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PRACTICAL

ELECTRONICS
^XPRIL 19BS PRICE 2/B

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[RANSISTOR

CIRCUITS A
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24 pages of popular m
practical circuits with
functional descriptions

REACTALYSER
m
Personal impulse
m UK t
reaction monitor

RE.HOMECOM
Simple two-way
communication
system for the
home

And iSSlSS
for beginners iSS«
m
A LIGHT
OPERATED
iiw »**
SWITCH

OTHER PROJECT
AND FEATURES
SHORT WAVE ONE VALVE
RECEIVER KIT 39/6 + 2/6 P.P.
tyiiooucTs LIMITEDI PMC MOGUE (OMPUTfR KIT IN STOCK
tKagd. Tradt Markl
UNIT 'A' COMPLETE «26.0.0 + 15/- P.P.
SOLDERING EQUIPMENT Punched aluminium panels and
case for above £4.17.6 -f 5/-P.P.
CLUBMAN Mk. I KIT COMPLETE £6.17.6 + 5/- P.P.
j'Of the Without metal work £4.12.6 + 2/6 P.P.
CLUBMAN Mk. II KIT COMPLETE £10.17.6 + 5/- P.P.
Without metal work £8.12.6 + 4/6 P.P.
EXPLORER KIT COMPLETE £4. 2.6 + 2/6 P.P.
DISCRIMINATING STABILIZED POWER SUPPLY KIT 0-20V. 500ma
COMPLETE £4.17,6 + 5/- P.P.
ENTHUSIAST COMBINED AUDIO OSCILLATOR AND FREQUENCY
METER £17 -f 10/- P.P.
PORTABLE TEST UNIT KIT
FLUORESCENT CAMPING LIGHT IN STOCK
S.A.E. FOR TRANSISTORS, SEMICONDUCTORS, FULL LIST
700 TYPES
3 SILICON RECTIFIERS, BYJOO TYPE 10/-
10 MIXED MARKED TESTED TRANSISTORS 10/-
40 UNMARKED UNTESTED TRANSISTORS NEW 10/-
1 LIGHT SENSITIVE CELL 0RPI2 8/S
25 MIXED UNMARKED TESTED TRANSISTORS 10/-
2 TRANSISTOR COMP. PAIR A0(6l/I62 16/-
P.P. I/-
OUR COMPONENTS CATALOGUE 5/- Post Paid with 10/- worth of
i discount vouchers.
OLRUS ELECTRONICS LTD.
748 HIGH ROAD, LEYTONSTONE
(NEXT TO GREEN MAN}
LONDON, E.11. Tel. 01-989 2751
CALLERS WELCOME—CLOSED ALL DAY FRIDAY

MARTIN

IS HIGH FIDELITY
How would you like to start with
a simple amplifier, say, and add to
plus it until It became a fully stereo
twenty watt amplifier with FM
ADD-ON-ABILITY tuner and facilities to take the most
sensitive low output pickups ever
made? With Martin Audiokitt
THRILLING POWER it's easy, for with these superbly
engineered all-transistor prefabri-
DEPENDABILITY cated units, success is built in from
the start and you build to your own
GENUINE ECONOMY SAVING preferred plan. IT'S A MONEY
SCHEME, TOO.
Details from:— # Trade enquiries invited.
ULUSIRATED:
L64 -fe" BIT INSTRUMENT IN MARTIN ELECTRONICS LTD., 155 High Street, Brentford,
L700 PROTECTIVE SHIELD Middlesex. ISLewortii M6(

APPLY DIRECT TO: To MARTIN ELECTRONICS, 155 High Street


Brentford, Middlesex
SALES & SERVICE DEPT. I have not had your leaflets before. Please send them on
ADCOLA PRODUCTS LTD. AMPLIFIERS □ .FM TUNER □ RECORDAKITS □
(Tick as required)
ADCOLA HOUSE
GAUDEN ROAD NAME
LONDON, S.W.4 ADDRESS
TELEPHONE 01-622 0291
DON'T MISS THIS CONSTRUCTORS BARGAINS
HAVE YOU GOT YOUR COPY OF TTC MODEL EI202
OUR GREAT "35th BIRTHDAY" 4 TRANSISTOR/PUSH
PULL AMPLIFIER
CATALOGUE ? — FREE WITH OUR II WATTS
COMPLIMENTS For use In general purpose and elec-
tronics projects.
3 X SB176 and 2The amplffler
x 8BI78 utilises
translators
Printed In large 19 x Uln modem magaeina tecmlnBtiog
format—the "Birthday Catalogue" contains
thousands of diHerent Items .from our vast former. Powered by a standard 9 volt battery providingIdauanoutput
8 ohmofoutput trans-
1-2 watts—
stocks of Kadio. Bl-FI, TV. Test Gear. Cora- sumcient for portable radloe, tape recorders, Intercom, small F.A. lyoteim. etc.
ponents. Commouicatkins and other equip- Lasky's Price 47/6 po«t Fr«o
ment. 1968
n I | a a many bargain offers and prices 1933-
r_ |_ U O o^oloslvely to Lasky's
. , . , In addition every copy of the i.H
AND "Birthday Plolorlal" is enters
num- TTC MODEL EI203
yon in our greatbered and automatleally
"Birthday Draw" with over 4 TRANSISTOR—3 WATT
£100 In Out Vonehera to be won. Btlsl SpecSfieaWoo—Use!
purpose. Circuit: 4 translatorgeneral
push/
All goods ahawn In the "Birthday Pictorial" a pull output. Output power: 2W 10%
available over the counter from any of our HD 3W roar. Gala: lOmV for 2W
orbranches—or by post totheanybenefits
overseas—bringing addressof(n shopping
the U.K. output impedance 8 and 58 ohms.
Frequency response;
at Lasky's to you in your home. Power source:
oonBDmptton: d.C. 9160volts.
12mA
to 10,000c/s.
at Do Current
signal:
rOUft COPY IS WAITING. 600mA for maximum power. Birncn-
Just send your nams, address sod ■ Bd stamp
lor postage. slons: 3J x 2J x 1 Jin. Weight:
Slot.
A MUST FOR EVERY ELECTRONICS Lasky's Price 57/6 Post Fr»»
HOBBY/ST AND Hf~FI ENTHUSIAST!
TTC MODEL EI20I
4 TRANSISTOR
COMMUNICATION RECEIVERS 200mW
Minis lure audio push pnll
amplifier designed
experimenters and for use by
hobbyists.
NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE FIRST This anipilfler utilises 3 x
8B170. 2 X BB172 tran-
TIME IN GREAT BRITAIN—TWO NEW sistors
outputterminating
transformer.in Powered
a 3 ohm
by standard 9 volt battery
TRIO which providea an output of 200mW, eofiteleot for portable radloe, tape recorders.
Intercoms and email F.A. systems, etc.
RECEIVERS 13 Lasky's Price 32/6 p«»t Free
MODEL JR-500SE 0
This high performance receiver TRANSISTOR FM TUNER
la made especially
amateur bands andto cover
utilisesthea
crystal controlled double CHASSIS
heterodyne circuit for extra Fully ttmable—range 88 to 108Sic/». Com-
sensitivity pletely wiredand
on printed
8 diodes.circuit. ll>-3Me/s. IF.
Brief spec.; and Coversstability.
all the 6 transieton Stow motion
drive, glze 6i x 4 x 2t'n. Operates from any
tuning
amateur bands to 7 separate
ranges between 3-B and 29-7 9V d.e. source. Foil data and cirenit supplied.
Mc/s. Circuit uses 7 valves. />
2Jack.
translBtora and 9 diodes plus 9 crystals; output H and 900 ohm and 600 ohm phone LASKY'S PRfCE £6.10.0 Fost 6/- extra.
Spedtl features: Crystal controlled oocillator 0 Variable BFO 0
ANL 0 8 meter # SSB-CW # Stand-by switch # Special double gear dial drive with VFO 0 AVC • MULTIPLEX ADAPTOR
direct reading down to 1 kHz # Bemote control socket for connection to a transmitter. Now you can enjoy stereo sound with the FM Tuner above. Brief spec.: MFX Input
Audio output 1 watt. For use on X16/250V a.c. Mains. Superb modem styling and sensttWly lOOmV. Output 160mV. Self powered by a 9V battery.- 4 transistor and
oontto! layout—finished to dark grey. Cabinet sizeand
7 xservice
13 x join,- 8 diode etrenlt. Bizs 6J * 2 x Jin.
Fully guaranteed, complete with instruction manual data. Weight 381b. Also suitable for use with other FM tone re
with MFX input.
LASKY'S PRfCE £81.19.0 Carriage and Packing 12/6- LASKY'S PRICE 99/9 e** W-
MODEL 9R-59DE PACKAGE PRICE IF BOUGHT TOGETHER £11 Post 6/-.
Brie! spec; 4 band receiver
covering 660 Kc/e to 30 Mc/i
continuous and electrical band SPECIAL TEST BARGAIN
spread
80 metres-on 10, 855,valve
20, 40 plus
and
7 diode circuit, 4/8 ohm TRANSISTOR CHECKER
output and phone Jack. TTC MODEL C3022
Special leslores:
ANL • Variable BFO •S3B-CW •
8dialmeter • Sep. band spread For the engineer and experimenter. Uses include measuring
0 IF frequency 485 Alpha, Beta and Tea factors of transistors, and for checking
Kc/s • Audio output l-SW • germanium
glre 7 x 4} and oil IconComplete
x 3|tn. diodes. with
Powered by 9 volt
connectors, batlery.
battery and
Variable HF and AF gain Instruction booklet. Brief Spec.: Transistor Teat-Alpha
controls. For use on 116/2MV
a.o. Mains. Beautifully designed control layout finished in light grey with dark grey 0-7-8-9987; Beta 8-300 Ico O-SOOuA-O-ftOOuA. Diode Test:
case, sire: 7 x 16 x lOln. W'elght 19 lb. Fully guaranteed, complete with Instrac- Forward
ohms-Megandohm.reverse Internal resistance. Beslstance: 200 $
tlon manual and eerdce data.
LASKY'S PRICE £38.18.0 Carriage and Packing l*/«. Lasky's Price £6.19.6 p*»»t s/-
Branches High Fidelity Audio Centres
207 EDGWARE ROAD, LONDON. W.2 Tel.. 01-723 3271 42 TOTTENHAM CT. RD., LONDON, W.I Tel.. 01-580 2573
Open all day Saturday, early closing 1 p.m. Thursday Optm all day Thursday, early closing t p.m Saturday
33 TOTTENHAM CT R0„ LONDON, W.I Tel.; 01-636 2605
Open all day 9 a.rn.—€ p.mi Monday to Saturday 118 EDGWARE ROAD, LONDON, W.2 Tel.: 01-723 9789
152/3 FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.C.4 Tel.: FLEet Si 2833 Open all day Saturday, oatly clo- ing .1 n m Thursday
Open all day Thursday, oerfv cfosirtg 1 p.m Saturday
AIL MAIL ORDERS AND CORRESPONDENCE TO: 3-15 CAVELL ST., TOWER HAMLETS, LONDON, E.I Tel.: 01-790 4821
HEATHKIT
S-DeC
For kits or ready-to-use models

Q 5

"v*«r
Transistor AM-FM Stereo/Mono Tuner
• 18 Transistor, 7 diode circuit # AM LW/MW, FM
Stereo and FM Mono tuning • Automatic stereo
indicator light • Stereo phase control for maximum
L separation, minimum distortion • Automatic fre-
quency control • Automatic gain control # Pre-
assembled and aligned "front-end" FM unit • Separate
AM and FM .printed circuit boards • Self-powered
• Low-silhouette styling—matches TSA-12 and AA-21U
amplifiers.
BREADBOARDING • Walnut veneered cabinet (optional extra).
Complete Listening at your command . . . the quiet
SINGLE DeCs. One S-DeC with Control Panel, Jig and beauty of FM, the stirring realism of FM stereo, or the music,
Accessories for solderiess connections to controls, etc., with news and sports of AM ... it's all there with just a turn of a
switch on the AFM-2. It"? all solid-state ... 18 transistors and
booklet' Projects on S-DeC * giving construction details for 7 diodes for cool, instant performance and long dependable
a variety of interesting circuits 29/6 4- 6d. P. & P. life. Note the freedom from distortion and hum . . . crisp,
clean reproduction ... at a price far below comparable
4»DeC KIT. Four S-DeCs with two Control Panels, Jigs factory-built tuners.
and Accessories and the booklet 'Projects on S-DeC all Easy-to-build . . . versatile installation. Requires no
contained in a strong, attractive plastic case. Ideal for the special skills or knowledge. The FM "front end" unit is
keen enthusiast and professional user £5.17.6 + 2/6d. P. & P. factory built and aligned to speed assembly . . . fast, printed
circuit board construction and famous Heathkit step-by-step
instructions and large pictorials guide you all the way. Instals
just about anywhere ... in your own cabinet or freestanding
on a bookshelf, room divider or table.
AFM-2 SPECIFICATION: FM Circuit: Tuning Range:
88 to l08Mc/s. Aerial Input Impedance; 75(coaxial),
intertnediate Frequency: .10*7Mc/s. Audio Frequency
Response: Mono: ±ldB from 20 to 20,000c/s. Stereo:
:LldB from 50 to I5,000c/s. Output Impedance: 20kO
. — -ik Output Voltage: 250mV r.m.s. with 30% modulation.
Image Rejection; 45dB, Capture Ratio: 3dB (ref. ImV
input). IF Rejection: 80dB. AM Suppression: 35dB.
Channel Separation: 30dBatlkc/s. AM Circuit; Tunng
Range: Medium Wave, 555 to 192 metres (540 to l,560kc/$}.
Long Wave, 1,800 to 1,000 metres (167 to 300kc/s). Power.
X Requirements: 105-125, 210-1S0V a.c. Dimensions:
Overall IS^in. wide X 3|in. high x lOi'tn'. deep. Net
Weight: 81b.
w vw w Comprising Unit AFM-2T RF Tuning Heart KIT £7.17.6
r u & incl. P.T. Unit AFM-2A IF Amp. and Power Supply KIT
Four-stage binary counter using the 4-DeC Kit £24.9.6.
TFM-2 TOTAL PRICE Kit £32 .7. 0 i„d. pi.
+ S-D.C AVAILABLE FROM ELECTRON IQUE DEALERS Ready-to-use price on request:
AND LEADING SUPPLIERS Optional extras; Part No. 91-508 Walnut veneered cabinet
£2.5.0
In case of difficully in obtaining from a retailer post this form: Trim and Mounting Brackets for panel mounting, GMK-I
Please send me S-DeCs kits and d-DeC I £1.18.0
kits for which I enclose P.O./Cheque/Money Order I
| value £ / ../ I See HEATHKIT at the
GRAND HOTEL
j NAME j Southampton Row, LONDON
| ADDRESS | (Concurrent with the 1968 Audio Fair)
EXHIBITION OF Hi-Fi
1 ' : April 18th-2lst 11 a.m.-9 p.m. (Sun. 8 p.m.)
1 • " ADMISSION FREE
I To: S.D.C. PRODUCTS (Electronics) LTD. J Wide range of other latest Heathkit Radio,
LTHB CORN EXCHANGE. CHELMSPORD, ESSEX Test and Domestic models on view.
----- I

234
Build Your Own Heathkit Electronics
A kit for every interest — Home Workshop — Hi-Fi — Radio — Test — Amateur
Latest STEREO TAPE RECORDER, STR-1 Latest STEREO AMPLIFIER, TSA-12
Fully portable—own speakers 12 x 12 watts output
Kit £45. IB. 0 Kit £30.10.0 less cabinet
FOR THIS SPECIFICATION Cabinet £3. 5. 0 extra
i track stereo or mono record and FOR THIS SPECIFICATION
playback at 7i, 3} and Uips. Sound-
on-sound and sound-with-sound 17 transistors, 6 diode circuit. ±1dB, 16 to SO.OOOc/s at 12W
capabilities. Stereo record, stereo per channel into 8 ohms. Output suitable for 8 or IS ohm
playback, mono record and playback loudspeakers. 3 stereo inputs for Gram4 Radio and Aux.
on either channel. 18 transistor circuit for cool, Instant and depend- Modem iow silhouette styling. Attractive aluminium, golden
able operation. Moving coil record level Indicator. Digital counter anodised front panel. Handsome assembled and' finished
with thumb-wheel zero reset. Stereo microphone and auxiliary inputs walnut veneered cabinet available. Matches Heathkit models
and controls, speaker/headphone and external amplifier outputs ,.. TFM-t and AFM-2 transistor tuners.
front panel mounted for easy access. Push-button controls for
operational modes. Built-in stereo power amplifier giving 4W rms per Full range power... over extremely wide frequency range.
channel. Two high efficiency 8' x 5' speakers. Operates on 230V Special transformerless output circuitry. Adequately heat-
a.c. supply. sinked power transistors for cool operation—long fife, 6 position
Versatile recording facilities. So easy to build—so easy to use. source switch.
High-performance CAR RADIO, CR-1 Latest Portable Stereo Record Player, SRP-1
Automatic playing of 16, 33, 45
Superb long and medium wave and 78 rpm records. All transis-
entertainment wherever you drive. tor—cool instant operation. Dual
Complete your motoring pleasure LP/78 stylus. Plays mono or
stereo records. Suitcase port-
with this compact outstanding unit. ability. Detachable speaker en-
closure for best stereo effect.
8 Latest semlconductors te transistors, 2 dlodas). For 12V positive or 12V Two 8in x Sin special loud-
neeatlve earth systems. Powerful output (4W). Preassembled and aligned speakers. For 220-250V a.c. T-r
tuning unit. Push-button tone and wave change controls. Positive manual mains operation. Overatf cabi-
tuning. Easy circuit board assembly. Instant operation, no warm-up time. net size 15& x 3i x KHin.
Tastefully styled to harmonise with any car colour scheme. High quality Compact, economical stereo and mono record playing tor the whole
output stage will operate two loudspeakers If desired. Can be built for a Family—plays anything from the Beatles to Bartok. All solid-state
total price. circuitry gives room filling volume.
KIT (less speaker) £12.17. 0 incl. P.T. kit £27.15.0 incl. P.T.
6* x 4" Loudspeaker £1. 4, S extra.
A wide range of "Mohican" General Coverage Receiver, GC-1U
■•IV SPEAKER SYSTEMS Powerful 10 transistor, 5 diode circuit.
HI-FI SPEAKER SYSTEM. Model Tunes 580 to 1,550kc/s and 1-69 to 30Mc/s
SSU-I. Ducted-port bass reflex cabi- in five bands. Bandspread on all bands.
net "in the white". Two speakers. Fixed-aligned ceramic IF transfilters for
Vertical horizontal models with legs. Kit best selectivity. Pre-assembled and alig-
SSU-I £12.12.0 without legs. Kit fill.'l?. 6 incl. ned "front-end" for fast, easy assembly.
P.T. Built-in 0 x 4?n. speaker. Tuning meter
for pin-point tuning. Completely self-
The BERKELEY SUM-LINE contained for portability—can be operated
SPEAKER SYSTEM, fully finished on 230V a.c. with Model UBE-f. Kit
walnut veneered cabinet for faster con- £2.17. 6 extra.
struction. Special 12* bass unit and 4* KIT £37.17. 6.
mid/high frequency unit. Range 30-
17,000c/s. Size 26" x 17* only 7i* deep,
Modern attractive styling. Excellent
value. Send for latest FREE Catalogue
Kit £19.10. 0. 36 pages, many models in colour
Berkeley
HEATHKIT - "1
SEE HEATHKIT MODELS AT: Plcaie addro* all enquiriet to
GLOUCESTER
Factory and Showroom, Bristol Road. DAYSTROM LTD., Dept. P.E.4, GLOUCESTER

LONDON |—| Please send me FREE CATALOGUE


233 Tottenham Court Road, W.1.
| | Full details of mod el (s)
BIRMINGHAM
17-18 St. Martin's House, Bull Ring.
Demonstrations fay arrangement. NAME.
Deferred terms available over £10 (U.K. only).
Prices quoted are Mail Order prices. ADDRESS

235
LiiKiWi gOHi?MiHB liWliSlff
RA. #54 R«varbaration Amp-
lifier. Deiitned to add new
depth and dimension to your
sound system. Incorporates a
transistor smplifier and rever-
beration unit with controls to
regulate the amount of volume
and reverberation. Battery
operated completely seitcen-
tained in an oiled Walnut
Cabinet with rear input for
microphone, guitar and radio,
etc. Visit your EAGLE Dealer
to inspect this exciting new
model — such good value at
£9.19.4.

'l»*Na15Tt,I,lj!t.a
U!-
3
FOR VERSATILITY
RELIABILITY AND
SOUND VALUE
INSIST ON
a . s; •:

CO
^OovjC^
Distributed by
B. Adler & Sons- (Radio) Ltd.
Coptic Street, London, W.C.I

A CAREER IN THE SUNSHINE WHEN THE SQUEEZE IS ON


THE PRESSURE IS OFF
RADIO
TECHNICIAN
TRAINING ©
•tr
IN THE

Vacancies exist in the Royal Australian


Air Force for men who are interested in
being trained in the Technical Radio
fields. Applicants should be United
Kingdom citizens residing in the U.K.
and aged between 18 and 33 years. Quali- FULCRUM PJN REVERSE ACTION TWEEZERS
W/ADJU STABLE 4 MODELS FOR THE
fied personnel up to the age of 43 years TENStON EtECTRiCAL AND ELECTRONICS
FEATURE-REVERSES INDUSTRY
are also invited to apply. TWEEZER PINCH! . K4S1—Stainless steel, anti-magnetic.
K6S2—General-purpose nickel silver
Free passage to Australia is provided Save time. Increase alloy anti-magnetic—fine points.
efficiency. Cut operator K6Sd—As 451 but coated with
for families and pay commences from fatigue in assembly of 'Teflon' for heat and chemical
miniature electronic resistance.
date of enlistment in London. components
ment. No more and equip- K655—Extra fine points for micro-
dropping of tiny parts miniature parts. Stainless steel.
Further infomiation can be provided by writing or phoning:- at critical moments Full details on request of these—also
with time loss and risk range of KONTAKT AEROSOL aids to
of damage. Industry and of the Diacrom range of
RAAF CAREERS OFFICER (Dept. PE 2) AUSTRALIA HOUSE Operator squeexes to diamonded spatulas, from:
pick-up or release parts. U.K. Distributors,
STRAND, LONDON W.C.2. Telephone No: 01-836 2435 Precision points exert SPECIAL PRODUCTS
uniform grip—adjust-
able to handle most DISTRIBUTORS LIMITED
delicate parts. 81 Piccadilly, London, W.I
Tel. 01-429 9556
236
m K. J. ENTERPRISES M
U BRITAIN'S PREMIER MAIL-ORDER RECORDING TAPE SPECIALISTS ^51
IMMEDIATE 24 HOUR SERVICE ON ADVERTISED LINES
FOLU CASH REFUND GUARANTEED SEND TODAY AND SAVE 1

SENSATIONAL NEW HALF-PR/CE OFFER


BRANDED ACountry's
bulk purchase
leading of top quality
makers. Recording
A polyester basedTape
tapemanufaetured
with auperlifabyblack
onecoating.
of the
Polythene wrapped, boxed, and fully guaranteed. Available while stocks last in
one size only.
NORMAL ONE THREE SIX
1,800'on 7'reel. Long Play VALUE SO/- 26/6 7#/- 150/-
TAPES POST AND PACKING 2/-, ORDERS OVER £3 POST FREE.
AMPEX TAPE
20Z OFF BrandSERIES
New, Fully
AUDIO TAPE and
Guaranteed, in normal
(MYLAR manufacturer's pack.
BASE)
'300"
TYPE DESCRIPTION UST PRICE ONE THREE SIX
BASF - EMI ■ GRUNDIG 541 541-9 900* Long Play
-12 1,150'Long Play on
on 5-reel
Si" reel 28/- 35/- 21/-
28/- 61/6
81/6
120/-
162/-
541-18 1.800'Long Play on 7-reel 50/- 32/6 96/- 189/-
7041-
551-12 1.200'Double Play on 5* reel 42/- 35/- 101/6 264/-
PHILIPS - SCOTCH 551-16 1,650'Double Play on Si'reel 56/- 45/~ 113/6 324/-
551-24 2,400'Double Play on 7'reel 72/6 55/- 163/6
AGFA - KODAK "600"
641-9 SERIES PROFESSIONAL
900'Long Play on S'reel AUDIO TAPE
30/6 (MYLAR
iT BASE)
66/6 127/6
Brand New, Fully Guaranteed and in normal manufacturer's pack, 641-18 1,800'Long Play on 7'reel 52/6 39/6 116/- 226/-
651-12 1.200' Double Play on 5* reel 46/- 34/6 101/-
177/- 197/-
348/-
STANDARD FLAY LIST PRICE
PRICE OUR LIST OUR 651-24 2,400'Double Play on 7-reel 80/- 60/-
S- 600' "I II/- 16/10 DOUBLE PLAY PRICE PRICE POST AND PACKING 2/-. ORDERS OVER E3 POST FREE.
y 300' Not Kodak or
Sr «W" f Except Agfa 28/- 11/6 Scotch 14/- 11/3 N.B. Other types and sizes available including the inexpensive "White Box"
T 1200' J 35/- 18/- 3- 400' Scotch only 16/6 13/1
LONG PLAY 3i- 400' Kodak only 18/9 15/-
3- 210* Not Scotch or 4- 600' Not Kodak 25/- 20/- SPECIAL OFFER COMPACT CASSEHES
Kodakonly 9/- 7/3 4i- 900' Agfa,
onlyBASF 30/- 24/-
3- 300' Scotch 9/6 7/6 5-
3f 300' Kodak only
4- 450' Except Kodak 12/- 9/6 Si- 1650' Kodak only 42/-
1200' 57/6 33/8
46/- B.C30 "MC 60" & "MC 90"
4i- 600' BASF, Agfa 14/6 ' 1/8 •5i' 1800' Not Kodak 55/6 44/6
•T 2400' 77/6 62/-
•5- 900' only 21/- 16/10 10' 4600' Agfa only 140/- 112/- Compact Cassettes with 60 and 90 min. playing
•sj' 1200' 28/- 21/6
28/- time. Brand new and packed In normal plastic
•7- laocr 35/- TRIPUE PLAY m library box. Available at this exceptional price.
2400' BASF, Scotch 50/- 40,'- 3' 450' Not Scotch 11/- 17/8 19/6
m OUR PRICES "MCPO"
3' 600' Scotch only -24/9

CD
only 3i' 600' Kodak only 30/- 24/- "HC60"
10- 3280' Agfa only 72/6 85/-
58/-
68/- 4- 900' 39/- 21/3 I for 13/-
36 for 38/3
I for 18/6
3 for S4/-
io- 3600' BASF only 95/- 76/- •4i- HOC Agfa. BASF 49/- 19/3 Standard pot tern to fit for 75/- 6 far 105/-
IOT 4200' Agfa, BASF only Philips, Stella, Elizabethan, 12 for 144/- 12 for 204/-
only 112/- 90/- S- 1600- Not"Scotch 66/- S1/I0 Damette, Sanyo, etc. Posi and Pocking 2/4. Orders over £3 Post Free
SCOTCH DYNARANCE (L/P) Si' 2400' \Agfa, BASF, 90/- 71/-
5 * 900' 31/3 15/10 3600' } Kodak only'115/- 91/-
Si- 1200- 4016 32/6 QUADRUPLE PLAY
7- 1800' 57/6 461- 3- 600' 1 36/6 29/6
ef 2<00- 83/6 66/10 3r 800- ^ Kodak only 46/- 51/6 17/- BASF TAPE—30% REDUCTION
COMPACT CASSETTEStr/6 14/- 4" 1200' J 64/6 A Special Offer of the famous Premium Grade BASF Tape. Brand new, boxed wth
C. 60 Full Leader, stopfoil and "Polythene sealed". Multiples of three 4* O/P 600" size can
C. 90 IS/- 20/- GRUNDIG TAPE AVAILABLE ONLY be supplied in the BASF 3 compartment plastic library cassettes at no extra cost.
C. 120 13/6 27/- WHERE MARKED WITH ASTERISK TYPE DESCRIPDON UST PR/CE ONE THREE SIX
Postage and Packing 2/- Order ever £3 post free. LGS26 600' D/P 4' reel 25/- 17/- 491- 93/-
LGS26 1800' 1200' D/P
D/P Si"
5' reel 42/- 29/6 66/- 166/-
219/-
LGS26 2400' D/P reel 55/- 38/6 112/6
145/6
FERR0GRAPH TAPE 20 OFF LGS26 1800' L/P 7'7' reel reel 77/6 49/6
35/- 101/-
285/-
198/-
LGS35 so/-
Brand New, Fully guaranteed and in normal manufaemrer's pack.. Post and Packing 2/-. ORDERS OVER £3 POST FREE.
BN7 1,200'on 7' reel (Dynarange) LIST PRICE
50/- ONE
40f- THREE
M7/6 SIX
2301-
BN8 1,800'on
BL7 1,800' on 7*Si*reel
reel(Dynarange)
(Dynarange) 71/- 70/- 57/-
56/- 168/-
165/- 3301-
324/-
BU8 2,400'on Si* reel (Dynarange)
7' metal reels 9/-, 8/" metal reels 10/6. 90/- 72/- 113/- 420/- TRIPLE PLAY TAPE-40/o OFF!
Post and Packing 2/-. ORDERS OVER £3 POST FREE. A large purchase from two world renowned manufacturers enables us to make this
unique nearTape
ester Base half-price offer.LEADER
with FULL Brand new, fullyfoil.
and stop guaranteed, premium
In original maker'sgrade
boxesPoly,
and
ILFORD TAPE near HALF PRICE polythene wrapped at these EXCEPTIONALLY L/ST PRICE
LOW PRICES.
ONE
A bulk purchase of premium grade, top quality POLYESTER MAGNETIC TAPE 4S0' on 3' reel Gevasonor U/- THREE
40/6 S)X
78/-
from one of thefoil.
world's foremostwrapping,
experts inand
filmincoating technology. Withboxes.
FULL 600' on 3" reel Gevasonor 22/-
27/6 17/6 51/- 99/-
LEADER stop Polythene original manufacturer's 900' on 4" reel Gevasonor 3?/- 24/6 72/- 140/-
Available in long-play base only at these BARGAIN PRICES. 1,800' on 5' reel Gevasonor 66/- 41/6 122/- 138/-
900" on 5* reel. List price 28/- ONE
16/6 THREE 48/- SIX
90/- 2,400' on SJ* reel Zonal 90/- 55/6 165/- 324/-
1,800'on 7* reel. List price 50/- 32/6 9S/~ 180/- Post and Packing 2/-. ORDERS OVER £3 POST FREE,
Post and Packing 2/-. ORDERS OVER £3 POST FREE 20% off all Grundig and Philips Equipment
SEND FOR LISTS OF OTHER TAPE AND HI-FI BARGAINS Oar New lltastraled catahgue sent entirely free,
K. J. ENTERPRISES, (Dept RE ), 17 THE BRIDGE, WEALDST0NE, on request. Britain's most specialized comprehen-
sive range of recording tape and accessories.
MIDDLESEX {OPPOSITE HARROW 5, WEALDSTONE STATION) 20.000 reels always in slock with redeclnus
01-427 0395 (CLOSED P.M. SAT.) REFUND GUARANTEE ranging up fo 89%. *

237
KEEP AN EYE ON OUR PRICES OF
SEMICONDUCTORS AND COMPONENTS
SUBMINIATURE TAGBOARDS (llio. wide),~4-w»y at 1/3; 18-way at
3/- ea.
COAX PLUGS.—Belling Lee type. 1/4 ea.
SURFACE MOUNTING COAX SOCKET (Nylon iojulated).—1/3 ea.
PHONO PLUGS (Red, Black, Brown, Orange, Green or Yellow).—KM.
PHONO SOCKETS (Double. Jix I in.).—M. ea.
CAPACITORS—CERAMIC TUBULAR (Standard values).—l-TpF-O-OI/tF,
8d. ea.
RESISTORS—CARBON FILM.—1W 5%, 10 ohm to 10 megohm.—3ld.
ea. or 3/3 per doz.
COIL FORMERS.—Miniature, complete with ferritccore. 0-274in dia.
by I in long, at 1/6 ea.
BEEHIVE TRIMMERS.—3 to 30pF. at 1/6 ea.
CARBON PRESET POTENTIOMETERS—Vertical or horizontal
mounting. 200 ohm to 2 megohm, at 1/4 ea.
SUBMINIATURE R.F. CHOKES (Appro*, size: 0-34::0-l5in dia).—
Standard values, 0-22/rH to l-0mH, at 3/3 ea.
DIODES.—OA70, OA7(, OA79, OAS I. OA90, OAS I. OA200. OA202 at
2/3 ea.
TRANSISTORS.—OC44, 5/6; OC45, 5/4; OC7I. 4/4; OC72, 5/4; OC83,
4/-; OCI70, 7/8; BCt07. 4/3; BCI08, 4/-; BCI09, 4/8; OCSIZ, 10/-;
ACI27Z, 9/6; 8SY95A. 4/6; NKT2i2, 4/3; NKT2ia. 3/11; NKT228. 3/11;
NKT27I, 3/4; NKT274, 3/4; NKT67S, 4/3; NKT676. 4/-; NKT773. 4/8;
2G302, 4/-; 2G37I. 2/10; 2G374, 3/8; 2G4I4. 5/6; 2G4I6, 4/9; 2N706.
3/3; 2N697, 6/6; 2N30S3, 6/9; 2N3638, 5/6; 2N3702, 3/9; 2N 3703. 4/-;
2N3704, 5/-; 2N3705. 4/6; 2N3706. 3/9; 2N3707, 4/6; 2N3708, 3/4;
2N3709. 3/3; 2N37I0, 3/B; 2N37n. 4/3; 2N38I9(FET), 14/3; 2N3820
(FET), 20/-; 2N2646(UiT). 10/6; 2N3793, 4/3; 2N3794,4/3; 2N4286,4/3;
2N4288. 4/3; 2N4292, 4/3; 3N84(SCS)I 24/-; BRY39(SCS)1 10/6. MANY
MORE IN STOCK, INCLUDING: 2N2926 (Orange). 3/3 ea.; 2N2926
(Yellow), 3/6 ea.; 2N2926 (Green), 3/9 ea. (Quantity discounts available).
choice of (jrofessidnals...
Postage and Packing is charged at I/- in the £ (Minimum 2/- per order).
practical for enthusiasts M. R. CLIFFORD & COMPANY
(COMPONENTS DEPT.)
209a Monument Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham 16
EMI SPEAKERS Terms: C.W.O. or C.O.O. Tel. 02 M54 651S
E.M.I, (Matched Speaker Sets reproduce
every detail of the original sound over the
full audio spectrum, at high or tow listening
levels. For their size and price they give un- TRS BARGAIN LIST
rivalled response. They range from Type 250
for enclosures of 11 "x 8"x 6", to the Type GARRARD UNITS PEAK SOUND SA 8-8
B«e
fullerlataat TESandlistvery(M.attractive
details pott frse)prices
lor PEAK SOUND SA 8-8 STEREO AMP,
950 for which enclosures of 3^ to 4 cu. ft. LM3POO Becord Player- with 9T 14 Transistor Kit. 8W pec channel
are required. Send coupon for full details. Stereo Cartridge. Brand new as from (16W high
mono) Integrated
quality ceramic
pre-amp
p.u.
to take
One of the
factory. best and most economicsl stereo
AT.eO Mk n Qe-luio Auto-cbanger,
dlecast turntable, Lese cartridge transistor amps we have ever offered.
SF.S5 De-lose eiugle record player, die- All porch sees backed by T-H.9. service
facilities. When bnllt, the SA8-8 equals
cast turntable. Less cartridge
Packing and carriage on any one of the KPT
best In modem styling. AMPLIFIER
49.10.0 (P. 4 P. 4/-); POWER
MATCHED LOUDSPEAKER SET 3S0 above 7/6. PACK KIT g&lO.O (P. 4 P. 4/-);
MODERN BUMLINE WOOD CABINET
□ Bass resonance 25/30 c.p.s. up to GARRARD PLINTHS
Ideal mounting for the Garrard UnlU ASSEMBLY
42,10.0 (P. 414.10.0
4 P. 8/-):
post freeCOMPLETE
if ordered
20,000 c.p.s. offered here. Will readily suit any at same time.
□ Incorporating cross-over network hl-fl set-op. In too Teak. Complete
with osefnj soft plastio dust cover, 76/-.
D High flux magnet 11,000 gauss Packing and carriage 6/-. TRS ENCLOSURE
Oarrard dear-view rigid perapex cover,
□ Smooth response #7/8 (carriage 3/6). Owing to demand for our prevlonsly
O Forenclosures23in.x12in.x11in. CARTRIDGES advertised £4.10 endosnre. It Is now
CABTHtDQE OFFER TO PURCHASERS ottered "Pack as ankit
Plat" evenwhloh-easlly
better bargain aa a
aesembles
OP ABOVE ITEMS—STEREO Bonotone to a fine professional
BTA/HC Ceramic with diamond 47/8; All wood accurately looking machined.
enclosure-
State
X>ecc» Deraio with diamond 7B/B; if for lOin or Sin unit. Hole for tweeter
MONO Acos CPfll-l
AH Uese19/8: Ooldring
leiil included. Now
MX2M '24/6.
poll free.
rrirln'dpft (Part P. & P. 9/-) 72/6
TRS MULLARD 10 + 10 AMP
sauMa Valve
pre-ampamplifier
tappedtoo/pMullard spec. 3With
transformer and SPEAKER UNITS
f.N.t. SODJII) PRDOUCTS LIB - COHPONEIIT DIVISION • HAYES ■ MIDDLESEX mono, stereo and speaker phases witch- Goodmans Sin Axleltc
150.all controls, H.T, and L.T. outlet, GoudnmnsSin .... 46 0
Twin Axietic 46 16
TEl: Dl-573 3888 ing. Complete with escutcheon, knobs, Goodmans Axiom 10 47 8
plugs, etc. Ready built, fjn fl ft WB HF632 44 12
Please send me details of E.M.I. MATCHED SPEAKER SETS (P.
K it aform
P. due
12/6)shortly / tZU.U.U17 I ft ft WB HF1012 -. £S 16
N3nie__ (P.
9+2 4 P.VALVE
12/6) Pre-amp/Conlrol
11 / . I T/nlt.
U.U At above prim while tloeki 'ml
Ready Built, 13 gnr. (P. AT. 7/6) EJM.T. Tweeter, 17/6
Address X-overs from 16.'9
UTEST 8 PAGES
LIST NOW READY TRS RADIO ■■■"»■» BW c™c p
^i1946
Established n
TJ
rreni Saul Bd for thit Inlnl 70 BRIG STOCK ROAD, THORNTON HEATH, SIIRHE'
bargatn-paeked list —
packed with eeerpihliif Ttl, 01-604 2198. Cloie 1 p.m. Weds.
you Kaul, A few doors from Thornton Heath Sin. (S.R, Victoria itctn.
238
plug in
the smallest
soldering iron
available

When you buy a British


made Antex miniature Complete precision
soldering kit
soldering iron you are buying
a specialised precision U 13 watts. Ideal for ministura work on
instrument that has proved production lines. Interchangeable spare
blta, 3/32". 1/8", 3/16", and 1/4". For 240.
its success in the majority of 220 or 110 volt»i 32/6.
leading companies in the
electronics industries This kit—in a rigid plastic
throughout the World. These "tool-box" — contains
are professional Irons for the everything you need for E 20 watts. Fittad with 1/4' fait.
Intarchangeabte spare bits3/32". 1/8*.
man who wants the ultimate precision soldering. 3/16", For 240,-220. 110 or 24 volts. 35/-.
in precision soldering. The ■ Model CN 15 watts
miniature iron, fitted
versatility and accuracy of an tV' bit.
Antex iron will give you ■ Interchangeable spare ES 25 watts. Fitted with 1/8" bit.
fingertip control over any bit, Tpz". Interchangeable bits 3132". 3/16' and 1/4*
Ideal for high speed production lines.
soldering problem. Send for ■ Interchangeable spare For 240. 220. 110; 24 or 12 volts. 35/--
bit, &».
your Antex iron now. Or you ■ Reel of resin-cored
may have our colour solder
catalogue. Simply complete ■ Felt cleaning pad F 40 watta. Fitted 5/16' bit.
the coupon. ■ Stand for soldering iron Interchangeable bits 1/4", 3/16', 1/8", 3/32'
Very high temperature Iron. Available
CM 15 watts. Ideal for minia- ■ Space for stowage of for 240, 220. 110,;;24 or 20 volts. 42/6.
ture and micro miniature lead and plug Spare blta and elements for all models
soldering. 18 interchangeable PLUS 36-page booklet on and voltages Immediately available from stock
spare bits available from .040" "How-to-Solder"—a mine
of information for amateur
(1mm) up to 3/16". For 240, and professional. To: Antex, Grosvenor House, Croydon, CR9 10E
220,110, 50. or 24 volts. ] Please send me the Antex colour catalogue
From Electrical and Radio
From Electrical and
Radio Shops or send □ Please send me the following irons
s^cas'h
to Antex. AQ/g
^ Quantity Model Bit Size , Volts Price
cash to Antex. 32^6

PRECISION MINIATURE
A 1 N t enclose cheque; P.O., cash value.
SOLDERING IRONS
NAME
ADDRESS
Antex, Grosvenor House, Croydon. CR9 1QE
p.E.r Telephone:
Telephone 01-686 2774

239
ERSIN
for quick
Open the pages of
easy faultless
The RADIO CONSTRUCTOR • •
5 CORE SOLDERsoldering
this month for Containing 5 cores of non-corrosive flux, instantly
cleaning heavily oxidised surfaces. No extra flux
A CRYSTAL CONTROLLED required. Ersin Multicore Savbit Alloy reduces wear
of copper soldering iron bits.
P.M. RECEIVER
SIZES SIZE IS
HANDY SOLDER 21 ft coil of 60/40
DISPENSER Alloy, 22 s.w.g. in
Contains 10 ft coil a dispenser- Ideal
of 18 s.w.g. Ersin for small compon-
Multicore Savbit ents, transistors,
Sggfj Alloy. 2/6 each. diodes, etc.
3/- each

BIB MODEL 8
SIZE 12 WIRE STRIPPER
Ideal for home AND CUTTER
constructors. Strips insulation
Contains 90 ft. without nicking
of 18 s.w.g. Ersin the wire, cuts
Multicore Savbit wire and splits
Alloy on a plastic plastic twin flex.
reel. 15/- each. Plastic cushioned
handles. 8/6 each
From Electrical ot Hardware shops. If unobtainable write lo:
^JVluiticore Solders Ltd.. Hemel Hempstead, Hert$.

