she tells
her tall tale about her aunt who waits for the return of the hunting party
lost in the marsh.

The main characters are Vera and Mr. Nuttel. Vera is " storyteller,
deceptive and very self-possessed young lady of fifteen" and full with
confidence. Her confidence shines from the way she carries herself and
especially when she tells the story perfectly. She is very convincing that
Nuttel and even Mr. and Mrs. Sappleton believe everything she says.
Different from Vera, Nuttel is a newcomer, restless character, which is
mainly caused by his nerve problem. He has a self-esteem problem and
this can be seen when he believes that people would not be interested in
his nerve condition. Doubting is also one of his nature. In the short story,
he questions the effectiveness of the cure suggested to him to go and
have a rest in a countryside.
The story revolves around Framton Nuttel, the protagonist, a
young man suffering from some kind of emotional problem who has come
to the country to rest. When Vera, the antagonist and Mrs Sappleton's
neice, hears of Nuttel's nervous condition, she invents a story about a
window that's been left open in the room. She tells him that the French
window is kept open, because her aunt's husband and her brothers were
killed in a shooting accident three years ago, and Mrs Stapleton believes
they will come back one day. When Mrs Stapleton comes down she talks
about her husband and brothers. Then, Mrs Stapleton points out that her
husband and brothers are coming. Framton sees them walking towards
the window, with their dog. He thinks he is seeing ghosts, and runs away.
Mrs Stapleton can't understand why he has run away. The niece explains
that Frampton Nuttal ran away because of the spaniel, he is afraid of dogs
since being hunted by a pack of pariah dogs in India.
The most important symbol in “The Open Window” is the open
window itself. When Mrs. Sappleton’s niece tells Mr. Nuttel the story of
the lost hunters, the open window comes to symbolize Mrs. Sappleton’s
pain and anguish at the loss of her husband and younger brother. When
the truth is later revealed, the open window symbolizes deception. The
open window is also a symbol of hope, the hope that Mrs. Sappleton has
that the hunting party would return. Also, Vera's name is also symbolic of
her deception as it is a Latin form of the word veritas, which means
truth. Thus, her name acts as another cover for her deceptive tale.
The conflict in the story is that Mr. Nuttle doesn’t know that Vera
has lied about her Uncles dying. Also, Mrs. Suppleton doesn’t know of the
lie Vera told Mr. Nuttle. The climax of the story appears when Mr.
Sappleton, Mrs. Sappleton's two brothers and the dog came home.
Readers can feel the suspense building when Mrs. Sappleton kept on
looking towards the open window and Nuttel's restless condition more or
less had influenced readers' mood as well.

Saki used irony in his story. One of the examples of irony in this
short story can be seen when Vera says that a "great tragedy" has
happened to her aunt, Mrs. Sappleton . because the story told by Vera is
the opposite of the truth.
Moonlight

"Moonlight" is a story written by Guy de Maupassant. The number of its


words is 1,769 words. It is a dynamic story because the characters change.
Maupassant's moonlight is regarded as a didactic story because it teaches
us not to impose our judgment on the other, listen to other people , get
into dialogue and to behave gently.

Maupassant is able to achieve two important techniques: 1-Visualization


of his character 2- the use of symbolism .For example , he refers to "hair"
as a symbol of beauty , power and dignity. Marignan's "walking stick" as a
symbol of weakness". The "forehead" of the priest's niece as a symbol of
purity and sincerity. In Maupassant's Moonlight, the antagonist is given a
negative presentation .He is fanatic and against the instinct . He seeks to
know God throw his mind, assumes the role of God, and rationalizes
everything through his mind and claims that he has his own conception of
God."he sincerely believed that he understood his God". On the other
hand, he hated women and rejected the romantic views of women. For
him, they are a major source of temptation " She was the tempter who led
the first man astray,". When Marignan was told that his niece has a lover,
he got shocked " the news shocked him terribly and he stopped chocking
with his face full of soap".

The conflict between the protagonist and antagonist, the mind and spirit,
beauty and ugliness came to light that always emphasized punishment,
while she was happy with nature."but looked at the sky, the grass, with
the believe joy which showed in her eyes'

In fact, Maupassant is able to achieve what is called suspense to make the


reader feel anxious to know what is to come. "When ten o'clock struck, he
opened the door to go out, but still surprised by a splendor of moonlight"
Here, Moonlight represents harmony, pure, love and a great influence on
Marignan's character, and he started to change completely because he
discovered and appreciated the beauty of night. He was immediately
distracted moved by the glorious and serene beauty of the pale night ..
perhaps God had made such nights to veil love with idea beauty". In this
way , Mr. Marignan found an answer to his previous question 'why has
God done that '?

finally , Maupassant conveys us a message of love that when one goes


against love , in this way goes against why God wanted to prevail.