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Е.Ю.

Малышева

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для студентов специальности
«Летательные аппараты»

Нижний Новгород 2010


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
НИЖЕГОРОДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ им. Р.Е. АЛЕКСЕЕВА

Е.Ю. Малышева

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для студентов специальности «Летательные аппараты»

Рекомендовано Ученым советом


Нижегородского государственного технического университета
им. Р.Е. Алексеева в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов 1–2-го курсов
факультета морских и авиационных технологий

Нижний Новгород 2011

1
УДК 802.(07)
ББК 81.2 АНГЛ
М 206

Рецензент
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
переводческого факультета Нижегородского государственного
лингвистического университета им. А. Добролюбова
Н.Н. Соловьева

Малышева Е.Ю.
М 206 Английский язык для студентов специальности «Летательные
аппараты»: учеб. пособие / Е.Ю. Малышева; Нижегород. гос. техн.
ун-т им. Р.Е. Алексеева. – Нижний Новгород, 2011. – 103 с.
ISBN 978-5-93272-713-3
Предназначено для студентов 1-2-го курсов специальности «Летательные
аппараты» факультета морских и авиационных технологий как для аудиторного,
так и самостоятельного изучения. Цель издания - развитие навыков устной речи,
чтения и перевода в профессионально ориентированной области.
Представлены аутентичные тексты, которые дают предоставление об
устройстве вертолетов и самолетов, что поможет студентам расширить и
обогатить их словарный запас по специальности «Летательные аппараты».

Рис. 10. Табл. 3. Библиогр.: 5 назв.

УДК 802.(07)
ББК 81.2 АНГЛ

ISBN 978-5-93272-713-3 © Нижегородский государственный технический


университет им. Р.Е. Алексеева, 2011
© Малышева Е.Ю., 2011

2
Contents

Предисловие..…………………………………………...…………………………..6
Lesson 1. Aircraft Classification………………...…………...……………………..8
1.1.Active Terms and Expressions………...……...…………...………………….....8
1.2.Introductory Exercises………………………...……..…..…………………......10
1.3.Text . Aircraft Classification …...………………………..……………………..11
1.4.Text . Types of Military Aircraft……………….…………..………...……..…..12
1.5.Exercises………………..…………………..……………....………………......13
Lesson 2. Aircraft Structure……………………..……………...…………………..16
2.1.Active Terms and Expressions…………..….…..…………………..………..... 16
2.2.Introductory Exercises…..…………………………………..……..…………...17
2.3.Text . Aircraft Structure………………………………….………………..……18
2.4.Exercises…….…………..……………………………….………………..……20
Lesson 3. Helicopters…………………….………...……………………………….23
3.1.Active Terms and Expressions………………………………...………………..23
3.2.Introductory Exercises.……………………………..…………………………..24
3.3.Text . General Characteristics and Structure..............………………..………...25
3.4.Text . Principle of Operation and Control…….…………………………..…… 27
3.5.Text . Classification of Military Helicopters…………...…………..………….. 27
3.6.Exercises…………..………..………………………………………………......27
Lesson 4. Aircraft Armament Systems…………………………..…………………30
4.1.Active Terms and Expressions……………………….…………………...…….30
4.2.Introductory Exercises…..………………………………………..…………….32
4.3.Text . Aircraft Armament Systems. General ……………...…………..……….32
4.4.Exercises……..……………………………..…………………………………..34
Lesson 5. Aerial Armory……………………………………...…………………….37
5.1.Active Terms and Expressions…..…………...…………………………………37
5.2.Introductory Exercises…….…………………..………………………….…….40
5.3.Text . Aerial Armory …………………………………..……………...……….41
5.4.Exercises …………………………………………….…..……………………..43
Lesson 6. Gulf Airwar……………………………………..……………………….45
6.1.Active Terms and Expressions…..………………………...…..……………….45
6.2.Introductory Exercises……..…………………..……...………………………..47
6.3.Text . Gulf Airwar. Lessons Learned …………………...…… ……………......48
6.4.Doctrinal Lessons…………………………………. .……..... …………………49
6.5.Technology Lessons………………………...…… ………... …………………49
6.6.Exercises …..……………………………………… .………….…………..….50
Lesson 7. A New Era For Aircraft………………………………..…...……………52
7.1.Active Terms and Expressions…………………………………......…………...52
7.2.Introductory Exercises……………………………………...…..………………53
7.3.Text . A New Era For Aircraft…………… ……………..…………………....53
7.4.Exercises……………………………………..…………………………...…….54
7.5.Text . Types of Combat Planes……………………..……………..……...…...55