An Outstanding Constructional Project


By J. B. Dance, M.Sc. SAME DAY SERVICE
VALVES NEW! TESTED! GUARANTEED!
tQC-TR
J IK®.Ol 1S8.
* for JT4-
19/9. 3Si. 3V4,DF96, DK96,
DAF96, UF91.
DLS6,DKSl,
4 for 84/0. DL94
This two-part article describes a crystal
controlled f.m. receiver incorporating the XA70T 7/a 7Y4 9/9
7/8 DH77 4/- EF97 7/6 PCM4 PCL85 7/- UCF80 8/8
XH6GX
XNSOT 7/9 10F1 10P13 10/89/9 DH81 12/6 7/9 EF183 8/8 PCM6 8/3 UCH42 9/9
UCH81 8/-
DK32
J3AT7 3/9 DKfll 6/8 KH90 8/8 EFI84 6/9 PBNA4 8/8
6/9 UCM2
S.T.C. triple-crystal unit. XR8 6/6
184 4/9 12AtJ6 4/9 DK92 8/3 EMS 8/9 PKCr36C16/- UCL8S 71-
3/9 12AU7 EL4I 9/0 PFM001S/- UF4i 8/9
188
1T4 . 8/9 12AX7 4/9 4/9 »K9fl
DLS3 7/- 6/9 EL84 PL36 9/- UPSfl 10/8
SAC 8/8 J2K80T 7/9 DLSS 4/- EMO 4/9 PM1 UF89 7/-
Other constructional features SQ4 6/6 20F2 10/8 Dh92 4/9 EMS 6/- 6/- PM2 fl/9 6/6 VLfl 6/9 8/9
334
SV4 6/9 4/9 20L1
30PJ 14/9
DM4 6/9 EM80
DM8 9/- EMS1 6/9 8/9
PM8
PL84 7/- 6/3
XHAi 20/-
UM4 «/-
6U4G »/-
20P3 14/9 DY86 6/9 EMS4 8/3 PMOO 18/- UY41 6/8
VERSATILE SIGNAL GENERATOR 6V4G 4/6 8/- 20F4 17/- 0Y87 5/9 EM87 7/8 PX2B 10/6 UY86 6/9
CAR AERIAL BOOSTER 5Y3QT 6/- 28U4QT11/9
5Z40 80C16 11/6 BABC80 8/6 EY51
EAF42 8/6 EZ40EY80 7/- PY32 8/6 VP4B 10/8
6/8 PYSS 8/6 MVPI32121/—
7/8 seen EB91
8/301.2 11/9 socia 12/6 EBC83 2/6 EZ41 9/9 PY80 r
77 8/6
ROWING STROKE RATING METER CALC
6 AM 8 8/88/6 s«Fe 11/9 7/- 8/9 PY81 8/8 S/3 Z77
TnDSliton8/8
12/- EBC41 8/- EZ80 4/8 FY82 SI-
6AQ6 4/9 SOFLl 12/6 K8F80 8/- EZ81 4/9 pyes BIB AC107 10/-
0AT6 «/- 30FI,14
0BA6 S0L10
12/8
14/-
EBF89
ECCS1 6/9 GZ82 9/- PY88 7/8 AC 127 8/-
4/6
8BB6 4/9 301.17 18/- BCC82 8/9 KTB1
4/0 KT91 8/9 PY800 8/- AD140 16/8
68080 16/- 30P4 12/- N18 16/-6/8 PY801
E19 8/8 6/- AF102
API 16 18/-
«BJ8 8/9 SOP 12 11/- ECC83BCC84 71-6/8 N78 14/9 820 12/9 API 18 8/-
6BB7 8/9 7/9 30PJB 12/- ECC86 4/9 N108 14/9 U26 11/9 AF117 6/6
•Also in this issue 6C88 SOPH 12/6 BCF80 7/- JFCS6 9/6 V26
30PL13 14/6 ECF82 6/9 PC88 9/9 1147 13/8 AF124 11/9 AFIJ8 6/-
8/6
6F1 . 7/9 30PU4 14/9 PC97 6/6 U49 18/8 AF126 7/6
6FI3 8/8
em «/- SCMOP 8/- ECH3a 6/- PC900 7/9 V52 4/8 Arm 7/6
35CF36 8/- 7/-
2 DETACHABLE 6F23 i£/e 8aW4 4/6 ECH42 10/- POC84 6/8 1178 3/8 OC22 API 27 71-
68:70
6K0O 1/6 3SZ40T 12/6
9063 4/6 ECHBl
BCH84 6/3 PCC89
pccieo U/- Dial
U30I 11/- OC2S 9/9
9/6
4/3
6K80T 7/9 AZ31 9/- ECL80 6/6
7/9 PCF80 9/8 U801 18/6 OG28 SI-
61.18 9/- 6/6
BS9 4/9 ECL32 6/S PCF82 6/- L'.ABC80 8/8 OC44 3/9 18/-
DATA SHEETS 6V6G 3/8 B729 12/6 BCM6 7/9 PCFBfi 9/9 UAF42 7/9 OC46 8/8
6V60T 6/8 <X:H3S
DAC32 7/8 9/- EF39 3/9 PCF80011/8 UB41 T;BC4X 8/8 OC7I
OC73 4/98/6
8X4
6XeOT 3/8
6/9 OAF91 EF4I
EF80 9/8 PCF801
PCP802 7/9 UBPSO 81-8/9 OC7S 8/9
7B8 10/9 DAP98 3/9 4/8 9/6 OC31 9/9
7B7 7/- DCC90 6/- 8/6 EFS6
EF88 8/3 PCF80511/9
«/- PCF806X1/8 DBF89 8/9 OC81D
PCP80812/6 DBMI »/- OC82 8/6
7C8
7C8 16/- DF38 7/9
6/9 DF9I 2/9
EF99
EF91 3/6 6/- PCMa UC92
UCC84 6/- OC82D 6/9
7H7 6/8 DF96 3/- EF92 8/8 PCM3 6/9 8/6 UCC85 8/8 7/9 OC170 SI-
SI-
RADIO CONSTRUCTOR READERS RADIO (P.E.)
85 TORQUAY GARDENS, REOBRIDGE, ILFORP
ESSEX Tel. 01-550 7441
MARCH ISSUE NOW ON SALE 3/- toeUge oa X Vilve 9a. extn. On 8 valve* or more, postage 60. per
valve extra. Any Parcel Insmcd against Damage in Transit 6d. extra.

240
POCKET MULTI-METER STAR SR150 COMMUNICATION RECEIVER
Size 3Jx2|X l}in. Meter size ZJ x I Jin. Sensitivity Frequency range: 535 kc/s-30 Mc/s.
IflfW O.P.V. on both A.C. and D.C. volts. 0-15, four wavebands, four valve plus
0-1 SO, 0-1000. D.C. current 0-150mA. Resistance metal rectifier superhet circuit. In-
O-lOOk Q7 Complete with test prods, battery and full corporates B.F.O. bandspread
instructions. 42/6. P. & P. 3/6. FREE GIFT for tuning, "S" meter, external telescopic
liinited period only. 30 watt Electric Soldering Iron aerial—ferrite aerial, built-in 4*
value IS/- to every purchaser of the Pocket Multi-Meter. speaker, easy-to-read dial. For240v.
A.C. operation. Complete, brand <•
3 to 4 WATT AMPLIFIER BSR TAPE DECKS new, with full instruction manual.
£17.17.0. P. & P. 10/-.
3-4 watt Amplifier built and 200/250 v. A.C. mains
tested. Chassis sis® 7 X 3i X 1 in. Type TD2 Tape speed 3} 600 miiii-wate solid state
Separate bass, treble and volume twin track £6.19.6
control. Double wound mains Type TD10 2-track. 3 NEW! DORSET 7 transistor plus diode
and thermistor
transformer, metal rectifier and speed, plus rev, counter... £7.19.6
output transformer for 3 ohms Type TD10 4-track, 3 Transistor Portable Radio
speaker. Valves ECC81 and 6v6. speed, plus rev. counter... £9.5.0 plus Baby Alarm Facilities
£2.5.0 plus 5/6 P. & P. P. & P. on each 7/6. Special offer—Power Supply Kit to.
purchasers ofDorsetPortableRadioparts,
Special offer ELEGANT SEVEN mk III incorporating mains transformer, rectifier
SPECIAL OFFER. Power supply kit to and smoothing condenser, A.C. mains,
purehasm of 'Elegant Seven' psrls, incorporating 200/250v., output 9v., 100mA. 9/6 extra.
mains transformer, rectifier and smoothing con- Completely modulised high quality port-
denser, A.C, mains 200/250 volts. Output 9v. ioo able radio featuring complementary
mA. 9/8 extra. N.P.N. and P.N.P. output stage.
Buy yourself an easy to build 7 transistor radio and The comprehensive easy-to-follow drawings supplied make this
save at least £10.0.0. Now you can build this superb the casiest-ever transistor radio set of parts, with the following
7 transistor superhet radio for under £4.10.0. No ONLY features:
one else can offer such a fantastic radio with so
many de luxe star features. £4*9.6 ' Simple connections to only 6 # Higlv Q internal ferrite rod
■Ar De luxe wooden cabinet size 12^" x 8^' x 3i'. Plus Z/dPost&Poeking tags on the R.F./I,F. module, aerial on both wavebands.
•jlr Horizontal easy to read tuning scale printed grey with black letters, 3 I.F. stages, osc. coil and 3 # Class "B" modulised output
size Iti* x 2*. -k High 'Q' femte rod aerial. I.F. neutralisation on transistors which with their stage with thermistor controlled
each separate stage, it D.C. coupled push pull output stage with associated components are heat stabilization. Class "B"
separate A.C. negative feedback. Room filling output 3S0mW. completely wired. output stage ensures long
ie Ready etched and drilled printed circuit board back printed for Only 4 connections on the A.F. battery life. Current drain is
foolproof construction. Ar Fully comprehensive instructions and point to module to complete the 4 tran- proportional to the output level.
point wiring diagrams. ^ Car aerial socket. Ar Fully tunable over medium sistor 600 milli-watt solid slate Total current drain of the
and long wave, 168-535 metres and 1260-2000 metres, it All components, amplifier. receiver under no signal con-
ferrite rod and tuning assembly mount on printed board.. it 5* P.M. Pre-aligncd R.F./I,F. module ditions is 10-l2mA. At reason-
Speaker, it Parts list and circuit diagram 2/6, free with parts. built and tested. able listening level 20-30niA,
# Extension sockets for car aerial
A.F. module built and tested. input, tape recorder output
XI01 10 WATTS (RMS) SOUD-STATE HI-FI Fully tunable over M.W. and (independent of vol. control)
and Ext. Speaker.
L.W. bands. M-W. 540-1640 0 Allcomponents{exceptspeaker)
AMP. WITH INTEGRAL PRE-AMP Kc/s (557-183 metres). L.W. mount on the printed circuit
Its great versatility ranges from: a simple 150-27 5 Kc/s (2000-1 100 board. Easy to follow instruc-
intercom, to a modem HI-FI STEREO metres). tions. Size of cabinet 12'long,
AMPLIFIER (two are required for Stereo). Intermediate Frequency 470 8* high and 3' deep.
The XtOI is a brilliant new addition to our Kc/s. 0 Finger tip controls.
highly successful range of products, Its Sensitivity: M.W. at 1 Mc/s 10 Circuit and parts list 2/6, free with
professional performance and advanced microvolts plus or minus 3db.
solid-state circuitry techniques ensures L.W. at 200 Kc/s 40 microvolts parts,
PRICE I £5.5.0 piui 7/6 P. & P.
reliability, combined with high fidelity plus or minus 4db.
reproduction, at an unbeatable price.
SPECIFICATIONS: RM.S. Power Output: FIRST QUALITY P.V.C. TAPE
I3W {music power), 10W (SINE WAVE). TV 5J' Std. 850ft. .. 91- L.P. 850ft. 10/6
Sensitivity: for rated output ImV into 3kO 7* Std. 1200ft. .. 11/6 T.P. 600ft. 10/6
load. Frequency Response: minus 3dB points arc 20Hz and 40kHz. 3* L.P. 240ft. .. 41- T.P, 1800ft. 25/6
Total Distortion: at 1kHz for rated output 1-5% ; for 5W output 54'L.P. 1200ft. .. 11/6 T.P, 2400ft. 32/6
0*35 %. Output Impedance: 3 ohms (3-15 ohms may be used). Supply 7' L.P. 1800ft. ,. 18/6 T.P. 3600ft. 42/6
Voltage; 24V d.c. at 800mA (6-24V may be used); output at m 54*D.P.I800ft. .. 18/6 T.P. 900ft. 15/-
14Y d.c. supply with 3 ohms speaker 7W. Size: 2iin 3m X I P. & P. on each 1/6,4 or more post free
The fully comprehensive instruction manual does not only show the
basics, such as circuit diagram and connections, but also gives practical Features NPN and PNP
easy-to-understand detailed information, about the X101. .Standard 600mW SOLID STATE Complementary Sym-
equalisation networks are given for most types of conventional, 4-TRANSIST0R AMPLIFIER metrical Output Stage.
inputs. They include; Tape head. Mag. P.V., Xtal. P.J., Tuner, Mic, etc. Size: 2i' X g" x
CONTROL ASSEMBLY. (including resistors and capacitors): Speaker output impedance 12 ohms. Frequency response 3db points
1. Volume, price 5/-; 2. Treble, price S/-; 3. Comprehensive 90c/s and 12 Kc/s. Price 19/6 plus 1/- P. & P. 7 x4' speaker to suit.
bass and treble, price 10/-. 13/6 plus 2/-P. & P.
POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE X10I : PI0I/M (for Mono) 35/- WATT ALL TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
P, & P. 2/6. PI0I/S (for Stereo) 42/6 P. & P. 2/6. AC mains 240v. Size 7' x 4i' x 14'. Frequency response 100 c/s—10
Kc/s. Semiconductors, two OC 75's, two AC 128's and two stabilisers
PRI01/M; A High Quality, Monoral Pre-amp and Control Unit, AAI29, Tone and volume controls on flying leads. £2.10.0. P. & P.
particularly suitable for use with the XiOl if a ready-built, 3/6. Suitable 8* x 5' 10,000 line high flux speaker 18/6. P. & P. 2/-.
comprehensive, multi-input system is desired.
CONTROLS: Selector Switch, Tape Speed Equalisation Switch (3J, 7i 8-WATT4-VALVE PUSH-FULL AMPLIFIER & Metal RECTIFIER
and 15 I.P.S.), Volume, Treble. Bass, three position scratch filter and Size 9"::6'x 14*. A.C. Mains, 200-250 v. 4
three position rumble filter. valves. For use with Std. or L.P. records,
SPECIFICATION: Sensitivities for 200m V output at 1 kHz. Tape Head: musical instruments. All makes of pick-ups
3mV(at 34I-P.S.). Mag.P.U.: 2mV. Cer. P.U.: 80mV. Radio: lOOmV. and mikes. Output 8 wafts at 5 per cent of
Aux.: JOOmV, Tape/Rec. Output: lOOmV. Equalisation for each input total distortion. Separate bass and treble
js correct to within ±2d8 (RIAA) from 20Hz to 20kHz. Tone Control lift control. Two inputs, with controls for
Range: Bass: drUdB at 60Hz; Treble: ± 14dB at 15kHz. Total _ , . gram, and mike. Output transformer tapped
Distortion: (for 200mV output) <0-02 %. Signal Noise: >—60dB. for 3 and 15 ohm speech coils. Built and tested. £4.4.0. P. & P. 1 it-.
Supply Voltage: 24V. d.c. 59/6 plus 2/6 P. & P. A STEREO 8' X 5* Speaker to suit. Price 14/6 plus 1/6 P. & P. Crystal Mike to
VERSION (PR101/S) WILL BE ANNOUNCED SHORTLY. suit 12/6 plus 1/6 P. & P.
THE CLASSIC: High Quality Solid-State Amplifier (Mono). RADIO AND T.V. COMPONENTS (ACTON) LTD.
SPECIFICATION; Switched inputs for: Tape head, Mag. P.O.. Cer. 2IO HIGH STREET, ACTON. .LONDON, W.3
P.U.. Radio and Aux. Mains Input 220-250V, a.c., 50Hz. The Classic Shop hours 9 a.m. to 6 pun. . Early cfoiine Wednesday
is the combination of the above described items (X101, P101/M and All Goodc
enquiries not addressed
stamped dcipatchod'oUtiid*
envelope. U.K.
femis C.W.O.
PR101/M) on one common chassis. Its performance and space age Al»o »t 323 EDGWAItE ROAD, LONDON, W.Z.
styling makes if the ideal choice for the value-conscious Hi-Fi enthusiast. PERSONAL SHOPPERS ONLY. Early closing Thursday.
Available within 4 weeks. 8 grna. P. & P. FREE. All ardors by post most bo saot to our Acton addrtss.

241
Now available
m*00
*J3S8
1968 Data Book

136 pages of data, including for the first time, colour-coded


sections for quick reference—covering comparables and equivalents
and ati current Mullard semiconductors, valves, tubes and compon-
ents for Radio, TV, Audio and HiFi applications.
PRICE 3j6 from your local TV retailer OR direct from Mullard—cash
with order, plus 9d for p. and p.
Mullard Limited, Distributor Sales Division.
Mullard Mullard House.Torrington Place, London, W.C.1,

BARGAIN TELEPHONE SYSTEM STAR COMMUNICATIONS TELET0N MODEL DEMON TRCI05


GEE'S World Tele
famous RECEIVER SR.40 CASSETTE TAPE RECORDER
Jik. 11"i"telephone
• Ko. 1 4 wavebands
MOke/s to 30 All
operating
transistorised
on 240V
five l-eV
set giving com- Mc/s. Excep-
munication by tionally sensi- mains—can be a.c.
batteries or
TAPE wire op to Smiles.
Kabust, heavy tive tuning
drcult. Extra
used anywhere.
Uses
AUneUrelr boied. duty with wooden
complete
jtor- large easy to C-00 -nnlvereal
Compact
Ooinaittd. Brisd new. age case read dial with tape cassette
At tupplnd to Govt. batteriesand internni
ready to use. Will Bandsp r cad
toning. " S " giving
playing hour's
1 time.
Deptt,, Irtdutiry, last,a lifetime. Mint coit- meter for fine tuning. Huilt-hi speaker and Push button
School i. Studio*, ets. difi. telescopic aerial.etc.BFO.A.C.Phone output socket. operation.
Sin. 8ti MOIi. 8/8 Only £6.10.0 pair 7w-
Stdd singly nt *3.10.0 each, cart. 7/0. Standby switch, 200/250V. and volume Tone
con-
Tin. 8«. l^OOlt. 12/8 trols. Recording
Sin. tJf. 9MB. 19/- ¥*:*?%- Only 17 gns. level and battery strength meter. Built !u PAL
SJin.L.P. 12/9 speaker.
8Jln x 6|in Wonderlul
x 2|ln.value, guaranteed.
Supplied Size with
complete only
Tin. Ii.P. 1,800(1. 16/- NEW MODEL U-SOD tape cassette, microphone with remote control
«n. DS. 8MB. 8/- MOLT!-TESTER, 20,000 switch, earphone,
iiistruotlon book. batteries, recording lead and
Slo. D.P. 1.200ft. 1S/- O.P.V. MIRROR SCALED
Slin. D.P. 1,80011. 88/6 WITH OVERLOAD Fifcl Only £21 *&*■
Tin. DJ. 2,t00(t. 25/- PROTECTION. lunges:
Sln. TJ. 6MB. 12/8 I>.C.
<ln. T.?, SMB. 15/-
6in. TJ. 13MH. 80/- v.. 250volts: XM mV.,
v., 1,000 0-6volts,
v. A.C. v., 6
AUTOMATIC AERIAL
2 5 v.. 10 v., 60 v., 250 v..
Slin.TJ*. 2.1MB. 40/- l.OMv. B.C. current:
O SmA,. 6 mA., 60 niA,, 260CuA- -ADPS LUXUW
Tln. T.P. 8.8MB. 50/- roA. Size: at x 3J x IJin: TOANVCAK/
P. & P. 2/6 ptc oritt. Idea! (or oil outdoor and Complete with batteries and
Indoor uses—sports Today's value 15 gns.
PONY 9 TRANSISTOR evenla, fetes, regattas, £5.15.0 Tamper proof electric-
van
12 voltsalesmen, etc., etc.
Super 2-Way Radios 16 watt. Amplifier
size only IJIn x Siln x GARRARD LAB 80 ally —sy
operated car radio
28 fni. VALUE 6|ln with Inputs lor aerial, 4 section tele-
roIke, radio and tape Only £23.10.0$! scopic, extends auto-
WLt 1 7 gns. PAIR recorder. Can be BAREAED A70 on metal plinth. With Sonotaoe matically to 48 La. and
mounted
boat, etc. on any earwith
Complete or OTA Blereo cartridge with diamond styhis. Kaady retracts to lin. at the flick of a
Complete a-n-ay eom- dynamic microphone and wired lor conasetlon to ampUfler.
munication (or Buil- mounting brackets. BAROAIK PRICE 18 tar. Cart. 10/-. switch. Depth below wing 16ln.
n«8«. Home, Karma, Both brand new in makers sealed cartons. Robustly made, heavy chrome
Boating, etc. Brllllaot price 12 gns. ROW AVAILABLE I AUDIO-TECHHICA STEREO finish 12V d.c. operation. Quickly
dealgn, beautliuliy An- HABRETIO
lehed. Enilt-in speaker, ftETLEX MURK SPEAKERS
Watsrproof, 'Sbockprool, ■trios. ONLYCARTS
85.5.0. 'E AT6, with diamond and easily fitted,, supplied with
cable, switch, and all fixing parts.
microphone. 10 section Light- ——
telescopic aerial. Bat- weight.
tery sUength indicator. Sin. dia. 15 LITTLE NEWPORT STREET
SUofiJin.Xl|ln.xa|in. SgBf.
Complete with bat- each
ISin. dia LONDON, W.C.2. GER. 6794/1453
teries, earphones, wrist Tgnj. Open 9 s.m.-fl p.m. Hosdsy-Fridsy, 1 p.m. Saturday
straps. CiFO licence required In UK. etch. A6 joining Lsiceifsc Sonars Tube Station

PARKERS SHEET
TECHNICAL TRADING Co.
AH item* previously ad- Top Britfeb
JASON TAPE mylar/P.V.C. METAL FOLDING
vertised available, also see Standard Play Doable Play 4/—
items advertised in Prac- 150ft. MACHINES
tical Wireless. Huge Hi- 300ft. 2/3
4/9 300ft.
SOOft. 6/-
Pi and Components stocks 600ft. 7/8 120011- 16/- HEAVY VICE
at all branches. SOOIt. 10/8
1200ft. 13/8 ar 1800ft. 10/8
2400ft. 27/—
EOBOPHONE ORDERS Long Play 2/8
225ft. Triple Play18/- MODELS
Your C.O.D. order exceeding 81 4'
450lt, 6/8 5' ISOOJt.900ft. 26/- With Bevelled Former Bart **■
can be lelephoued to 800ft. 13/-
10/0 «r 24001t. 34/- ** Carr. Ires
BRIGHTON 680722 1200ft. 7* 3900ft. 44/- No, I. Capacity 18 gauge mild steel x 36in. wide £12 |0 0
at any time day and night I800it. 18/8 No. 2. Capacity 18 gauge mild steel x 2dm. wide ... ... ^ £r.5,'o
Post 1/- a- Quadtuple
600ft-Play8/- No, 3.n Capacity
ben
16 gauge mild steel x ISin. wide £7.5 (
10 TOTTENHAM COURT RD.f LONDON, W.I Tel..- MUS 2639 £25. |"24in, x ^ modeis-£24.Capacities
16 gauge Carnage48in.
free.* 18 gauge £40. 36in. x 18 gauge
350/352 FRATTON RD.. PORTSMOUTH. Tel; 22031 End folding attachments for radio chassis. Tray and Box making for 36in.
72 EAST STREET. SOUTHAMPTON. Tel: 25851 model, 5/6 per ft. Other models 3/6. The two smaller models will form
132 MONTAGUE STREET, WORTHING. TEL; 2585 Tianges. As supplied to Government Departments, Universities, Hospitals.
ALL MAIL OKDER AND KETAIL SHOP One year's guarantee. _ Money refunded if not satisfied. Send for details.
PARK CRESCENT PLACE, BRIGHTON A.B.fARKEB, Foldina Mxhine Woriu, Upper George St.. H etkmendwike, Y« rkt, Heckmondwike 3991

242
> I ALL POST
ORDERS TO
rninrs leading compowewt sinrpc Dept. P.E. 468
25 Tottenham
Court Road
25 & 53 TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD, LONDON, W.I. re/. 01.530 453417579
Open 9-6 p.m. Monday to Saturday Inclusive. Open Thursday until 7 p.m. London, W.I

SINCLAIR PRODUCTS Ti MULTIMETERS


TTC1601 (aa Ulus.)
20,000
C1000. opv1,000<3.19.8
opv
<841.0 Gaby
200 20,000 opv NH
T5 <6.10.0 Caby B40
400 opv30,000
TME600 <6.10.8
opv
<8,18.6
1030 60.000 Mode!
TTO opv
<8.19.8 TTC Model
1081 100,000 opv
MXCHOMATXC
P. & P. 2/0.RADIO. KIT OSLY
MICROMATXC 49/9
RADIO 6 Transistor, FM tuner Frequency <18.18.6.
BUILT. ONLY #9/8. P. & P. 2/6. range 88-108Mc/s. Sire 6 x 4 x Also Btockiste of Avo, Nombrex, Eagle etc.
MICRO PH. KIT—iS.IS.e complete. For the Stereo enthusiast. 2(4a. Beady built 9V
most amplifiers, with Test equipment P.P. 8/6.
lor usebattery
P. & P. 2/6. 212 Hi-FI AMPLIFIER Multiplex adaptor for PC IO A operation. Complete with hietrno-
94.9.6. P. A P.P.2/8.
Unit £9.19.9. A P.STEREO 25 Control
2/6. PZ4. JfcJm Rtereo Radio reception, "tra. tkms. ONLY FROM UND-AIR! AUTO TRANSFORMERS
Power Supply Unit £4.19.8. P. A P. 2/5.
COMPLETE HI-FI STEKE0 SYSTEM Input 0-200, 220.240V.
EACLE SUBSTITUTION SOXES ALL TRANSISTOR 8 WATTS PEE Output 110V
CHANNEL STEREO HI-FI RTSTEM BOW <1,7.8 1.000W
1.600W <8.8.0
<16,16.0
OFFERING 76W <2.6.0
<1.17.0
A must for Radio and T.V. Engineer*
OMR. 9 Capaclt- EQUAL TO IF ANOTPERFORMANCE
BETTER THAN 100W
160W <2.16.6
2,OOOW <18.10.0
3.000W <26,19.0
rangee. SIMILAR SYSTEMS COSTING BP TO 200W <3.6,0 4.000W <34.18.9
O-OOOI, DOUBLEplusTHE PRICE. ciecnlteyModem 300W <4,6.0 0-30V, 1A 80/-
0 0022, 0-0010.
0-0047, styling advanced
latest silicon transiston throughout.
using 4O0W <4.18.6
50QW <5.9.9
0-30V, iA 17/8
0-30V, 2A 37/9
001.
0 047. 0 022, The famous OARBARO 3080 Eeootd Changer fitted lightweight tubular arm with SONO- 600W <8.8.6 0'30V, 3A 42/-
01. TONE 9TAHC 8TEBK0/M0S0 DIAMOND CARTRIDGE will play all slaea ol records.
0-22raP.
With (4 speeds 78,43.331.16| r.pjn.). Will play up to 9 records automatically, also provision for Post extra.
leads and manual play. Amplifiers and controls are mounted'below record player and Incorporate
clips. Bass. Treble, Volume and Balance controls and On/ofl, Oram/Radlo, Mono/Stereo elide
P. &88/6.
P. switches. TWO IDBNTXGAL LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEMS each incorporating separate
baas speakers and high frequency unite with crossover network provide full frequency MAINS TRANSFORMERS
2/-.OM.O. reproduction
Resistance range*. Low: ISO Two
to lOfcO fit easily on toandbookshelves,
are completeroomwithdividers
10ft leads and plugsforaiture.
or existing lor connection
BRIEF to amplifier. Will Input 200-260V. BOe/a
8FEC. Player/
(1 watt resistors). High: 15X11 to lOM'.j Amplifier unit Teak finish, size 16J X 14 X 8iin 200/26QV ax. operation. Inputs for 24V SA £2.12.8 24V 8A <6.6.0
<1res lawatt Radio Tuner/Tape Recorder also outputs for Tape Recorder. Loudspeaker Systems: 24V 6A <3.18.0 24V 12A <6.16.8
Lances,resistors). Selectsand24clip*.
With leads separate
42/9. Teok
ready tofinish,
plug sir*
in and(each)
play. 13SEND
x 7 xYOUR
Sin. Supplied
ORDER NOW complete with Instruction
OR CALL AND HEARbooklet,
THIS Post extra
P. A P. 2/-. MARVELLOUS HI-FI STEREO SYSTEM (Teak finish). Only 69 gal. plus 20/-. Mains and Output Tmnslormer lists available
Carriage and Insurance. (Rosewood 3 gns. extra). (Clear Perspe* Covet 3 gns. extra). on request.
AERIALS TV UHF VHE STEREO TRANStSTOHS - VALVES > OiOOES
GARRARD DECKS
Tantena Table Top V Aerial BBC/TfV, 26/9. WE HAVE A COMPLETE RANGE OF NEW
Crest* Boom Aerial Band TfUflll. Cream or TEAK Fin is a Bode! 8000 with Sonoteoe
Block 26/8. Veemaster Table Top VHP/
UHF Tunable Aerial. Chrome or Grey, 78/8, C*) PLINTHS
pe* coverwith 91 pers-
gsx, AT609TAHC Stereo Cartridge <8.18.6 AND OLD AND
TRANSISTORS TYPES
DIODES. OP PULL VALVES.
LISTS
YAOI all Channel Table Top Aerial BBC1/2/ Mk. I less cartridge II0.19.9 AVAILABLE OH APPLICATION.
ITV/VHP, 85/-. HL6B8Lott Aerial HILOV (For LAB8Q Slgnx.), AT60 dm Mk.
Mk. HH less
leas cartridge
cartridge <18.19.6
<10.18.6 V13020P 81-
+0 arm
lor vertical Band I/UX. WithMalor
mount- Agents lor Tbocena, LAB80 Mk. H less cartridge 124.19.6 V60201P 8/-
ing and bracket, #8/-. Sew 10 Dual, Ooldrlng. F. « P. and Ins. 12/6. OC3 81- BFY60 VB030 10/-
element BEC2 Aerial lor loft or outdoor
fixing. With roller bracket lor up to 2in. dla. Prices on request, Mono Cartridge 17/8 extra. OC23OC16 80/- BFYS1 8,'6. 7/-
maet, 45/9. HL Hunter 13 element BBC2 Stereo Cartridge 28/6 extra. OC28 15/- 18/8 BFY62 81-
Aerial as above, 87/8. El. Explorer 18 MACNAVOX-COLLARO 151 TAPE OC22 10/- BYZ12 10/-
element BBC2 BBC2
Aerial Aerial
ea above. 69/-.or Loll DECKS BYZ13
OC24 17/6 BCY33 7/6 10/-
Six. 6 element for loft out- OCao 8/6 BCY34 8/6
door
J-Beemfixing. Withoutdoor
4 efement arm andBandbracket, 37/6.
JX VHF/FU The very latest S-speed model—11. 3|,"7l hps. OC29 15/- ECY10 7/8
Stereo Aerial. With mast, 87/-, please available with either 2 track or 4 track head. OC38
OC36 12/8
12/9 BCVS8 9/6
Features kudude: pause control) digital counter;
add 4/- postage. fast forward and rewind: new 4 pole fully screened OC41
OC42 81- BCYS9
BCY12
12/9
7/8
induction motor: interlocking keys. Siz« of top OC44 81- AC107 14/8
MOTOR
BARGAINS
plate XSt x IX x S/tn. deep below unit plate.
For 200/260 V a.c. New unused and fully OC15 81- 2/9 AC127
ACY17
81-
B/6
guaranteed. OC66 19/6
OC70 8/- ACY20 ACY19 9/8
2 track <10.10.9, 4 track <13.9.9.. OC71 *1- ACY21 6/0
Ideal for model Carriage and. Packing 12/6. OC72 81- ACY22 4/6 81-
makers, record players, OC7S 9/S AF102 18/-
tape decks, etc. MARTIN TAPE AMPLIFIERS OC75
6 8 d.e. Xotor. 10,900
t.pJQ. at • 2S0MA. FOB USE WITH ABOVE TAPE DECKS OC76 81- 81- AF1I4
AF116 6/8
71-
OC77
.... 71-
Hin. x lln. dla. 2 track modei. <14.19.9; 4 frack model, <16.19.6. Carriage and Packing 7/6. OC78 81- AF116 71-
Shaft Jin. long x OC78D 81- AF117 17/9 61-
I. dla.. 9/6. P. A P. LINEAR AMPLIFIERS | OC81 61- AF1I8 AF124 10/-
2/6. OC81D 61-
9/- AF12S 10/-
8V d-c. Latest i.e. mains models offering highest quality at OC82 OC12S 11/8 AFI27AF126 10/-
9/8
Onat deck modest coet. OC1S9 8/- AF139 10/-
replacement
motor. 8in Toner, AU Transistor
Gram, Mike.12 Beparate
watte Btereo.Boss,Inputs lor OC140 10/- AF186 17/8
Treble, OCI70 91- 17/- OAIO 81- 81-
x U In. • * ■ Balance and Volume controls, 216.16.0. Carr. 7/6. OCX7X 71- AFZ11
OC200 AFZ13 18/9 OA47
dia. PXA16. (As Ulus.) All Transistor. 16
Mono. Inputs for Tuner, Gram, Hike, Guiteg, Bass, Treble OC201watte 12/6 MAT100 7/9 OA79 2/-
7/8 ASy26 9/6 OA70 2/6
and two Volume controte, <16,19.0. Can-. 7/6. Teak case, <8.10,0 OC202 13/9 MATJOl 9/9 1NBI XN253 71-81-
extra. LT46. 2 VALVE 6 watte Mono. Inputs for Tuner, Gram. Bass, Treble and OC204 10/9 OC203 15/- MATJ20 7/9 1N254 4/-
Volume
request. controls, <6.19.6. Care. 7/9. Metal cover, 16/» extra. Full details sent on OC206 16/- MATI21 8/8 1N256 6/6
OC206 19/9 IN6S7 6/6
2-3 WATT AMPLIFIER OCP71 19/6
BT721 16/- - IN647 8/-
200/8607
a.o. Tape ST723 19/- F.L84 •18 IN3S73 6/6
IN2S74 15/-
Deck Motor. An Meal basis for building your own portable 8T140
8T141 */- EF80 9/8 INaS79 26/-
record player. Just odd speaker and turntable V62R </- EY86 9/6 IN68 8/6
DY87 9/6
60c/s. 50 and
mereyou will have
of an
theabove-average model for a V84R 81-
V86R 71- EOC83
6/0 8/8 INUSO 3/8
watte, single
phase. Beit drive pulley. Take up and
fraction cost. 2-3 watt printed
circuit with control panel on flying lead. On/off. BOC8I 6/8 OEX44 OEXS4 2/681-
rewind, din. deep x Sin. dia. Two are TONE CONTROL AND VOLUME, ootourtui V1060A 81- EABC80 8/6 POT Power
uaed together with capetan motor. Easy escutcheon. Brlmat valves; EZ80. ECL82 and mwsrstirr V1620PI0/- UL84
UF41 8/6
10/8 Moontlng
composite Installation booklet. Price <4.6.8. V1630P10/- Kite 3/9
mounting, 27/6. P. A P. 6/0. P. A P. 3/6. P. A P. and Ins. 2/-.
243
OUTSTANDING HIGH FIDELITY

DESIGNS FROIVI SINCLAIR

The
world's
smallest
radio
SINCLAIR

Q.I4

LOUDSPEAKER
W

BRILLIANTLY EFFICIENT

-
... especially in stereo

When Sinclair Radionics decided to design and manufacture a new loud-


•• 9* speaker, It was required from the start that its performance should be worthy of
today's best high fidelity standardsand be so reasonably priced that the greatest
numbers could afford it. By using ultra-fow'resonant materials to form Its
acoustically contoured housing, outstandingly brilliant performance resulted.
SINCLAIR MICROMATIC Furthermore, the unusual form of the Q.14 meant it could be used as a free-
standing shelf speaker, as a wall-corner sound radiator or flush mounted
The ultimate in personal listening, the Micro- singly or In multiple units on a flat surface such as a wall. The correctness of
matic is as easy to have with you as your wrist- the design of the O-1'l has amply proven Itself since within a few months of its
watch, It has enormous power and range, and introduction, it Is already amongst the four most demanded loudspeakers
the magnetic earpiece now supplied assures irrespective of price. Independent laboratory tests have already shown that the
marvellous quality. Hear how Radio 1 and other Q.14 has amazingly good performance characteristics. As a judfle of good
sound yourself, your ear will confirm this Instantly. At its price, there is nothing
stations simply pour In. Build it yourseff or buy to stop you changing to Sinclair at once.
your Micromattc ready built. This is the set you
will never be without once you hear it for yourself. Size 9|in x x 4|in The Q.14 is finished In malt black with solid
deep plus detachable base aluminium bar embellishment on the front.
• II' li'y.l' Compfcic kft incivding 15 ohms impedance Supplied In strong piled carton and sent
magnetic earpiece
ana inttrucvom post free under money back guarantee If
0 Tune* o*«r m«dium Up to 14 watts loading you are not satisped.
WByeband
4W6 Smooth response between
Slow motion tuning Ready built with 60 and 16,000 Hz
control magnetic earpiece
1
Aluminium front British manufacture £6.19.6
59/6
punol and dial
Moltory
RM.675 Mercury
(2 needed)Cell
each 219 IDEAL WITH Z.12 HI-FI SYSTEMS


SINCLAIR RADIONICS LTD., 22 Newmarket Road,
indair— Cambridge Phone 0CA-3 52996
244
r:

SINCLAIR

COMBINED 12 WATT HI-FI AMP AND PRE-AMP

UNCHALLENGED LEADER IN ITS FIELD


No constructor's transistor amplifier has ever achieved such success
as the Sinclair 2.12. Itfavoursthe userin so many ways—with fantastic
power-to-size ratio, with far greater adaptability, with" freedom to
operate it from batteries or mains power supply unit (the new PZ.4 Is
Ideal for this) with the opportunity to obtain superb stereo reproduction
for very little outlay. Countless thousands of 2,12s are In use through-
out the world—in hi-fi installations, electronic guitars and organs, P.A.
installations, intercom systems, etc. This true 12 watt amplifier Is
supplied ready built, tested and guaranteed together with the 2.12
manual which details control circuits enabling you to match the 2.12
to your precise requirements. For complete listening satisfaction, yse For use with two 2.12*1 or »ny toad hi-fi stereo BUILT
your Z.12 system with 0.14 loudspeakers, ft assures superb quai'lty system. Frequency response 25H»:to 30 kHi± IdB TESTED
connected
SOkO : P.U.to—3fnV
two Z.into
I2'>.50k
Sensitivity Mic, Jmvinto
fl : Rsdio—JOmV into AND
with substantial saving in outlay. 4.7k 0. Equalisation correct to within ±tdBon GUARAN
RIAA curve from 50 to SO.OOOHc. With brushed TEED
and polished
aluminium aluminium
knobs to match.frontSize panel withXsolid
SJinXZlin 2jin £9.19.6
• 3' x ir x U" "/ made this (Z.I2) stereo record player plus knobs,
• Class B Ultralinear output for my work as hospital chaplain and it
has been a great success." SINCLAIR PZ. 4
• 15-50,OOOH* ± IdB K.S.B. Baslngstoke
STABILISED POWER SUPPLY UNIT
• Suitable for 3, 5, 8 or 1511 "The Z.12 and Q.I4 live up to your
speakers. Two 3-ohm speakers high standard. I could spend pages A heavy duty a.c. mains
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f.A.W. Hereford. ing 18V d.c. at 1*SA. De-
• Input—2mV into 2k11 Ready built, signed specially for 2.12
• Output—12 watt, R.M.S. tested and. assemblies.
continuous sine wave guaranteed. 89/6 ^ Ready built
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WE PAY POSTAGE ON EVERYTHING YOU ORDER
YOUR SINCLAIR To: SINCLAIR RADIONICS LTD., 22 NEWMARKET ROAD, CAMBRIDGE
GUARANTEE Please send POST FREE
Should you not be completely NAME.
satisfied with your purchase when
you receive "if from us, your money
will be refunded In full at once and ADDRESS.
without question. FULL SERVICE
FACILITIES AVAILABLE TO
ALL SINCLAIR CUSTOMERS. For which I enclose cashjchequelmoney order PEA
L U
245
BUILD YOURSELF A QUALITY TRANSISTOR

RADIO—FULL AFTER SALES SERVICE!


THE MAG INI 1 F 1 CENT
t==r?
//MK1V
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• Built in ferrite rod aerial for control, wave change switches
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—can be angled and rotated for approx.
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with extended M.W.both Medium
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Total building costs speaker, all first grade compooente. Easy build Total building costs 7 stage*—6 tranaistors and 2 dfodea—super-
plane and parts price list i/fi (FREE with parls). sensitive ferriteetc.rod Easy
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with gilt trim and hand and. ehoulder atraps. fittings. Folly tunable over both Medium and
Fully tunable over both Medium and Long Waves. Long
Incorporate* pre-tagged circuit board, 8 stage*—
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push-pull output, change slide and 2 dlodea—top grade Sio. speaker, 2 E.F.
Total building costs tuning condenser, volume control. Sin, moving Total building costs stages
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SIX WAVEBAND PORTABLE
WITH 3tn. SPEAKER THREE WAVEBAND PORTABLE
AUrocilTe WITH Sin. SPEAKER
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and widewith gilt fittings,
reception. size on
Tunable 7J Medium
x 63 x
Attractive case rize 73 x 63 X lita. with gilt
BandLong Wave*,
pin* an extra twoM.W,Short
band (orWave*,
easierTrawler
tuning fittings. The idealand
Covers Medlom radioLong
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and telescopic aerial (or Short Wave*. AH push-pull output, ferrite rod aerial, 7 translator*
Total building costs top grade components, 8 atages—6 transistor* Total building costs and 2 diodes,
and 2 diode*etc.InchidiDg
Traoristor*, Fhllco
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1/8 extra). Easy speaker) and allSin.
firstspeaker (will drive larger
grade component*. Price
79/6 build plans and parts price list 2/- (FREE with 69/6 p
£p- list 2/- (FRBB with part*).
parts).

RADIO EXCHANGE Ltd 61a HIGH STREET, BEDFORD

Callarp lid* antmnco Barratf* Sboa Shop. Opan 9-5 p.m. Saturday 9-12.30 p.m. Telephone: Bedford 52367

246
wm A u A PRACTICAL

S m ELECTRONICS

CIRCUIT COMPLICATIONS THIS MONTH


\A/hen a number of our readers suggested that a certain
* ' design was needlessly coxnplicated» we immediately
turned up page 139 of the February issue and took another CONSTRUCTIONAL PROJECTS
cool, hard look at the article in question. What we found
was a circuit incorporating five common or garden P.E. HOMECOM 248
transistors. Closer examination revealed this to be made REACTALYSER 253
up of two welUcnown and widely used electronic building
blocks: a bistable switch, plus relay driver, and a multi- SOUND EFFECTS UNIT 267
vibrator. REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 280
Surely no complexity here—once the whole has been P.E. ANALOGUE COMPUTER 289
analysed and reduced to its essential elements. It set us
wondering why such objections should be put forth. Can
it be that complexity is sometimes measured in terms of the
total number of transistors employed? Maybe there is an SPECIAL SERIES
unconscious equating of a transistor stage with a valve
stage. TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
All the attendant problems which arise with the inclusion DESIGN—3 270
of an additional valve stage are still well remembered—
even by the long converted. The extra ancillary com- NUCLEONICS FOR THE
ponents, the power supply requirements, to say nothing of EXPERIMENTER—6 285
the mechanical problems involved in finding chassis
accommodation for just one extra valve, could never be
lightly dismissed. Nor could the cost.
A radically different situation exists in the case of GENERAL FEATURES
transistorised circuits. The mechanical and spatial
problems to be faced when fitting another transistor are HEATSINKS FOR
mmimal—the operation is barely more difficult than the SEMICONDUCTORS 260
wiring in of a resistor. The cost is, generally speaking, not
prohibitive either.
Clearly one approaches the design and construction of
solid state' equipment with a different outlook to that BEGINNERS
appropriate to valVe equipment. The distinction between
the two techniques is obvious—but yet still needs emphasis- SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS—5 272
ing on occasions, it seems. LIGHT OPERATED SWITCH 274
No rash extravagance is being proposed, but there
should be fewer inhibitions about using a number of solid
state devices where the possibilities for sensibly exploiting
rather more elegant circuit arrangements exist. Par- NEWS AND COMMENT 1
ticularly is this true in switching applications (such as the
project referred to above), for here it is possible to use EDITORIAL 247
transistors of a kind abundantly available at around 2s. a TECHNICIAN ENGINEERS 256
time.
And now we must mention the booklet presented free to SPACEWATCH 259
our readers with this issue. This contains a fine distillation MARKET PLACE 277
of electronic circuit know how, in the form of basic CAMP TECHNOLOGY 278
circuits and essential facts about these building blocks. As
a pocket aide-memoire, this booklet should be invaluable to READOUT 302
the experienced amateur, while it will certainly be indis-
pensable to the beginner. We think it will dispel many Our May issue will be published on
complications. Tuesday, April 16
F. E. Bennett—Editor
All correspondence Intended for the Editor should be addressed to; The Editor, PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS, George Newnes Ltd., Tower
House, Southampton Street, London, W.G.2. Advertisement Offices; PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS, George Newnes Ltd., 15/17 Long Acre,
London, W.C.2. Phone: 01-836 4363. Telegrams: Newnes London. Subscription Rates Including postage for one year, to any part of
the world, 36s. ® George Newnes LtcL, 1968. Copyright In all drawings, photographs and articles published in PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS
is specially reserved throughout the countries signatory to the Berne Convention and the U.S.A. Reproductions or Imitations of any of
these are therefore expressly forbidden.
waves. If the order of this process is reversed we then
have the principle of the moving coil microphone, and it
is in this capacity as induced current driver that the
loudspeaker functions when spoken into.
FUNCTIONS OF SWITCHES
The circuit diagram shows the master switch SI in its
"standby" (SB) position. It can be seen that the power
supply to the unit is disconnected by Slf. Station 1 loud-
speaker LSI is connected to the collector circuit of TR2.
A regenerative feedback loop is provided by C2 and
limiting resistor R5. The path of this loop is com-
pleted by Sic.
When Station 2 call button S3 is depressed -this
completes the supply line broken at Slf and the
0. amplifier comprising TR1, TR2 now acts as a two
P.* stage phase shift oscillator producing a "call" tone at
Station 1 loudspeaker. '
When in response to this call. Station 1 master
switch is moved to the central "Receive" (REC)
position, this action disconnects the feedback line at Sic
and completes the battery supply circuit via Slf, so
overriding the remote call switch S3. Station 2 is now
in a position to speak, the loudspeaker LS2 acting as a
microphone, being connected between point "A" and
A common requirement for most intercom systems TR1 base by Sid and Sle.
is the matching of speech transducers to the At the third position of the master switch—"Speak"
input and output impedances of the relevant amplifier (SPK)—the station functions are reversed by the switch-
stages. In the past this magazine has published ing of Sla, b and Sid, e. Loudspeaker LSI is
designs employing balanced armature earpieces and connected between points "A" and the base of TR1 by
low impedance loudspeakers as transducers, both Sla and Sib; loudspeaker LS2 is connected to the
methods involving the use of comparatively expensive collector circuit of TR2 by Sid and Sle, thus Station 1
matching transformers. The first of these methods can new speak to Station 2.
suffers from volume limitations and restricted avail- Switches Sic and Slf remain unchanged when moving
ability of suitable components. With the second from position two (REC) to three (SPK), and so the
method, improvement in the unit's performance, both battery supply remains connected and the feedback line
in pick-up sensitivity and output, can be achieved by disconnected.
using speakers of relatively large cone diameter. If Station 1 wishes to initiate a call, normal practice
It would therefore seem that what is needed is a would be to go straight through to the "speak"
simple amplifier which will employ any kind of low position from "standby" and put through the
impedance loudspeaker which can serve in the dual oscillatory call tone by pressing S2. Then with SI
capacity of microphone and loudspeaker with none of released, Station 1 is immediately on "receive'v since
the attendant cost of matching transformers in the the lever of SI is biased to this (mid) position,
input and output stages. This method has been
adopted in the P.E. Homecom. CALL TONE
If, in the final assembly, the pitch of the call tone is
DIRECT COUPLING OF LOUDSPEAKERS considered too low, this can be raised by decreasing the
The relatively low input and output impedances of the value of C2. A similar tailoring by "cut and try" can be
power transistors used in the present circuit (see exercised on R5for increasing the call signal volume.
Fig. 1), a two stage amplifier of common emitter con- For the loudest call R5 can be removed, but this results
figuration, permits direct coupling to the loudspeakers. in the transistors being driven hard with consequent
Bias current is supplied to both transistors by way of peak clipping, raucous tone and increased current
potential divider networks. consumption.
Most readers are probably aware of the principle of
operation of a loudspeaker where alternating current CONSTRUCTION
flowing through the speech coil produces a dynamic The first detail in order of assembly should be the
reaction with the magnetic field provided by the circuit component board, see Fig. 2. It should be
permanent magnet; the cone, being connected to the noticed from the underside view of the transistors
coil, reproduces these electrical oscillations as sound (shown with the circuit diagram) that the base and emitter

: HOMECOM
248
STATION \

VRI
680
5kn
BY(
—n—
(A) TRt Buf X
NKT
40J
470 270 47
kQ
J*) OV Under side view of
TRITR2

STAT0N2
B
SPK a»K #SS SPK REC
REC SPK REC SPK
SI a Sic "sid/" siry Slf Cable
force.

IS) n
SE CALL
SI Mailer Swi)ch,3position loggltiSTANOBYfce), RECEIVE (rEC^, SPEAK
CALL I
Fig. I. Circuit diagram of the Homeeom two station communication system

poles are slightly offset from centre and care should be Soldering to the tightly spaced tags on the master
taken in identifying these pins prior to soldering. The switch demands the use of an iron with a slender bit,
transistors should be mounted clear of the board as the and all connections should be made in a progressive
case and collector are common and any shorting to sequence either horizontally or vertically. Random
adjacent wires might produce expensive damage. The connections will probably result in insulation charring
collector connection is made by a soldering tag fitted and consequent short circuits when adjacent leads are
to one fixing hole of each transistor; this is not bolted fitted.
through the board. The transistors are supported by Inspection of the switch wiring (Fig. 4) will show a
the two pins. number of tags which are electrically common. Wire
At this stage no flying connections are made and the links could have been used on the switch, but it makes
completed board assembly should be placed to one side. wiring more untidy. It is easier to make single con-
nections at the switch tags with lengths of 1/ 024 solid
FRONT PANEL sleeved wire and mechanical joins at the terminal strip.
The front panel is prepared from a piece of hard-
board, dimensions and drilling details are given in
Fig. 3. Loudspeaker and switch cut-outs are made and
holes drilled for screw fixing. If loudspeaker fabric is MOUNTING THE COMPONENT BOARD
used for covering, these holes can be easily cleared from The component board is mounted on a piece of
one side of the panel. angle aluminium using nylon nuts and bolts or bushes in
The loudspeaker and the two switches can now be the fixing, and the whole is attached to the front panel,
mounted, making sure that the miniature lever key- see Fig. 4. The complete assembly is now integral to
switch SI is positioned so that the key is up on lock or this panel which facilitates any later servicing, as
"Standby" (SB). The rear view of the switch terminals the unit can be readily withdrawn from its press-fit
will appear as is Fig. 4. With the 12-way connecting attachment to the recessed main housing. See Fig. 5.
strip screwed in position the wiring of SI can be With the front panel conveniently held in a vice,
commenced. flying leads to the circuit component board can be

By G.M.Harvey

249
TS3 TS8 TSII
1 2 3// /A 7// J 10 It 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 COMPONENTS...
0
O C• ooooooo OOO
Resistors
Tftl Rt 47 £1
R2 680 a
Jb R3 3-3kft
R4 270 Q
R5 4-7kfl
TR2 c All 10%. iW carbon
Ob Capacitors
CI 8pF elects Sif
C2 2pF elecu 1W
Potenti ter
VR1o o VR Q linear skeleton preset
oO . c ooo ooo oooo ..
Transistors
Tf(l NKT405^(N k ,
TS10 TS9 TS12 TS3,158 ETC=TERMINAL STRIP #R2 N KT403 / ^iNlewmarKev
(a) Arrangement of components Switches
SI Miniature lever key switch 4CL/4CN (Key-
NOTE BREAKS ON STRIPS P,J & 1 ' switch) (Home Radio)
0 )p.M o o o o • O 0 o • o o 0 o • 0 • o • o o o S2, 3 Miniature push-to-make s.p.s.t. (Home Radi
(2 off).
o • • o
o • •• o Loudspeakers
o • • • LSI, 2 3£i, permanent magnet. Sin dia. (see t^<t)
o o BY I 6V battery—2 x 3V twin cell batteries (800
o o type Ever Ready)
o * ••• o
o • • • • o Miscellaneous
o o Terminal strip, 12 way
o• • o Terminal strip, 4 way
0 o Veroboard 3fin X 2jin
o • • 0 Solder tags.
o o Hardboard for front panel (2 off)
o • • p. Material for cases. Aluminium strip
o• • • • • o Tygan or speaker grille )
o o oo o 0o ooo
o:

oi
of

0
o;

o
o
0

of

0
01
Length of cable as required; 4-core, or 2 >^2-core

w:
5
mains flex
(b) Underside view of board
Fig. 2. Circuit component board. Note the three
which have to be made in the copper strips

r-
I ■■ MOLE \ J:-
\
I .
/ % DIA.,

S' 2%'

-I

Fig. 3. Front panel cutting and drilling details. Suitable


material Is hardboard
250
TERMINAL STRIP

LS
CIRCUIT BOARD
POINT ®
\ 15 _
2—7 14 __ MASTER SWITCH 51
B 15 20
3 —. REAR VIEW

LS2
LINES TO +Bri /
STATION 2 y TO 51

LOUDSPEAKER LSI
R1/R4-*-
P01NT ® 2,13
COLLECTOR
CIRCUIT TR2 1,21
BOARD BASE TR1
9,20
l-6V LINE 0,14 TO TERMINAL
STRIP L BRACKET
BVI-
ALUM N UM
s
^ Wg ^ ^M'7/A TO TERMINAL
STRIP

SPACER. WASHER
■*jur
6 B.A. SCREWS
Fig. 4. Wiring details for Station I. The use of the ter-
minal strip greatly facilitates the wiring up; this operation
should be undertaken with care, and In a methodical monnf

«* ««« m

m-m a m

ttt
TERMINAL STRIP

0 LOUDSPEAKER LS2
LINES TO
STATION-<
1
:
!

STEP BACK \

fig. 6. Wiring details for Station 2


A-SXft'X'/g WOOD (2OFF)
B= 8^"X S'xVg" HAROBOARO (2 OFF)
C-eV* 6V4V/0* HARDBOARO INTERSTATION CONNECTIONS
D= V* V4X fi' WOOD FIU-ET (2 OFF) Two twin lengths of 2A flex can be used for inter-
station connections. In the prototype 3 ohm 5in
E = 3/e X v;X 5%" WOOD FILLET (2 OFF) loudspeakers were employed, with a four-way standard
screened cable between stations. As the input
fig. S. Construction details for die Homecom housing. impedance is low such screening was found to be
Note thot the cose for Stotion 2 con be of less depth than completely unnecessary. Satisfactory operation was
stated above if desired. Four screws secure the front.ponef achieved with a 60ft length of cable between stations.
It should be borne in mind that 3 ohm transducers in
connected. At this point it is as well to make sure that the output stage will contribute to a greater collector
the retaining screws of the terminal block are making dissipation, however this is well contained in the
clean connections to the wire and not the sleeving. unsinked assembly of TR2. Higher impedance loud-
speakers whilst providing better power transfer have the
THE CASE advantage of overcoming the power lost in the inter-
A suitable housing for both units is a wooden or connecting line resistance.
metal case of internal dimensions Sin x 6in x Sin.
This provides ample room for the two twin cell 3V SENSITIVITY ADJUSTMENT
batteries (connected in series) immediately behind the In the preliminary setting up of the Homecom,. the
loudspeaker in Station 1. required cable length should be maintained in situ.
Aluminium strip can be used for front panel With power connected VR1 potentiometer should be
embellishment, and provides a good base for Letraset reducedifrom its maximum value until the "microphone"
marking of switch functions. This embellishment also loudspeaker becomes alive—which will be prefaced by a
allows a distinction to be introduced between the frontal rushing noise in the output loudspeaker. In this
appearance of Station I and Station 2. adjustment both stations should be reasonably
As Station 2 contains only the press switch S2 and a separated to prevent acoustic feedback.
loudspeaker LS2 the disposition and mounting of these The optimum loudspeaker sensitivities will depend
components should duplicate Station t, that is, if the on the speech coil impedances employed and inter-
loudspeakers used are of equal diameter. The depth station line length, but this adjustment of VR1 should
of the case could however be reduced to about 2iin if be carefully carried out both for best possible trans-
desired. Wiring details are given in Fig. 6. mission and reception.
A small hole should be drilled in the back panel of
each case for feeding out the interstation cables.
LOUDSPEAKERS
Almost any low (3-15 ohm) impedance loudspeaker
of various cone diameter may be usefully employed.
Of course, it follows that input and output sensitivities
will be a function of the loudspeaker diameter. It
should be noted that loudspeakers of differing
impedances were not tried, but in view of the swamping
value of VR1 such unbalances should not upset the
preliminary sensitising of the circuit.

*u

252
*
w.

TIT?

in -3 By B.KBAILY

There are several ways of putting human reaction LOADED EMITTER FOLLOWER
to the test, whether it be of a light-hearted nature The circuit is a single emitter follower stage in which
or of more serious intent. Some reactions are very the emitter load is a 0-5mA meter in series with a
quick, such as the kick of a leg after a gentle tap at the preset variable resistance VR1 (see Fig. 1).
knee. In the non-operating condition SI is held against its
Probably one of the most useful forms is in the time upper contact A by the spring fitted to the push-button
it takes for the hands to react from an impulse stimu- rod. Switch S2 is a conventional push-button switch
lated by a visual movement. If a dog was to dart in normally open circuit. When the subject operates the
front of your car while driving, how quickly can you device, he holds down SI and S2. TR! base is now
take evasive action? Readers no doubt will find grounded via RI,
several examples which require alertness of mind Pressure is now released from the rod attached to SI
coupled with well controlled reaction of the body. but S2 is held depressed until the gradual air leak
How can we put reaction to the test without actually releases the suction pad. The rod kicks up and
setting a scene that might be difficult or even changes the state of SI so that TRl is now connected to
impracticable? the battery positive line via RI and S2.
The "Reactalyser" described in this article will fit the Immediately this happens, C1 begins to charge at the
bill and will be found to be simple to build and operate. time constant determined by the values of C1 and RI.
If required it can form the basis of an amusing game of As CI charges exponentially, the base voltage also
skill at a party (particularly after a round of drinks). rises exponentially and the emitter follows it faithfully.
The instrument uses a simple panel mounting The meter indicates the climbing potential as TRl is
moving coil meter, mounted in a plastics box with two now conducting. The emitter voltage continues to
push-button controls. rise until the subject removes his finger from S2. Once
To operate it, the subject is required to press both he does this, the charging path to Cl is broken, and the
buttons together, release one, then wait til! this button final charge attained on Cl is represented by the
pops up after a random time of a few seconds, before indication on the meter scale.
releasing the second. The time elapsing between the The capacitor will tend to discharge through TRl
pop-up of the first button and the operator's release of base-emitter circuit, since SI has, by this time, reverted
the second is then shown by the meter pointer. to position A. Since this discharge path is of relatively
BOX TOR BUSH 0 O
r
V SI
MECHANICAL
.INK
SUCTION R1
PAO^ 120fl
BOX BOTTOM TRl
2N2926
BY

\
Fig. I. Circuit dla- VR1
geam of the C1 2kn
"Reoetalyter" lOOOuF
5mA f.s.d
high resistance, and the value of C1 is high, there is
sufficient time to read the meter before any significant battery (see photograph). The circuit was built on a
drop m current is indicated. single 5-way tag strip (Fig. 2), this being held in
The meter scale can be calibrated in time and VR1 is position by a spot of glue.
set to facilitate this (see notes on calibration).
COMPONENT VALUES RANDOM TIMER MECHANISM
The values shown for components are critical, and The random timer press-button rod is made from a
have been chosen as a result of experiments. All are No. 10 knitting needle fitted with a compression spring
under its head. In the prototype, the rod passes
based on the use of a 0-5mA meter movement. If a through a 3-5mm jack socket from which the contacts
0-1 mA meter were used, VR1 would have to be about have been removed, but this could be replaced by a less
10 kilohms maximum, again using the same supply of expensive guide brush through which the needle may
9 volts. readily slide up and down.
The choice of the 2N2926 for TR1 was chiefly one of The bottom end of the needle is fitted into a rubber
convenience, but most silicon types (npn) would suit suction pad to which it is secured by rubber adhesive
this circuit. (Fig. 3). When the needle knob is firmly depressed,
The omission of an on/off switch may justifiably be the suction pad is forced on to the bottom of the case
questioned, but in fact the design of the circuit makes where it adheres. To prevent permanent adhesion, a
this component unnecessary since the current drain little talcum powder is dusted on the suction pad rim,
through TR1 is almost zero when C1 is discharged, and on the box bottom. . This ensures a slow air leak
provided SI is momentarily depressed and no further which eventually leads to the suction pad succumbing
charge can build up until the next time S2 is operated. to the action of the spring.
Therefore, the instrument should be left in this condition The time taken for this to happen depends on more
after use. Alternatively, the battery can be removed if than one factor, and may vary from 3 to anything like
the period of non-use is likely to be long. 12 seconds; this prevents the subject under test antici-
Capacitor C1 can be 1,000/^F or (as in prototype) pating his cue.
four capacitors 250/tF each connected in parallel. The A miniature microswitch could be used for SI,
knitting needle was a handy means of making a plunger provided that it had a single pole changeover contact
for SI. Readers could make their own style from |in set. In the prototype a switch was constructed by
steel rod. soldering a short length of close-wound light tension
spring to the end tag of a short tag strip. The other
CONSTRUCTION end tag is bent up to contact the spring when the latter
Any convenient box may be used, the principal lies along the strip.
feature being only that it will house the meter comfort- The spring formed the moving arm and the second
ably with a little room to spare for the circuit and changeover contact was fashioned by bending a short

COMPONENTS...
Resistor Capacitor Meter
Rl 1200 10% Cl 1,000/tF 12V MI 0-5mA f.s.d. moving coil
Potentiometer T ransistor Battery
VRI 2kO linear preset skeleton TRI 2N2926 BY I 9V type PP3
TR2 •TO SI (CONTACT 2)^
} (UNDERSIDE) "i Switches
■TO SI (CONTACT 3) 51 Single pole changeover (see text)
•TO BATTERY-ve 52 Single pole push on, release off, push button
Miscellaneous
ip 6-way tag strips (2 of!)
n Spring for SI (see Fig. 3)
Knitting needle No. 10 with head
Rubber suction pad
Plastics box 2|in x 2^10 x 4in long with end caps
(D.E.W. Ltd., 254 Ringwood Road, Ferndown,
m
VRI Dorset)
BATTERY+ve m TO M1
Fig. 3. Side view of SI
assembly using the knitting
Cla needle, suction pad, and
2 spring MOVEMENT
+ Clh
CLOSE COtl BENT WIRE
Clc SPRING
Fig. 2, Wiring of TAG
Cld components on the STRIP
6-way tog strip JAG BENT
2 .3%^ UP
- 13 SUCTION PAD
CONTACT NUMBERS IN CIRCUIT

254
HIGHLIGHTS

OF NEXT MONTH'S

PRACTICAL

ELECTRONICS
piece of stout wire to form an inverted "L" over, the
spring, which makes contact when it is raised off the
lower tag. The wire contact was anchored by soldering
it to an intermediate tag. The last 1£ turns of the
spring are bent out from the coil and looped around the
waist of the suction pad.
CALIBRATION
Calibration is simple. Start with VR1 set for
maximum resistance in circuit and the random time An attractive project for members of pop
rod SI in the "up" position. Hold S2 depressed and groups and for all readers Interested in
watch the meter read part-scale deflection: it will settle synthesising musical effects.
very quickly.
Keep S2 pressed and turn VR1 very slowly until Ml
just reads full scale. Do not exceed this position or
the meter may be damaged. The instrument is then
ready for use.
The meter scale could easily be re-calibrated if
desired, to suit the constructor's taste. The author
coloured the higher end of the meter scale in red
(having once found he could always score better than
half-scale, of course). An easy-to-build security guard for
OPERATION small craft. Gives audible warning if a
marauder attempts to break into cabin or
To test your own reaction, simply press SI and S2 locker. Self-powered, and therefore suit-
firmly down, release SI and, while still holding S2 down, able for sailing craft as well as motor
wait for SI to pop up. Remember that every milli- boats.
second that elapses after this will count against the
competitor, and that the reaction time of the circuit
is quicker than his.
Quick release of S2 when SI pops up is important to
achieving a competitive reading on the meter. Your
"score" is shown inversely on the meter scale; i.e.
"low" is good, "high" is bad.

A handy piece of equipment enabling


characteristic curves to be plotted by
measuring their parameters. Particularly
useful for assessing the performance of
unmarked transistors, or those for which
no published Information Is to hand.

MAY ISSUE OIM SALE APRIL 16


ORDER YOUR COPY NOW!

255
TECHNICIAN E
E
T
ENGINEERS E

'n. this article E A Bromfield outlines the purpose and activities of the Institution
ol hlectrlcal and Electronics Technician Engineers, of which he is the Secretary

In the eiectrical and electronic engineering industries MEMBERSHIP


of today there are, broadly speaking, two distinct There are four categories of membership: Graduates
types of well qualified engineer: the Chartered Engi- (three guineas); Corporate Members—Member (six
neer and the Technician Engineer. guineas) and Associate Member (five guineas); Associ-
Technician engineers (who link the scientist and ates (five guineas); and Students (one guinea). Income
technologist on the one band with the technician and Tax relief is allowable on all subscription rates.
craftsman on the other) are expert in the application of
specific engineering techniques in all sectors of these i4 Corporate Members are entitled to use the description
"Incorporated Technician Engineer (Electrical and
industries; whether in manufacture, operation, main- Electronics)", and the initials M.I.T.E. or A.M.I.T.E.
tenance, development, and research; they are also These designator' initials are already as unmistakable
engaged in those other industries that use electricity as a means of identification as are those denoting member-
a means of power, control, and communication. ship of the institutions for chartered electrical and
Technician engineers provide the detailed information electronics engineers.
from which engineering decisions are made, and The standard of technical education required of a
influence the selection of materials and apparatus. candidate for election as a Corporate Member is the
During the past decade there bad been an acute Higher National Certificate in Electrical and/or
awareness of the need for an organisation, of the Electronic Engineering, or the City and Guilds of
learned society kind, to provide a recognised status and London Institute's Telecommunication Technicians'
technical qualification for these senior engineers, for Certificate together with at least two certificates in
many of whom the route to chartered status has Supplementary Studies (Regulations 49/300), or the
gradually been closing. City and Guilds of London Institute's Electrical
THE IEETE Technicians'Certificate, together with two Endorsement
Certificates in Group "A" subjects (Regulations 57).
The Institution of Electrical and Electronics Tech- Those persons over 30 not able to satisfy the require-
nician Engineers (IEETE) was set up in 1965 with the ments for Corporate Membership but who have had
full encouragement of industry and with the firm no less than five years' experience as an electrical or
support of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, to electronics technician engineer may be admitted as
fill this great need. Since technician engineers are Associates. An Associate who wishes to transfer to
needed in the ratio of four to one of chartered engineers the class of Associate Member may present and
it is estimated that potential membership for IEETE is discuss an engineering report before a panel of Assessors
about 80,000. Already the IEETE membership appointed by the Council.
strength is over 9,500.
WHAT IS OFFERED TO THE STUDENT?
ACTIVITIES AND PLANS Students now have a "stepping stone" to status; for
The main educative aims of the IEETE are the those on courses towards a National Certificate or City
dissemination of knowledge in the fields of electrical and Guilds Certificate can enjoy all the IEETE learned
and electronic engineering techniques, and the en- society activities and facilities and pursue their studies
couragement of attainment by the members themselves with a recognised electrical and electronic engineering
of the highest possible standards of technical com- qualification in mind.
petence. To accomplish these objectives, the IEETE There is now a first class incentive: no longer is
is promoting conferences, discussion meetings and their study a "dead end".
lectures, and arranging visits to places of technical
interest. Programmes of lectures are running in GROWING RECOGNITION
London and throughout the nine regions in which The prospectuses of a growing number of educational
Centres have been set up so far. establishments include the IEETE qualifications in
The .Institution's Journal "The Electrical and their lists of nationally-recognised distinctions; and
Electronics Technician Engineer" bears technical more and more employers are beginning to specify the
material of general interest, and carries news of Institu- qualifications in their advertisements for senior tech-
tion activities. nical staff appointments.
IEETE plans for immediate and future developments Further information about the IEETE and its
include |he formation of specialised divisions; lectures activities, and membership proposal forms, may be
and discussion meetings covering specialised interests, obtained from the Secretary, The Institution of Elec-
technical information and library services, and other trical and Electronics Technician Engineers Limited,
facilities. 2 Savoy Hill, London, W,C.2. (Telephone 01-836 3357.)
256
PRACTICAL!

VISUAL! |

a new 4-way method of mastering

by doing — and — seeing . . .

OWN and BUILD READ and


i
HANDLE a 2k and USE ^ k DRAW and
complete range of present- a modern and profes- UNDERSTAND
day ELECTRONIC PARTS sional CATHODE RAY CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS
and COMPONENTS OSCILLOSCOPE

l.«A
*-—ppoj'—
-*S8 L7* C30 I'C, I
sop
-®o- w

4 ^ CARRY OUT OVER 40 EXPERIMENTS ON BASIC ELECTRONIC


CIRCUITS AND SEE HOW THEY WORK . . . INCLUDING . . .
• VALVE EXPERIMENTS i PHOTO ELECTRIC CIRCUIT I A.C. EXPERIMENTS
• TRANSISTOR EXPERIMENTS COMPUTER CIRCUIT l D.C. EXPERIMENTS
% AMPLIFIERS BASIC RADIO-RECEIVER i SIMPLE COUNTER
• OSCILLATORS ELECTRONIC SWITCH TIME DELAY CIRCUIT
• SIGNAL TRACER SIMPLE TRANSMITTER SERVICING PROCEDURES
This new style course will enable anyone to really understand electronics by a modern, practical and visual method—
no maths, and a minimum of theory—no previous knowledge "required, it will also enable anyone to understand how
to test, service and maintain ail types of Electronic equipment. Radio and TV receivers, etc.

T To: BRITISH NATIONAL RADIO SCHOOL, READING, BERKS. Please


POST NOW I send your free Brochure, without obligation, to: we do not employ representatives
for l
FREE BROCHURE I NAME,.... BLOCK CAPS
i
or write if you prefer not to cut pa*e i ADDRESS PLEASE PE 4
JL
257
VARIABLE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
INPUT 2M/240v. A.C. 50/W— LIGHT SENSITIVE SWI COLOUR TELEVISION
OUTPUT VARIABLE 0-240*. Kit of parts, including ORPtl Cad- htch With particular reference to the
BRAND NEW mium Sulphide Photocell, Relay, PAL SYSTEM
<50 Keenest prices in the country. Transistor and Circuit, etc., O-ll'
AMPS i toType*
All (and Spares) from vole D.C. op. price 25/- plus 2/4 There are 157 diagrams and photographs and
50 amp. from stock, P. & P. ORP 12 including circuit, 83 illustrations tn colour.
KM SHROUDED TYPE 10/4 each, plus I/- P. & P. by G. N. Patchett
I amp, £5, 10, 0. 2.5 amps,
£«. 15. 0. 4 imps, £9. 0. 0. A.C. MAINS MODEL Incorporates
UUP 5 amps. £9. IS. 0. 8 amps, Mains
relay
Transformer, Rectifier and special
with 3, 5 amp mains c/o contacts. 40/- Postage I /-
► 114, 10. 0. 10 amps. £18. 10. 0. Price inc. circuit
12 amps, £21. 0, 0, IS amps, 47/4 plus2/6 P. & P.
£3,10.0- WORLD RADIO T.V. HANDBOOK.
£25. 0. 0, 20 amps, £37. 0. 0. "LIGHT'SOURCE AND PHOTO 1948. 42/-. Postage I/..
37.5 amps, £72, 0. 0. 50 amps, CELL MOUNTING ,
£92. 0. 0. Precision engineered AERIAL HANDBOOK, by G. A. Briggs
OPEN TYPE (Panel Mounting) light source with focusible and R. S. Roberts. 15/-. Postage I/-.
£ amp, £3.10.0. I amp, £5. 10. 0. lens assem bly and ven tilated' RCA TRANSISTOR MANUAL. 20/-.
2} amps, £4. 12. 4, lamp housing, to take MBC bulb. Separate
PORTABLE TYPE photo cell mounting assembly for ORP. 12 Postage I/-.
PORTABLE TYPE 1,5 amp, portable fitted metal case, fixing. or simitar cell. Both units are single hole
£9. 5. 0. voltmeter, lamp, switch, etc. £9.5.0. Price per pair £2.15.0. P. & P. 3/6. RCA SILICON POWER CIRCUITS.
Similar to above 2.5 amp. £ 11.7.6. 20/-. Postage I/-.
RESETTABLE HIGH SPEED
100 WATT POWER RHEOSTATS (NEW) COUNTER. 4 figure, 1,000 ohm coil, MULLARD DATA BOOK, J968. 3/4.
36-48 v. D.C. operation. £3/10/-. P. & Postage 6d.
AVAILABLE IN THE FOLLOWING VALUES P. 1/6. 3 figure, 24 v. D.C. £1/12/4.
P. & P. 1/6. TRANSISTOR ELECTRONIC
I ohm, 10 a.; S ohm, 4,7 a.; 10 ohm, 3 a.; A®=
25ohm,2a.;50ohm, 1.4 a,', 100 ohm, I a.; v ■4 ORGANS FOR THE AMATEUR, by
250 ohm, .7 a.; 500 ohm, .45 a.: 1,000 ohm, DRY HEAD SWITCHES. New A. Douglas and S. Astley. 18/-. Postage
280 mA; 1,500 ohm, 230 mA: 2,500 ohm, .2 a. Diameter special offer of Dry Read Switches half
3fin. Shaft length Jin., dia. J|in. Alt at 27/4 each, amp. Posc
Contact. Size IJ X J. 4 for 10/-
Paid. ELECTRONIC NOVELTY DESIGNS,
P. & P. 1/6. by 1. J, Kampel. 8/6. Postage 6d.
SO WATT. 1/5/10/25/50/100/250/500/1,000/1,500/2.500 miniTture ThiTeTector-switch
ohm, 21/-. P. & P. 1/6. RADIO VALVE DATA, 8th ed. compiled
25 WATT. 10/25/50/100/250/500/1,000/1.500/2,500 340banks of I i positions plus homing bank.
ohm coil. 24-36 v. D.C. by '*WW9/4. Postage I/-. ,
ohm. 14/4. P. & P. 1/6. __ operation. Tested. 22/4,
VENNER ELECTRIC TIME SWITCH plus 2/6 P. & P.
200-250 v. A.C. 20 amp. contacts twice on, COMPACT HEAVY DUTT 6*. D.C. RELAY
twice off, at any manually pre-set time. 2 change over, 30 ohm coil. 7/4 each. THE MODERN BOOK GO.
Spring reserve (in case of power cut) fully P. & P. 1/6. 3 for 20/-. Postpaid. .
tested £3/9/4. P. & P. 4/6. Or complete BRITAIN'S LARGEST STOCKISTS
in weatherproof metal case (illustrated) nickel"" "Cadmium battery British and American Technical Books
£3/19/4, plus 4/6 P. & P- Can be supplied Sintered Cadmium Type 1-2 v. 7AH. (9-21 PRAED STREET
with tolar dial, on at dusk—off at dawn. Size: height 3i in., width 2J x 1^- in.
Prices as above. Weight: approx. 13 oi. Ex-R.A.F. LONDON, W.2
AIR BLOWER "" Tested. 12/6. P. & P. 2/6. Phont: PADdington 4185
Highly efficient blower unit fitted with
totally enclosed 200/250 v, A.C. 50 cycles. mult"
A h.p. motor producing 2,800 r.p.m.
Outlet 2} X (J, used, but in first class con- RANGE METERS
dition and te$ted^Price^J^^/^^P.^^P-^6^ ^ New Model US0D Multi tester,
SELENIUM BRIDGE RECTIFIERS 20,000 OPV, mirror scaled with overioad
30 volt 3 amp., I!/-, plus 2/6 P. & P. protection. Ranges—d.c. volts; lOOmV,
30 volr 5 am^^^j^plu^2/^^. 0-5 v. 5 v.. 250 v.. 1,000 v.; a.c. volts:
2-5 v.. 10 v., 50 v.. 250 v., 1,000 v.; D.C. Sounds
"" PRECISION TRIM POT current: 5 /<A. 0-5 MA. 5 MA, SQMA,
Manufactured by M.E.C. SOk. 45 turn. Fly leads. All 250 MA. Complete with battery and test
probe. £7/5/0 post paid.. Three other
metal sealed constructiomlO/d. K & P^/6. models available from stock. Descriptive Original
""" AUTO TRANSFORMERS leaflet on request.
Step up. step down, 110-200-220-240 volt. Fully thTrTstors"— Q. What sort of microphone would you
shrouded. New 300 watt type, £3 each. P. & P. 4/6. ■<OQ piv, 5 amp., use for recording Gorillas in their
500 watt type, £4.2.4 each. P. & P. 6/6. 1,000 watt M/4 post paid. natural surroundings f
type^ £5^5^ e ach^. 7/6^_ 400 piv. 8 amp., 28/4 post paid.
A. The Sennheiser condenser gun micro-
CONSTANT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER ~ ITeAREDM OTORs" " phone, as it would enable you to
Input 185-250 v. A.C. Output 230 v A.C. Input 230/250 A.C.Output work at a safe distance and yet obtain
Capacity 250 watt. Attractive metal case. 135 r.p.m.,8 lb/in. Rever- a good recording.
Fitted red signal lamp. Rubber feet. sible. British made to BSS Ir) Room 355 at the Audio Fair
Weight 17 lb. Price£11/10/0. P. & P. 15/^ _ 170. Used but individually
PHOTO'HULTIPLlER.'"^v!Je c7337. Tbis"^"- tested and guaranteed. 45/-, P. & P. 6/6. Visitors will be asking s'imiiar
sedes type 93IA. Complete with special P.T.F.E. Isaac —SANGAM0 WESTON questions to the one above and
and divider network, 57/4 incl. P. & P. many others regarding sound re-
Dual range voltmeter. 0-5 cording, microphone technique,
RADIO and 0-100 v, D.C. FSD 1 m/». acoustics and, in particular,
In carrying case with test questions about the original stereo
ALTIMETER prods and leads, 32/6, P. & recordings being played in the
This precision instrument, built P. 3/6. _ above room. These stereo record-
to highest Ministry specification, is based on a 24 v. D.C. l.tTtransforhers ings were made under domestic
LOW INERTIA Integrating Motor. The Motor, fitted All primaries 220-240 volts. conditions using various pairs of
with gold brushes and drawing only 800 microamp at Type No. Sec- Taps Price Sennheiser microphones with a B.
24 v. D.C., drives two precision pots with platinum 1 30, 32, 34, 36 v. at 5 amps. £4/5/0
wipers through close tolerance gear-trains, including 2 30. 40. 50 v. at S amps. £6/5/0 and O. tape recorder. By changing
miniature slipping dutch, combined with two sub- 3 10. 17, IB v, at 10 amps. £4/10/0 the microphones at regular intervals
miniature pots for calibrating the electrical bridge 4 6, 12 v. at 20 amps. £5/17/6 during the recordings, sensible com-
circuit. The 3 in. calibrated dial, with a number 5 17. 18, 20 v. at 20 amps.
aperture indicating one rev, per revolution of pointer 6 6, 12, 20 v. at 20 amps.
£6/12/4
£4/5/0 parisons can be ■ made regarding
with maximum of 5 revs, gives an effective scale length 7 24 v. at 10 amps. £4/15/0 quality and -characteristics. All
of approx. 30 in. Offered at fraction of Manufacturer's 8 4, 6, 24, 32 v. at 12 amps. £4/10/0 questions regarding these record-
price, 32/4. P. & P. 6/-. All at 4/6 carriage ings wiii be answered by our sound
engineers.
Fbi- all further 4eia*l> pieuc witact:
SERVICE TRADING CO Audio Engineering Ltd
33 Endell St. London WC 2
All Mail Orders—Also Callers—Ample Parking Space Personal callers only
57 BRIDGMAN ROAD, LONDON, W.4 Phone 995 1560 9 LITTLE NEWPORT ST.
SHOWROOM NOW OPEN CLOSED SATURDAY LONDON, W.C2. Tel. GER 0576
258
AN "EXTRA SHOT" lowered to check, the subsoil. Hard- COLOUR PICTURE OF
Surveyor VII, the last of the ness tests have also been made. HEMISPHERE
unmanned spacecraft which the Altogether this must rank as one; of The prime purpose of these vehicles
U.S.A. will send to the moon, was the most successful landings. is meteorological. In the case of
dispatched on a Sunday in January. For those who would like to ATS-3 an important forward step
As the previous Surveyors had examine the crater Tycho, will find it has been taken which extends the
covered the full extent of the en- just west of the moon's south pole. horizons of earth studies. For the
vironmental investigation, this one first time a colour picture of a whole
was an extra, so to speak. This MOON SHIP TEST RUN hemisphere has become available.
being the case a certain amount of The unmanned Apollo moonship It is the highest colour picture of the
risk could be taken with it so far as was put through severe tests to earth that has ever been taken.
landing was concerned. Accord- assess its readiness for the manned When the first astronauts return
ingly it was decided to choose a flight to the moon late next year. from the moon they wit! see the disc
landing place that was known to be The eight hour period of testing was of the earth grow bigger and change
very rough. rather longer than was originally colour as they approach. When
The three legged vehicle carries a thought to be required before launch they start their journey back the
larger pay load than any of its was a qualified success. earth will appear silvery with
predecessors, it has a rotating shadowy markings on it. As they
television camera, a small power come closer to home the disc will
shovel, a chemical sampler, four become colourful and three dimen-
magnets, and ten mirrors, including sional,
one for stereoscopic picture work.
The total weight is of the order of By Frank W. Hyde MINERAL DETECTION
1,480kg. This is of particular interest, for not
The spacecraft was directed at the only are the pictures obtained during
part of the moon never before There were certain difficulties the Gemini flights confirmed but even
explored by the 27 previous vehicles, which were overcome by man control more detail is recorded. Some of the
these include all the photographic, over-riding computer control. The colour pictures taken at the lower
hard and soft landed units. This computer stopped the firing of the levels with hand-held cameras
particular area of the moon is the first engine prematurely because of showed remarkable detail which did
crater with the craggy layer of debris figures it received not matching not appear in black and white
which was created when a huge exactly. Engineers on the ground pictures. Weather has been plotted
meteorite ploughed into the lunar however interpreted the figures as quite well with black and white for
surface probably millions of years indication of correct conditions of some years but now not only is there
ago. The debris may be from as the thrust build-up. The ground more detail in this respect, it is
much as 30km below the surface of controllers took over the'flight and furthermore found possible to detect
the moon and what is left is the turned what might well have been mineral deposits.
crater Tycho and a very extensive failure into success. Astronauts Naturally enthusiasm has suggested
rocky terrain. aboard a moonship would have done that the movement of fish could be
The vehicle landed about 30km this and it is concluded that this is a detected due to the change in colour
north of the crater, narrowly missing safe situation. The computer by of the water. The mixing of warm
a huge boulder which could have itself would say not safe and be streams and cold as well as fresh
ruined the landing. Since Tycho is unable to try again, the astronaut water mixing with saltwater has
one of the youngest of the craters on however could try again. already been shown by Gemini
the moon there is a good chance that The mission proved that the craft astronauts.
there will be less contamination of is spaceworthy: the attitude control The possibility of seeing the whole
the debris by other impacts or system can maintain stability during weather as it changes over a hemi-
other material from outer space. the firing of the ascent and descent sphere adds enormously to the
Examination and analysis of the engines, the guidance system is benefits of early warning of large
material of the lunar crust and that satisfactory, the 10,500 pound thrust scale weather. changes. Used in
lying below the crust should offer descent engine can brake the fall to conjunction with the faster orbiting
new clues to the origin of the moon. the moon and bring the ship down units the picture of world wide
gently, and the 3,500 pound thrust weather is complete.
SOIL ANALYSER ascent engine can back the ship off
More than 3,000 pictures were the moon to rejoin the mother ship in Wide-angle picture from Surveyor Yll
relayed to earth during the first two the lunar orbit for return to earth. shows clutter of rocks near the craft's
days of operation. Pictures were landing site In the rough lunar high-
also obtained of the releasing of the AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY lands some 30km north of the crater
soil analyser which had become Progress in aerial photography has Tycho. The horizon, northeast of the
hung up on its nylon cord. It was made some rapid strides with the vehicle. Is formed by a ridge charac-
thought that this was the result of operation of the Advanced Technology teristic of the undulating topography
dust thrown up on landing. An Satellite 3. This geo-stationary on the flank of the crater, which Is
attempt was made to release it by spacecraft set in orbit at 22,300 miles located near the moon's south pole
bumping it with the arm of the is in the position suggested a number
digger but this did not proove of years ago by Arthur C. Clarke who
successful. After experimenting pointed out that three such satellites
with a mock up at the Jet Propulsion would be able to cover the whole
Laboratory at Pasedena, engineers world in a communication network.
found that the most likely method The ATS-3 is situated at 0oN and
would be pressure rather than 470W, that is above the mouth of the
bumping. The command was so Amazon in South America and on
arranged and the analyser fell to the the equator. Because of its dis- ''
ground and immediately began opera- tance from the earth it remains mW
tion. stationary with respect to the earth, r,- * ■-
This type of analyser makes use of hence its name of geo-stationary
the Alpha radiation emitted by spacecraft. The previous satellite of
caesium to arrive at an analysis. A this type is over the Pacific and
trench was dug eighteen inches deep working well at its job of watching
into which the analyser could be the weather. is*
m WINKS

■>

FOR
'A i

am
SEMICONDUCTORS
By C.P.Guy

It is not so long ago since transistors were regarded used as a square wave generator or class B square wave
primarily as low power devices—transistor amplifiers amplifier, very-little power is dissipated by the transistor
for audio necessitated expensive devices if their output compared with an amplifier operating in class A with
power was to be much more than one watt. The the same signal output power. The reason for this is
general availability of high power devices now means that in class B, when driven by a square wave input
that the amateur can entertain building high power signal, the collector voltage will be high with low
amplifiers at moderate cost. collector current (i.e. transistor "cut off") or low
The main drawback of power transistors, however, is collector voltage with high current (i.e. transistor is
that it is able to generate more heat than Its own mass "saturated"). The net result is a very low average
can dissipate. This can have damaging consequences, power dissipation.
more so for germanium devices than silicon. It is often If the transistor is driven too fast by the square wave
essential to fit heat sinks and radiators, these being input, then the time taken for the transistor to switch
available commercially in a wide range of shapes and from cut-off to saturation will become an appreciable
sizes, but it is a simple matter to make one's own heat fraction of the pulse time and the average power will
sinks. Design or selection of a suitable heat sink is rise. Similarly, if the transistor is loaded too heavily,
quite simple and a few minutes' calculation may save a the output square wave will develop rounded comers,
couple of expensive output transistors from destruction. due to the internal resistance. Consequently, internal
heating occurs.
WHENCE DOES THE HEAT COME? Two interesting points arise from this: firstly, this
The amount of heat generated by a transistor depends partially explains the reason why the designer of digital-
largely on four factors: mode of operation; signal equipment (in which transistors are used as on/off
amplitude; bias level; waveform of applied signal. switches) is so interested in the cut-off frequency of the
When referring to a transistor data sheet, figures are device he uses, since a lower frequency device may
quoted for the maximum collector voltage and current generate considerable internal heat when driven by too
and maximum power dissipation. If the transistor is fast a train of pulses. He is, of course, also interested in

Hoximum thermal Typical thermal


resistance— resistarwe — - n

ns
H

i
i9l
Mountirw Base Temperature fC) ■■ ■ ■ mam
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Mounting Base Temperature Cc)
Fig. la. Transistor Derating Curve for germanium Fig. lb. Transistor Derating Curve for silicon

260
whether or not the device will "follow" the input wave- It is possible, in certain circuit configurations, for a
form reliably. transistor to destroy itself by a process known as
Since a large number of transistors are required in "thermal runaway". This is caused by the fact that
most digital equipment, coupled with the fact that leakage current increases with temperature.
equipment becomes physically smaller and smaller, It is possible, under certain circumstances, for the
careful thermal analysis is necessary and forced increase in leakage current to cause a further rise in
airflow is often employed. junction temperature which, in turn, causes more
The other interesting point to be deduced from the leakage current; both current and temperature interact
power transfer efficiency of class B amplifiers is the and increase until the maximum junction temperature is
apparently large output power of pulse-width exceeded. Quite soon after this occurrence, it becomes
modulated amplifiers. In these, the output transistors necessary to replace the transistor and re-design the
are used as on/off switches and, consequently, dissipate circuit to prevent a recurrence.
very little power. Therefore, low power devices can be Maximum ratings on a data sheet are generally
used for high output powers. quoted at a certain temperature, usually 25 degrees C.
Much audio equipment is operated in either class AB It is common practice to derate the power dissipation
or class A mode. Class AB operation eliminates linearly from the maximum power quoted at 25 degrees
crossover distortion inherent in pure class B amplifiers C to zero dissipation at the maximum operational
by the application of a slight forward bias which temperature. Typical graphs from a manufacturer's
produces a relatively small collector current (known as data sheets are shown in Figs, la and lb.
the quiescent current). Whenever current flows Alternatively, it may be specified that the power
through a resistor (the junction in this case), heat is dissipation should be reduced so much for each degree
generated, so that even the quiescent current will rise in temperature. This figure is the thermal con-
cause the junction temperature to rise to a steady state ductance of the device which is the inverse of the
temperature level. thermal resistance.
When the transistor is driven by a sine wave input
signal or the complex waveforms encountered in audio ELECTRICAL ANALOGUE TO THE
working, the average time that current is on is increased; OPERATION OF A HEAT SINK
power dissipation in each transistor is increased until it It is perhaps helpful to create an analogy between
reaches approximately 20 per cent of the maximum stage heat power and electrical power: it should be
output. This figure will vary according to the type of remembered that the heat sink attempts to lower the
input waveform (i.e. programme material). temperature of the device junction to the ambient
Class A operation results in a much higher amount of temperature (i.e. the temperature surrounding the
heat dissipation. The quiescent current is set at complete assembly). The junction temperature is
approximately the mid-point of the /c//b transfer usually referred to as Tj and that of ambient tempera-
characteristic. There is a relatively large "no-signal" ture as Tamil.
current (about half of the peak collector current) and, Consideration of the electrical circuit in Fig. 2 reveals
hence, the power dissipated at the junction is consider- that, in order to produce a flow of electrical charge
able. (coulombs) from one point to another, a difference in
electrostatic pressure (voltage) must exist. The rate of
GERMANIUM OR SILICON flow of charge may be given in coulombs per second, or
Germanium transistors are cheaper than silicon and amperes. Whatever impedes this flow is called electrical
possess more restrictive characteristics. In general, the resistance {R) and is measured in ohms (Q).
maximum junction temperature is in the order of 85 to Similarly, in order to produce a flow of heat energy
100 degrees C, whereas silicon yields figures in the order (joules) from one point to another, a difference in heat
of 175 to 200 degrees C. Germanium transistors also "pressure" (temperature) must exist. The rate of flow
have the added disadvantage that the leakage current is may be measured in joules per second, or watts. * What-
generally some orders of magnitude higher than in ever impedes this flow is known as thermal resistance (0)
silicon types. and is measured in thermal ohms (degrees centigrade
per watt). Table 1 shows the analogy between electrical
and thermal terms.
ELECTfilCAL CIRCWIT THERMAL EQUIVALENT

Tablet: COMPARISON OF ELECTRICAL


Ar AND THERMAL TERMS
Electrical Term Thermal Term
EMF V volts Temperature Differential
AT (degrees centigrade)
Charge coulombs Energy J joules
Earth Anbitnt Current. amperes Power P watts
Resistance ohms Thermal Resistance 6
AT - P&tot (degrees centigrade per
Ar ri OJtib. watt)
Conductance G mhos Thermal Conductance
© lot =©♦•©+©+©
jc ci 'a va (watts per degree centi-
grade)
Fig. 2. Electrical analogue to thermal circuit

261
i

it

« «5 20 25 30
Fig. 3. Typical flnned commercial heat Powtr Dissipation (Watts)
xlnk made of extruded aluminium
Fig. 4. Thermal characteristics of a finned heot sink

The thermal conductivity path from the transistor output,- Ptot may be deduced from the following
junction to the ambient air contains thermal resistances equation:
between the junction and the case (tfjc), between the (Vce)2
case and heat sink (0cs), also through an insulator in Ptot = ■ ... (4)
some cases (0ci), and finally from the heat sink to the 2Pl
ambient air (Osa). Due to these resistances, there will where Rl is the load resistance. &
always be a temperature differential (AT) between It has already been stated that the class A quiescent
junction and ambient and this is the quantity that must current results in a dissipation of approximately half the
be controlled and kept to a minimum. maximum power output. Under quiescent conditions,
It is possible to treat these thermal resistances in the the dissipation is maximum since a signal will swing the
same way as electrical resistances and obtain the operating point, and the product of current and voltage
equation: on either side of this line will result in less power
= 0Sc -j- ^cs + ^aa • • • (1) dissipation. An equation giving an approximation of
the maximum power dissipation can be derived from
or, if an insulating washer is used between the case of Equation 1.
the device and the heat sink: Pd - 0-5 x Ptot ... (5)
— $jc "h &ci + ^is "F ^sa • . (2) In class AB, the maximum output power is
where
n _ 2( Fee)2
^tot = total thermal resistance p'0, - w ■ • (6)
^jc ~ thermal resistance, junction to case
where
^CS — thermal resistance, case to sink
Fee = collector-to-collector voltage
0ei = thermal resistance, case" to insulator
Pec = collector-to-collector load
9is — thermal resistance, insulator to sink
Os* = thermal resistance, sink to ambient Power dissipation for transistors operated in class B
or AB varies according to signal, and it is necessary to
As a general rule, fca = ^ci- For transistors resort to integral calculus for accurate results. How-
without a heat sink, t?Cs and ^sa combine and become a ever, if a sine wave input is assumed, a reasonable
single quantity, f^a, the thermal resistance from the approximation is given by
case to ambient, Pd = 04 x Pav ... (7)
JUNCTION POWER DISSIPATION This is for two transistors in push-pull; therefore, each
The temperature differential depends on the amount transistor dissipates half this power, i.e.:
of power that the junction is dissipating. The average Pd = 0-2 x P8v ... (8)
power dissipation may be approximated as Notice that both these last two equations only refer to
Pd - /c X Fce ... (3) the average output power and not the maximum output
power.
where It is also necessary to know the new junction tempera-
Pd — average power dissipation in watts ture (Tj) once the power dissipation (Pd) and total
Ic = collector current thermal resistance (0tot) have been calculated. This will
be greater than the ambient temperature (Tkmb) and is
Vce = collector-to-emitter voltage given by
In a single ended class A output stage, the maximum 7j = P(d($tol) 4" Jamb ... (9)
262
These are the basic equations necessary for the design
or selection of a heat sink, and also for the selection of a
suitable transistor type. They will be referred to in a
typical design procedure described later in this article. II
ii
HEAT siNKS B
The simplest form of heat sink is a sheet of metal,
usually mounted vertically, with the device mounted in K
the centre. As the amount of power dissipation in the
increased in order to expose more surface area to the
device is increased, so the size of the heat sink must be
surrounding air. ? a
The heat sink material is an important consideration
—copper is somewhat better than aluminium but costs
more. In fact, the difference in cost outweighs that in ■■
performance and aluminium is probably found more
frequently in most applications. With any given heat
sink, three factors affect its performance as a heat ■■■■■■
dissipator. These are effective surface area, position, Biii
and surface finish. 20 40 60 M 100 120 140
Commercially available heat sinks generally have Area of One SkJe of Aluminium (Sqiit) Mounted Verticolly
fins so that a greater effective surface area is contained
in a smaller volume. With finned heat sinks, the Fig. 5. Heat transfer curve for frin sheet aluminium
effective surface area may be less than the actual
surface area but, as a rule, this is not important since the
manufacturers invariably quote figures or a graph
giving the thermal resistance of the sink to ambient.
A typical graph showing the dissipating charac- be seen that when the area reaches about 140 square
teristics of a commercially available unit (such as that inches the thermal resistance reaches a minimum, and
shown in Fig. 3) is shown in Fig. 4. Sometimes figures increasing the area beyond this limit does not
are given showing the dissipation capability for certain appreciably change the thermal characteristics.
temperature differentials. These reveal that the thermal The position (i.e. vertical or horizontal) has a marked
resistance becomes slightly higher as the temperature effect on the characteristics of the heat sink. It is
differential increases. For instance, the thermal usual to mount the sink vertically and the heat radiated
resistance of a finned heatsink was found to be 8 per from both sides is carried away by convection currents.
cent worse for a temperature differential of 60 degrees C, When the heat sink is mounted horizontally, heat is
as opposed to the figure for AT = 20 degrees C. dissipated normally from the upper surface but the air
For home made heat sinks, the heat transfer curve underneath is trapped by the sink itself. The graph of
shown in Fig. 5 may be used. This relates the thermal Fig, 4 illustrates the difference between horizontal and
resistance (dss,) against the area of one side of an vertical mounting.
aluminium sheet, iin thick, mounted vertically. It can The heat sink is generally mounted externally to the
equipment or, when mounted internally, in a ventilated
position so that convection currents can carry the hot
Table!: TYPICAL APPROXIMATE air upwards. If no ventilation is provided, the heat
THERMAL RESISTANCES dissipated from the sink will raise the ambient tempera-
ture within the equipment, perhaps to a dangerous
Approximate level.
Device or,.Heat Sink Thermal Resfstance The surface finish of the heat sink is not as important
Vertical Copper Sheet: 140 as one might suppose. Commercial heat sinks are
square thches £in thick- I -CC/W usually supplied either in bright aluminium or an
Vertical Aluminium Sheet: anodised finish. The best finish is matt black, but on a
140 square inches^in thick l-40C/W commercial heat sink a matt black finish may give only
Typical Finned Heat Sink an 8 per cent improvement over the plain anodised
(Figure 3) finish.
Mounted vertically I •80C/W It should be noted that the semiconductor device
Mounted horizontally 2-20C/W should be bolted as firmly as possible to the heat sink.
Typical Power Transistor fTOS Ideally, the pressure between the device and the heat
Case or similar) sink should be specified (i.e. as fixing screw torque) but
Mounting base 0-9aC/W
Cap 6-5°C/W this is rarely done. The use of silicon grease between
ypi« the device and sink will greatly improve the thermal
(TOS Case) 0-2oC/mW resistance. In some cases, when the case of the
Typical Low Power Transistor transistor is at a different potential to the heat sink, it is
(SO-2 Case) O^C/mW necessary to use a mica insulating washer; this increases
Typical Small Signal Transistor the thermal resistance between the case and sink (see
(TO 18 Case) 0-3oC/mW Table 2) but is necessary in order to insulate electrically
Mica Insulating Washer the heat sink from the transistor case.
Dry. 0-8oC/W to 0-5DC/W
With Silicon grease on both
sides 0-40C/Wto0-2S0C/W TRANSISTOR ENCAPSULATIONS
Most power transistors have the collector bonded
directly to a mounting base of substantial thickness.

263
ZO would be both uneconomical and impractical to provide
heat sinks for each heat generating component.
1-3 — ■
DESIGN METHOD
R s ■ Power Dissipation and Maximum Ratings
M mm ■1 i ■ For amplifiers, decide on the output power and class
r of amplification (A, B, or AB) to be employed.
* |2 i ■ ■■ ii ■ Select the transistor that would seem to be suitable.
Use Equations 4 or 6 to check that the maximum
■ 1 ■■■ i collector voltage will not have to be exceeded (remember
^ 10 that the peak voltage in class A will be twice the
X
» 0.B ■■■ i average voltage).
"3 i m■ Find the maximum power that the transistor will
have to dissipate using Equations 5 or 8. Check
k — ■
0.4 ■ L_ that the maximum coflector current rating is not
!S exceeded by using Equation 3. (Again, remember
0-2 —— — that the peak current in class A will be twice the
average current.) •
B mam
02 0-4 04 0-8 to t-2 Total Thermal Resistance—^tot
Airflow (tB/Min) Using Equation I, calculate the total thermal
resistance. For the moment, use a convenient value for
Fig- 6. Heot sink performance with forced airflow ds&—this may have to be changed later. 0jc and das
should be obtained from the manufacturer's data sheet;
they are generally quoted as a combined value since they
cannot be modified without redesigning the device.
Do not forget to include (9ci if an insulating washer is to
The semiconductor wafer itself is protected by a sheet be used (a value for this can be obtained from Fig. 3 if
metal cover bonded to the mounting base. Some- necessary) when Equation 2 is used.
times the internal space may be filled with a dehydrating
agent; in the smaller devices a plastics paste or silicon Junction Temperature—T\
rubber is used to make the device more robust and Use Equation 9 to find the new junction temperature.
improve the thermal conductance between the wafer of The ambient temperature should be the highest that the
the semiconductor material and the case. For this equipment is likely to be subjected to: 50 degrees C is a
reason, the figures quoted in Table 2 may vary between realistic figure for domestic equipment.
device types.
If the figures in this table are examined, it can be seen Derating
that there is a considerable difference in thermal Refer to the manufacturer's data sheet and use the
resistance when the transistor is mounted by its cap to figure calculated for the junction temperature to find
the heat sink, and when it is mounted by its base. This how much the transistor should be derated at this
is because the cap is made from thin sheet metal which temperature. If the transistor's maximum power
offers a greater resistance to heat conduction, whereas rating, once it has been derated, is exceeded by power
the base is much more substantial and consequently a which will be dissipated (Fa), then the following courses
better conductor of heat. of action can be taken.
Similarly, the smaller transistors have high thermal
resistance since they are fabricated from thin sheet 1. Increase the size of the heat sink (i.e. decrease
metal. It is apparent that there is little point in mount- ^sa).
ing the smaller transistors on a heat sink since it will do 2. If this is not practical, then forced airflow might be
little more than add a safety margin to the .device. It suitable for reducing 0sa.
will not greatly increase the power dissipation capability 3. Supply voltage (and consequently maximum
from that quoted in free air. output power) can be reduced.
4. Select a device with a higher dissipation capability.
FORCED AIRFLOW If the derated maximum transistor power rating is
Many commercially available instruments use forced higher than the power dissipated, then the converse
airflow to aid the cooling of devices. This has the of the above procedure could be considered, i.e. reduce
effect of helping the action of convection currents and the size of the heat sink.
means that a smaller heat sink can be used which A suitable heat sink may now be constructed from the
can be of importance in miniaturised equipment. graph of Fig. 5 if required: otherwise a commercial
The graph in Fig. 6 shows the improvement which can heat sink with a thermal resistance equal to, or less than
be obtained by an airflow of llb/min with a heat sink the calculated value may be selected.
that has a still air thermal resistance of 1*7 degrees C
per watt; this figure is reduced by about 60 per cent to CONCLUSION
0-6 degrees C per watt. As with the area of the heat Precise thermal analysis of a circuit would require a
sink, a limit is reached above which a higher airflow computer to solve all the possible factors involved.
pressure does not have an appreciably greater effect on This article has attempted to describe a simple approach
the thermal characteristics. This limit is about lib of to the subject and, of necessity, a number of approxi-
air per minute, and above this figure increased airflow mations have had to be made. Emphasis has been
mainly increases the noise level. placed on classes A and AB amplifier circuits since it is
Fans are more expensive than sheets of aluminium here that the constructor will most need to use a heat
and are generally only used when there are many sink. Calculations for other circuits (i.e. d.c. regulators)
(hundreds or even thousands) of components, where it may be derived from the equations given. ★
264
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ft each, 24 per dozen. Be first this year 8/6 each.
Printed Circuit Board Sdgestandard Connector solder
Midget Aeons for mains Indicators, etc., 1/3 each terminations.
or 12/- dozen.
Midget Belay twin 2S0 ohm colls, size approx. SEED AND PLANT RAISING
Soil heating wire and transformer. Suitable lor standard veroboard, etc.,326lncontacts,
long but easily lut.spacing 7/6 each;for
IJin x Iln x lin. 4 pair# changeover contacts size garden frame. 19/8 plus 4/8 post and ins. 80/- dozen.
7/8 each. 1000W lin Spiral replacement for moot fires.
1/8 eaehj J2/- dozen.
Wherethen
extra postage
order*isover
sot <3definitely
are poststated aa an
free. Below
13 add 2/9. Semiconductors add 1/- poet. ELECTRONICS (CROYDON) LIMITED
Over <1 post free. B.A,E. with enqnlrlea please. (Dept. P.E.) 102/3 TAMWORTH RD., CROYDON. SURREY (Opp. W. Croydon Stn.)
alto at 2U LONDON ROAD, CROYDON, SURREY SA£. with eoquirier plcate

265
KIN8 OF THE PAKS "TOP-MNTTf" ALL AT
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300 S/fl
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22/-
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2S303 10/- 26 Trans. Heatslnks fit T018. 8012, etc... 1]
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600 4/- 6/8 9/6 80/- 43 ZenerDtodes 260inWNPN3-12V 2 28701 SH. Trans. Texas NPN 10/- 60 Silicon 200mA sub-min. DIODES
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SCR's LARGEST
tOWESTEASQE
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OC36 Transistors Mullard Type 10/- 4 OA47 Gold Bonded
10/- 2 10A SOO PIV 811. Reels. 1S425R 10/- 16 Top-Hat Sil. Rect. 750mA
PIV lAMP 7A 16A 30A 14 Power Trans. OC20 100V 10/- 2 Zener Diodes 2SW 28 and 22V 16/-
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300 18/- 16/-
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4 OC72 Trahsistora 10/- 2 811.OC200 SII.811.Trans
Trans. KPN SOOMc/s ..,, 16/- 15/- 20 ZENERS I watt mixed volts
400 17/6 26/- $6/- 80/- 45 OC77 Transistors 10/- Power Rects, BYZ13 16/- 150 Mixed Sil. Berm. DIODES
800 80/- 40/- 46/- 96/- 1 8U. Power Trans.
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Diode NPN(TDS)
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OC44 1/9 7 CG62E Germ. Diodes Eqrt. OA71 10/- 10 New 30/-
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HOME RADIO (HITCHAM) LTD. Dept. PE, 187 London Road, Mitcham, Surrey, CR4 2YQ Phone 01-648 3282
DIALS PILOT LIGHT HOLDERS
List No. Description IBG43 PLH2Piloc lamp holders
ft tBG29 Elegant Bronze Dial 2|' M.E.S. with bracket, 3 for I /6
SALES dia. engraved M.W. and
L.W. Station Names 1/3 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS
IBG45 BTS43 Suitable for the
IBG30 Combinedknobanddial MuHardECL86ampiifier 3/6
li" clear penpex knob IBG46 BTS44 As above but
with separate gold
M.W. scale 1/6 IBG47 Resistor Packs, 60 7/6
Push Pull
DIODES assorted resistors. 30
tBG3l OAS Diode 2/6 different preferred
IBG32 High quality diode, values 6/-
suitable F.M. 1/6
JACKS SWITCHES
m IBG34 Jacks G.P.O. type 3/6 IBG48 Toggle Swi tch centre off
MICROPHONES 4 pole change over 5/6
IBG38 High quality Carbon IBG49 WS97 Bulgin SS94
Microphone inserts, 4 Heavy duty on/off
forSMOfor I0/-oreach 2/6 switch 2/6
MOTORS
IBGdO Small 4i-6 Volts D.C. 3/6 MAINS TRANSFORMER
IBG4I Small I x 1* x If, 1-3 I6GSI Primary 0-240V
Volts D.C. -4/6 L.T. sec. 7V at I amp
NEON LAMPS L.T. sec, 7V at } amp
IBG42 Small neon lamp suit- Ideal for Transistor
able 200-240 AC/DC 2/6 Power Pack 17/6
Every year we acquire a number of exceptional bargains which
we offer first of all to the, purchasers of our Catalogue, in the Send your cheque or P. O. with
form of a special bargain list. To give you a taste of these
tempting bargains we reproduce a part of the list here. this coupon today.'
The rest of the list consists of many other most interesting bar-
gain items—-Diodes, Neon Lamps, Switches, Transformers,
Valves, etc. We can supply the complete list for a shilling, but P/ease write your Name and Address in block capitals
better still, why not buy our 1968 Catalogue and get the list free.
.The Home Radio Catalogue is acknowledged as one of the finest NAME
electronic component catalogues available today—its'256 pages
list over 7,000 items, more than J ,300 of them illustrated. And
with the catalogue, in addition to ihe bargain list, you get 5 ADDRESS
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worth another five shillings if used to purchase a Weller Soldering
Iron, an order form and an addressed envelope. All this for 9/6!
(7/6 plus 2/- p. & p.;. Why wait? ■^KOME RADIO LTD.. Dept. PE. 187 London Road. Mitcham, CR4 2YQ

266
m

'•^SSETT
The output from a white noise generator may be If S4, S5, and S6 are left open and SI, S2, and S3 are
modified greatly by the action of audio filter used to control the output, more of the higher fre-
circuits. The circuit described here gives the effects of quencies are fed to the output, resulting in a sound like
howling, moaning wind and driving rain. No doubt, that of very heavy rainfall.
readers will make other effects as suggested by the
section on operation. ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED
Figs. 1 and 2 show suitable basic filter circuits using a L/C FILTER
transformer. An extension of this idea is shown in A simple voltage-controlled R-C filter was featured
Fig. 3, where different pitches of sound are selected by in the Rhythmic Sound Effects Unit (last month). A
operation of the switches to introduce different values of similar technique of electronic control can easily be
capacitor. This is basically a switched variable tuned applied to the circuit of Fig. 3, with the advantages of a
circuit to accept or reject a pre determined range of more gradual transition from one effect to another.
white noise frequencies. This gives added realism, and the possibilities of
When the higher values of capacitor are in circuit, the automatic and remote control over the filter circuit.
sound takes on a low moaning characteristic, whereas Fig. 4 shows this modified circuit, in which the
the lower values give higher pitched louder effects. switches (S1-S6 in Fig. 3) are replaced by transistors.

AfWPUT pAj-DWUT
tti r*«n|
l)
nMFX-^FTxToJ=
Ibtack ftflL wtnU
0.0) to v1/ 7/ / /
O^pF Y j 7777
X
Fig, I. Simple basic idea
of the filter using only the Fig. 3. Extending the two simple versions for giving
transformer and one different pitch sounds
capacitor from 0 0/uF to
OlfiF
nAJ? A.F .
imf ^ . Txrm/f

.0005
•IpF
X
Fig. 2. Alternative circuit
to that In Fig. I, The
capacitor value can be
between O OOSfiF and 0-l/xF
according to the effect
required

267
I.
J_iri s\ 9SK1
S«2
T_9V \! sab u9SK3 1J UoSK5 <>SK6 5X7
tffteti Output

27 27
Wl ka
ssoa =0047 =01 aoot =0047 VW4
VW3

JK 00 ctz 03
200
sea cr YH Tfil V*2 nc U^S
m VM
TK4 TR5
VKT
TR7
10
0424 ktt 0424 0424
3 I T I 0424
Input Am Whit* Nats*
Fig. 4. Final circuit of the electronically controlled fitter. The bias points here are terminated in sockets but by the
addition of a switch in each bias path the unit can be triggered from a 9V battery. No other battery is necessary

Base bias is supplied to each transistor through its own the associated capacitor; conversely, when the transis-
bias control network; thus electronic control over the tor conducts, it enables the capacitor to work as a
filter is achieved by supplying the bias input points reactive component, its reactance varying according to
from suitable d.c. positive sources' A 9 volt battery the frequency applied.
may be used, connected by way of switches to each bias
input point, although higher and lower voltages, CONSTRUCTION NOTES
within the limits of the transistor characteristics, can be The circuit of Fig. 4 has six of these stages; the
used quite successfully. capacitor in each may be switched in or out by the
The use of transistors without any obvious source of. associated transistor, according to the amount of base-
d.c. collector supply may seem to be a little unusual. bias received. If the transistor is partly conducting
With this type of circuit the emitter and the collector the capacitor will be brought into use with an effective
are considered as a short circuit to a.c. when the series resistance formed by the collector-emitter path of
transistor is switched on. the transistor.
When the trans.stor is biased on at its base, it will For automatic or semi-automatic operation, the bias
pass current between the other two electrodes, emitter supplies may be derived from triggered bistable
and collector. It is conventional to use the transistor
as a one-way switch passing d.c. current in one direction COMPONENTS...
only between collector and emitter; in this respect the
bi-directional capabilities of the device are largely Resistors
ignored and often forgotten. When a.c. is applied RI-7 IkO 10%, i-W carbon (7 off)
under certain working conditions the current through
collector and emitter alternates its direction in sympathy Potentiometers
with the positive and negative half-cycles on the a.c. VR1-7 I0k£2 linear carbon (7 off)
signal. VR8-I4 50ktl log carbon (7 off)
Capacitors
ONE STAGE Cl OOI^F C4 OOOSmF
Consider any one of the transistors in Fig. 4; the C2 0 047/iF C5 OOI^F
working collector supply for the transistor is obtained C3 0-lftF C6 0-047/iF
from the audio signal itself on the positive part of the C7^13 10/iF upwards depending on attack and
cycle, by way of a capacitor in the collector circuit decay required {see text). All electrolytic
Due to the low saturation voltage of the transistor used, (7 off)
the transistor will act almost as a short-circuit when Transistors
biased fully'on, as the collector-to-emitter path will be TRI-7 C424 (S.G.S. Fairehild) or ME4I03 (7 off)
seen by the external circuit as a very low resistance. T ransformer
During the negative going part of the cycle the TI Standard 3:1 intervalve transformer (Radio-
collector will receive a negative potential by way of the spares)
capacitor. Once again, as the base current supplied is Switches
assumed to be sufficient to bias the transistor fully SI-7 Single pole, on-off, toggle (7 off). Can be
"on", the emitter-to-collector path is seen by the replaced by wander plug sockets (see text)
external circuit as a very low value resistance. 58 Single-pole changeover, push for changeover
During the full cycle one side of the capacitor in the (Bulgin type SM357) or double-pole changeover
collector is effectively grounded to a.c. via the transistor, (Bulgin type SRM270)
as long as the transistor is biased "on". The capacitor 59 Single pole, on-off, toggle
will then appear across the output in conjunction with Miscellaneous
part of Tl. However, when the transistor ceases to White noise generator (as in January issue)
receive base bias current, it will then no longer conduct, Aluminium chassis I2ln x Sin x 2£in
and the capacitor in the collector circuit will no longer Bias supply—9V battery
be able to pass audio current. Thus when the transistor Audio jack sockets (2 off)
ceases to conduct it temporarily cuts off the action of
268
TO 18 TO 24V SUPPlY
JKI wtm

jrT—A"—J
VRM VRtJ VRIZ VR-r (mo rVR9 VRP
0,1 TR7 c5 /.R2
1

im 012

TWO SHORT BUS BARS 7^


® I/® ©
ONE LONG BUS BAR
VR7 VR6 VR5 VR4 VRJ Vn2 VR,

TRG TRS TR4 TR3 TR2 TR1


Fig, 5. Layout and wiring of the complete unit. The switches SI-7 can be replaced by sockets for external switching.
Transistor TR7 Is labelled by the component; other transistors are labelled Immediately below the drawing for clarity.
The chassis size Is I Jin x Sin x 2|ln and drilled according to the schedule below. Switch S8 shown here Is type SRM270.
Alternatively, type SM357 with four tags can be used

circuits, ring-counters, or a number of multivibrators Fig. 5 is reproduced here half scale.


similar to that described in the Rhythmic Sound Effects
Unit. Holes for switches SI-S8—^tn dia.
CONSTRUCTION NOTES Holes for potentiometer VRI-VRl4~§in dia.
The circuit of Fig. 4 may be built in an 18 s.w.g.
aluminium chassis 12m x 5in X 2^in (Fig. 5). The Holes for jacks jKl and JK2—|in dia.
bias points may be connected to a suitable bias source
(which may be an internally mounted 9V battery) by
way of the switches S1-S7 mounted on the chassis. Fixings for transformer—nuts and bolts to suit the
Alternatively, standard sockets may be used for component used.
connection of the bias points to an external switching
circuit, and may be mounted at the points otherwise The grommet is mounted in a lln hole.
occupied by the switches.
Component positions are not critical but it is The photograph below shows the tag strips used to
obviously easier to minimise wiring as much as possible. suspend the bus bars.
Additional stages can be added if required using
identical configurations to those shown but with
different values of capacitor in the collector leads. continued on page 288

mTu

a

k--

269
(

Transistor Amplifier

I r\ I FOUR CIRCUITS
I I \J FUSING 2N2926

By A.Foord

Now that high gain npn silicon transistors are


readily available at low cost, they can be used in
place of germanium types, even at audio frequencies.
The 2N2926 is a typical example of a planar silicon vo M
transistor intended for general purpose applications, kQ
and can be obtained in five categories of current gain,
each with a spread of two to one. Its ratings are given i; ::
in Table 3.1. W,
This article outlines four simple audio circuits which ; if 41
«* ■ mi#*
are sometimes used in association with those described
earlier in this series. mi ti
m i
EMITTER FOLLOWER -
Fig. 3.1 shows a common emitter amplifier, followed
by an emitter follower. The emitter follower stage is l-i,,' OUTPUT
s
generally used for two reasons: to prevent the output
loading the collector of the amplifier stage and to R5< I
enable loads as low as 1 kilohm to be fed. The w,.t
maximum output of this circuit is IV r.m.s. into
1 kilohm. c i i
The three possible positions for connecting the
emitter decoupling capacitor enables different degrees
of local negative feedback to be applied to the first stage, SJippfc ttmpjUPer using a common emitter
to reduce the gain if required. id emiifer follovfer stage, Capoeftor C2 has three«
In position A the emitter is completely decoupled (no aftemotlve connections for settlng;cfie degree of a.c.
feedback) and the amplifier has an input impedance of 'dback. Position Is equivalent to having no
eapacftpr at maxlmiim feedback Position B
6 kilohms for a typical gain of 300 times, depending on of feedback Position Agifds*
current gain of the particular transistor used. Without
the 220pF capacitor (C3) in circuit the upper 3dB down
point is 90kHz; with the 220pF capacitor the band- a ?
width is reduced to 27kHz. The lower 3dB down point
is at 25Hz, m i
In position B the emitter is only partially decoupled KO m
and negative feedback through R4 reduces the gain to
75 times at an input impedance of 10 kilohms.
In position C the gain is 10 times, feedback being
nearly 100 per cent through both R4 and R5. The input
Table 3.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF 2N2926
TRANSISTOR
m ■?
Maximum collector-emitter voltage 18V kQ kfl
Maximum reverse base-emitter voltage 5V
Maximum mean collector current 100mA
Power dissipation in free air at 250C
ambient temperature 200mW
Gain bandwidth product (typical) I20MHz OUTPUT
Colour A.C. current D.C. current
Code gain at 10V gain at 4-5V
2mA (kHz 2mA (typical) f; 1 M ;

Brown 35 to 70 36 l|—
Red 55 to 110 62
Orange 90 to 180 115 fig.: '-1,'•• •■ •."V, * -■.
Yellow (50 to 300 155 #: when
b&tw&Gri't network
Green 235 to 470 215

270
+(ZV +tBV
\-bmK J-SmA

R, « TR1 TRZ^i
22uF TRl TR2
£B292t-A^K/ C2 S'2kQ (yttlowqrqrMi^
+ 6V
INPUT 82 kQ
270 kQ 82 W1
OUTPUT
—Uh^'
kA. RB22^
1- 100
I
Fig. 3.3, Times ten fixed gain amplifier
fig. 3.4. Amplifier providing three fixed gains
through tfie input resistors
Tronsislor
Fig. 3.6b. The correct method Is to
position the input resistor close to fig. 3.6a. To avoid stray
the transistor Tronsutor capacitance affecting a.c.
stability the Input resistor
Pr«vi«i5 should not be remote from
stags the base of the transistor
Ser4«m<) as here
l<a<J from
prtvioussloqe
Resistor next h.
to transistor
impedance is also 10 kilohms. The output Impedance
is less than 50 ohms in each case. Screened
connsctirig Resistor remote
The frequency response of this circuit is +0 — 3dB, lead from transistor
25Hz to 27kHz withC3 connected. If.C3 is disconnected,
the frequency response is modified to +0 — 3dB, 25Hz FIXED GAINS AMPLIFIER
to 90kHz. A more elaborate arrangement, capable of giving
Since this type of circuit has a high input impedance various^ fixed gains and a higher output current is
and a low output impedance, several can be cascaded shown in Fig. 3.4. Characteristics here are:
without interaction. Maximum output IV r.m.s. into IkO load.
Output impedance less than 500.
PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR Frequency response -f 0 — 3dB, 20H2 to 100kHz.
A very similar amplifier circuit can be modified to Input 1—gain 60 times, input impedance l-2kO.
provide a phase shift oscillator (Fig. 3.2). There is a Input 2—gain 10 times, input impedance 8-2kn.
180 degree shift in the amplifier and another 180 degree Input 3—gain 1 times, input impedance 82kO,
phase shift in the ladder network (Cl, C2, C3, R5, R6) In each case the source impedance must be less than
so that the complete circuit oscillates at about 400H2. the value of the input series resistor if the full gain of the
VR1 should be increased from minimum gain until the circuit is to be realised, so this circuit must be fed from
circuit just oscillates. an emitter follower. It can be made to have a gain
Output is from 0 to IV peak-to-peak set by VR2. variable from 1-6 times to 60 times by replacing the
The output is tapped from the emitter chain {R7, VR2) input resistor by a series variable resistance of
of the second transistor to avoid loading the amplifier 50 kilohms and a fixed resistor of 1 kilohm.
and because IV output is usually enough for most audio Construction of all these circuits can follow normal
testing purposes. audio practice; printed circuit boards are ideal. For
TIMES TEN AMPLIFIER the circuits in Figs. 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5 it is particularly
important to keep the leads on the base of the first
The common emitter, emitter follower arrangement transistor short. When connecting one of these
in Fig. 3.1 has series local feedback applied to the first amplifiers up the resistor should be at the end near the
stage to reduce its gain if required. Negative feedback first stage, any stray capacitance up to 20pF or so from
can also be applied in a different manner (see TRl base to earth could cause unwanted oscillations.
Fig. 3.3). Here feedback is applied from the emitter of When using screened input leads, follow the preferred
the second transistor to the base of the first. For this method of connection (Fig. 3.6) with the input series
arrangement, performance details are: resistor close to the TRl base to minimise stray
Gain 10 times. capacitance effects between screen and core.
Maximum output IV r.m.s. into 2-2kn load. Part 4 next month is the beginning of a deeper
Output impedance less than 500. investigation into the properties and effects of negative
Input impedance 27k O. feedback in audio amplifiers. Some examples of
Frequency response +0 — 3dB, 20H2 to 80kHz. practical circuits are included to illustrate this.

271
SEMICONDUCTOR

5—LIGHT SENSITIVE DEVICES By G. |. KING

Having shown that current carriers multiply due When reverse voltage is applied across the diode, the
to thermal activity, this month's article shows barrier potential is increased, but some carriers under
how a similar action takes place under the influence of this condition generate sufficient energy to interchange
light. Increasing light intensity releases more "free across the junction. This is called leakage current or,
holes" .or free electrons into the crystal. This makes in a photodiode, it is referred to as dark current,
the semiconductor less resistive allowing it to pass a . When light falls on the photodiode junction, hole-
greater electric current. electron pairs are developed on both sides. The
This could upset the normal operation of a transis- potential at the barrier or depletion layer effectively
tor; most ordinary transistors are designed to exclude "sweeps" the hole carriers one way and the electron
light. Those in a glass construction, for instance, are carriers the other, thereby causing a flow of current
coated with an opaque paint. through the diode, which is called light current. This
If some of the paint is removed from the case, and the is equal to the dark current (leakage) plus the photo-
emitter-base junction is subjected to an increase in electric current.
incidental light, the collector current will be shown (on The photodiode, therefore, is the semiconductor
a milliammeter) to increase quite substantially. How- equivalent of the photoelectric cell. It consists
ever, some transistors are lightproofed internally, basically of a piece of germanium or silicon with two
making it impossible to carry out this experiment. regions, p- and n-type. The whole is encapsulated in
A special type of transistor has been developed which an insulated container, designed to allow the passage of
is deliberately sensitive to light and will act as an light rays on to the pn junction.
amplifier at the same time. Known as a junction In action the diode is biased for reverse conduction.
phototransistor, it is subjected to light rays which pass Fig. 5.1 shows typical characteristics of such a diode.
through the case and fall on the base-emitter junction.
In circuit, this effectively changes the base current As we have point-contact diodes, so there are
which is then amplified by normal transistor action. also point-contact photodiodes. Such a device in
Another light sensitive device, called the photodiode, elementary form is shown in Fig. 5.2. It comprises a
works on a similar principle, but has no amplifying slice of p- or «-type germanium with a single point
action. Another device, the light dependent resistor contact "cat's whisker", and its characteristics are
or cadmium sulphide cell, also presents a lower resis- similar to those of a junction type.
tance when subjected to increased light rays but does LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR
not amplify.
The full title of the light dependent resistor (l.d.r.) is
PHOTODIODE cadmium sulphide photoconductive cell.
When a pn junction, is formed there is an interchange Cadmium sulphide is a crystal which, when shut off
of mobile carriers across the junction which builds up a from light rays, has an intrinsically high resistance (low
potential barrier or depletion layer. conductivity) because the majority of its electrons are
tightly bonded to its lattice atoms and very few are
available for conduction. The few that are at hand,
ty p* atneartuB Coti however, give the material its high dark resistance.
•hutor When radiations within the light spectrum fall upon
400- - Urn tWMtn the crystal the energy of radiation is absorbed by the
lattice and a number of electrons are released to become
current carriers, depending on the light intensity.
6 IK I Light •O Conductivity increases and it becomes quite a good
conductor when the light is bright. Hence the term
light resistance refers to its minimum resistance under
Oorit the influence of light.
Aeeiptoo Enhancement of action results when the basic
crystal is doped with an "activating" agent, such as
copper, silver or gallium. The doped crystal is
Fig. 5,2. Functional dia- powdered, then pressed into small tablets, which are
Fig. 5.1. Characteristics gram of a point contact sintered on to the surface of low resistance metal to
of a typical photodiode photodiode form electrodes.
iii iii iii i .in urn
Lamp colour temperature = 2700 K
vm

gw4
(mW f> (ooqw*
■ 7 SOW*
500 ux

(V)
Ffg, 5.4. CoHector characteristic of a photo-
| transistor over a range of tight intensities
HluminotHKi (lu*

Fig. 5J. Graph showing the typical resistance of


a cadmium sulphide cell for different incidental Supply voltage
light intensities
Supply voltagg

To this end the electrodes are arranged into the form Rm


of an interleaving comb-like pattern, as shown in the
heading picture. Glass or plastic encapsulation is
adopted with transparency for the passage of light.
The curve in Fig. 5.3 shows how a typical cadmium
sulphide cell resistance falls with increase in illumination. Ptwtocdl Photoce 1
This curve excludes the rise and fall time aspects
which are of little concern to the beginner.
PHOTOTRANSISTOR ^ (Q)
The phototransistor is equivalent to the combination
of a photodiode and a transistor, with the diode being
represented by the base emitter junction. The transis- Fig. 5J. Two simple examples of operating a
tor action offers substantially improved sensitivity over relay from a cadmium sulphide cell
the photodiode.
Fig. 5.4 gives the characteristics of a typical photo-
transistor. Notice how greatly the collector current
(/c) increases with increase in illumination (lux), and
how the sensitivity is influenced over a range of -i?y
collector/emitter Voltage (Fes), with most influence %
taking place at the higher lux values.
Phototransistors are encapsulated to the pattern of
ordinary transistors, but an integral glass lens takes the photOMll
place of the plastic or metal top.
TW
L.D.R. APPLICATIONS
The light dependent resistor can be arranged to TR2
operate a relay in response to changes in light intensity,
as shown in Fig. 5.5. In Fig. 5.5a the relay is energised
only when light falls on the cell, for then its resistance
is low and the relay current high.
In Fig. 5.5b the cell effectively shunts the relay when Parking
illuminated; the relay is energised only when the Bght
illumination is removed.
Light dependent resistors of sufficient power rating
are available for direct relay operation, but greater
sensitivity is achieved by the addition of transistors,
one of which can act as a switch and replace the relay if Fig. 5.6. The photocell can also be used to control
necessary, as shown in Fig. 5.6. This is the circuit of a the working point of a transistor, which in turn
car parking light control. operates a switching transistor and lamp
When the cell is fully illuminated TR1 base current 4
falls, but as the illumination falls, base current rises in
TR1 due to the cell resistance rising. This makes TR1
collector, and hence TR2 base, more negative. TR2
then passes emitter collector current and the bulb
comes on.
An interesting Mullard development incorporating a
lamp and light cell, called a "Luxistor", is worth
mentioning. This works on a similar principle and
can take the place of a volume control in an audio
amplifier. By adjusting the brightness of the bulb, a
noise-free change in volume level can be obtained.
The device is also used for the remote control of
television camera equipment.
PHOTOTRANSISTOR APPLICATIONS
The phototransistor can be used to operate a relay or
switching transistor; the set-up for direct relay operation
is shown in Fig. 5.7. However, the base can be
connected to a preset potentiometer (as shown in Fig. This month's article explores the light dependent
5.8) to provide an adjustment of the light-to-dark resistor (l.d.r.) and its use in controlling a light-
current ratio. This makes the device more sensitive to operated transistor switching circuit,
changes at veiy low intensity light levels. The preset
potentiometer is adjusted to the collector current cut-off CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
point with the phototransistor "blacked out". Any The circuit (shown in Fig. I) uses a light dependent
slight increase in light would then produce collector resistor (l.d.r.) XI to control base current. The l.d.r.
current and activate auxiliary circuits. has a "dark" resistance of about one megohm; when
Typical applications include burglar alarm systems, light is applied to the ceil this resistance will drop to
edge detectors, card reading machines, level indicators, 80 to 300 ohms.
batch counters, infra-red detectors and so. forth. It From Ohm's Law it can be seen that when the
can also be used as a linear light meter, and a suitable photocell resistance drops, the base current, which is
circuit for this is shown in Fig. 5.9. shared by TR1 and TR2, switches these transistors into
saturation.
+24V These transistors are in parallel so that the load
current through the bulb is shared by the transistors.
f: U ' IHfl The maximum collector current for each transistor is
+24V 200mA. Since the bulb is rated at 0*3A or 300mA it is
necessary to divide this bulb current to ensure that these
000 oumir transistors do not overheat. This sharing will be
TRi slightly unbalanced dependent on the individual gains
VRI of the transistors.
BPX2S SMQ IPX 25
lost bias // LIGHT FEEDBACK
QdjUJt The condition of saturation is also known as
"bottoming" which means that the transistors are fully
switched and almost all the supply volts appears
across the bulb.
The action of latching or holding of the bulb on is
Fig. 5.7 (above). created by the light being fed back from the bulb
With the base wire filament to the l.d.r. This regenerative condition
left dls-connected maintains the switched action and can only be
the phototransistor
can be made to , BCYTO
operate a relay BPX2S
direct in the col- LP)
lector lead // TR1 5-5V
ocei O-JA
0RP12

Fig. 5.8 (above TR2


0C81
right). Base bias
control Is applied 470
by Rl and VRI e-EMITTER spPVrN
b ~ BASE VSoS)
e-COLLECTOR W
Fig. 5.9 (right). O-IOOuA Fig. I. Circuit diagram of the light operated
Simple linear fight switch. The numbered circles represent the
meter using a terminal strip connections; arrow heads
phototransistor represent crocodile clips
^□Q©[hi

Mystify your friends with this "electronic candle"


Light it with a match and extinguish it with the fingers!
terminated by "snuffing" or blocking the light to the
l.d.r. The l.d.r, will then return to its "dark" resistance
and the circuit will be switched off. 5X5 HAROBOARO SPRING CUP TO TR2
BACK PANEL /rirv^ SECURES BY1
CONSTRUCTION
The construction is quite simple and follows the same
general procedure as described in previous articles in BV1
this series.
Careful reading of the text and close study of the
illustrations should be undertaken at each stage of fexVaxiVa v
construction, and all connections should be carefully BL0CK(20FF)v
rechecked before connecting the battery. Particular TRl
care should be taken to ensure that the transistor leads
are'wired to the correct terminals, as they can be
damaged if wired incorrectly. 40 *
Commence the construction by first marking and , 5u HARDBOARD 3/4 DIA. FIXING HOLE
cutting the baseboard and two hardboard panels to size. PARTITION FOR RUBBER GROMMET
A fin diameter hole should be drilled I in up from the
bottom edge and 2iin from one side of the Sin x 4iin
hardboard panel. This hole is to receive a rubber
grommet which houses the l.d.r.
Once the baseboard and panels have been cut the LP1 HOLDER
next step is to wire the four-way terminal strip before 5 X 5 X Vs SOFTWOOD BASE
mounting on the baseboard.
WIRING
The circuit diagram (Fig. 1) has numbered circles,
which represent the terminal strip connections; these Fig. 2. Constructional and wiring details. Note the
are also indicated on the wiring diagram in Fig. 2. transistor connections—refer to key diagram given In Fig. /

COMPONENTS...
Transistors
TRI OC8I TR2 0C8I
Photocell
XI ORPI2
Miscellaneous
BY I 4-5 volt fiat pack battery
LPI S-S volt bulb
One m.e.s. bulb holder MINATURE
One four-way plastics terminal strip CROCODILE CLIPS
One spring clip for holding battery {2 OFF)
Wooden baseboard Sin x Sin x ^in
Hardboard panels Sin x Sin and Sin x 4iin
Two wooden blocks ^in x fin x Ifin 6 VOLT RELAY
Four miniature crocodile dips (SEE TEXT)
Woodscrews for mounting panels, terminal strip
and spring clip (No. 4, 8 off) (No. 6, 6 off)
Plastic covered, single core copper wire
Total cost £1 approx. Fig. 3. Wiring details for adding a relay in place of the
bulb LPI to control an external circuit
(Left). The transistors and When the two transistors and link wire, between
link wire are positioned terminal 2 and 4, have been positioned it only remains to
in the terminal strip insert the four interconnecting leads. When these
leads have been positioned the terminal screws should
be tightened and each wire should be given a slight
(Below). All components pull to ensure it has been held fast.
and Interconnecting leads Check the terminal strip wiring against the wiring
are wired to the terminal diagram, then screw on to the baseboard with two |in
strip prior to mounting No. 4 countersunk wood screws in the position shown
on the baseboard in Fig. 2. • The battery clip is screwed in position with a
iin No. 6 countersunk wood screw, and the bulb holder
mounted on the baseboard with two lin No, 4 counter-
sunk wood screws.
One of the leads from terminal 3 is now taken to one
of the connecting screws on the bulb holder.
Another lead, with a miniature crocodile clip fixed to
one end, should be taken from the other bulb holder
connecting screw and clipped on the negative terminal
on the battery.
The partition should now be fixed to the baseboard
by two ^in X ^in x l|in wooden blocks. The blocks
are screwed to the partition by two -£in No. 6countersunk
wood screws and fixed to the baseboard by four fin
No. 4 countersunk wood screws. Note that two nicks
are made in the bottom edge so that the leads from the
bulb holder can pass under the partition.
FINISHING
Insert the light cell carefully in the rubber grommet
and mount in the ^in diameter partition hole.
The other lead ffom terminal 3 should now be fixed
to one of the l.d.r. leads by a miniature crocodile clip.
The lead from terminal 4 should be clipped to the
remaining l.d.r. lead by a miniature crocodile clip. The
& battery positive lead from terminal 1 is clipped to the
K positive terminal on the batteiy by a miniature crocodile
clip. This completes the wiring and it only remains to
insert the bulb in the holder and the circuit will be
ready to function.
Finally, screw the back panel to the back edge of the
baseboard by three iin No. 6 countersunk wood
screws. Top and side panels can be stuck in position
on the two panels .with an impact adhesive to enclose the
components completely. The other side piece should
be screwed to the side of the baseboard to allow access
Mounting the m.e.s. bulb holder on the baseboard to the battery for replacement.
To trigger the circuit into action shine a light into the
sensitive face of the l.d.r. The small bulb will light
instantly but will not go out until the light path to the
m l.d.r. is blocked. When not in use the bulb should be
removed to prevent unnecessary drain from the battery.
ANOTHER APPLICATION
The device just described demonstrates very
effectively the action of the light dependent resistor—in
a novel and amusing way. This same circuit can also
be applied to a more useful purpose by substituting a
Side view of the 6 volt relay for the lamp LP1. The relay contacts may
completed light then be used to control some external circuit. See
operated switch Fig. 3. It is necessary to use an additional 4,5V battery
in series with BY1 to provide an adequate supply for the
relay coil. A suitable relay is the Keyswitch Relay
type MH2; 6V 185 ohm coil, with two sets of
changeover contacts.
Next month: Another simple "d.i.y." device
ELECTRONIC THERMOMETER (March 1968)
Page 198—The first two paragraphs at the top of the
left hand column should be inserted after the first paragraph
under the side heading "CALIBRATION".
in single or double cell units and are
designed for printed circuit or tag-
board assembly.
mnRKEi' LITERATURE
A 20-page guide, described as a
Products Portfolio from Newmarket
Transistors Ltd., gives in tabular form
plhcei details of Newmarket's semiconductor
devices. The information contained
Items mentioned In this festure are usually in the portfolio covers the complete
available from electronic equipment and com- standard range of industrial ger-
ponent retailers advertising in this magazine. manium and silicoh devices, pack-
However, where a full address is gfven, aged circuits and film-attachment
enquiries and orders should then be made direct devices.
to the firm concerned. A colour coding system enables
particular ranges and individual
COMPONENTS components to be quickly and
accurately located, for checking or
The new TS/1 toggle switch, specification purposes. Coloured
manufactured by Rendar Instruments headed pages identify the five major
Ltd., Victoria Road, Burgess Hill, product ranges and the Company's
Sussex, is designed as a single-pole special services which includes
changeover switch combining high Circuit board handle from Yero characteristic selection of devices,
performance with small physical size Electronics matched sets, multiple transistors apd
and reliability. CV devices.
It has been tested for an operational Bound in linen textured board
life of over 30,000 cycles at 24 volts with a substantial plastic spine, the
3 amps, has an initial contact resist- Newmarket Transistors Products
ance of 5 milliohms, and is also Portfolio may be obtained direct
suitable for use at 250 volts a.c. from the Sales Manager, Newmarket
mains voltage with a maximum Transistors Ltd., Exmng Road, New-
current of J.5A. market, Suffolk.
The neat appearance and compact Taylor Electrical Instruments (Thorn
dimensions of the switch make it Group) of Slough, has published the
suitable for control panels on audio second edition of its Valve Data
equipment, car dashboards and other Manual for the Taylor Valve Tester
electrical equipment. The |m dia- Model 45D.
meter body requires only lin depth Data for approximately 400 valves
behind the panel. The dolly is TS/I toggle switch have^been added in this new addition;
available in a variety of colours, manufoctured by existing data has been amended where
Vero Electronics Ltd., of Chandlers Rendar Instruments necessary to give the latest informa-
Ford, Hampshire, have added a new tion available.
printed circuit board handle. No. The Valve Data Manual provides
Ch/C/10036, to their existing range data for many thousands of valves,
of circuit board accessories. including cathode ray tubes, which
This handle is manufactured In can be tested on the Model 45D. It
black Polycarbonate and is attached forms a rapid and convenient guide
to the board by rivets or screws and to valve testing and overcomes the
nuts. necessity for consulting individual
A new series of panel mounted manufacturer's data sheets.
sealed push-button microswitches Copies are available from Taylor
have been introduced by the Plessey Jfu Electrical Instruments, Montrose
Components Group's Microswitch Avenue, Slough, Buckinghamshire,
Unit at Titchfield, Hampshire. price £2 5s per copy.
Known as the type 76.2510 Series, Vitality Bulbs Ltd. are now issuing
a one- or two-pole double-break or a catalogue (list No, 66) containing
changeover switch is fitted as a Plessey push-button microswitch details of their sub-miniature, minia-
detachable assembly. Compression ture, indicator and vehicle bulbs.
of the actuator tabs enables die basic Copies can be obtained free from
switch assembly to be removed, Vitality Bulbs Ltd., Beeton's Way,
thereby facilitating easy installation Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk.
and wiring. A catalogue which is available free
A new photo-cell lamp assembly from the M-O Valve Co. Ltd., from
which is already being used in Green Works, London, W,6. may
America by the guitar and audio interest the more professional readers.
amplifier manufacturers, is being Entitled "Microwave Tubes and
marketed in this country by Hird- Devices" it is a 20-page short form
Brown Ltd., Flash Street, Bolton, catalogue covering a wide range of
Lancashire. electronic tubes and cathode ray
Typical applications of the device devices* for industrial and military
include audio switching, light- use.
operated volume controls, tremolo This illustrated catalogue presents a
for musical instrument amplifiers, summary of the characteristics of
high voltage decoupling and latching microwave tubes and other devices.
circuits, etc. Products covered include S-band,
There are two versions of the C-band and X-band travelling wave
photo-cell lamp assembly, a high tubes; S-band and X-band mag-
resistance one and a low resistance Photo-cell lamp assembly marketed netrons, duplexing devices and solid
one. Both versions can be supplied by Hird'Brown state sources.
277
They take their pursuits very seriously at "Camp
Technology" but time is also found for "light-
hearted activities. Such is the keynote to the success of
the Summer Camp held each year in the Blue Mountains
of New South Wales, Australia.
The "Camp" is attended by 45 high school boys
about 70 miles from Sydney and is run by the Inter
School Christian Fellowship, a branch of the Scripture
Union.
The boys are keen to learn the theoretical and
practical aspects of electronics and photography; this
is evident from the photographs shown here.
INSTRUCTION
All the staff on the electronics side are active pro-
fessional engineers or teachers of electronics. All are
young enough—in heart at any rate—to enjoy experi-
- menting, and helping the youths to the joys of making
something "go".
At the outset, all the boys are given thorough
instruction in soldering, and then introduced to the
understanding of symbols and the components
represented by these symbols. A session on measure-
ments, with an eye to the protection of the multimeters
available, concludes the introductory part of the pro-
gramme.
"HAM" STATION
On the electronics side some boys choose communica-
tions and, under the guidance of a licensed "ham",
operate the s.s.b. two-way communication system, call
sign VK2BCr.
Contacts are made with stations all over the world on
this gear, set up specially for the camp with a telescopic
50ft antenna tower. As the location is 3,400 feet above
sea level, operating conditions are pretty good.
Checking o circuit Operating frequencies are 3-5, 7,14, and 144MHz.
board with a multi-
meter PROFESSIONAL EQUIPMENT
Quite apart from the radio station, a great mass of
electronic equipment is made available; some owned
by instructors, and much loaned by business houses and
organisations.

CAMP
Careful hands with a soldering Iron on a piece of Yeroboard
PROJECTS
Projects, for which all parts are provided, include
thyristor motor speed controllers; logic circuits used to
demonstrate binary notation; tone generators for a
basic electronic organ; radio control receiver; tape
recorder bias oscillators and amplifiers; an audio-
induction remotely controlled model train; a recording
studio with turntables, mixer, and recorders; simple
receivers; oscillators; and even an electronic siren-
used daily to wake the young students.
Beginner constructors work on simple "bread-
boards", made by drilling holes in a piece of hardboard
and inserting a paper fastener in each. When the tops
of the fasteners are tinned, components are easily
soldered to them.
Others work on matrix board; some use Veroboard,
planning their own layout and working out where to cut
the copper strips.
'Vr
zii
High grade test fear /s used
by the advanced students to
line up and check a receiver
chassis

M
rn

/r /
This young lad is j em ploy
ing "breadboar con
structlon. All the
visible on one sfd
t board

eft

theory
The programme is not usually limited to practical
work only; talks are given on theory, with a range as
wide as resistor colour code, transistor amplifiers, and
tape recorder equalisation.
While in camp, some of the boys prepare and sit for
examinations at elementary and junior level, set by the
Wireless Institute of Australia in connection with its
Youth Radio Scheme.
Yes! it's a good scheme to give the youngsters some
useful and beneficial pastime during the holidays, with
the added incentive to be constructive and achieve
something worthwhile.

By A. ]. Lowe

Matrix board Is used by


experienced boys. Each
board can be attached to
on adjacent one by using
the shaped blocks on each
side. This can also be rioeOps tov*
used,- as was primarily
Intended, as heat sink
blocks for transistors
Due to the increased use of semiconductor devices the output to 12V when the unit is built, but further use
for all purposes the author decided to produce a of this control is mentioned below. When the output
power unit, with a specification in the £20 to £30 Class, voltage is adjusted to less than i2V, a current in excess
for as little cost as possible. of 1A is available. Example: At 8V approximately
It was decided that a unit giving IV to 12V at 1A I -SA, and at 5V approximately 2 0A.
with good regulation, and up to 3A unregulated would The collector circuits of TR2 and TR3 are returned to
suit most purposes. Such a unit should be useful to the negative side of C1 to eliminate collector current
Laboratories, Schools, Colleges, Experimenters, Radio flow from the shunt R5. The negative busbar of the
Amateurs, Radio Servicing Workshops, etc. printed circuit (shown heavy in Fig. 1) draws a small
amount of current through the shunt R5, but this is only
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION about 0-1A and causes little difficulty in the use of the
The circuit diagram appears in Fig. 1. A mains meter in the amps position.
transformer TI having a 15-0-15 volt secondary By decreasing the value set by VR2 the output
winding feeds a conventional bi-phase rectifier circuit. voltage can be increased to 20V if necessary; however,
Both of the silicon diodes DI, D2, are protected by a the available current is only 0-18A at this voltage but the
fuse, FSl and FS2 respectively. higher voltages could be a real asset at times. Fig. 2a
Some 23 or 24 volts (unit off load) are produced shows typical voltages and currents available at more
across the reservoir capacitor C1 and when S2 is in the than the nominal 12V. The output voltage dial will of
"Unregulated" position, the appropriate terminals, course divide the new voltage into 12 parts. Example:
TL2, TL4, are connected to C1 via the meter shunt R5 If the output dial of VR1 is set to an indicated "12" and
(in the negative lead to TL2). YR2 is used to give a monitored voltage of 18V, then
The Volts/Amps switch S3 is shown in the "Volts" VRl dial can be interpreted as one division equalling
position and the meter MI with multiplier R8 is 1-5V.
connected across the supply lines and thus registers the
output voltage. UNREGULATED OUTPUT
In the "Regulated" position of S2, a three-stage d.c, Returning to the unregulated position, Fig. 2b shows
amplifier is brought into circuit and provides up to the terminal voltage fall against varying load current.
12V 1A at the terminals TL1, TL3. The final stage of A hint can be taken from this curve; it is good practice
the amplifier TR3 is an OC29 in series with a 5 ohm to monitor the voltage first and do not switch to "Amps"
power resistor R4 capable of dissipating some 50 watts if the voltage is shown to be below 14V. In the latter
when necessary. The output voltage is adjusted to the event the current will be somewhat more than 4A and
required value by means of VR1 connected with R2 the meter switch S3 should therefore be kept in the
across the Zener diode D3. This diode should be "Volts" position.
suitable for 6V operation or thereabouts.
The potentiometer VR1 sets the emitter voltage of the DISSIPATION IN THE OC29
npn transistor TRI, while the base has a voltage The OC29 power transistor (TR3) should be mounted
decided by the potential divider across the output directly (no micas) onto some three inches of 5ia wide
terminals, VR2, R6, R7. The portion of the output heatsink and no trouble should be experienced unless
which appears across R6.plus VR2 will decide the there are high ambient working conditions. Fig. 3
extent to which all the three stages of amplification will shows the dissipation of the OC29 for varying output
conduct. TR3 draws current via the power resistor R4 voltage. It can be seen that regularise of this circuit
and adjusts the output voltage to that set by the voltage for outputs of 9V or more and at low current loading
control VR1. The control VR2 can be used to calibrate would suggest the use of a dummy load on these
occasions to make the combined load current about 1 A.

0 0

t #
Regulated

YOUS POWER

S0PP1Y

By A.D.BRAMALL Grad. I.E.R.E., A.M.Inst.E.lG3TJT


280
CB/8
vW
LPI Mt
t«xl -V*

250
cm SJo Amps VR2
GULATED cm
vtm cm
0-20V 0 ts 500 Q
BYZ« O-XA
F51 OAZ soon 270
210o-0 20 AAA-cxi
2200*0 30V
O 2DV
O
o o 15V
o o
o o 0127 uicfl«d
o o
O TR2 Volts
o
<o FS2 Unrtoutotcd' ^^000
OC01 kQ
TR3
VZ5
0029
4000 220
CB/4

CB/i
_ sa Rsouloted fvt
AC MAINS S»t text
S2o TLS TL6 Unf«qulat«dNiy
+vt
Fig. I. Circuit diagram of the regulated power supply unit
INCREASED OUTPUT CURRENT Short circuits in the "Regulated" position produce a
The dissipation in R4 increases as the output voltage short-circuit current of only 3A via R4 and no damage
is reduced by VR1. When the output voltage is down can result to the unit. • More expensive units available
at IV or minimum (about 0-74y) the current in R4 will on the market sometimes have circuit protection, but
be almost 3A and the power dissipation approximately costs are high and 3A was not seen as a damaging
45 watts. The dissipation is a little more than 50 watts current in the circumstances.
when the smaller part of R4 is short circuited.
Increased current at all voltages can be obtained by
reducing the value of the power resistor R4. To this
end a tapping point is fixed in order to reduce the 5 ohm WATTS
resistor to 3-4 ohms when required. Terminals TLS, 20
TL6 are used to fix a shorting link on the smaller part
of R4, CAUTION. This facility should only be
included and/or used with care and understanding.
Fitting the shorting link without the drawing off of
reasonable load current may rapidly burn out the power Co)
transistor TR3. VoUj 44 46 46 49 20
Aopi 0-85 0-6 04 OS 0.48
SIMULTANEOUS OUTPUTS vous
Switch S23 arranges that only the "Regulated" or the
"Unregulated" output is available at any one time. It
may be desirable to have both outputs in use at the
same time and this can be arranged in a simple manner.
By linking externally on the unit, connect the positive
terminal (TLS) of R4 to the unregulated positive output
terminal TL4. On no account must the unregulated
positive and regulated positive terminals become con-
nected otherwise the OC29 will be fused instantaneously. 2mi
SHORT CIRCUITS OF THE LOAD
Short circuits in the "Unregulated" position will
blow the 5A fuses. The diodes used are a heavy Fig. 2(a). Typical maxi-
current type and surge limiting resistors have not been mum load currents avail-
able at various voltages
fitted. Early tests were made to check on the short between I4~20Y. (b) This Fig. 3. Collector power
circuit current and the particular type of transformer curve indicates how the dissipation at "off load"
(secondary rated at 2A) was run at 19A on short terminal voltage falls as for different terminal vol-
circuit to varify that diode trouble will never occur. the load current Increases tages (TR3, OC29)

281
REGULATION OF REGULATED OUTPUT PRINTED CIRCUIT
AND RIPPLE The three-stage d.c. amplifier is built on a printed
The regulation of the output depends upon the gain circuit board, see Fig. 6b for full size pattern.
of the transistors in the amplifier but the constructor The layout of components on the printed circuit
should aim for a volts drop of only 25mV for a full load board is shown in Fig. 6a. External connections are
current of 1A (0 025 ohm output). The ripple on the made at points 1 to 9.
output should be down to about 3mV peak-to-peak.
GENERAL LAYOUT AND CHASSIS
ASSEMBLY >
The general arrangement of the components can be
seen in the plan view photograph, and the various
diagrams explain the detail.
Fig. 4 shows constructional details for the chassis
assembly, assuming the builder obtains certain com-
ponents as recommended. The baseboard is ^in ply-
wood to facilitate the general construction.
A metal cover of perforated material completes the
enclosure of the unit, see Fig. 5.
Detail of mettmd Self tapping (I J
of securino Kfew
WIRING DETAILS {*f ferolea metal
Wiring details are given in Fig. 7. The output screen to angle
terminals are all isolated from the case which is con-
nected back to tlie mains earth terminal (three-core
cable). The heatslnk for TR3 is mounted in a large
slot in the rear panel and is secured in position by means
of 4B.A. nylon bolts. This is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 5. Metal case to enclose main chassis assembly

Holes made in Front and Rear Panels


Heat Sink for TR3 mounted to lake I/9 self topping screws
through Atygx 51/4 hot*
in fieor Panel on Veltigh^-
Front Ponel ihsulaled Spacers vdlMBA
nylon fixings
9*d^xl8SWS
Alummlun ^ rmt fwi TR3

1
n-
VRI
Mams Input
CJ gronmet
f
VR2
Lr-U LP
TU

M
1^ TL2
N
TL4
Base Board
oWx/KW
plywood
4 'a' Holes mode to suit
meter used
4'B' Holes Ve'die
Z'tfHoles'/B ^o-
Note notch cut in Base I 'O'Hole tiki.
Board at 4 comers i'F Holes"62 dia.
Fig. 4. The main chassis construction 3 screws securing Front
and Rear Panels to Base
Board
282
>».<•--
r.---
Vfij
I wipw o
2 VRI
II —
=h -i
Tfll -A HIFU
F- S?Q
TL2
nrriMiiTTTTTTnTtrTTnTir5 2 Hole;
ftafl.cleor
m
F
H %
Colttcfor TR2 •o •A my—
of TB3 !s
(He
TR3
emrtur 8
VR2 TL3
C4 ■t +ve .
O
I
Ui fW
Wim
TR5 bast
Fig. 6. Printed circuit board, (a) arrangement of compo-
nents on plain. Insulated side of board, (b) full size pattern
COMPONENTS... on copper clad side of board

Resistors Capacitors Diodes


Rl noaiw CI 4.000/iF elect. 25V Dl, D2 BYZ13 SA 100V peak inverse (Mallard)
R2 47 Q IW C2 250^ elect. 15V (2 off)
R3 5-6kQ IW C3 O-l/zF paper D3 OAZ2IO Zener 6V (Mullard)
R4 5Q, tapped at 3-40 (see text) C4 1,000/xF elect. 25V
R5 meter shunt (see text) CS O-l^iFpaper Miscellaneous
R6 270O IW C6 50^F elect. I5Y LPI Indicator lamp 6V, with holder and coloured
R7 ivaiw lens
R0 4k£l meter multiplier Ml Moving coil meter. 5mA f.s.d. modified to
read 0-20V, and 0-4A (see text)
SI-S3 D.P.D.T. toggle switches (3 off)
Tl Mains transformer. Secondary tapped at
Potentiometers Transistors 0, 15. 20 and 30V. 2A. (Douglas MT3AT)
VRI 500fl 3W wire wound TRI AC 127 TLl-6 Terminal, chassis mounting, insulated
(Colvern CLR 4239/264) TR2 OC8I # (3 red, 3 black)
VR2 500Q IW wire wound TR3 OC29 Material for chassis and case. Heatsink

ToTRJ
MAINS.INPUT TL1.TLZ To W Co l«tor
D2(+v»
Ton
LPt (SVtop m
VR

Ton VR2 ca/?


20V 15V T6TI © U-CB/I
tap tap Primary ca/s
( ^
TL4 - TIJ Hil iiuiiinilli TL1 CB/4
iSTi
c&/9 cm

CB/letcmPrWri Circuit Boon! codntctfoni


Fig. 7. Rear view of front panel with wiring details

283
-
Fig. 8. Details of the heatsink for Dl. D2 which is mounted Genera/ layout and disposition of components
on top of-transformer 77

The diodes Dl, D2 are mounted on a heatsink which precise point found. Leave an additional -Jin of shunt
is bolted to the top of the mains transformer by means material in order to solder the heavy, low resistance
of nylon nuts and bolts. The two fuses are also lead which will connect the shunt to the negative
accommodated on this heatsink, but are insulated terminal of C1.
electrically by their plastics base, see Fig. 8.
The printed circuit can be seen edgewise; it is POWER RESISTOR (R4) /
mounted with an angle bracket onto the wood base Fig. 9a shows the construction of the power resistor
board. The large reservoir capacitor C1 is seen on R4. A ceramic former is wound with 10ft of 23 s.w.g,
extreme right-hand side. oxy-ferry wire.
The separate housing for the power resistor R4 is Alternatively, four 21 ohm 10W resistors can be
described in Fig. 9b. Alternatively, six 21 ohm resistors arranged in parallel to produce the required 5 ohms, and
could be distributed throughout the main unit as two further identical resistors added to give the lower
described under the heading "Power Resistor" to value.
eliminate the need for this additional box. The power resistor is fitted inside a separate housing,
made of metal with a perforated top cover, see Fig. 9b.
METER SHUNT (R5) This housing is secured to the top cover of the main
Heavy gauge resistance wire can be used to make a unit. The bottom of the housing is open and leads
suitable shunt for the 4A range of the meter. The from the main unit are brought up through the per-
wire should carry 3A without undue heating. The forated metal cover and connected to R4.
shunt can be prepared before building it into the circuit
in the following manner. continued on page 301
Pass 4A d.c. through 12in of chosen material with the
positive end of the meter moving coil connected to the
wire intended for joining to S3a, The negative end of Zholt j ftoch«nd) modt
the moving coil is now connected to the shunt^vithin suit RtsiitorStrops
some iin of the other point. Slide the negative wire
along the shunt wire until a full scale deflection is
obtained on Ml. Solder the negative lead at the

1^ 1
V*
t at Ma n turns
Top 23SWG.
axyftrry \
.8 turns 23S.WG. ^ 2* TL5
Jfriaewamfc
former o*y ferry wir. j
(N'26 drill Wire to term mate under t'/z
Washer secured to Clip VfcS R-B.P
Aluminium strip MATERIAL: porelsecured to
f Resistor secured to wall of Box WSMS. Aluminium Bo* with 4 self IRA. terminals
by Straps of 5^'*18 S-WG. Aluminium tapping screws

Fig. 9a. The construction of the power resistor R4 Fig. 9b. Metal bousing for the power resistor
284
6-STRACE GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER UNIT (Continued)

I ast month's article terminated with details of the cali- experiment is usually interested only in radiation falling
I bration procedure for the bottom and top limit within a quite narrow energy band. For this reason, it is
controls VR2 and VR3 of Fig. 5.3. also quite unnecessary in this type of equipment to use ah
automatic scanner with more than the 12 steps as shown in
ENERGY RESOLUTION ® Fig. 5,3. For a particular experiment, VR2 and VR3.
The setting accuracy of an ordinary carbon potentio- of Fig. 5.3 will be set to select the band of about 0 5MeV
meter calibrated in the manner described is about ±1 per width around the energy level of interest, and xhe radiation
cent, so that the complete-range from 01 to ,3-6MeV can be meter will be set to a counting range appropriate for the
resolved into some 100 sequential chanels. It is thus mean pulse repetition frequencies encountered in this
convenient to select any spectrum interval of width O-SMeV, energy band.
and to record this in 12 steps of about 0-05MeV each,
although this need be nd hard and fast rule.
This degree of resolution, which has proved very MODE SWITCH SI MAINS TRANSFORMER T1 POWER
stable arrd reproducible with the prototype^ is well matched (W.U) (FIG.S.1) SUPPLIES
to the other limiting factors, such as the inherent resolution {F1&5.1I
of the specified detector and circuit gain tolerances, so that
there is no .point in using improved potentiometer types.
Professional equipments with resolutions of many
hundreds of channels employ so-called helical potentio- *
meters, These are spiral-track devices wound with close-
tolerance resistance wire. The entire track is covered by
several revolutions of the spindle, and suitable gearing and
a cyclometer-type counter mechanism show thp actual
setting- Such potentiometers are expensive, and uii-
necessary for the amateur design here described.
OVERALL COUNTING RATE
The overall counting rate, apart from the peak counting
rates at the respective energy levels, drops logarithmically
with increasing energy. Thus typical samples as recom-
mended for this work give counting rates of thousands
per minute for peaks falling around 0-5MeV, hundreds
per minute for peaks falling around 1 -SMeV, and only a
few dozen per minute for peaks at still higher energies.
This is because .the •proportion of incident quanta of
nuclear radiation which are absorbed totally in the crystal
becomes smaller at higher energies, since some of the
energetic radiation can escape again.
With a linear scale radiation meter, the entire range of
the main potentiometers can thus not be recorded properly
anyway, and although logarithmic scaling is often found
in professional equipment, it adds unnecessary complexity
to an amateur design. /
Whilst the entire available, energy range from 0*IMeV INTEGRAL TOP TOP EXPANDER LINEAR AMPLIFIER
to 3'6MeV will be required at different times for various OUTPUT ECC.Bt VI (FIG,6.2) ECFM VI (FIG.U)
experiments with various substances, a'ny particular

285
POSITIVE PULSES FROM POWER SUPPLY
FROM LINEAR 33V STABILISED
AMPLIFIER (FIG.5.2) R5 R11 (FIG. 5.1)
lOOkn IMA 47KA lOkO
TRt TR2 TR3
657 56 \-Wr- B5Y56 BSY
BAY 20 27kA C4
0-1uF O-lfiF POSITIVE OUTPUT
C1 100V 100V PULSES +4V
O-l^iF Kl SQUAREWAVE,
250V 27kA DURATION 0-20JI.SEC,
R7 RIO ACCORDING TO INPUT
IMA 02 i 470kA R9 lOOkA Rt2 PULSE AMPLITUDE
BIAS INPUT 2'7kA BAY20 47kfl 470A
FROM SIC C5 AND (FIG,BIAS SETTING
6.2)
OR SID 50uF 50V
(FIG.5.3)

Fig. 6.1 STRACE Gamma Roy Spectrometer; Circuit diagram of the amplitude discriminator
(there are two luch units in STRACE—"bottom" and "top" discriminators repectively—and
they use this identical circuit)

SODIUM lODtDE RADIOACTIVE SAMPLES


CRYSTAL
PLUG-IN Suitable radioactive samples may be purchased from the
v DETECTOR . Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, Bucks. The Caesium-
[ UNIT (FIG.5.1) 137 solution specified for the energy calibration should have
a volume of about 4ml, in a sealed glass ampule fitting the
PHOTOMULTIPLIER VI sample well in the sodium iodide crystal, and it should
contain a total activity of about 350nCi. Similarly for the
specified Cobalt-60 solution. These amounts of these
particular substances are less than those permitted to be
sold without special permit, and are quite safe with reason-
MAINS TRANSFORMER IT (FIG.S.l} able care. They should never be carried on the person,
e.g. in pockets.
AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR
SCANNER MECHANISM The circuit of the STRACE amplitude discriminator is
RLA (FIG.5.3) given in Fig. 6.1. D1 is the actual discriminator. The
inverse bias is applied via R1 from the scanner to the
anode of the diode, whilst the pulse mixture from the linear
amplifier is fed in via CI and establishes a positive pulse
voltage spectrum across R1 as load resistor. Only those
pulses greater than the applied bias can cause D1 to conduct
on their tips, causing TR1 to conduct in turn. Due to the
very large collector load R4 of TRI, this transistor saturates
already with a very slight excess of pulse voltage above the
bias threshold of Dl.
R5 and D2 prevent blocking, TR2 is a polarity inverter
to restore positive polarity of the pulses, and finally TR3
is an emitter follower to produce low output impedance
for driving the next functional stages.
The overall function of the circuit is thus that of a diode
gate feeding a high-gain amplifier which normally rests
cut off. A very slight excess above the gate threshold
already saturates the amplifier and produces full output
of 4V. Thus we have now obtained constant amplitude
output pulses which carry a "yes/no" information. The
presence of an output pulse implies "yes, the input pulse
was greater than the chosen threshold", whilst the absence
of an output pulse implies "no, the input pulse was( not
greater than the chosen threshold".
However, the output pulses are still not of uniform
duration, since their duration depends upon the time spent
by the input pulse above the bias threshold, which is
obviously a function of the pulse amplitude in relation to
c: the bias level. The energy information, which was
originally contained in the amplitude of the input pulses to
Fig. 6.1, has been transferred to the width of the output
pulses. Some professional _ circuits make use of this
DIFFERENTIAL feature, but in our case it is unwanted; we desire dis-
OUTPUT STAGE criminator output pulses which are strictly identical in
/ EC92 V4 (FIG.6.2) amplitude and duration, carrying solely the yes/no thres-
POWER SUPPLIES hold information.
(FIG.S.l) DISCRIMINATORS TRI.ZjS
(FIG.6.1) AND ANTI- THE EXPANDERS
H.T. NEON STABILISER V2 COINCIDENCE GATE TR1t2 Turning now to Fig, 6.2, we see that the unwanted pulse
(FIG.S.l) (FIG.6.2) IN SUB-CHASSIS width information is "killed" by feeding the outpuf of
WIRING each discriminator to a respective expander. Each
BOTTOM EXPANDER ECC 61 V3 (FtG.6.2} expander is fired by an input pulse to produce a standard
286
TOP INTEGRAL TOP
EXPANDER OUTPUT STAGE R12 10 k A
R1 RZ R3 +t50V KT.
150kA IZOkA 8Zka STABILISED.
R8 250V FROM POWER
10WI IBOkA SUPPLY
(FIG. 5.1)
POSITIVE PULSES C2 IBOpF
FROM TOP 500V K6 600 Wl
DISCRIMINATOR Wv I
1 (FlS.ft.t)
V2
WOpF EC92
500V O-lHf
250V
V PL2 _ INTEGRAL TOP
2200pF 8ECC81 IOTIF 5) OUTPUT PULSES
500V 250V C6 +10V TO
Z2nF RADIATION
VRI 470 k A METER UNIT,
25kA 500V CHANNEL 2
UN PRESET R5 6-5V (FIG. 7.1)
6-3V ISkll KC. RIO R11
AC. 22kA IMA

. ZZW/
R2810kA
^ f AM/~' < • ®
R13 R14 R15 Rt6 C14 +150 H.T.
150kA IZOkA e2kn IMA 7^ STABIL StD
R20 R24 R25 250V FROM POWER
220kA 10kA 180 Ml SUPPLY
CIO (FIG.S.I)
POSITIVE PULSES C9 IBOpF IOOBF
FROM BOTTOM 500V R29 SOOV
DISCRIMINATOR v3 v4
i (FIG. 6.1) ECC91 6B0kA EC92
RIB C12
390kA BAY 20 O-ljiF
250V
Co TRI C11 PL3 ^ DIFFERENTIAL
2200pF 2N1613 22nF WOUTPUT PULSES
500V D1 250V I + 10V TO
BAY20 C13 RADIATION
RIO 22nF METER UNIT,
VR2 4-7MA R25 500V CHANNEL 1
25kA TR2 470 kA
UN PRESET 2N1615 R21 RZ6 (FI6.7.1)
6-3V Rt7 lOOkA 6-3V 22kA
AC. 15KA AC.
I BOTTOM! AMTI-C01NC1DENCEI I DIFFERENTIAL I mm/a
expander ■GMLSIAGfl OUTPUT STAGE
Fig, 6.2. STRACE Gamma Ray Spectrometer: Circuit diagram of the pulse channel amplifiers
response pulse of fixed amplitude and duration determined fed via C3 to make TRI, TR2 conduct and thus effectively
solely by the characteristics of the expander circuit. It is remove the bias from D2, so that D2 then shorts-out the
tilled an expander because the standard response pulse is pulse voltage across R23 from the bottom expander,
longer than the longest input trigger pulse. giving no output from V4. Any residual pulse voltage at
The section pins 1,2,3 of each double triode rests cut off, V4 grid is suppressed by the positive bias applied to the
whilst the other triode section rests conducting. A positive cathode via R25.
input pulse greater than a certain threshold amplitude V4 thus gives an output pulse only when the bottom,
determined by the setting of yRl/VR2 in Fig. 6.2, changes but not the top discriminator has responded. It is thus
over the roles of the two triode sections by cumulative called the differential output stage. The output from V2
multivibrator action, for a brief time determined by C2, R4 contains all pulses greater than the upper limit of the
and C9, R16. After the elapse of this relaxation time, the differential interval of V4, whilst original pulses smaller
circuit drops back Into its former resting state of its own than the lower limit of the differential interval of V4 are
accord. Positive square pulses of about 70/iS duration entirely suppressed.
thus appear at the respective anode pins 6. These are fed
to respective conventional cathode follower output stages, SOME GENERAL FEATURES
V2 and V4, via the voltage dividers R6/R7 and R29/R23. The diode D2 is necessary in Fig. 6.2 in addition to the
two transistors, because the collector capacitance of
ANTI-COINCIDENCE GATE transistors is too high in the resting state, distorting the
The anti-coincidence gate simply shorts-out the bottom wanted pulses from the bottom expander. It is common
end R23 of the voltage divider feeding the bottom cathode practice to use low-capacitance silicon diodes for the
follower, if the top discriminator has also produced a pulse actual gating and discriminator functions in nucleonic
simultaneously. equipment, with separate drive stages.
The diode D2 is normally cut off by the standing bias on The expanders VI and V3 in Fig. 6.2 are theoretically,
the bleeder R20, R2I. A pulse from the top expander is complete amplitude discriminators in themselves, and one
287
may ask why they^are not used as such and fed directly SOUND EFFECTS: WIND AND RAIN
from the linear amplifier and scanner. Some circuits do
actually work on this principle, but then at higher pulse continued from page 269
amplitude ranges of about 100V peak from the linear
amplifier. Numerous other derivatives of multivibrators The transformer used here is not critical and can be a
and paraphase amplifiers can also be used as high-level 3: 1 intervalve type with a centre-tapped secondary
amplitude discriminators. In our equipment concept, winding. Due to the connections of the transformer
this is inconvenient, because the lower pulse peak values there may be some loss of bass frequencies, but this
of 15V are too small compared with drifts of the trigger can be minimised by using one of high primary
threshold level of the expanders with valve ageing and
other factors. A multivibrator type amplitude discrimina- inductance. .
tor is also prone to erratic performance on trigger pulses The transistors can be types C424 or ME4103 or any
much greater than the trigger threshold level, as would be similar npn types.
the case when working near the bottom end of the spectrum.
This brings us to the question of signal level planning SETTING UP AND OPERATION
for the complete kick-sorter amplifier, which is intimately To achieve the effects intended it is necessary to have
connected with the adoption of hybridisation (mixed valves a white noise generator; the simple unit described in the
and transistors). January issue was designed specifically for this purpose.
HYBRID DESIGN . The output signal from the white noise generator is
Whilst modern professional equipment increasingly connected
v4
to the input of the electronically controlled
tends to be fully transistorised in all stages, hybridisation wind and rain" filter. The filter output is connected
often permits a better compromise between stability and to an audio amplifier.
complexity, if no extreme demands are placed on accuracy. Switch on the amplifier and generator; a loud hiss
This is best illustrated by the underlying ideas in the should be heard at this stage. Now turn the bias
present STRACE design. ... , controls VR1 to VR7 to minimum (wiper nearest
The most vulnerable point is the discriminator voltage chassis tag) and VR8 to VR14 to maximum resistance.
stability. Using biased semiconductors, this stability is
determined solely by precision resistors in the scanner and a No bias is connected to the switches (or sockets) as yet.
stabilised voltage supply, irrespective of the active devices Set up each stage one by one, first connecting a bias
as long as the pulse amplitude levels are large compared to voltage source (for example, 9V) to stage 7. Adjust
silicon barrier layer threshold voltages (the latter being VR7 so that, as the voltage on TR7 base approaches
some hundreds of millivolts). This must hold for the 0-5V, the transistor will begin to conduct and the output
smallest pulse voltages, so that the input pulse spectrum to volume will drop to a low level. Disconnect the bias
the discriminator is required to be inconveniently large (or switch off S7), and the output will rise to its previous
compared to the linear drive range of transistor amplifiers.
But it is very easily provided by a valve amplifier. Hence level at a rate determined by the discharge of C13
a valve was used for the simple linear amplifier. through VR7. VR14 is described later.
Similar considerations led to the adoption of valves for Connect the bias supply to stage 6 and adjust
the expanders and output stages, but transistors for the VR6. As the voltage on TR6 base approaches 0-5V
anti-coincidence gate. Sufficiently fast response of the the transistor will begin to conduct, bringing Ihe
gate is difficult to obtain in a simple circuit, except by 0-047/iF capacitor (C6) to function as part of the filter.
brute force of driving it with massive pulse amplitudes When this occurs, the output will change in character
readily obtainable only from a valve circuit. to a low pitched "moaning" sound, due to the attenua-
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS tion of high frequencies, if the bias is disconnected or
The entire kick-sorter circuitry c>f Figs. 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1 switched off by S6 the audio output will revert to
and 6.2 can be accommodated in an aluminium casing normal. . t ,
measuring Sin x Sin X 4in with a carrying handle and The other five stages are set up. exactly as tor stage u
the socket for the plug-in scintillation detector on the above, but remember that the pitch of the output will be
upper side, as shown in the photographs. Layout is not different for each one. Having set up each stage as
critical, and constructors can use any convenient form, described, the scope of tonal effects can be realised.
larger if necessary. . , The bias switches can be operated individually or in
Almost any type of silicon npn transistor is suitable in all
positions, provided the voltage rating is adequate. The any combination to provide a wide range of effects
pulse diodes may be any silicon type with at least 100 p.i.v. likened to various weather conditions.
rating and at most 4pF self-capacitance. So far no mention has been made of the other seven
The narrow face panel carries the threshold potentio- controls VR8 to VR14. These can be replaced by
meter controls VR2, VR3, and the mode switch SI of fixed resistors of like values, but it will be to great
Fig. 5.3; the power and command input plug PL1 of advantage to use these controls to alter the ' attack
Fig. 5.1 and the two pulse output plugs PL2 and PL3 of when each switch is closed. "Attack" is the term used
Fig. 6.2, The latter are coaxial, for feeding the processed to describe the speed at which the sound is initially
pulses through coaxial cables to the radiation meter unit.
affected by applying the bias.
IMPORTANT To achieve controlled "decay" (the reverse action ot
ADDENDA AND CORRECTIONS TO DIAGRAMS IN attack) a large value capacitor can be connected across
PART 5 the bias control, the higher capacitance will give,
Fig. 5.1 Power supply and scintillation detector. longer decay. Some experiment may be necessary here
The Zener diode voltages of D9, DID, Dl I and DI2 are to get the effects required. Examples given in the
equal to the nominal output voltages of their respective circuit (C7-C13).
circuits. The Zener diode voltage of DI3 is I20V, and of D14 The "attack" and "decay" controls > are only
to D23 inclusive, 60V each. effectively achieved by using the electronic circuit.
The correct value of CI6 Is 47nF (0.047^F). The electronically controlled filter can be used for a
The correct value of CI7 is lOnF (0.01/tF). . variety of applications including stage sound, music
Fig. 5.3. Sequential scanner circuit diagram background, and even psychedelics, where the sound
The correct voltage rating for C3 is 9V and not as shown. can be associated with a system of lighting effects.
Next month: Radioactivity measurement; a ratemeter Next month: Percussion Effects
design
288

f
0
* *
0
V
o

0
4
O # v >«

A A

The constructional details for UNIT "A" were COMPUTING RESISTORS


completed last month. UNIT "A" is, itself, a If a comprehensive range of ±1 per cent high
complete, self-contained computing equipment, and the stability computing resistors was purchased all at
method of operation, with practical examples, is once, to meet every requirement, the cost would
described in this article. probably exceed £20. There are after all 101 preferred
values in a ±1 per cent range covering resistors from
PATCHING LEADS only 10 kilohm to 100 kilohm. Nevertheless, in the
The best plugs to use for patching the computer are period when the computer operator is learning how to
those of "split-pin" construction, as they can quickly be handle PEAC, and a high degree of accuracy is not
attached to wires without the aid of a screwdriver. It essential, the majority of ordinary problem set-ups can
is a help if plugs are obtained in various colours, and be catered for by a small number of ± I per cent and
are mated to different coloured wires to allow easy ±2 per cent plug-in resistors. A resistor selection
identification. list, with suggested values of & and Rm for standard
For the majority of problems capable of solution by op-amp closed-loop gains, is given in Table 4.1. Also,
UNIT "A", certain patching leads may be left in a component list included in this article sets out
position on the front panel. For example, coefficient minimum quantities, with tolerances, of computing
potentiometers are almost always used with the "0" resistors.
end of their resistance track connected to earth (link Computing capacitors will be discussed later, in
SK3 to SK4 for CP1, CP2, CPS, and CP4, Fig. 2.7).. connection with integration.
Similarly, until such time as integrator mode
switching is brought into use, the integrator sockets SETTING UP THE VOLTAGE SOURCE
depicted in Fig. 2.9 are joined together by means of a To set up all voltage source outputs, first remove the
special three-way patching lead consisting of two short dials from VR6 to VR10 (Fig. 2.2), and turn the
lengths of wire joined by a plug, with a plug at each end. potentiometer spindles fully anticlockwise. If the
Looking at Fig. 2.9, OA1/SK4, SK9, and SK10 are potentiometers have flats on their spindles, make up
linked, and repeat for OA2 and OA3. Three more blanking pieces consisting of small segments of hard-
semi-permanent patching leads are made up to link wood or plastic, so that control knobs can be con-
each operational amplifier to its companion summer veniently located at a selected position on each spindle.
network. Connect OA1/SK8 to S1/SK5, and do the Connect the positive lead of a sensitive d.c. voltmeter
same for OA2/SK8-S2/SK5, and OA3/SK8-S3/SK5. (0-1V, 20 kilohm/V) to VS1/SK1, and the negative
The rearrangeable patching leads should be of voltmeter lead to VS1/SK4 (Fig. 2.6), then set slide
assorted lengths and colours, the longest to patch from, switch SI for a positive voltage output. Switch on the
say, CP4/SK2 to S3/I1/SK1, diagonally across the computer power supply and S6.
UNIT "A" front panel, and the shortest to link nearly Carefully rotate VR6 spindle clockwise until a very
adjacent sockets. small voltage appears, just sufficient to slightly deflect

289
the meter pointer away from zero. Now place a dial TABLE 4.1
knoli on VR6 spindle, without disturbing the potentio- SUGGESTED VALUES OF COMPUTING RESISTOR FOR
meter setting, and align so that the "0" division on the STANDARD CLOSED-LOOP GAINS
dial is vertical and opposite the pointer mark on the Op-amp gain All resistors ±2% unless otherwise
surface of the front panel. Tighten the dial knob stated
grub screw. * _G
Switch off S6 and replace the 0-1V meter with the .. Ria Rin Rt
0-10V d.c. meter which has been chosen to serve as a
voltage standard for the computer, while retaining the 0-1 lOOkO toka
same meter lead polarity. Rotate VR6 dial until the 0-2 iooka 20k a
"10" division is opposite its pointer, and switch on S6. 0-3 33kn iokn
0-4 40kn ± i% lOkQ
Now adjust slider resistor VR1 from the back of the 0-5 20k n I0k£2
UNIT "A" box, for a precise reading of 10V on the 0-6 33kO 20 kfl
"standard" meter. Repeat the above procedures for 0-7 l3kQ 9-lk£l
outputs VS2, VS3, VS4, and VS5, and remember to 0-8 20k ft 16k fl
adjust only the particular slider (VR1-VR5) which is 0-9 20k fi I8ka
associated with the output being set up. , ,. 1' ioka lOkQ
10 -ji iookn iooka
When all the voltage source dials are aligned, return 20k £2
to VS1 and make sure that its output is still -flOV. 2-0 [OkQ
r 3*3k£l lOkD
Switch off S6, reverse the "standard" voltmeter leads, 30 ^i 33kn iooka
and set SI for a negative output. Switch on S6 again r 4kfi± 1% I0k£2
and check the voltmeter reading; if it is not exactly 40 ^i 40kD±l% lOOkD
10V, go to the back of the UNIT "A" box and trim the 5-0 20 kO lOOkSl
power pack control VR2 (Fig. 3.4), this ensures that 6-0 3-3 kn 20k Q
voltage source negative and positive outputs are equal. 7-0 I3kn 9lkn
8-0 2k a I6kft
SETTING UP THE COEFFICIENT 9-0 2kn I8kn
POTENTIOMETERS 100 lOkfi lOOkii
20-0 5kn± i% iooka
Insert a patching lead to link CP1/SK3 to CP1/SK4 30-0 3-3kn lOOkfl
(Fig. 2.7), and do the same for CP2, CP3, and CP4. 40-0 4kndr 1% lOOkfl
Take a long patching lead from VS1/SK1 to CP1/SKI. 50-0 2kO 100k £2
Remove the dial from VRll (Fig. 2.5) and rotate
spindle fully clockwise. With the negative lead
connected to any earth socket, insert the "standard"
meter positive lead into CPI/SK2 after first setting SI
for a positive output. Adjust VS1 dial for a meter speaking, the dial setting error should not be worse than
reading of 10V. Rotate CPI spindle carefully anti- 5 per cent at all settings between "1" and "10" dial
clockwise until the meter pointer just beings to drop divisions. The whole question of computing potentio-
below the 10V division. Replace CPI dial knob on meter accuracy will be raised later, in connection with
VRll spindle, align the "10" division with the pointer, the Master Potentiometer of UNIT "B".
and tighten the grub screw. Repeat for CP2, CP3, CP4.
With a 10V input to CP1/SK1, and a 0-10V meter SETTING UP THE OPERATIONAL
connected to CP1/SK2, it is a simple matter to check AMPLIFIERS
the agreement between dial divisions and voltage It is usual to check operational amplifiers either
output from the coefficient potentiometer. If there are before the start of a computation, or at the beginning of
serious discrepancies between voltage output and dial the day, but the computer builder may wish to assure
reading this will indicate that the effective electrical himself that his amplifiers axe all that they should be
rotation of the potentiometer differs from the 270 degree when first brought into service. The zero-setting
dial calibration. Errors can often be minimised by procedure given at the end of Part 3 of this series will
slight readjustment of the dial knob on its spindle, to have eliminated all but obscure faults. The front
spread the error over the entire scale. Generally panel balance controls (VR15, VR16, and VR17,
Figs. 2.4 and 2.9) are deliberately designed to have a
limited range of adjustment, so that an amplifier fault
will be clearly indicated as an inability to zero-set from
the front panel. .
To quickly check each amplifier, insert 10 kilohm
feedback resistors into miniature sockets SK11 and
SK12 for OA1, OA2, and OA3 (Fig. 2.9), and ensure
that the operational amplifiers are already linked to their
summing networks. Insert 10 kilohm input resistors
into S1/I1/SK3-SK4, S2/11/SK3-SK4, and
S3/I1/SK.3-SK4 (Fig. 2.8). Patch VS1/SK1 to
S1/I1/SK1 (Figs. 2.6 and 2.8) and connect the negative
lead of a voltmeter to OA1/SK13, with the positive lead
going to any convenient earth socket.
Check that OA1 output is exactly zero when S6 is off.
If not, zero-set by means of balance control VR15.
Obtain a positive voltage from VS1 by switching on S6
and setting SI and VR6, and monitor VS1 output with a
second voltmeter connected to SN1/SK2 red, and an
MODEL ZQM TEAffSIBTOE CHECKER PRINTED
It has the lulleat capacity lor
checking
Equally onadaptable
A, B and for
Ico. CIRCUITS
CATALOGUE checking diodes, etc. Spec.: Wye assorted :®
t catalo9ue A: 0-7-O-9967. B; 6-200. printed circuit
Eiecstronic Ico; 0-60 microamps r-e boards with
0-6raA. transistors, diodes, S S©:;
Compone diode Beaiatance
aOOD-lMo. lor resistors, conden-
aers, etc. Guaran-
* ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS Supplied complete
Instructions, batterywith
and teed
20 minimum
translators.
|qulpf^ent if TEST EQUIPMENT leads.(6.19.0. P.& P.2/6. Ideal for experi-
★ COMMUNICATIONS TE-20RF SIGNAL GENERATOR menters. 6 boards
for .10/-. P. k P.
EQUIPMENT Accurate wide 2/-.
★ Hl-fl EQUIPMENT range gigna) gen-
erator covering
120kc/s — 260 u 2-WAY RADIOS
W« an protid (o inboiace our flrU Vo/s on 6 bands. Super quality. Brand
conspreheMiTB caUbwne ol Electronlo Directly Variable
' cali- new and gnaranteed.
brated. 3 iraaslstor (8,16.6 ST.
Coopontoi* *ad Eqaipmest. Orer 150 R.F. attenuator. •• 4 translator (6.19.6 pi,
page# lolly lllnjtioied, Hftby Iho □imdi ol 240V a.c. Brand new with Operation 200/
instructions. 8 transistor (8.12.6 pr.
6 translator Do Luxe
ttcau, mmy at bargain price*. Free diaconBt (12/10/0. P. ik P. 7/6. a.A.E. lor details. V>-1 (12,10.0 pi.
eonponi witb evsty eaUIcgne. Btbtjots la GARRARD SPECIAL OFFERS! . 10 transistor (88/10.0 pr.
cloctronlc* ahonld have a copy. A70 Mk, D less cart (12.18.0 transistor 600 MW (81.10.0 pr.
Poet extra.
LAB80 Mk. II less cart (83.10.0 TMm cannot be operoud (n BJC,
P. A P. 6/-
CLEAR PUSTIC PANEL METERS LAFAYETTE TE-46 RESISTANCE TRANSISTORISED
Fleet grade qoalitj- Moving Coll panel meters avsUable CAPACITY ANALYSER . TWO-WAY
ex-etooc. S^a.E. for illOBtnted leaflet. Dieojont tor 2pl - 2,000
qunotlty. Available aa IoUowb: Type ME 38P, 1 21/32in
square Ironta. mid 2 ohms Telephone
ICO-O-lOOuA 88/8 200 megohms. INTERCOM
600-0-6CK)uA 86/- 300mA , , 26/- 100V d.c. . 86/- Also checks Im-
O-lmA .. 25/- SOOraA
lImA 600mA . 86/- 160V d.c. , 85/- pedance turns Operative over amazingly
86/- 760mA , -. 28/- 86/- 300V
600V d.c.
d.c. ., .• 26/-
26/- ratio. Insulation. long distances. Separate call
and
SmA lAd.o. . 26/- 760V d.c. , . gth 200/260V a.c.
Brand 2-wirepress to talk l.OOO'
connection. buttons,
s of
SmA
lOmA .,. 29/- OA SAd.cd.c. . 28/-28/- 16V a.o. ■ iSh
60V a.c. . . 85/- Carr. 7/6. (15.
New applications. Beauttfnlly fln-
lahed In ebony. Supplied
BOiiA 97 ia 20mA ... 25/- 3V dx.....S8/- 1S0V a.c. - 85/- complete with batteries and
IM/iA ...... 86/- SOtnA
SOOmA ......88/6
600HA 27/8 100mA .... - 26/-
26/- SOV MV d.c. .. 86/- 30OV ».«. • 26/-
d.c. .. 26/- 60QV a.c, , 26/- MAGKAVOX 363 TAPE DECKS
3-speed. U-SJ-7i Ipe. Carr. paid. 4-track wall brackets.
13.19.0. P. A P. 3/6.
160mA 86/-
B0-0-50fiA 88/- POST EXTRA. Larger 60Vd.o. .. 26/- lor•S'11#ta.
elzea available—send Meter . . 1mA
29/6 (18/10/0: 2-tr»ck Stereo (12/10/0.
*TRANSf8T0RISEOFMTUNER*
PEOPESEIONAL 80,000 O.p.T. 6 TRANSISTOR
ADMIRALTY B.40 RECEIVERS LAB. TXPE MULTTfESTE HIGH QUA-
Jiut released by the
ilnpMtnfatry. High quality 10 valve receiver, LITY TUNER.
I.P. pl»y. Coverage In 63bands 860kc/a-S0Mc/B. SIZE
X 41nONLY eta
Alter, noise llmiter, crystal2 controlled
600kc/«. Incorporates RJP. and I.E. stages,
BJF.O., hsndpass
calibrator, I.F x Siin.
LF. stages.
?2a??oA.. Doable tuned
MO/230V a-r" Bojltdn speaker,
Bae 19iln outputx I61d.
X ISjtn for phones.
WeightOperation
114 |b. discriminator.
Ample output to
Offered fn good working condition. 288.10.0. Cart. 30/-. With With
mirror antomatic
scale. Ranges:overload protection,
1/10/60/260/860/ Iced
battery. Coverage 88-108 Mc/s.on Ready
most ampllfiera. Operates 9 volt
&trX%^0.O^rb,e3O^:41 V r ,0[ 0 ab0
" " * ' ^- 1,000 volts, d.o. and a.c. 0-600^iA, 10mA,
266roA. Corrcnt; 0/20K, 200K, 2 megohm. built ready for use. Fantastic value lor
UNR-30. 4-BAND TOW Decibels:—20 to -(-mB. (6.10.0. P. A P. money. (9.7.8. P. S P. 2/5.
2/6. STEREO BTOLUPLEX ADAPTORS 6 gn*.
COMMUNICATION ARF-100 COMBINED AF-RF
RECEIVER SINCLAIR EQUIPMENT
Covering 690 lor
Kc/sCW/33B
—30 Mc/s. Incorporates SIGNAL GENERATOR Z18 12 wattSupply
ampllfler, 89/6
variable BPO reception. Built- AF. SUra WAVE PS54 Power
Stereo 86 Preamp.Unit 99/6
(9.19,6
in speaker and phone Jack. Metal cabinet. 20-200,000
Square wave o/s.20- Q14 Speakers, (9.19.8
Operation 220/240 v. A.C, Supplied brand Micro null c Radio Kit,
new, guaranteed with _ I 30,000
HIGH IMP.c/s. O/P.
21V
Instructions. C.IZ.10,0 Can. 7/6 49/8. Built 69/8
P/P
P/P. 660 a 8-8V Micro FM Radio Kit
LAFAmTE IA-124T TRANSISTOR STEREO AMPLIFIER TP. 100ke/B-300 ALL POST PAID (8,19.9
19 transistors, 8 diodes, IHP music VariableIncorporates
R.F. attenuation Mc.
•hie.
tnt/axt.
int. meter
modnto , SPECIAL OFFER
power, _ — Amps., PZ4 Power Supply.
30-20,000SOW± 2dBatat 1W.
8Q. Distortion
Response •iation. dual purpose
monitor AP, output and % rood, on BJP. Stereo 28 PreampUSer, (22.
1% or less. Inputs 3MV
360MV. Output 3-180. Separate and 220/240V a.c. (27/10/0. Carr. 7/8.
D. and E. volume controls. Treble TF1440 STANDARD SIGHAL ^ AVOMETERS
Supplied in ex-
and bass control. Stereo phone Jack.
Brushed alnmlntum, gold anodised 86kc/»-28OENEEATOSS
Mo/o, (86. Carr. SO/-. cellent condition
fully testedCom-
and
extruded Iront panel with compli- VARIABLE VOLTAGE checked.
mentary
3/, x 7 itmetal case. Size 116/230V
in. Operation lOtln x TRANSFORMERS plete with prods,
a.c. (86. Carr. 7/9. Brand New—folly Shrouded. Input 280V leads and inrtruc-
M/eOc/a. Output 0-260V. tloos. 47A
Model
AMERICAN TAPE ROMBR2X THAXSISTOBIflED EOTJIP- 1A (6.10.0 (909.5
First grade Discounts
quality lor
American tapes. All Port Paid with Battery 2-8A
8A (8.16.0
(9.16.0 Model 7 (13.10.0.
Brand mar. quantities.
3in., 225it. X,.P. acetate 8/8
8A
10A
(14.10.0
(18.10.0 Model 9 (20. Mode) 8 each.
P. A p. 7/8 118.
Siin. 600Tt. T.p. mylar 10/- 12A
30A (81.0.0
(87.0,0
61b-. 600tt. Ii.P.
std plastic S/8 LAFAYETTE HI-FI STEREO
8in., OOOJt, acetate 10/- • Post extra. HEADPHONES
6ln., I.MOit. D.P. mylar «/- NEW
61n., J.SOOtt. T.P, mylar
ejin.,
82/8 30.000 MODEL
o.p.v. With 600 st Air onshloned
band. Soft head-
rohber
6Stn., 1,20016.
1,200ft. I-P.
D.P. acetate
mylar IS/8
16/- overloadscaleprotection,
.mirror O-B/I/2-8/ ear pads. Frequency
tesponae,
6Jln., 1.800«. D.P. mylar
6ita.. 2,4001t.std.
T.P.acetate
mylar
82/6
88/8 Model 23 P.6.U. 0-1SV d.c. (14. Model 30 10/23/100
1,000 V dm./ 260/600/ cycles, -fe26High to 16,000
aenst-
Tin.. l,200lt. 12/8 Audio Generator 10c/t-100kc/i (19.10.0. 0/2-6 /10 / 26/100/260/ Uvlty. perImpedance
ohms phone. Sup-8
Tin., l.SOOIt. L.F. acetate 16/- Model 31 R.F. Generator 160ko/».-360Mc/». 600/1,000V a.c. plied complete with
Vin., l.SOOIt. D.P.
L.P. mylar 20/-
86/- (12J.O.O. Model (10.10.0.
27 Signal-Model
Generator ISO 0/60fiA
71n., 3,400It. mylar
7In., 3,600lt. T.fi. mylar 46/- kc/s.-3SOMc/«.
Bridge (9. Model 68 Inductance 83 C.B.
Bridge (18. 12A dx.16/ 50/ OOOmA all cables, wires, over-
load Junction box and
Postage 2/-. Over £3 poet paid. Model 61 P.S.U. 0-6-15V dx. (8.10.0. 0/60kO/6MO/80MO.
(8/17/6. Port Paid. 3-oonnectkiCk plug,
79/9. P. A P. 2/6.
WSS"? '
(RADIO) LIMITED
Phone: GERHARD 8204/9155
Cables SMITHEX LESQUARE
3-34 LISLE STREET, LONDON, W.C.2

291
CIIRENTLY FITTED TO OVER TOO MODELS SY MAJOR MANUFACTURERS
oninu iwwi* RECORD PLAYER
BRING YOUR «—■» UP TO DATE WITH

Sonotone n
HIGH FIDELITY STEREOPHONIC CERAMIC CARTRIDGES
Sonotone 9TA SERIES. Superior quality cartridges offering extremely
high compliance for a cartridge with dual styli. Tracking weights as low
as 1-3 gm. allow reproduction from heavy modulated records without
distortion on most changers. Standard j'fixing centres. Prices: Sapphire
£2.18.10. Tax paid. Diamond £3.16.7. Tax paid. Other types available.
leaflet
ji Send for leaflets metrosouod manufacturing co. ltd.
bridge works, Wallace road,
^ metrosound london. n.l. tel. 01-226 8641/2/3

Aa walte
reallypush-pull
flrat-clHMoutput
Bl-Fl Stereo AmpliAer PRICES
TRANSISTOR per ehannel- (16Kit. Uee» 14Integrated
W mono). Uansirtorapte-amp
giving
Amplifier Kit £9.10.0 p. dtp. t/a
with Baas. Treble and Volume controla. Suitable tor use with Ceramic or £12.10.0 p. & p. 4/6
STEREO 8 + 8 tVjatel cartridges. Output
Compact stegeall lot
deelgn, partsraysupplied
speakeratnoludLng
trom 3 drilled
te IB ohma.
metal Built and Tested
work, Cir-Kit board, attractive trout panel, knobs, wire, Power Pack Kit £2.10.0 p. & P. 4/-
solder,
instructions enable ray constructor to build rastep
nuts, bolts—no extras to bay. Simple by step
amplifier to Built and Tested £3.0.0 P. & P. 4/8
be proud of. Cabinet (as iUu*.] £2.10.0 p. & P. 5/8
Brief Specification: Freq, rcaponee ± 3 <ib 20-20,000 c/». (Special offer—4X4.10.0. Tost Free if all above kite
Bass boost approx. to -f 13 db. Treble cot approx. to ordered at same time or can be supplied built and tested
—19 db. Negative feetlback 18 db over main amp. for 4X8.0.0
Circuit Post Free).
diagram, conetruetlon details and parts list (tree
Tower rcijuitcments 25 V at 0-6 amp. with kdt) 1/6 (3-A.K)
STEREO ABTUma 3-YALTE AUDIO AMPLIFIEB MODEL HA84 LATEST C0LLAK0 MAGNAVOK 363 STEREO
lucortwratiug Designed for Hi-Pi reproduc- TAPE DECK. Three speeds. 4 track, takes up to Tin.
double wouu'l 3 nmfns
KCBSfistriinsloruiT,
and 1 EZ80, heavy4 duty,
Output wntla tion of records. A-C. Mains
operation. Ready built on B.B.R.
spools. 412,16.0. PlusStereo
TD.2. 4 track 7/6 Carr. TaM& Deck.
ins. (Tapes
9gns.eztra).
C»rr. 7/8.
]ier ehauucl. Full tone and roluinc controls. Absolutely plated heavy gange metal DUALITY
conipiete. cbaaals, size 7iln. w. x din. new. Beautifully made. Only 49/0, P. ACASE.
PORTABLE TAPE RECORDER P. 6/6,Brand
Dual
OJILS d. x 41lo. h. Incorporates 35/-. P. A P. " Purpose Balk Tape Eraser and Tape Bead Demagnetlser
ECC83. EL84, E280
Heavy duty, double wound valves.
£5.9.6 mains t ranslornier and output Mains 4-aPEED RECORD PLAYER BARGAINS
P. A P. 8/- transformec matched for BtOklDg,models. AH brand new Itt maker's original
Super De- ■3 ohm speaker, separate Bass. Treble and volume controls. LATEST B.3.B. MODELS
Negative feedback Uno. Output 41 watte. Front panel
luxe
with version
ECLSfi con be detached o»d leads extended lor remote mounting TU/18 007
Single Player wiih mono Cart
Single Player with mono Cart
63.8.8
44.18.8
valves, eep. oftested
controls. Complete with knobs,
for only 44.6.0. P. & P. 6/-, valves, etc.. wired and UA86 Changer with mono Cart 46.7.8
bass, treble and balance coa- H8L " POUR " AMPLIFIER KIT. Blmilat In appearance AD plus Carriage and Packing 6/6.
•rols. Full feedback- 8 gns. to HA34 above but employs entirely different and ad- See LATEST
below lorQARRARD
suitable stereo cartridge I
MODELS
P. * P. 8/-. vanced circuitry. Conipiete set of parts, etc, 79/6.P-4P.6/- ALL types avaflable 1000,8P26,8000, AT6Q, ate.i
HIGH OAH 4 TEABSISTOR 10/14 WATT HI-FI Send S.A.E. lor latest Bargain Prices
PEtTTED dBCPIT AMPLIFIER KIT BRAND NEW CARTRIDOE BARGAINS I LATEST B.B.R.
AKPIJFXEB ET Amouaural
stylishlyampUfler
finished X3M MONO COMPATIBLE CARTRIDOE
Type TAJ.out- with an output of With
I P andluraoTer sapphirewithrtylimono
Stereo records suitable for playing 78, EP,
euulpmant.
• Peak
put in excess 14 wjrtte from 2 ONLY 28/6. P. S: P. 1/8.
BL84» in push-pull. SONOTONE 8TAEC60/-Compatible
of If watte,
• All British
stan- Super reptoduction diamond stylus or with StereosapphireCartridge with
stylus 40/-.
dard
components. ■- ofspeech,
both with,
music neg-
and P. A P. 1/6 each.
• Built on ligible hum. Sep- QUALITY RECORD PLAYER AMPLIFIER
printed circuit panel else 6 Silt. Out-put Ttunsfttnuciv. arate Inputs for Adutytop-quality recordmoina
double wound playertransformer,
amplifier craploylng
ECCS3, heavy
EL84,
• Generous size Driver and mike and gram EZ80 -valves. Separate Bass, Treble and Volume
•speakers.
Output •transformer allow records nnd
Translltera (GETfur114
lapped a ohmOr and 13 ohm
81 Milliard announcemenls In controls. Complete
follow each other. Fully shrouded section wound output Ready built and tested. PRICE 76/-. P. &P. 6/-. b.
lor 3 ohm speokcr. with
Sire output
71". w.translonncr
x 8in. «1. xroatehed
6In,
OC8XD
operation. 0 Everything supplied, wire, batteryIt dl|*,
anil matehetl pair of Ota I o/p). • volt transformer to uiateh S-ISQ speaker nnd 2 Independent ALSO AVAILABLE mounted on board with output
eoMer.ctc. • Comprebensiveenav to folliiwiiialructloia volume controls, nnd separate bass nnd treble conlroU are transformer nnd speaker ready to fit Into cabinet below,
and circuit diagram 2/0 (Free wltb Kit). All parts sold provided
EOC83. KF86,giving good
and lift
EZ80andrectifier.
cut. Valve llno-upinstruction
Simple 2 BLH4a, PRICE 97/8. P. it P. 7/C. _ _
•eparately. BPECtAL PRICE 48/-. P. 4 P. 3/-. Atet booklet t/B. (Free with parts.) AU parts sold separately. Unmit DK LUXE QUALITY PORTABLE H/P CABINET
ready built and tested, J2/6. P. 4>F. 31: motor board size I4Jin. x I2in. clearance
ruiAM TDHBR BEAD
ONLY
nnd tested47.9.6.complete
P. 4 P.with
8/8. sld.AlsoInput
available ready49.5.0.
sockets, built below, filio. above. "Will lake above amplifier and 2in.
any
P. & P. 8/8.' B.8.H.
(except AT80 and 8P26). Size 18lr. x 16tn. x Unit
or GARRARD Autochrager or Single Player 8iu.
Beautifully designed and pre- MAIM TRAMFORMER.
cision
and engineered by Dormer Frl. 206/240V. fiec. 9-0-9 atFor500transistor
tnA. 11/-. powerP. supplies,
S P.2'6. PRICE £8.9.8. P. A P. 9/6.
plied Wadsworth
ready fittedEld.
with Sup-
twin Pti. 800/240V. Bee, 12-0-12 nl 1 amp. 14/6. P. A P. 2/0. FABRICS VYNAER AND BEX1NE SPEAKER AND CABINET
•0005 tuning condenser lor KAIH8
Tapped TRAM FORMER.Bee,For40-0-41)
prl screen)
200-260V. transistor power supplies- 18/8pef yd,app. 64ln. P.wide.
length. iP.2/9. Usually(min.
85/-Jyd.).
yd., SA.E.
our price
for
AM connection. Frcaltgncd
KM section covers 89-102Mc/>. electrostatic ami 0-3v. ut -a onip at 1 amp
for dial lamps(with
etc". gampleg.
X.P. output 10 7 Mc/s. Com- Drop thro" mounting.
27/6. P. & P. 4/6. Black size Hin. -< Slin. ;< 3Jin. BRAND NSW 8 OHM LOUDSPEAKERS
5in.. 14/-; 6Jin„lB/8; Sin., 27/-: Tin. x din. 18/8; lOin.
plete with circuit
EOC85 (61.12)
diagramvalve MATCHED PAIR OF 4! WATT TRANSISTOR
and full of AND OUTPUT TRANSFORMERS. Stack site 11DRIVER
x IJ * E.M.I- x fiin., £7/6.
tuner head. Another special bulk pun-btise eimbtes us
to Offer these at 27/S each. P. 4 P. 3/-.- Order quickly I 1 In. Output trans, tapped lor 3 ohm and 15 ohm out- E.M.I. Sin. x Sin. with high flux magnet 21/-.
ISJln. x 81n. with high flux ceramic magnet. 42/-.
HATCHED FAIB AH/EM I.F.'i. CimiiirialiigMc/w).
let I.V.and put. 10/- pair plus 2/- P, A P.
7-10 watt OUTPUT TRANSFORMERS to match pair of I2in. 316 per speaker. (15ohm. 45/-). P. A P. 61n. 2/-. Silo. A 8in. 2/6, IQlu.» A
2nd
lln, I.V.
IJIn,dlscrimlontur.
<2(10. M. Wilt(463inatvh Kc/s/io-7 Kite
altnvr tuner hearl. ECL 86'• in push-pull to 3 ohm output. ONLY 11/-. BRAND NEW. LHn. 16w. H/D gpeakcrs. 3 or ,15, ohm.
11/-pair. P. 4 P, 2/-. P. & P.watt
10-12 2/6.OUTPUT IBAKBPORMERfl. Size 2!iii. x Sin. Current production by well-known BrltWi maker. ODerea
OOELEE P.H. TUBER BEAD. Wi-100 Mv/s 10-T Ml-,'.. Clamp fitting. For two EL84*« In push-pull. State S or 3fiw. below list price at 88/6. P. A P. 5/-. Gulter models:
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3/9.
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SPECIAL OFFER I PLES6EY TYPE 29 TWIK romo ACOS HIGH IMPEDANCE CRYSTAL STICK MIKES, peak oulnut. 3 orSTSSOmEESB ohm. LOUDSPEAKER.
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case with dance. (State imp. reqd.l A fewOpen minute*
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292
COMPONENTS... iBAsicTpERATiONS IN ClRCUirToRM^^WoPESlioNA^
= AND
*w
1^-1
UNIT "A" COMPUTING -A A
RESISTORS -o A INPUT c
SIGN CHANGE BECOMES
AND PATCHING LEADS OUTPUT-o
Resistors
3 off 2kn.±2%
3 off 3'3kft ±2% "^1
+6 O—/|V * iFT^TlA -O-(a*bl
3off4kft ±1% + 6o-
3 off Skfi ±1% ADDITION
3off9-lkQ±2% ft,
5 off I0kn±i%
5 off lOkQ ±2% +cto-av—j j—AV 1
3 off l3kQ ±2% - (o-b}
3 off ISkft ±2% * • |^> i O- (o-bf
3 off 16kn ±2%
3 off ISkfl ±2% SUBTRACTION
3 off 20kn ±2% ft,
3 off 33kn ±2% =6
3 off 40kQ ±l% «ln
3 off 9lkn ±2% + (70 o-^ +< 0
' - -O-ab
5 off lOOkn ±1%
5 off IOOkI2±2%
(All metal oxide or carbon film, c
J W) -AV- ~^tn ~
•O~o6c
Plugs X «ln E +* O-abc
I dozen of each colour: red, black,
blue, yellow, and white, to fit MULTIPLICATION
front panel sockets (see text).
I dozen miniature plugs, to fit "In "f="in
miniature sockets + oC>—AV-
O r*
■WA—5,
Wire
Stranded core single p.v.c. wires in
assorted colours ([4/-0076in). fit ft,* ft,-ft2.
( AV-
"i
too-—/W- +00

Fig, 4.1. fright) These diagrams indicate
how the operational amplifier can be -AV—/*
used to solve various algebraic
equations DIVISION

earth socket. Remember that a positive Input voltage They will consist of a short written routine, plus
results in a negative operational amplifier output voltage. programme layouts. The layouts will be in a duplicated
Since input and feedback resistors are both lOkilohm, form, of symbolised diagram and patching circuit, so
the operational amplifier gain will be unity, and both that the reader can compare analogue computer
voltmeters should give precisely the same readings- symbols with actual circuits and patching procedures.
Double check by interchanging voltmeters. Now see A newcomer to analogue computers will best learn
that the operational amplifier will faithfully "track" programming techniques by working with PEAC, and
any input voltage of ± 1OV or less when a temporary this will also help to increase his knowledge of more
output load of 2 kilohm is connected from OA1 /SK7 to advanced mathematics.
earth. ROLE OF THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
The above tests are repeated for OA2 and OAS by IN EQUATION SOLVING
transferring the patching lead from VS1-S1/H/SK1 to Now that the time has come to consider UNIT "A"
S2/11/SK1, and then to S3/I1/SK.1, and at the same as a computer, instead of as a collection of circuits
time reconnecting voltmeters to the appropriate handling voltages, it is appropriate to adopt a slightly
summer and operational amplifier sockets. different approach. Voltages will now be replaced by
the letters or numbers of an algebraic equation,
SOFTWARE a, b, c, d, x, y, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on. Computing
Under the heading of "software" comes all the paper- resistors loose their individual identity and are con-
work associated with drawing up a programme for the
computer. The time spent on preparing a programme sidered only as ratios etc., which are also
for PEAC can vary from a few minutes to several days, JV| J\2
depending on the skill of the programmer and the denoted by equation letters or numbers. The same
nature and complexity of the problem. applies to coefficient potentiometer settings.
The intention is to give a few typical programme Sign change. In the circuit of Fig. 4.1a, an input
examples as an introduction to using the computer. voltage classified as term a, reappears at the op-amp
293
+10 -to
SYMBOLISED DIAGRAM

VS2
-6
J 0A1

CM

VS1 O 52 VS2
RED BLACK CPI
SKI RED
SKA
SKi
SK2 5K2
COEFF POT
VOLTAGE SOURCE

SK7
SK1 SKI SK1 SKi SK2
SK2 SK2 5iL
SK3 SK3 SK3 •1;
J3kn lOOkil iOOkil lOOkfl
SKA T SKA SKA SKA
SKS sks SK9 SKO
INPUT 1 \ INPUT 2 INPUT 3 INPUT 5 @
RED \ BLACK I BLUE WHITE
SUMMER 1 OP-AMP 1
v-—.-A?—•'"'•"tWIW
A, SOkft.TWO JOOkn JH PARALLEL VOLTAGE CHECK POIHTS SHOWH THUS
3a —2b = d
Fig. 4.2 Programme layouts for
Multiplication. In Fig. 4.Id, Rt and Rin are adjusted
output as term —a, when the ratio is unity. One
/vin so that = b. Hence, a is multiplied by factor b to
way of looking at this operation, which is common to Rin
all single operational amplifier configurations, is to become an output —ab. The letter inside the
assume that a has been multiplied by —1, hence operational symbol triangle shows that the
— 1. In effect, to multiply by — 1 is to move a
Kin ratio is 6. • , .
mathematical term from one side of its equation to the Fig. 4.1e gives an alternative method of achieving
other, so sign change can be used to transpose. multiplication. A computing potentiometer is con-
The operational symbol of Fig. 4.1a avoids the bother nected to the op-amp input to multiply a by a factor b.
of inserting resistors and their values when drawing up a Therefore, with an input ab, and-^- adjusted to equal
programme layout on paper. The figure inside the j\in
triangle—in this case "1"—merely indicates that the c, the result is an output ~abc.
computing resistor ratio, "or alternatively the operational
amplifier gain, is unity. Division. When a computing potentiometer is
Addition. In Fig. 4.1b, positive terms a and b wired as in Fig. 4,If, with Rt connected to its slider,
are added to yield an output — (a + b), which can also term a will be divided by constant b when Rt = Rtn.
be written —a — b. If — (a + is applied as an input Note that Rt is written inside the symbol triangle to
to a second unity gain operational amplifier, to give show that is a divisor.
two sign changes, it will be converted to a 4- 6. Note It can sometimes happen that a feedback resistor is
that the figures in the operational symbol triangle show inadvertently left plugged into an operational amplifier
when it is re-programmed for a division operation, and
that = 1, and^ = 1. this will result in the circuit of Fig. 4.1g. Instead of an
Ki J\z
Subtraction. The only difference between Fig. 4.2b and output - 7 the operational amplifier will yield
Fig. 4.2c is that term b has been made a negative b
quantity. The operational amplifier output is there-
fore —(a — h) or —a -f b. -(m)-
294
EXPERIMENTER'S
PRINTED CIRCUIT KIT
5""-D.JO
CHASSIS with INTERESTING
PARTS andPROJECTS
TRANSISTORS on . PRINTED
from your CIRCUIT
SPARES
BO vt
CONTENTS: f!) 2 Copper Laminate Boards 4i" X 2+*, (2) I Board for Match-
bo* Radio. (3) I Board (or Wristwatch Radio, etc. (d) Retist. (5) R«iit
Solvent.
Omiiu for(6)Amowors.
Ecchant. (9)
(7) 2Cleanser/Detreaaer. (8) SWfMW/LW.
Miniature Radio Dials 16-paie BookletAlsoPrinted
free
with each
bmFdmff. kit. (10) Essential Design Data, Circuits, Chassis Plans, etc. for
40 TRANSISTORISED PROJECTS
A very comprehensive selection of circuits to suit everyone's requirements
and constructional ability. Many recently developed, very efficient designs
published for the first time, including 10 new circuits,
EXPERIMENTER'S
n PRINTED CIRCUIT KIT
8/6
& % Postage & Pack. 1/6 (UK)
Commonwealth:
SURFACE MAIL 71-
AtR MAIL 8/-
Australia, New Zealand,
South Africa, Canada
(I) Crystal Set with biased Detector. (2) Crystal Set with voltage-quadrupler
detector. (3) Crystal Set with Dynamic Loudspeaker. (4) Crystal Tuner with 3-way Training Method;
Aud'O Amplifier. poucle(S) Reflex.
Carrier (7)Power Conversion
_ Matchbox Receiver.Radio.
or Photocell <61 Split-Load
(B) "TRI-
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(9) Solar Battery Loudspeaker Radio, The smallest 3 designs yet offered to
theHome Constructor anywhere in theWorld. 3 Subminiature RadioReceivers From basic principles to advanced applications,
dbased on the "Triflexon" wh circuit. Lee us know if you know of a smaller you'll learn the theory of electronic engineering,
^
*70 2
• X5 -55
. (11). (13)
Wristwatch 5• (ID) IPostage
Radio IS' Stampx -SS*.
x -BO' Radio.(12)
SizeRing
onlyRadio
162" -70"
x 95"
Bacteria-powered Radio. Runs on sugar or bread. (14) Radiox quickly and easily through ICS. That's because
each course is set out in easy-to-understand terms.
Control Tone Receiver. (IS) Transistor P/P Amplifier.
l-valve Amplifier, (18) Reliable Burglar Alarm. (19) Light-Seeking Animal.(($) Intercom. (17)
Guided Missile. (20) Perpetual Motion Machine, (21) Metal Detector. (22) MASTER THE PRACTICAL SIDE
Transistor Tester. (23) Human Body Radiation Detector. (24) Man/Woman
Uitcrirmnator. (25) Signal Injectpr. (26) Pocket Transceiver (Licence required). ICS show you how to develop your practical
(29) p°,os£a.nt VolumeTransmitter,
Jem Inductive-Loop Intercom. (28) (30)Remote ControlReflex
Pocket(32)
Triple of Models by(31)
Induction.
watch Transmitter/Wire-less Microphone. Wire-lessRadio.
Door BellWrist-
(33) abilities in electronic engineering—alongside your
theoretical studies. It's the only sure way to
Ultrasonic Switch/Alarm.
Pull Amplifier. (36)S Light-Beam (34) Stereo Preamplifier. (35) Quality Stereo
Telephone "Photophone". (37) Light-Beam Push-
ie 1 : success. All training manuals are packed with
(40) Thynstor^ Drillt !,Speed
' ' TV Sound Adaptor. (39) Ultrasonic Transmitter.
Controller. easy-to-follow Illustrations.
MASTER THE MATHEMATICAL SIDE
PHOTOELECTRIC KIT To many this aspect is a bitter problem. Even
more so because noelectronlcengineerlscomplete
BUILD 12 EXCITING PHOTOELECTRIC DEVICES without a sound working knowledge of maths.
CONTENTS:
Sulphide Photocell. 2 P.C. Latching
Chassis Boards,
Relay, Chemicals,
2 Transistors. Etching Manual, Resistors.
Condenser, Cadmium But new ICS teaching makes mathematics easier
Gam Control, Terminal Block, Elegant Case, Screws, etc. In fact everything to learn.
you needNo,
(Project to build a Steady-Light
1) which can be modifiedPHoco-Switeh/Coonter/Burglar
for mod.ulated-Jight opcracion. Alarm, etc.
Wide range of courses available include:
PHOTOELECTRIC KIT in Se -vlc n
e ' ' *. Closed Circuit TV, Electronics,
39/6 N ume°?cal^o^tro| EIect^onTc^^etc!an,,n,!,' Comput«r Engineering.
a

Postage & Pack. 2/6 (UK) EXPERT COACHING FOR:


photoelectric Commonwealth:
bURGLAt
flNViSdeuCAAAim
BEAU TTPS rimJ'Iwn ?.'t.10^E»ECTR0N1C AND
E, eCOMM,JNICAT,ON «ADIO ENGINEERS
SURFACE MAIL 3/6 rlrv
CITY AND GUILDS X. '
ELECTRONIC SERVICING TECHNICIANS
AIR MAIL £1.0.0 H.T.E.B. RADIO/TV SERVICING CERTIFICATE
RADIO AMATEURS' EXAMINATION
S.Australia, New Zealand,
Africa, Canada 4 O.S.A, P.M.O, CERTIFICATES IN RADIOTELEGRAPHY
Also Essential Data Circuits Bu/Jd your own radio, transistor portable, and professlonol'type test
and Plans for Building
i?nR| t
1SI?F-t'KCTfi
Modulated-Light
iC PR e :TS-
Alarm, /3i fLong-Range
(3)Alarm. <» Steady-Light
Stray-light Photo-Switch/Alarm.
Alarm. (4) Relsy-Less (2) 'th'lnrZml'r ''^"ct'co, fto<"ham
0
ond ElMroitlc* Course, Every-
Alarm. (S) Warbling-Tono (6) Closed-Loop Alarm. (7) Projector Lamp ^ b«/ow. "^ A" "mponenu and toofi
supplied. For detalft post coupon
S^hiliser. (f) Eleetronie.Projector Modulator. (9) Mains
(10) Car Parking Lamp Switch. (11) Automatic Headlamp Dipper. (12) Super. Power Supply.
Sensitive Alarm. Member of the Association of British Correspondence Colleges
INVISIBLE BEAM OPTICAL KIT
Everything
and I Photocell needed (except
Receiver (at plywood) for Suitable
illustrated). building!forI, Invisible-Beam
all PhotoelectricProjector
Burglar FOR FREE HANDBOOK POST TH/S COUPON T0DAT !
Alarms, Counters, Door Openers, etc. I.C.S., Dept. 151. INTERTEXT HOUSE.
CONTENTS:
jrojcctoi*andlamp 2 lenses, 2 mirrors, 2 4S-degree wooden blocks. Infra-red filter, PARKCATE ROAD, LONDON, S.W.11
Postage Packholder, building
1/6 (UK). plan*, performance
Commonwealth; Surface Maildata,2/-;
etc-AirPrice
Mail19/6.
8/-»
i NAME ■
LONG RANGE OPTICAL KIT 29/6 p.p. 1/6 !
Obtainable from larger electronic components distributors or direct from j ADDRESS
EXPERIMENTAL ELECTRONIC ENG. KITS
YORK ELECTRICS, 353 York Road, London, S.W.11
Send a S.A.E. for full details, a brief description and Photographs of all Kits and
all 52 Radio, E/ectrome and Photoelectric Projects Assembled.
OCCUPATION- ■ ACE— 4168
IHTERNATIONAl CORRISPOHDINCE SCHOOLS

295
OHO AS BDILDEKS! Ji.P.N. Sil, Planar Traaatatora. All Tested, l/< each or U.O.O R.S.T. VALVE MAIL ORDER CO.
perEASSISTOE
100. BAEGAIS BALE! SEW STOCK AT DIE EATABLE PSICS8!
OC«, OC4S. OCSIS now only l/«each! * H.0.0 per 100 144 WELLFIELD ROAD, STREATHAM, S.W.16
OC71, OG72 equlraleiit 1/- each; £5,0.0 per 100 Special 24 Hour Mai! Order Service
ABYStt SwitchInKTranaiBtora 8/0 each! 014.0.0 per 100
2N76S H/PJS. Silicon PUumr, SOOiuW. ZOOMoii. High Bpeed switehlnK . 8/8 each! 461 7/9 KL90 6/- QQVO3/10 Z803U 161- 11E3 42/- 9003
BSY28 N.P-N. Silicon Ptaoar, Epitaxial. SOOtuW. SOOMc/i
BSYOO N-P.N. Silicon Planar. Epitaxial. SOOmW. 100Mc/«
2/8 each!
. 8/8 each! 4231 9/6 EL96 9/6 30/- OA2 6/3 12AC8
12AD6 10/- BY100 9/- 5/8
AF212 P.N.P. Otrmanlom Alloy Biff- low noise V.H.F. awjiliDer 8/8 each! 3IC 16/312/- KL860 22/- QQV03/20105/- OB2 '«/-
6/6 11/- TRAHSISTORS
12AE6 0/6 1S131
Complete aeta ol tranaiaton lor mllo; 3Y30 EL820 81- 81- QQV04/1S oca
OZ4 4/6 12AH8 30/- 4/3
2G«4A/2GS4SA/2GS«B/20371A/20S<8A/2G3J6A + dlotle OAF91 EL821
*l-\ EL822 16/-
QET120. 3 watts. Heat aink Inclmletl . 2/8 only!
101- each! DAF96 6/9
DCC90 731- ELLSO 201- QQV08/40
100/- 1B3GT 61-
IR6
12ATS 4/6 2152
6/6 12X17 S/9 20210 12/6
4/3
TrBDsiator ., 2/8
8/8 each!
Translator Driver
OutputTransfonners
Tranaformere <aulUitiIe lor our Icita above) .. .... each! H
DF91 6/9 EM$4 16/- ' 90/- 2D21 6/- 12AU7 4/9 2G381
6/3 20382
5/-
OC38 . 6/- each!I DH3/9I 80/- EM80
Di-SS 7/6 QQV5/10 70/- 2B26 20/- 12AX7
71- 12BA8 81- 2G401 61- 6/-
BYZ13, 6 amp rectifiera
Light seosltlvlty tranalstors ainiilar to OCP71 .. .. ..
8/8 each
8/- each! DH77 4/6 EM 84 7/6
EM81
7/6 Q870/20 6/6 3A63B28 40/- I2BE6 6/9 2G402 81-
BiatARKED, UNTESTEQ TKAN81ST0HS TO CLEAR 7/6 lor 601 DK91 6/6 ENS2 26/- Q875/20 6/6 3C46 47/- 12E1 17/6 20414 2Q416 6h 81-
DK92 SH EY61 7/6 Q975/60 96/-
8/9 12K7GT
Silicon dlodea. Make excellent detecion. Also aultable for keying ckvlronic organs,
1/-each; 20for 10/-. DK96 7/9 EY81 7/- 20/- 4X150A
6R4GY 12K8GT 81-
61- 2G416 6/6
4/6 2G417 6/-
BY100 DL66 18/- EY83 8/6 QS8S/3 7/3 SU4Q 41- 12Q7GT
£7.10.0 type rectlflcra.
per IOC: B80.0.0SPBCLtL
per l.COO.REDUCED PRICE! ONLY 2/4 ench; M/-doz.; DL92 4/9 BY84 7/6 QS92/10 4/- 5V40 81- 20L1 18/9 2N247
DL94 6/9 EY88 7/- 0396/10 6/6 6Y8GT 6/6 20P6 aopt 19/- 2N466 12/6
9/8
ELECTROLTtJC COXBEHSEBS! FAKTABTIC BBLECTIOf i 276 volts .. lOd DL98 7/6 ai- 03108/4615/- 8Z4G
EZ40 10/- Q8160/16 61- 6/80L2 131- 26246/9 19/6 AC107 81-
20+
328 ++ 32 4 276 volte .. 1/6 DUSIO 12/6 EZ41 ACia? 7/6
6/8 AC128
MjiK «0volt8 .. 1/3 DL316 EZ&O 03X60/30 61- 6AK6 4/6 262601 71- 6/6
Stfii' 270
SOO^i' 16 volta volts .. 1/8
.... 1/2 60 + 00
16 460 volte .. 1/9
276 volts .. tl- DL319 30/-
SOI-1 E281 6/8 6/6 08160/36 6AK8 6/6 25Z6GT 8/6 ACV19
ACY20 4/9
4/9
500/rF 26 VOlta ICd 40 + 40 + 20 275 volts .. 2/1 DM70 61- GTIO 17/6 201- 6AL6 31- 80C15 18/6 ACY2I 4/9
DY89 GZ30 10/- Q3150/46 20/- 6AM6 3/6 S0C17 16/6
30C18 13/6 AD140 is/a
16/16/10,850%" ,. m 100/100, 60V .. 8/2 12,600/iF, 30V .. 18/- DY87 0Z32 9/9 QS160/80 SAN 6AQ48 10/- 30F6 16/6 AF114 7/-
60/60/60. 360V .... 8/7 8/2 160/360, 326V 300V .. ih SO.OOO/iF, 30V ..86/- B88C0 12/- GZ34 11/- 4/-
l,000|iR. 70V BISOF 17/6 QZ37 12/9 QS1209 20/6 7/3 6AQ6
6A89 81- 8/0 30FL1 16/- AP116
AF116 71-
100/200,276V .. 8/8 260/860, .. il- l.OOO/iF, 16V .. X/8 K1820C 22/6 H63 8/- QVOS-IS 10/- 30FL12
30FL14 16/- 71-
100/200/200/50,276V 4f- 2,000/2,000,25V 4/6 1,000/iF. 18V .... lOd 1/- EABC80
EAF42 II- HL41DD 13/6 6A37 16/-
QV04-7 12/6 6AT6 4/6 30LI6 16/8
13/8 GET671
GBT876 61-
61-
I'.OOOfiR. 35V .. 8/B 250/1F. 50V
0I/tE
2SilF ..- - 608 volt e/tF
.. lOd 600/iF, 16V
33voIt
volt MuP 9 volt EB91 10/-3l~ KT61
KT68
12/9
16/- QV06-26
QV0e-20 7/-
25/- 6AU0 6/- 80L17
30P12
14/8
13/6 NKT211
NKT2I4
61-
volt SuF 64/11' 2-6 volt EBC33
RBC41 KT67 46/- B10 16/- 6B40 6BA6
16/- 30pa9 13/- SKX216 7/8
»/-
H-
liiP
X'26uF .... 360 16 volt
volt SiiP 0 volt 64/iF 100/iF
9 volt
3 volt BBC90 KTai(7CS)
16/- R17 8/-J 6BE6 5/~ aoPLi 16/- NKX217 81-
2^iF .. a volt 8/iF 8/lF 350 volt
490 volt 100/lF 0 volt EBFflO KT81CGEC) S19 R18 7/6 6BH6 7/6 30PL13 171- NKT218 61-
2/iF .. 9 volt S/jF SO volt 100/iF 9 volt EBP83 36/- 7/9 6BJ6 27/681- 30PL14. 16/3 NKT228 12/8
6/9 NKT404 61-
2/iK .. 70 volt SfiF 276 volt 200/iF 160/iF 12 volt EBF89 KT88 27/6 SG5/60O 80/- 6BK4 36L6GT
26/- 6BN6 7/6 36W4 4/6 SKT075 61-
2fiP .. 140 volt 10(lF 26 volt 200/iF 3 volt EBL21
EBL31 11/-
27/6 KTW61
KTW62 10/- 8130
8130P 25/- SBQ7A 71- 3SZ4GT 6/6 NKT877 61-
2jiF 16(lF 160 volt 200/iF IS4 volt
volt ECLLSOOSO/- Mid 10/-
S-O/il' .. 380 16 volt
volt 20ol' 3U volt 17/6 8P41 3/6 6BR7 8/6 60Co 6/3 NKT713 7/0
8-6|xF
StfP ..-- 283 volt 20111" ■
volt 20fii" volt 260/iF
9 volt 230/iF
2-69 volt
volt
ECC33 16/- N87 17/6 SP61
ECG40 8TV280/40 3/6 6BR8 6/8 60CD6G
6637 80 61-
OClfi 20/-
31/- OC19 17/6
3jiP 16 volt S20iiF &CCSX N78 16/- 25/- 6BW6 IIT- 85AI 261- OC20 16/-
3-2(r>' .... 8-4 28 volt
volt 20/iF25/iF 8 volt 350uF 2-69 volt
volt ECC82
ECC93
PC88 11/8
PC88 11/9 8TV280/8090/- 6BW7
6CD6G 14/-
22/-
88A2 7/3 OC24
90AG 46/- OC25
16/-
11/-
3-2jzV .. 64 volt 25M>' 12 volt SSO/iF 10 volt
volt ECC88 PCfi7 8/9 SU2I60 12/6 6C4 2/9 90AV 46/- OC28 7/6
4fiF .. 4 volt 25/1F 16 volt 400/JF 2-6 ECC88 PC900 9/8 SU2150A 12/6 6CB6 61- 90C1 12/- OC28 16/-
4^K
4jiF .. 12 volt
.. 26 volt 30/iF 28/iF 25 volt 400/iF IS volt BCF80 PCC84 6/3 U19 36/0 6CDOO 20/-' OOCG 201- OC29 15/-
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296
COMBINED OPERATIONS 0-10V D.C.
The configurations of Fig. 4.1 have many similarities, VOLTMETER
which lead naturally to the combination of several
operations. In fact, if is possible to perform, say, ten +tovo
additions or subtractions, three multiplications, and one ZOkfl/VOU
division operation all at once using a single operational
amplifier with several inputs and coefficient potentio- COEFFICIENT
meters. POTENTIOMETER 1

PROBLEM EXAMPLE 1.
SOLVING A SIMPLE EQUATION VIRTUAL EARTH
UNIT "A" can solve a linear algebraic equation
consisting of more than ten unlike terms, but a simple
example with only four terms will serve as an adequate COMPUTING
practical introduction to programming. RESISTOR
3a
Take ~ 2b - d (Eq. 4.1) ¥ig. 4.3. Voltmeter method of determining coefficient
the letters a. b, and c are regarded as known quantities, potentiometer settings
and d is the unknown, but the equation can be trans- spare voltage source output, and connect a voltmeter to
posed to solve for any unknown. S1/I5/SK2. The voltmeter will then indicate the
Eq. 4.1 is implemented on the computer as shown in potentiometer coefficient while taking into account the
the Fig. 4.2 patching circuit. Two voltages correspond- loading effect of R? (see Fig. 4.3). A voltmeter reading
ing to a and ~b are taken from the voltage source to of 4*75 V is equivalent to a coefficient of 0-475. CP1
summer SI, where a is multiplied by-^f = 3, and —b can now be patched back into the problem set-up. With
a 100 kilohm resistor for i?t, CP1 will be dividing by
numbers equal to or less than unity. If Rt is changed to
is multiplied by ^ = 2.
2 i
0-10. ^ ran8e
Therefore, increasing c byby CP1 will
a factor of 10become
can be
The machine equation for the problem is,
seen quite clearly to be the same as decreasing com-
—'a - -f£ puting resistor ratios by a factor of 10.
Rx R■2 _ With UNIT "A" now programmed for Eq. 4.1, it is
(Eq. 4.2)
possible to investigate fully the problem for all reason-
and if Rt is made 100 kilohm the equation will take the able values of a, b, c, and d, and for any unknown
form of without the need for transposing terms or altering the
100„ 100, problem set-up. For example, to find a when b, c, and
33fl-506 d are known, set b and c and adjust a for an operational
=d (Eq. 4.3) amplifier output equal to d. Always monitor an input
voltage with a voltmeter when it is being adjusted.
Computing resistor values could equally well be To see how serious computing errors can occur at
Rt —m 10 kilohm, Rj = 3-3 kilohm, and R2 = 5 kilohm, extreme limits, set VS1 and VS2 so that terms 3<z and
to yield the same multiplication ratios. Since a 50 ~2b are virtually equal, and d^0. Also, set CP1 to
kilohm resistor is not included in the short list of near zero and observe that d will pass beyond the 10V.
Table 4.1, two 100 kilohm resistors are patched operational amplifier maximum output swing. •
together in parallel in the patching circuit Fig. 4.2.
Routine. To set up Eq. 4.1 on UNIT "A", first of all PROBLEM EXAMPLE 2.
ensure that the voltage source switch S6 is off. Insert ANALYSIS OF VOLTAGE DIVIDER CIRCUIT
computing resistors into the positions shown in Fig, 4.2 The voltage divider of Fig, 4.4a is often encountered
patching circuit, and connect the computing elements m electronic circuits. At first sight, a network consist-
together with patching leads. Set VS1 and VS2 dials ing of only two resistors might be considered far too
to zero, and CP1 to "10", corresponding to a divisor of simple to merit investigation by means of a computer.
1. Wire a voltmeter to OA1/SK13 and zero-set the
operational amplifier by means of VR15. Next
connect a voltmeter to SI/II/SK2, and switch on S6.
Set VS1 dial for a trial value of a — 2V. Transfer the
voltmeter from S1/I1/SK2 to S1/I3/SK2, and set VS2
dial for a trial value of 6 = — 2V.
UNIT "A" will now be computing
(3 x 2) - (2 x 2)
=2 (Eq. 4.4)
1
with a = 2, b = — 2, c = I, and therefore d = 2.
When a voltmeter is linked to OA1/SK13 it will be
discovered that the output voltage d is actually — 2V,
due to the operational amplifier sign change. Remedy
by reversing the readout meter leads. If the output
voltage is not exactly — 2V, recheck voltages for a and
—b. To check the exact setting of CP1 dial for any
value of c, temporarily remove the patching lead from
CP1/SK1. Patch CPI/SK1 to a precise -flOV from a
but it does involve at least six variable quantities
Vz, /j, Iz, Ri, and R2, and to solve a problem for
any unknown, one of six equations would be required,
A+h based on

:*i RJ = Vr~ V2 (Eq. 4.5)


Ix + h
and
:flz -V* R (Eq. 4.6)
R2
~ Z
(<*} Thus, although it would be ridiculous to use the com>
puter to find one specific answer to one particular
voltage divider problem, the paperwork involved in
AW solving six equations for several sets of variables could
become surprisingly laborious. What the computer
. 1 2• does in fact allow is the solution to literally any voltage
*2 divider problem under any conditions, without the
!z[ V2 need for re-programming.
5^2 To solve Eq. 4.5 and Eq. 4.6 simultaneously on
UNIT "A % the equations are first transposed for
—o terms V2 and In, which are common to both.
/i=0
V2=V1- Riili + h) (Eq. 4.7)
<c) p2: and
Ih (Eq. 4.8)
~T*
, ^
Next, both equations are linked to give a self-enforcing
Fig. <,4. (a) voltage divider circuit/ (b) direct simulation of systems, shown diagrammatically as,
(a); (c), (d) and (e), three variations on (a)
vn_/ 2
Rxih + h) = Vz-
Vx T
J\z " .
T
where the answer to Eq. 4.5 is one of the terms of
Eq. 4.6 (V2), and the answer to Eq. 4.6 is one of the

+10
Fig. 4Ji. Programme /oyouts
for voltage divider analysis
(a)(right) symbolised diagram, VSI VSJ
(b) (Mow) patching circuit

■xv
-1,-1 -0-5V xv2 _= + r
1 .2
«2
OAt 10 OA 2 01 OA 3 \
Rvf
+/
SKI SKI "l Kl-'2) CP?
vsi m
,vsz OS

CHECK VOLTAGES AND POT. SETTINGS SHOWN THUS h

INPUT —-Wr—j INPUT —W*— iHPUT


IOI. a \ io Oka
iokn iOOkO ioov,a
»*A -A INPUT -A
INPUT „ INPUT «2
2
i0k a 1 iokn lOkfl
SUMMER 1 OP-AMP 1 ;pi SUMMER 2 OP-AMP 2 SUMMER 3 OP-AMP 3 •p;

298
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300
terms of Eq. 4.5 (/2). To see how the problem is
set-up on the computer, refer to Fig. 4.5, and note REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
the changes of sign involved. continued front page 284
Routine. Switch off S6 and*insert all computing
resistors and patching leads, except the link between VOLTS mA A
OA3 output and OA1 input, which carries the voltage A B C D E F I-> r.
analogue of Iz. Zero-set OA1, OA2, and OAS in that Hofeod (0 0-17 (4-2 0-68 0-47 2 65 2-7
order, using a voltmeter applied to each operational curr«nt 25-888 0-M5
o.«
(1-4 0.5
70 036
0.38 6 40 24
0-28 12 IB 1.4
amplifier output socket in turn. Now patch the link 1A 0-99 0(65 (4-1 0-61 0-40 2 36 M
between OAS output and OA1 input into circuit. Set Load 25-78
86 0.(45 ns 0-41 0.30 6 18 13
VS1 to "0", and VS2to "+10". The voltmeter method 0-119 69 0-25 0-17 12 5-5 0-32
of Fig. 4.3 is employed to set CP1 and CP2 both for a
coefficient of 0 5. Temporarily remove the patching
leads from CP1/SK1 and CP2/SK1, and connect the
"top end" of the potentiometer tracks to a I0V reference
voltage. Adjust CP1 and CP2 for outputs of 5V. (Ml
Exactly the same procedure is adopted when it is
necessary to "read off" values for R1 and R2, although
approximate readings can be taken from CP!, CP2 dials.
The check voltages in the diagram of Fig. 4.5
correspond to the above voltage source and coefficient AC 127 ' 1
potentiometer settings, and provided that there is ]® I W
general agreement with Ohm's law, any desired values 0CWH 0C <
can be given to the voltages, currents, and resistances in I"
Fig. 4.4a. The check voltages could apply to actual 5-6^
voltage divider quantities of, say, Vx = 10V, V2 = 5V, kA<.
h — OraA, /2 = 1mA (1 machine volt = ImA), + -AAA
Ri = 5 kilohm, and R2 = 5 kilohm, where VS1 covers ssa
the range 0-10mA, VS2 (MOV, CP1 (MO kilohm, and Fig. 10. Test measurements for fault-finding
CP2 0-10 kilohm. Suppose instead that Vx had been
assigned the value of 1,000V, when i?a and Rz were both
only 5 ohms. One machine volt would now be equiva- CALIBRATION OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE
lent to 100A, and F2 would equal 500V. The ranges After choking the voltmeter accuracy against an
covered by computing potentiometers in the latter case AVO or similar instrument known to have good
would then be VS1 0-100A, VS2 0-1,000V, CP1 0-100, accuracy itself, the Regulated Volts dial should be
and CP2 (M0(Ohms. adjusted as follows.
Unless informed otherwise, the computer assumes that Switch S2 to "Regulated" and S3 to "Volts" and turn
Vx is an ideal voltage which originates from a source of VR1 until IV is obtained at the output (best seen on the
infinitely small resistance. Hence, if Vx = 0, this AVO). Loosen the knob and rotate to indicate IV on
corresponds to a short-circuit, and gives the variation the calibrated dial. Lock the pointer knob grub screw
of Fig. 4.4c. Alternatively, if /2 is made equal to while indicating the correct IV. Rotate VR1 until the
nought, the voltage divider circuit is transformed into a dial indicates 12V output. Now adjust VR2 until 12V
load resistor i?2 in series with a source resistor R,. output (measured) is obtained.
given by Fig. 4.4d.
One further variation will serve to show the flexibility VOLTAGE CHART
of the programme. In Fig. 4.4e the resistance network Fig. 10 gives typical voltages at six points in the d.c,
R\ and J?2 is made to couple two sources of voltage Vy amplifier circuit for three different output voltages.
and — Vz. and this occurs when h is made larger than Reference to these voltages and to the currents of the
h + h> or in other words, when /2 swings negative. super-alpha pair TR2, TR3 should assist in any fault-
The layout of Problem Example 2 is an instance of finding.
indirect simulation, where the computer solves
equations and imitates the behaviour of the simulated
circuit. In this indirect "model" of a voltage divider, # INDEX
relationships between governing equations and actual An index for volume three (January 1967
circuit parameters are made obvious, and the abstrac- to December 1967) is now available price
tions of mathematics are brought to life as tangible Is 6d inclusive of postage.
voltmeter and dial readings.
Another way of simulating the Fig. 4.4a circuit is by a # BINDERS
direct "model", shown in Fig. 4.4b, which employs
coefficient potentiometers for i?,, Ru and Ru volt- Easi-binders are available price Ms 6d
meters for Vx and V2, and current meters for h and 12. inclusive of postage. State whether "Vol.
Although feasible, the direct mode! is less elegant, is I ."Vol. 2","Vol. 3" or "Vol. 4" is required.
not so adaptable to extreme cases, and is subject to
errors which do not occur when the voltage divider is Orders for Binders and Indexes should be
simulated indirectly. addressed to the Binding Department.
Orders for copies of the Index only should be-
Next month: Using UNIT "A" to solve a second addressed to the Post Sales Department. George
order differential equation. Indirect simulation Newnes Ltd., Tower House, Southampton
LC circuits, spring pendulums, and servo- Street. London, W.C.2.
mechanisms by means of integrators.

301
ones which adequately cover the
specification.
0 With your wide circulation I am
sure you must be acutely aware of
m i your responsibilities to readers,
especially the younger ones, in
guiding their thoughts along sound,
A SELECTION FROM OUR POSTBAG logical and practical lines, and I feel
this article offends these principles in
offering a complicated solution to a
simple problem.
The much simpler and cheaper
circuit enclosed covers all the points
Two points are clear. It is no use raised, and has been fitted to my own
•ik i to task... immobilising the ignition since the vehicle for a number of years. It has
Sir—Regarding the Car Anti-Theft thief is now master of the electrics and proved perfectly reliable (to my own
Alarm (February 1968) the device for the same reason any electrically discomfort I might add when in a
described is only a small part of a powered device woula have to forgetful mood), can be used on
comprehensive scheme and by itself employ a separate battery—unless it positive or negative earth systems
seems rather like being offered the locked with the power off. Devices without modification, and is virtually
protection of an umbrella with a fitted to the steering gear, gear lever unaffected by temperature location.
large hole in it. or clutch pedal and brakes will Peter S. Stinton,
One of the pre-requisites that is produce varying degrees of im- West Drayton,
never mentioned is that the device mobilisation. Middlesex.
should not only be thief-proof but It has been shown that an electronic
also fool-proof as far as the driver is alarm is only part of the answer, and Thank you for forwarding your circuit.
concerned. It should automatically that for complete protection, equip- Unfortunately we do not feel able to
test itself when the vehicle is vacated ment has to operate as follows: publish this since (/) it is not electronic,
and warn the driver if it is at fault. (1) Driver opens door and vacates (2) the general idea is fairly well known.
If it is in working order, it should seat. Following from point (2) we also thank
then automatically set itself, so that (2) Electronic device checks that all those other readers who sent us circuit
there is no onus on the driver to press doors and windows are closed diagrams of similar electro-mechanical
switches or turn keys—which may get and tests the alarm. systems.
forgotten! . (3a) In the case of a fault it operates
A simple combination of a door the alarm to warn the driver.
switch and a pressure switch beneath (3b) In the case of everything being
the driver's seat could control this all right it sets the alarm for an Hair raising
testing and setting up. intruder. Sir—I would like to build a "high
The actual device has to counter the (4) On approach of a thief the frequency" unit for use on .my hair
thief's activities which are carried out alarm is set off, triggered by a as a "massage" could you help at all
in two separate stages. Firstly he has proximity switch. in the supply of any constructional or
to gain access to the inside of the (5) If the thief gains entrance he is circuit details on this subject.
vehicle and only then can he carry confronted by mechanical G. W. Sheppard,
out the second stage of driving it off. immobilisation of the steering Stourbridge,
While it is a fact that no vehicle can and clutch. Worcestershire.
be rendered completely thief-proof, A. J. Nicholls,
the usual door designs could well Perry Barr, We ore afraid that this subject is some-
be improved by arranging for the Birmingham. what out of our normal sphere, and
driver's door to have a cylinder night cannot assist you on this occasion.
latch lock, interlocked so that the Do you know whot you ore suggesting? Perhaps a member of the medical
door could not be closed unless all Aren't we in enough trouble already—see profess/on can give you a lead concerning
the other doors and windows were letter below! the availability of such equipment.
secured. If you are successful in your scorch
The interlocking could take the our Editor will be glad to receive any
form of door and window switches information.
connected in series, the circuit being
tested as already described. ... and again
If the thief can be scared off soon Sir—I have subscribed to Practical
enough, he will not even test the Electronics since its inception and
security of the doors and windows must say that the majority of articles BAEC news
and the only device to discourage him are interesting and useful. However I Sir—I am enclosing a copy of our
from even touching the vehicle is the am surprised that you published the latest Newsletter which is now being
familiar system of flashing the head- article Car Anti-Theft Alarm. Surely sent out to our members, and 1 hope
lamps and intermittently sounding this is akin to using a computer to that you will find it of interest.
the horn. It is absolutely essential calculate two times two. As you can see, Mr Cullen, our
that this is triggered by a proximity Whilst it might offer an exercise in Hon. Secretary, has resigned due to
switch. transistor circuit construction I feel commitments at work and studies,
If the vehicle were parked out in that the use of transistors, especially and our Hon. Secretary is now
the wilds and the thief were unper- germanium types, is misguided, since Mr J. H. Hooper, 5 Cwrt-y-Vil Road,
turbed by the Son et Lumtere display, an inherently easy electro-mechanical Penarth, Glamorgan, and I would
he could raise the bonnet, cut the problem is solved by semi-com- appreciate it if you would kindy
wires to the horn—because of their plicated electronic circuitry. mention this change in a future
easy accessibility—and finally dis- As a Senior Electronics Technician issue.
connect the battery. A jumper wire employed in the medical field I am C. Bogod,
often called upon to find effective Chairman,
from the battery to the coil and the British Amateur Electronics Club,
thief is ready to force the windows solutions to problems' encountered "Dickens",
and then drive off. That is, unless he in this profession, and I am sure
can be held by the last line of defence you would subscribe to the view that 26 Forrest Road,
—the immobillser. the best solutions are the simplest Penarth, Glamorgan.

302
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849 2 Power trans. GHT 9 VCB64 IC 8 amp.
FREE! germ. PNP 10/-
PACKS OF YOUR OWN CHOJCE UP TO CHANCES ON B50 2 Light sensitive cells ORP60 type 10/.
THE VALUE OF 10/- WITH ORDERS UNKNOWN LOTS
OVER £4 C2 I Unijunction, 2N2I60 or 2N2646 . IS/-
C4 2 RF powet trans., OC22 and BUY I f - IS/.
CIS 4 Silicon PNP trans, in the 2S3COSeries 15/.
TRANSISTORS ONLY 1/- EACH C31 4 Si), recs. 800 PIV J amp. cop hat - IS/.
C32 2 Power trans. TK400A/NKT404
SILICON • PLANAR • N.P.N. • P.N.P VG864 IC8 amp; . IS/.
All these types available
2N929 2N706 2SI3I 2SI03 2N696 2Nf6I3 2S733 BFY10 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (TEXAS)
2S50I 2W706A 25512 2SI04 2N697 2NI7II 2N726 2S73r 8 INPUT POSITIVE
2N24II 2N30JI 2SI02 2N2220 2NI507 2NI893 2N2906 2S732 SN7430 NAND GATE 19/6
All tested and guaranteed transistors—unmarked.
Manufacturers over runs for the new PHE-PAK range. Make a Rev. Counter for your Car. The
TACHO BLOCK'. This encapsulated block
"Hi NEW. UNMARKED UNTESTED PAKS will turn any 0*1 mA meter
^eier into perfectly
mio a penectiy
linear and accurate rev. i
ec NPN
BSY9SA counter for any car.
" Silicon TRANSISTORS 10/- State 4 or 6 cylinder. 20 "each
4ft 1000 PIV lamp.
Min. Silicon DIODES 10/-
9c SSYM-Z? FREE CATALOGUE AND LISTS
ST
PIP ^QGfC KITS " NPN Silicon TRANSIST0RS 10/- for: —
in 10 Walt
•u All Silicon
Voltafles TANTALUM CAPACITORS,
ZENERS 10/-
oc
40 8FVSO-I-2
NPN Silicon TRANSIST0RS 10/- TRANSISTORS, RECTIFIERS
ons 0
"crosses
i 'machine! ^ 11 in4Silicon
ern
P- stud. & CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS,
"^ ,3 etc. LA- RECTIFIERS 10/-
counters, 1 No peed 1I 9(; BC107-8-9 SUBSTITUTION CHART
Sgns L.Z- u.. fc|tSi you 63 NPN Silicon TRANSIST0RS 10/-
toP-r^L.2. ^ ■1 I" ,n 1N914-6
Sub. Min. Silicon DI0DES 10/- MINIMUM ORDER 10/- CASH WITH
ORDER PLEASE. Add 1/- post and packing
SoVporatesLA- 1| Rft
ou M"- Germ. per order. OVERSEAS ADD EXTRA FOR
High Quality DI0DES 10/- AIRMAIL
Details Free- 1■ 'vjc 2N706 A
NPN Silicon TRANSIST0RS 10/-
f PRE-PAK. N.605 POWER r 1 THERE IS ONLY ONE
1 ^s?;eouivale',t5/- each 1 BI-RRE-PAK LTD
1 TANTALUM CAPACITOHS /| j*. Q3Qf| 1 BEWARE OF IMITATIONS

FREE A WRITTEN GUARANTEE WITH ALL OUR SEMICONDUCTORS

B■■DDE-DAIf | -m DEPL A 222'224 W£ST R0AD' WESTQLIFF-ON-SEA. ESSEX


^ ■ mma^ mmM fcJ TELEPHONE: SOUTHEND (0702) 45344

303
Practical Electronics Classified Advertisements

The pre-paid rate for classified advertisements is 1/3 per word (minimum order 15/-), box number
1/6 extra. Semi-displayed setting £4 . 2 . 6 per single column inch. All cheques, postal orders,
etc., to be made payable to PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS and crossed " Lloyds Bank Ltd"
Treasury notes should always be sent registered post. Advertisements, together with remittance,
should be sent to the Classified Advertisement Manager, PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS,*
George Newnes Ltd., 15/17 Long Acre, London, WC2, for insertion in the next available issue.

HOLIDAYS WANTED SITUATIONS VACANT


fconltnuee/j
HOUDAY TOR BOYS, 14/16 years, August VALVES WANTED, brand new popular
1908. Speciallnlng in engineering, electronics, types boxed. DURHAM SUPPLIES (B),
photography. Tuition and practical work 178 Durham Road, Bradford 8, Yorkshire.
Including go-karting, 11 days—£14.10.0. TECHNICAL OFFICER
Write for free brochure: Inter-Hchool Christian Home Office
Fellowship, 47 Marylebone Lane, London, W.l. WANTED retail outlets for NEW/SURPLUS Police Research and Planniflfl Branch
Radio-Electronic spares. Excellent Profits.
Details from Box 10. Unestablished
Grade III wich vacancy
knowledgefor aand
Technical Officer
experience of
SERVICE SHEETS workshop practice and electronic eouigment.
WANTED. Practicae, Electronics, August The successful
equipment group,candidate
which iswill work inwith
concerned the
SERVICE SHEETS, lladlo, TV, 5000 models. 1863 or complete volume. SEPHTOX, 16 assessment, trials andfor
range of equipment development
police use,ofanda wide
will
List 1/8. S.A.K. enquiries. TBLUAY, 11 Bloemfontein Avenue, Shepherds Bush, carry out construction, modification and tost
Maudland Bank, I'reston. London, W.12. work in co-operation with police officers.
Qualifications;
or evidence ofOrdinary Nationalstandard
an equivalent Certificate
of
WANTED. Any 70cm equipment, aerials, technical education,
apprenticeship and together
at leastwith a five-year
three years'
RADIO TELEVISION, over 8,000 Models. trippers. P.A.s. Kx. Anything, anywhere ?Tactical experience.
JOHN G1LBKRX TELKV1SION, lb Shep- considered. So what have you lads. WVXX, alary: £89S-£I.I49 (age 29 or over)—£1,283,
herda Bush Mil., London, W.6. SHE 8441. 8 Marlborough Avenue, Bridgwater, Somerset. plus £125 Inner London Weighting.
Applications should be made to the Principal
Establishment Officer, Room 32S, Home
SERVICE SHEETS. RADIO, TELEVISION, Office, Whitehall, London, S.W.I, by 29th
TAPE RECORDERS, 1925-1968, by return SITUATIONS VACANT March, 1968.
post, from 1/- with free fault-finding guide.
Catnloguf 0,000 iiiodela, 2/8. i'lease send
stamped addressed envelope with all orders/
enquiries. HAMILTON HA 1)10, 54c London TECHNICAL TRAINING by
Road, Bcxhill. Sussex.
SERVICE SHEETS IN RADIO, TELEVISION AND
4/- each, plus postage.
We have the largest supply of Ser- ICS
ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
vice Sheets for ail makes and types
of Radios and Televisions, etc. in the First-class opportunities in Radio and Electronics await the I C S trained man.
country. Speedy Service. Let I C S train YOU for a well-paid post in this expanding field.
To obtain the Service Sheet you I C S courses offer the keen, ambitious man the opportunity to acquire, quickly and
easily, the specialized training so essential to success. Diploma courses in Radio/
require, please complete the at- TV Engineering and Servicing, Electronics, Computers, etc. Expert coaching for;
tached coupon: • INSTITUTION OF ELECTRONIC AND RADIO ENGINEERS.
From: • C.A G. TELECOMMUNICATION TECHNICIANS' CERTS.
• C.8> G. ELECTRONIC SERVICING.
Name: • R.T.E.B. RADIO AND TV SERVICING CERTIFICATE.
• RADIO AMATEURS' EXAMINATION.
Address: - • P.M.G. CERTIFICATES IN RADIOTELEGRAPHY.
Examination Students Coached until Successful.
NEW SELF-BUILD RADIO AND ELECTRONIC COURSES
Build your own S-valvc receiver, transistor portable, signal generator, multi-
meter and valve volt meter—all under expert guidance.
POST THIS COUPON TODAY and find out how I C S can help YOU in your
To: S.P. DISTRIBUTORS career. Full details of I C S courses in Radio, Television and Electronics wilt be
30 Baker Street, London, W.l sent to you by return mail.
Please supply Service Sheets for the MEMBER OFTHE ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE COLLEGES.
following:
Make: r international Correspondence Schools 1
Model No,: Radio/TV INTERNATIONAL (Dept. 152), Intercext House, Parkgate Road.
Make: ; London, S.W.I I.
Model No.: Radio/TV
Make: CORRESPONDENCE NAME
Model No.: Radio/TV Block Capitals Please
also require the" new 1968 list of SCHOOLS
Service-Sheets at 1/6 plus postage. ADDRESS
(please delete items not applicable)
enclose remittance of A WHOLE WORLD
which includes potcage 4.68
MAIL ORDERS ONLY APr. E OF KNOWLEDGE
AWAITS YOU I
304
SITUATIONS VACANT (continued) FOR SALE
fcontmuedj
20 Panywern Road, Earli Court, London S.W.5. T«l. 01-373 8721
This Private School provides full and part day trainjog In the 0G44, 45, 81, 82, 2/6 each. Add 1/- per order
following professional subjects for P. A- P. HALLIWRLL, 20 Church Road,
Liverpool, 23, Lanes.
RADIO & TELEVISION SERVICING HAMMER
RADAR THEORY & MAINTENANCE ' ★ HAMMERITE PATTERN-A. ENAMEL «
AIR DRYING » JUST BRUSH ON
RADIOTELEGRAPH Y 21 oz. tins 3/9, § plotl8/->
TRIAL TIN to1 plot
S/-,16/-. iCarr.:
3(1.; up crdera1/9;
to 10/-, up
A.M.I.E.K.E., A.M.S.E. - (Klec,), City & over
silver,10/-, 8/-. bronze.
black, Colouro: blue,
No
Guilds, G.C.E., etc., on "Satisfaction or Refund EDUCATIONAL (covcra B sq. ft.) primer needed. Panel
of Fee" terms. Wide range of Home Study (continued) 3/9 tranafere, fireproof epray
Courses in Electronics, Computers, Radio, , -bSipoet. tblnners. list free,
T.V.; etc. 132-page Guide—FREE. Please UmtJSTRIALISTS
state subject of Interest. BRITISH GET INTO ELECTRONICS—big opportunities SAVE TIME
<2 pints willAND £«£'»
do a Mini)
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECH- for trained men. Learn the practical way with AMAZING RESULTS - JUST THY (TJ
NOLOGY (Dept. I24K), Aldermaston Court, low-cost Postal Training, complete with equip-
Aldermaston, Berks. ment. A.M.I.E.B.E., R.T.E.B., City <& Guilds, F'NNJGAN
MicKley Square.SPECIALITY PAINTS (PE)
Stocksfleld, Northumberland
Radio, T/V, Telecoms., etc. For FREE 100- Tel.: Scocksfield 2280
page book, write Dept. 856K, CHAMBERS
COLLEGE, 148 Holborn, London, E.C.I.
RADIO TECHNICIANS
A number of suitably qualified MORSE ^sdYe !!
candidates are required for unestablished TAPE RECORDERS. TAPES, ETC. FACT NOT FICTION. Itandyouconuncreial
atari RIGHT
posts, leading to permanent and pension- yon willa month
within be reading amateur
(oormal progreaa to he expected). Horee
able employment (in Cheltenham and other TARES TO DISC—using finest professional Uelca •cientlficaiiy prepared 3-epeed records you
parts of the U.K. including London). There equipment—45 r.p.m, 18/-, S.A.E. leaflet. antomatlcalty
without learn toYourecognise the it,code
It's RHTTHM
are also opportunities for service abroad. DEROY, High Bank, Hawk Street, Carnforth, learning atranslating.
tune. 18 W.P.M. can't help
in 4 weeks as eaey as
guaranlecd-
Lanes. For details and course C.O.D. ring 3.T.D; 01-880 2886
Applicants must be 19 or over and be or send 8d. stamp for esplaoatory booklet to:
familiar with the use of Test Gear, and have Q3CHS/H, 46 OEESM LANE, PDHLEY. SURSET
had practical Radio/Electronic workshop 20% CASH DISCOUNT on most famous makes
experience. Preference will be given to of Tape Recorders, HI-FI equipment, Cameras, BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS
etc. Join England's largest Mail Order Club
candidates who can offer "O" level GCE now and enjoy the advantages of btilk buying.
passes in English Language, Maths and/or Send 6/- for membership card, catalogues, SURPLUS HANDBOOKS
Physics, or hold the City and Guilds Tele- price lists and ask for quotation" on any item. 19 get Circuit and Notes 5/6 P.P. 6d
C.B.A. (Dept.* A18), 370 St. Albans Road, 1155 t«e Circuit and Notes .... 5/6 P.P. 6d
communications Technician Intermediate Watford, Herts. H.R.O. Technical Instructions ,. 4/6 P.P. fid
Certificate or equivalent technical 36 get Technical Instructions..., 4/6 P.P. fid
qualifications. A knowledge of electro- 46 get Working Instructions 4/6 P.P. fid
mechanicai equipment will also be an HI-FI EQUIPMENT 88 get Technical Instructions.... 6/- P.P. fid
BC, 221 Circuit and Notes 4/6 P.P. fid
advantage. Waverncter Class D Tech. Instr 4/6 P.P. fid
Pay according to age, e.g. at 19-£828, EXTENSION SPEAKERS in mahogany, hand 16 set Circuit and Notes 4/6 P.P. fid
at 25-£1,076. veneered and polished complete with 7x4 BC.1000 (31 set) Circuit & Notes 4/6 P.P. fid
speaker. Retail price 46/- carr. paid. Trade CR.I00/B.28 Circuit and Notes 9/6 P.P. 9d
Prospects of promotion to grades in enquiries invited. P. F. & A. R. HELME, R. 107 Circuit and Notes 6/-P.P. fid
salary range £1,159-£1,^41. There are a Dept. PE, Butcher Pasture, Summerbridge, A.R.88D. Instruction Manual. ... 16/- P.P. l/fi
few posts carrying higher salaries. Harrogate, Yorks. 62 set Circuit and Notes 5/6 P.P fid
52 set Sender & Receiver Circuits 7/6. post free
Annual Leave allowance of 3 weeks Circuit Diagrams 4/- each post free,
3 days, rising to 4 weeks 2 days. Normal FOR SALE R.III6/A, R.1224/A, R. 1355, R.F. 24. 25. & 26.
A.I 134, T.I 154. CR.300, BC.342. BC.3I2.
Civil Service sick leave regulations apply. BC.348J.E.M.P. BC.624. 22 set.
Application forms available from: BRASS, STEEL, LIGHT ALLOY, STAINLESS Resistor colour code indicator, 2/- P.P. fid.
STEEL TUBE. Bar Material, Tools, Mechan- S.A.E. with all enquiries please.
Recruitment Officer (RT/54} ical, Electrical, plus Assorted Lots. Send Postage rates apply to U.K. only.
Government Communita lions Headquarters S.A.E. for latest Cat. of 1.000 items. K. R, Mail order only to :
Oakley WHISTON, Dept. BPE, New Milis, Stockport. Instructional Handbook Supplies
Priors Road Dept. P.E., Talbot House, 28 Talbot Gardens
CHELTENHAM, Glos. Leeds 8
5 ten factory clearance radio, TV, elec, compon-
ents in 15/- and 27/6 mixed parcels, post free. MISCELLANEOUS
EDUCATIONAL Example: resistors, condensers, pots, speakers,
co axle coils, fibre washers, valves, over dozen
different types of tuning knob, gromets, CALL OR SEND for list from the most Interest-
sleeving, I.F.s, Pnxalin, wire, rectifiers. Lots ing shop in Lancashire. Electrical Mech-
STUDY RADIO, TELEVISION AND ELEC- of other items. Pot luck. Postal orders, etc. anical and Electronic Goods. ROGERS, 31
TRONICS with the world's largest home study to; P. L. NEWTON, 16 Shallcross Crescent, Nelson Street, Houthport.
organisation. -I.E.R.E.; City & Guilds; Hatfleld, Herts.
R.T.B.B., etc. Also practical courses with
equipment. No books to buy. Write for ARTIFICIAL LIFE
FREE Prospectus to ICS (Dept. 577). Intertext 25 ONLY—HURRY! Electrometer type. Dosi-
House. London, SW11. meters as described on page 119 of February Well almost, because the NEW range of
issue: 7/6 each post free. EVANS. 53 projects include: an electronic 'animal'
Rectory Road, Hadleigh, Benfleet, Essex. which LEARNS, and a device capable of
RADIO OFFICERS see the world! Sea going REPRODUCING itself! Other protects
and shore appointments. Trainee vacancies SURE TO INTRIGUE YOU are an audio
during 1968. Grants available. Day and EXPERIMENTERS! Masterbox kits will transmitter/receiver which has quite an
Boarding students. Stamp for prospectus. provide a smart and efficient enclosure for your amazing range and requires NO LICENCE:
WIRELESS COLLEGE. Colwj-a Bay, Wales. electronic whatever-it-is, Screwdriver assem- also a machine which recognizes itself, and
bly, modular construction. Details from an electronic dog whistle, etc., etc. HOSTS
COCKROBIN CONTROLS, 30 Villfers Avenue, OF EASY-TO-CON STRUCT projects.
Surbiton, Surrey. SEND 2/6 for our list of 'BOFFIN
FREE TO AMBITIOUS ENGINEERS! 132 PROJECTS'—NOW!
page Guide to B.Sc. (Eng.), A.M.I.K.R.E.,
A.M.S.K.. A.M.I.M.I., City & Guilds, 100 PAGE illustrated Catalogue No. 17 To: 'BOFFIN PROJECTS'
A.R.I.C.S., O.C.E., etc., on "Satisfaction or Government and roanufacturers' electronic 4 CUNLIFFE RD.
Refund" terms. Thousands of passes—over surplus, also new section of latest semi-
600 Home Study Courses in all branches of conductors and miniature components. Credit STONELE1GH
Engineering, Building, Radio, Electronics, etc. voucher for 2/6 included. Price 3/- post free. EWHLL
Write: B.I.E.T. (Dept. 125K), Aldermaston. ARTHUR SALLIS LTD., 93 North Road,
Court, Aldermaston, Berks. Brighton. SURREY

305
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIVERS AND COMPONENTS RECEIVERS AND COMPONENTS
(continue^ ) (continued) (continued)
REPANC0 Transistor Coils and Transformer, MICROMINIATURE MICROPHONES
PRACTICAL ELECTRONIC PROJECTS. for the Constructor. Send stamp for lists
RADIO EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTS Sensitive dynamic type. Will pick-
Would anyone like to make them for me as I LTD., 33 Much Park Street, Coventry. up rustle of newspaper from 30 feet.
haven't the time? HODGTOX, 3 Burnside Size 9 mm. X 9 mm. X J-S mm.
Close, Twickenham. Impedance I KO.
RESISTORS ONLY 18/6
Post free—C.W.O.
rjr watt carbon film 5% SHOWN MICRO DATA SYSTEMS
"PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS" Giiasandovlbe. All preferred values in stock from FULL
I.C. Tape Recorder. Combotron. Analogue 10 ohms to 10 megohms 2d. each. S ZE 30 BAKER ST., LONDON, W.I
Computer. Spring Line Reverberation Unit.
Projxmtlonal Servo System. Anti-dazzle Send S.A.E. for free sample
Driving Mirror. Photographic Exposure
Meter. Water Level Alarm. Fuzz .Box. PHOTO ELECTRIC CONTROL
Yodelier Door Monitor. Harmonic Distortion CAPACITORS
Meter. I.C. Gram Amplifier, Thyristor Power Milliard Miniature Metallised Poly- OVOTCU ComprisesInlra
0 I U I Clll optioDal a light source unit with
Controller. Transistor Mllllvoltraeter. Screen-
wiper Delay Unit. Investigator Oscilloscope. ester P.C. Mounting, all 250V D.C. system to forceRed the filter
light. andAleelensa
photo-electrlo Relay control unit. Both
metal eases for bench or wail mounting, sensitivity bonsed in
C R.O. Trace Doublet. Light Operated working. O-OImf, 0*022mf, 0-047mf, control, mains on-otf switch. Works from 230/240V
Stopwatch. Proximity Detector. Photoflash O-lmf, 0'22mf, all at 6d. each a.c. Mains.theCan be used as a (invisible
simple an-oft awitebRed by
Slave Unit; Integrated Stereo Amplifier and breaking beam
all constructional projects going back to Issue
1. Send s.a.e. for your choice of Itemised price Hunts tubular 0-lmf 200V working filter is used) and as ofsuchlight
It will operateifasInfra
a burglar
alarm, or will open doors, etc. Also in conjunction
lists. AJAX ELECTROXICS, 18a Eurabold at 3d. each with a counter or other equipment It- will perform
Road, Fulhnm, London, S.W.fl. many functions In the factory ot f Q I Q A-
Send 6d. stamp for extensive list of warehouse.
low priced Electronic Components, F.K. WXEEUESB SHCEOPHOHE
ELECTRICAL 94-104Uc/e. Transistorised. Operates from fiV
Instruments and Equipment batterv. Complete with additional secret tie clip
microphone. Wst £12/10/-ONLY £6150
Please include 11-postage and packing These cannot be operated In U.K.
EZZZ on all orders under £1 TEAHSISTOBISBD FM TUHES
6 TRANSISTOR HIGH QUALITY TUNER.
uanr SIZE
toned ONLY 6ln x 4io Ample
discriminator. x 2|tn output
S I.F. stages.
to feed;Double
most
Dept. P.E.10 amplifiers. Operates on 9V battery. Coverage
BRENSAL ELECTRONICS LIMITED fifi-IOfiMc/a. Ready built ready tor £A 1 T J
use. Fantastic value lor money *
comoLUfui CHARLES STREET, BRISTOL I PM MULTIPLEX STEREO ADAPTOR
LATKST KLECTHOXIC BHEAKTHROUGH. CUT Printed circuit biscuit. 4 trans. 8 /'s ID 6
YOUR KLECTRICJTV BILLS BY HALF. FINGER. diodes 6 V with full-Instructions s7 -
Til* CONTKOL BSR TAPE HEADS MULTIMETERB YT 1
Al'FLIANCEfi VI* TOOF ALL ELECTRICAL
3,000 WATTS. HEAT. Vary DUXF0RD ELECTRONICS (PE) llRACK 39/6 pair
/rom
the
trkilv. lilcul hie ELECTRICFIRES,
heat ot your ELECTRIC nn>l savehouse-
BLANKETS, ele«-
holil DUXFORD, CAMBS. BSR TAPE HEADS LOUDSFEAKERS. 40 ohm, 2i" 80 ohm.S'Q/C
KicellcnL fur SUN-RAY LAMPS. LIGHT.KETTLE.
'IRONS, siniiiicr your ELECTRIC Control C.W.O. P, & P. I/-- Minimum ordei- va! 5/-. 4 TRACK 39/6 pair 12-TW1HCOHE10 QC/ _
0/0
the brightness of alt bonGchohl LAM PS. from a B limn tor (Trade inquiries invited) w&tt.
BKFIEX CONE TYPE TWEETER 16 ohm OQ/C IS or Sohm lW/
(o full tiriphlnwa. Meal Jor SPOT LAMPS. ARC WATERPROOF SPKR. 10 watt, 18K-CP8 65/W
LAMPS, cli-. UHcful for FLOODLIGHTS. SPEED. CAPACITORS (Tubular. Axial Leadi): 6 watt. PA 3 ohm,
Controls the spceil
Superot ANYfor ELECTRIC
LATHES, DRILL, tor any fA C800-f) CROSSOVER
Electrolytic (Mullard): —10% to ASOV, -400HF. 1
apiillfiitRiu.
FOOD MIXERS, VACUUM CLEANERS, WASHING
GRINDERS, BmP, 3^F. 25/iF, SW.SO^iF. iiS/uf.
I OOflF. 250/ir,
200)1?
36,OOOc/b
& Music Relay WORK 16 ohmNET- Iill" )/
MACHINES. SPIN DRIERS. HEDGE CUTTERS. 10V! 4MF.4MF. I6)tF.
I6MF. J2HF,
32UF, 64MF,
64mF, I2SMF,l2S)iF. 200MF. SUPER SILICON REOT. T.V„ etc., 1,200 PiV
WILL CONTKOL ALL UNIVERSAL MOTORS UP 16V: 2-SuF, IOuF, 20^4F, BOdiiiA. 6/-: or complete with instr. resistor,
TO 2 H.P.rreiuLuifee
ordinary These units nmst not that
»u»l rheostats be cooluscil with
waste iH>wer. J5V: I $uF, 6-4pF, I2-5MF,-dOuF. iSnF. BOuF,
SOftF. l25iiF.
80DF. condenser. 7/8: 400 PIV HW 8A. 8/-; 200 PIV HW
Contained In n etrmijj metal ease, in black or grey, site 40
64 V: 0'64)jF, 2-5HF. Sf/F, 10/jF, 20MF, SOUF.
V: l/iF, 4uF. SflF. I6MF, 32(iF. 32WF. ex.«!-.
now B .< 4!knowledge
specialised X 21 Inches. SIMPLE
refptitc-l TO USE.
A unique No
electronic Ail values 1/3 each. Stamped envelope lorRadios,
offers in Multimeters, lull selection ami bargain
Baby Alarms, Inter-
achievement, Polyeitor (Mullard): -b 10%.
nianv scores "dcotttaitis 7 trmwistorB
mleT'l mmiaturc and ictbyristote
electron ami
components. 160V: O-OliiF. OOISMF, 0 022MF. 6d- 0-033MF.
0'047uF, 7d. 0'068uF, 0-luF. 8d. 0-tS/iF, lOd.
coms,
UNDERWalkie-TaDcles,
£1—P. A P. Rectifiers
6d. OVER and£1Eagle
postLists.
free.
COMPLETELY SAKE AND APPROVED. Brand 0-2VF, lid. 0'33uF. 1/2. 0-47nF, 1/5. 0-68hF. C.O.D. 3/6,
new nn<t ready to use Improved de-luxe model. Price 2/1. DURHAM SUPPLIES
£18jT0j'0 carriage and Insuntticc 10/-. C.O.D. if required.
Discount given toFree Schiwds, Universities 400V: I up,O-OOIuF,
2/6. O-OOISftF. 0-0022/iF, 0-0033jiF. 175F, Durham Road, Bradlord, S. Yorkshire
Esinblishnieuts. dciuonstration at and Research
our premises. 0-7d.0047uF, 0-0068uF, 0-0luF, 6rf.O-OSBfiF,
O-OIS^F,»d._0-022MF.
lOd. 0'OJ3f»F.
0IS«F, fid. ""l/l. 0-047mF.
. 0-22pF,
. -1/5. ,->f,
- -O-33/iF, 0-luF.
iji.-
r^tf/StON-USHTlflG Q-47JIF, 2/6. Perrlte rod aerials MW and LW. 8in long, requires
Polystyrene;
22pF. 33pF, 47pF,-i;S%. 160V: lOOpF.
SfipF, 68pF. SpF. ISOpF.
IQpF, 220plF,
ISpF, 37apP tuning cap., S/6.
330pF. 470pF. 680pF, e20pF, 5d. l.OOOpF, I.SOOpF. Tuning capacitors 376 + 3S2pF with geared drive
tx/ue 2.200pF, 6d. 3,300pF. 4.700pF, S.600pF, 7d. 6:1 ratio, new, boxed, 4/8.
ere-erc ' 10.OOOpF, fid. I S.OOOpF. 22,OOOpF. «d. Potentiometers W/8 (log), 6k, 200k, 260k, 600lt,
■from a POTENTIOMETERS (Carbon): Long life, low Im, 3/8 each.
Double
12 Volt CAR BATTER' noise.
Bod/ dia,, iW atJJn.70-C-Spindto,±20%linS XiM.iin.±30% 2/— >each.
±M. ±- 600kgang potentiometers,
lln. 100k + 100k rev.260k+2fi0k log., 000k
log., 3/- each,
Amodel).
suprrZfyA1rfesfynrd
volt POWER CONVERTER <de hire Linear : 100, 250. 500 ohms, etc.. per decade to Ferrltc rods 6/1 Bin X 3iin. fid each.
OUTPUT. 18 EnnbkK INPUT
you to gives
run upn to200f210 volt
220 watt I0M. Logarithmic: 5k, 10k, 2Sk, etc., per decade
to 5M. Disc ceramics, l.OOOpPlong
doz. (800vw>,2,000pP. <pc type),
leads, short
360vwleads. 3d! 2/8
p 8d; S/- doa.
A.C./D.C. TELEVISION lighting and equipment. SKELETON PRE-SET POTENTIOMETERS
Thousands
shops nod gnofrages.
uses. TheIndispensable to caravanners,
unit is contained work-
in a compact (Carbon)Linear: 100, 250, 500 ohms, etc., per Transistor capacitors, O lmP, 50vw, 4d; 2/0dor., 16/-
decade to SM. 100. 2niF, 8vw. 43; 4niP, 64vw( 80mF. Ova-; IOOuiF,
kiuvred steel c.-ise. Complete with eonnectlng
battery clips tuid full lust ructions, Ready to connectleads, Syw; lOmP, 12vw, 6d each. lOOmP, lOvw; ISOniF,
Miniature: 0-3W at 70°C. ±20% SIM, ±30% 12vw: SSOmF. 9vw. 8d each. 400mF, 15vw: SOOmP,
up and
A'otuse.
la be ean/uied Kilh Aenry dufy dyHomolers, > iM. Horizontal (0-7in x 0-4in P.C.M.) or Ver- 9vw. lOd each.
PRICEC.II'.O.,
ONLY M/lfl/6 tical (0-4io x 0'2in P.C.M.) mounting, I/- each. Set of 3 transistor double tuned I.F. tronslormere
Carriage 12/8. C.O.D. 3/0 erlrn. Submin.
IM. Horizontal0 IW (0-4in
at 70°C. ±20%P.C.M.)
x 0-2m glM.or±30%> Verttcal 7/8 (470kc/a).
All orieii to'; Dept. P.E.9 (0'2in x 0-1 in P.C;M.) mounting, lOd. each. Mixed bag of silver mica capacitors, 100 lor 8/-.
RESISTORS (Carbon J film): High stability, vep-
Mixed bag of sliver mica and tubular ceramics, 108
fs^lGLOBE SCIENTIFIC LTD low noise. IW at 70* C. Body tin x (in. Values in lor 91- (our selection).
each decade: 10. II, 12. 13. IS. 16, 18,20.22.24,27, Transistors. OT46E {OC45), 1/8: ZT87 3/6: 23017,
24 C A WOODS YARD, MILL 3TREET 30. 33, 36. 39, 43. 47, SI. 56. 62. 68, 75, 82. 91 from 8/-. Matched pair OClBs, 8/- pair.
MARSH LANE, LEEDS 9 (LEEDS 33900) 42-2M,
7Q to2-7M, IM. 3-3M.
0-5%.3-9M,2d each.
4-7M, I-2M. I-SM. 8-2M,
5'6M, 6'8M, l-fiM, Zener diodes. OAZ247. 8/8: OAZ224, 8/6} 187061 A.
I0M. - 10%, 2d. each. 187078A. 3/8.
Callert welcome. Open 7 dayj a week Diodes, BYIOO, 8/-; 18116, 8/-,- ZK24 112 PIV at
SEMI-CONDUCTORS (All new); OAS, OA8I, 8A. Bl-
1/6. OC44. OC45, 1/9. OC7I, OC72. OC73. Postage, under £1 + 1/8. fl-£2 2/3, over £3 post free.
RECEIVERS AND COMPONENTS OCBI,
OC140, AFi OC8ID, OC82D,
15. AFI16. AF1I7,OCI70,
3/-. OCI7I. 2/3. post At sen vice o.vt r 8.a.e. fob lists.
SILICON
P.I,V,, 3/-. 800 P.I.V.. 3/3. 1,250at P.I.V,,
RECTIFIERS: 0-SA 70°C. 3/9. 400 A. J. H. ELECTRONICS. (G8AQN)
BARGAIN PARCELS of new surpluB Elec- 1,500 P.I.V.. 4/-. 59 WAVERLEY ROAD, THE KENT
tronic Components, 2/8, 8/-, 10/-, post free. SEND S.A.E. CATALOGUE FOR JANUARY . 1968 RUGBY, WARKS.
DOU'IUX KLECTKOXICS, 5 t'ooles Way,
ilrinr Close, JlnnitwoiKl, nr. I.lchtleld.

306
RECEIVERS AND COMPONENTS fconfimiedj

MULLARD J.E.D.E.C. "X" LINE MODULES


AAYII V- BFY50 6/- OC82 4/6 Send for details of
ACI07 H/6 BFYSI 5/- 1 OC82D 4/3 n 2N385A/ our range of ready-
AC 127 «/- 8FYS2 6/- OC83 2/6 2N366A .. ISI-
2N696 built • solid-state
AC 120 *!- BFI84 »/- OCB4 41- 91-
AC(76 6I~ BSX79 2N706 41- circuits, amplifiers,
31- OCI23 11- 2N 706A
2N7I t .. 6/6
ADH9 M/- BTY79-400R 27/6 OCI39 12/- 2N38I9FET ll/~ 2(9(132 7/6 sirens, light flashers,
ADIdl 7/6 BTY07-I5OR 23/- OCI40 12/- 2N3B26 61- 2NI302 .... 10/- 51- etc.
ADI62 7/6 8TY9I-I50R
ACYI7 51- BSX36-100 151- OCI69 61- (B40KI0
I flIOO-MOS 54/-19/- 2NI303 .. 51-
31- OC170 2NI304 .. 6/~
ACY20 3/6 BTYS7-500R 47/- 0071 41- 61- ADTI40SlWcLAIR 12/6 2NI30S .. 61-
ACY2I 41- BYZIO II/- OC200 61- STI4I 5/- 2NI306
2N1307 ,... 91- FAIRGNILD AF 11
ACY22 Z/6 8YZI2 7/6 OC20I 101- STI40 31- 2N1308 61-
.... 10/6
AFZII 10/- BYZ13 51- OC202 13/- 2N1309 10/9
AFZI2 11/9 BZY93 C24 11/- OC203 61- 2N2I47 .. m- 20W SOLID STATE
AF1M 419 BYIOO 51- OC204 H/- 2N2160 .. 14/9 BARGAINS IN
AFI1S 419 BYX20-200 61- OC20S 10/6 2N2646 .. 10/-
AFU6 4/9 GETI02
AF1I7 4/9 GETI03
5/4 OCP7f f9/6 INTEGRATED 2N3436 6/9 SEMICONDUCTORS AMPLIFIER KIT
4/4 ORPI2 91- CIRCUITS PLANAR
AF1I8 91- GETMI 10/- ORP60 61- Epoxy TOS 10 BARGAIN AIL TYPES £8.8.0 Complete
AFI86 12/- GET573 10/- ORP63 91- lead fjt. 900 Buffer
AF239 12/- OCI9 s/- ORP93 18/- fiU 914 Oual &■ Gate 91'or
2N2926Y
4 for .. 31-
.. 10/- Includes Printed circuits
ASY26 51- OC20 33/- ORP90 19/6 9/6 board. Semiconductors,
ASYaa 51- OC22 13/- OAS 31-
ASY29 6/6 OC23 25/- OAI0 41- /JL923 FlopJ-Km 12/6 Flip Resistors. Capacitors,
Heat sink and short
ASZ2I 41- OC24 19/- OA47 1/6 1C 4-page reprint on Qvar 2,000 tran- circuit protection com-
ATZ10 39/6 OC2S 7/- OA70K 1/6 data, etc. usage circuits slator and diode ponents. S.A.E. for
BAI15 OC26 12/- OA79K 1/6 2/6 types ex stock. details.
BCI07 If- OC28 11/- OA8IK 1/6
BCI08 51- OC29 15/-
BCI09
8CYI0 20/1 OC35
OC36 9/6 OA90K 1/6 low noise—high stability. 10, 12,type,
13/-
OAB5K 1/6 Resistors: i Watt S% Miniature 15, (968 CATALOGUE
BCYI2 22/- OC4I
BCY30 7/- OC42 3/6 OA9IK
OA9SK 1/61/6
IB. 22. 27, 33.8M39, 47. 56. 60, 82 and
^- '-25 pieces. 4d; over 40 pages
8CY3I 41- OA200 2/- 25-99,3d; 100 pieces or over, 2d each. AVAILABLE SHORTLY
BCY32 13/- OC44
8/- . OC7I
OC4S 31- OA202 2/- 10% tolerance, i Watt. I Meg. to 8-2
31- OA2IO 7/6 Meg., same price.
BCY33
BCYa^l 8/- S'- OC72 31- SX63I 71- Preset potentiometers, Standard or POST C PACKING 9d
4/6 5X636 10/- Sybminiacure
eCY38 19/-
BCY39 10/- OC75 OC73 3/-
51- S220C 13/- Lin.
SX638 12/- vertical ortypes, 20% tolerance.
horliontal. L per order
BCY40 16/- OC76 31- SISV 951- 100, 250, 100k,
2Sk.50k. 500 ohm.
250k. Ik.500k.
2-5k,I Meg,
5k. 10k.
25 EXPORT ENQUIRIES
BCY7t '5/- OCfll 31- 6ISC 951- Meg. 5 Meg, All at 1/6 each. Discounts COMPONENTS WELCOME
BCZll 10/- OC81D 31- SVCI 19/9 for qu«ncitie* over 12 of I vaJue.
7 COPTFOLD ROAD TEABSBTOB KANXTALS
GUARANTEE; All the above-listed semi-conductor devices are Brand New. First Grade, and BRENTWOOD ESSEX a.Jg R.C-A 87/6
guaranteed. Wo will replace at no charge any device found to be faulty. Farther: all devices 89/9
carry the Manufacturer's name or Trade Mark, type number-and batch number. We do not BRENTWOOD 7904
offer for sale devices often described as "new and tested" or bearing re-marked type numbers RETAIL AND WHOLESALE
these often have a short and unreliable life. LST COMPONENTS 24 HOUR POSTAL SERVICE SUPPLIED

COMPONENTS AT LAST-
PROMPT SERVICE R & R RADIO
POSTAL SERVICE Pf3 INEXPENSIVE COMPONENTS 51 Burnley Road, Rawtenstali
*• RECHARGEABLE Field Effect Traneiiton — (till 10/- each.
(Sealed DEAC Ni-Cad) BATTERIES U7 type MPF10S—suit- Rossondalo, Lanes
PP3Equiv.:
Equiv.: l.2Sv.
9v. 32/6(p.
37/-(p, && p,21- able for 2N38I9 Tel.: Rossendale 3152
U2 p,2/- applications.
U7 Equiv.: 1.2Sv. 12/- (p.& p. 1/6, 1-2S. Resistors — only 2d. each. VALVES BOXED,TESTED it GUARANTEED
Ull Equiv.: 1.25v. 26/-(p. & p. 1/6) i4*7andohm
i watt, carbon
to 10M- ohm.film, 5% tol. EBF80 3/-
•k BARGAIN PACK SES Pre-pack resistors—S-off each EBF89 3/6 PCC84 31- pYsa 31-
100 Hi-Stab Resistors .... 4*7 ohm to IM. ohm. ECCe2 3/- PCF80 31- UI9I 4/6
30Silicon Diodes 15 Capacitors — price range Sd. — lOd. each. ECL80 3/- PCF82 2/6 U30I 4/6
S Silicon Top Hat Rectifiers e;} Electrolytic, Polyester and Disc. PCL82 41- 6F23 5/-
EF80 1/6 PCL63 41- I0PI4 31-
★ ASSORTED RESISTORS— Hi-Stab. 300 off Silicon Rectifiers — 3/-each.
1,500 P.I.V. at ( amp.
EF85
EFI83 3/6
3/- PCL84 5h aops 31-
(5%. i\s, i watt, worth £3) 15/- PL36 51- 30FS 2/6
(P. & P. 1/6 per order) C.W.O. Sole distributor* of I.M.E.U. assembly stand. EFI84 3/6 Ptei -41- 30US 51-
S.A.E. for list of Industrial Components Stockists of LEKTROKIT. EY86 4/- PL83 41- 30PI2 4/6
for the Home Constructor EL4I 5/- PY33 5/- 30CIS 5/-
Write now for new price list and sample resistors, EZ40 4/6 PYB1 2/6 30PLJ3 5/6
ELMBRIDGE INSTRUMENTS LTD. enelotibg 6d. to: EBC4I 4/6 PYB00 3/6 30PL14 5/6
Island Farm Avenue, West Molesey, Surrey STUDENT ELECTRONIC SERVICES
194 Regent Road, Salford 5 POST, ONE VALVE 9d. TWO TO SIX6d.
OVER SIX POST PAID,
- . /iim,
Corbon ,, low .suf.hrgh
, noise, E
P stabs;
QUALITY NEW RESISTORS PICK OF THE NEW SEMICONDUCTORS
Power
—w" s% s-i aRange
^-nge Series Per dor, Per 100 iilicon,
BCI07, rooiry
4SV, fftypes including;
125-SOO, 4/-. BC167. 50V. S 12S—SOO 3/.
to 330kn E24 |/10 14/6 BCIQ8, 20V. | 125-900; 3/11. ecile.' Mv) g IIS^TOO.' 1/6,
w 10% 10 to 4-70 Et2 +4d pe^resistor 900 4
W 10% 4-70 to I0MQ £12 1/9 13/6 or no' A? ?^~are ,' ''-nOISe
• BC67169. 20V. ,8 240-900, 2/9.
w s%4-7ntoi0Mn E24 2/2 17/- BMt yokT-2N3o'5S,
for I1SW. iOOV. 16/6; 2NBC'
w 10% loo to lOMO £12 3/3 25/10 Power: 3054. -ti.
0CI68 and BCI69 are plastic.
1/6 per 100 toss in 100's of one ohmic value. f/'£= aefLe": ,3pf|0.5' *m 2 to 6mA/V, 10/-; 2N38)9, 14/6.
XHf "d Fast Switching: 85X20 ft. 600MHz, 4/6.
Please state your choice of veiues.
ISf
J lil Ca
Ok S0.20kn r&5?n Skeleton
tt. ,25kQ, Pre-setss
SOkO, I OOkO, 2SOkO,1000,2500.
SOOkfl, I MO. 500n, IkQ^kfi.l-Skn.SkQ.
2140.2-SMQ. SMO, IOMq. High Gam: 2N3390.0400-1,250.
Low Noise: 2N3707, 6/-. 5/6; 2N40SB (PNP), S/6.
5/-:30V,2N339(A.
Available in horizontal or vertical mounting, I/, each. Sub-Miniature: BCI22.
Low Cost: 2N2926, 18V, 120MHz, 2/6 50mA. BOmW, 2S0MHi.selection).
(our colour 6/6.
Cost Volume Controls: lOOo.to lOMO, (in., 2/3 each; SkQ toSMO.Iog., Also: 2N3702, 2N 3703, 2N 3704, 2N370S, 4/- each; BCI09C,4/3t BFYS0,5/3,
Log. Stereo I lOOkO, 2S0kn, SOOkO. tMO, 2MO, L.S., 9/.. D.P, sw. 12/6. Germanium,
RF. VHP: NKT603F. many 6/.;
type*NKT6I3F.5/9;
including: NKT677F. 4/5.
0-Ss^f"sW Sd0' 220' 470' ,'a00' 2'20^,, 4./00PP, 500V. Sdj 0-005, 0-01. 002, Low Noise; 20 300.6/9 ; 2G309, 7/9; NKT275, 3/8.
EWolrti'cs, *5, 10, 25. SOmF. lOV, 5, lOpF, 25V. 9ds 100, 200^F, 10V, 25.SO/tP, ALL GOODS BRAND NEW • £10.
NO SURPLUS • FAST DELIVERY
Sub-min C426 range: all values in stock, Discounts; 10%over£3i 15% over
Post and Packing: I/-; free on orders over El.
r-.» vrr.. ..PEAK SOUND PRODUCTS cquTvafonVs Se"d 5tamps~^'":,udes t,ala on all ryp" in stock and many
ne i- sn?* '2LK A<,rd.h«0lil1Xne copper SSftn x 4in or Ain. 2/-; 100ft x fin
2in xX sfin, x/-. Also 5A-8,a Stereo
^in <. Amps i mauat',Kattractive
' ^ prices. 4/-; 2iin x 3iin. 2/6; ELECTR0VAIUE 6 MANSFIELD PLACE, ASCOT, BERKSHIRE

307
RECEIVERS AND COMPONENTS (continued) RECEIVERS AND COMPONENTS
(eontinued)
Lord Alexander Home
Waterhouae Street SEMICONDUCTORS .
ADROIT ELECTRONICS Hemel Hempttead, Hertf All Brand Now. No Manufacturers Reiects.
2N2926 Green $235-470 3/9. YellowS 150-300
OC28 .. . s/- 2N2646 , . 12/6 NKT2I1 . 4/9 NKT227 . 8/3 3/6, Orange (3 90-180 3/3, Red /3 55-110 3/-.
ACY22 I Amp PNP (Mu)lard) 3/9. OC7J
OC3S .. - 7/6 2N2926 . . 3/- NKT2I2 . 4/4 NKT228 . 4/1 BRAND
OC36 . . . 8/6 2N3053 . . 10/- NKT213 . 4/6 NKT60I . 5/9
OC44 ,. ■ 1/9 2N3055 . 19/- NKT2I4 . 3/6 NKT6t2 . 4/8 NEW Mull a rd'd io'des: OA70, OA81, OA90, OA9I
2/- each,allOA202 (Silicon)
OC4S .. . 1/9 2NI4S2 . . 5/- NKTltS . 3/6 NKT6I3 . 4/9 G
U carbon preferred value*3/-.
3d. Resistors
each. P.&IP.watt
I/-,
OC70 ., . 2/3 2NI720 . 4/6 NKT2I6 . 8/3 NKT674 . 5/- A free ont orders for more than 15/- C.W.O.
OC7I .. . 2/- NKTI24 . . 8/6 NKT217 . 7/9 NKT67S . 41- R W W ELECTRONICS
OC72 .. - 2/- NKTI2S • 5/- NKT218 , 4/1 NKT676 . 4/1 10 The Drive, Newcastle upon Tyne 7
OC8I .. - 2/3 NICTI26 . 5/- NKT2(9 , 4/7 NKT677 . A
OCI40 .. . 4/6 NKTI27 . . 8/6 NKT22I . 4/8 TK20C . 1/6 N
OCI70 .. - 2/3 NKTI28 . - 5/9 NKT222 . 4/- TK40C . 21- T
OC 171 . , - 2/6 NKTI29 . ■ 5/- NKT223. . 4/1 OAS 11- E
E
2N696 .. . 4/6 NKTI4I . 5/9 NKT224 . 3/6 OA8I 1/-
2N697 .. • 5/- NKTI42 ■ 5/- NKT225 . 3/6 OA200 2/6 D
COLOUR TV
2N706 .. . 4/3 NKTI43 . 4/9 NKT226 . ,8/9 OA2IO . 6/6
Send 9d. stomps for complete lists Transistors, Rectifiers, Cash with order please. Postage 96.
Integrated Circuits, Etc. Airmoii extra WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE
r
TO THE PAL SYSTEM
COMPUTER PANELS
Eight assorted printed circuitcapacitors,
panefs with By PATCHETT 40/-. P. & P. I/-.
transistors, diodes, resistors, etc. CURSONS TRANSISTOR SUBSTITUTION
Guaranteed
Experimenters. minimum 30 transistors.
B boards 10 -, POSTIdeal for
FBEE, HANDBOOK, American, Japanese,
Trade and Electrolytics
Bulk enquiries welcome TRANSISTORS
2.000 HFD 2SV d.c. Wkg., I.SOO +
3,'- each, British, etc. 15/-. P. &P. !/•-
COMPUTER DICTIONARY AND
P, S P. 9d. ALL GUARANTEED
KEYTRONICS HANDBOOK, by Sippl, 90/-. P.& P. 4/6.
52 Earls Court Road,only
Mail order London, W.8 HI-FI YEAR BOOK, 1968, IS/-. P.&P.
t/- each
1/3.
BAY31, BAY50, DK10, OA70, ELECTRO N I QU ES HOBBIES
TRANSISTOR CAPACITORS (ELEC- OA81, OA200, OA10, OA90, OA91, MAN UAL. by S.T.C. 10/6. P. & P. 1/6.
TROLYTIC)
500mid 4V 64mfd 40V I Smfd 25V OA259, IN914, IN916, JL102 TRANSISTOR ELECTRONIC OR-
nOtr-Jd 10V SOmfd 10V lOmfd 2SV CANS FOR THE. AMATEUR, by
250mfd 4V 30mfd I0V
25mfd 2SV 4mfd 64V fi-dmfd 64V 2/- each Douglas. 18/-. P. & P. I/-.
200mfd
lOOmfd 16V 16V 20mfd 12V lm(d 25V TAPE RECORDING FOR THE
I - each, 9 - per doi. Min. order 10/- XA101, XA102, OC71, OC72, HOBBYIST, by Zuckerman. 26/- P. & P.
TRANSISTOH PANELS—OC45 or equiv.. OC81, OC81D, OC44, OC45, II-.
20
30 (or60—40
20,-. -,30—25'-.
80—50 50—35'-.
- Postage 70-45/-,
2 ;
- per 40—
panel GET16, FST3/1, ACY22, ASY57 WORLD RADIO HANDBOOK, 1968,
Brand new STC sil. EPT planar transistors by Johansen. 42/-. P. & P. I/-.
300 Mels 350 mW. all at 2.'- each. 2N743. 3/- each DIGITAL COMPUTERS, STORAGE
2N753. 2N0I6. BSY26. BSY28, BSY65. BSYlB,
B$Y95A. BSY29 OC139, OC140, 2N706, 2N708, AND LOGIC CIRCUITRY. 30/-. P.&P.
TRANSISTORS OC45. TK22C « I/- each. 2N2894, BY100, RASSIOAF^NSU, 1/3.
OC76. OCI39. 2G302, OC8I. OC44 - 2/- each.
6/-each■»
GET 120, OC23,
OCfl3, NKT452.
2N1308. NKT4S3OC72, ■"NKT2I6 BSY26. BSY27, BSY95A, AFZ12 101 WAYS TO USE YOUR OSCILLO-
4 - each. SCOPE,