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Lesson 8. How High Are We Flying?........................................................................56
8.1.Active Terms and Expressions…………………………..…………...…………56
8.2.Introductory Exercises…………………………..………………..…………….56
8.3.Text . How High Are We Flying?……………………….………………...……57
8.4.Exercises…………………………………...…………..……………………….58
8.5.Text . Boeing B-52 G/H Stratofortress ….………………...………………..….58
Lesson 9. How Fast Are We Flying?.........................................................................59
9.1.Active Terms and Expressions……………………..……………...……………59
9.2.Introductory Exercises……………………………………...…..………………59
9.3.Text . How High Are We Flying?………………................................................60
9.4.Exercises…………………………………………………………..…...……….61
9.5.Text . McDonnel Douglas F-15 Eagle……………………………………….....62
Lesson10. Airport Lights And Markings……………………………………..…….62
10.1.Active Terms and Expressions………………………………………...………62
10.2.Introductory Exercises…………………………..…………………………… 62
10.3.Text I. Airport Lights And Markings…………..………………………...…....63
10.4.Exercises……………………………..……………………………………......64
10.5.Text . General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon Falcon..…………...………....64
Lesson 11. Naval Aviation………………………………………………......……...65
11.1.Active Terms and Expressions……………………………………………...…65
11.2.Introductory Exercises…………………………………………..…………….66
11.3.Text . Naval Aviation……………………………………...………………….66
11.4.Exercises …………………………………………..………….………………67
11.5.Text . Naval Aviation…………………………………………...……………..68
Lesson 12. How Do Aircraft Fly ?.............................................................................69
12.1.Active Terms and Expressions…………………………………...……….…...69
12.2.Introductory Exercises……………………….…………………..……………69
12.3.Text . How Do Aircraft Fly?..............................................................................69
12.4.Exercises ………………………………………………….……………..……70
12.5.Text II. McDonnel Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle …………………………...…70
Lesson 13. Primary Flight Controls……………………………………..………….71
13.1.Active Terms and Expressions……………………………………………..…71
13.2.Introductory Exercises…………………………………………………...…....72
13.3.Text . Primary Flight Controls………………………………………………...72
13.4.Exercises ……………………………...…………………………………..…..73
13.5.Text . Lockheed 117A Stealth Fighter………..…………………..…………...74
Lesson 14. Jet Transport Takeoff…………………...……………...……………….75
14.1.Active Terms and Expressions ……………………..………...……………….75
14.2.Introductory Exercises……………………………………..……………..…...75
14.3.Text I. Jet Transport Takeoff……………………………………...……..……76
14.4.Exercises ……………………………………………………………………...77
14.5.Text . Reconnaissance Tornado…………………………………………..…...78
14.6.Text III. USAF B-2………………………………………………………..…..78
Lesson 15 The Return of the Dirigibles………………………………………….....79
15.1.Active Terms and Expressions……………………………….…………...…...79
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15.2.Introductory Exercises…………………………………………….………..…79
15.3.Text . The Return of the Dirigibles……….......................................................79
15.4.Exercises…………………………………………………………..….……….80
15.5.Text ………………………………………………………………………..….81
Lesson 16. Off the Ground: How Do We Find Where We Are Going?...................81
16.1.Active Terms and Expressions………………………..……………………….81
16.2.Introductory Exercises……………………………………….……..…………81
16.3.Text I. Off the Ground: How Do We Find Where We Are Going?...................82
16.4.Exercises…………………………………………………………………..…..82
16.5.Text ………………………………………………...…………………..……..83
Lesson 17. What Do Wing Flaps Do ?.......................................................................85
17.1.Active Terms and Expressions……………………………..…………….…....85
17.2.Introductory Exercises… …… …………….……..…… ……….…………....85
17.3.Text . What Do Wing Flaps Do?........................................................................85
17.4.Exercises…………………………………………………………..…………..86
17.5.Text . The SU-80 GP…………………………………………………………..87
Lesson 18. The Smooth Approach….………………………………...…………….89
18.1.Active Terms and Expressions ….… ………………………...……………….89
18.2.Introductory Exercises…. …… …..…….…………… …………...……….....90
18.3.Text I. The Smooth Approach………………………………...…………..…..90
18.4.Exercises…….…………………………………………….……………..…....92
18.5.Text. Freighter Versatile Aircraft T-101 ’’Grach’’………………..……...…..93
18.6.Text. Supplementary reading ……………………………..……………….....94

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов I–II курсов


специальности «Летательные аппараты» факультета морских и авиационных
технологий.
Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями типовой программы по
английскому языку для технических вузов.
Авторы ориентировались на конечную цель обучения,
предусматривающую развитие навыков чтения литературы по специальности
для получения информации.
Большое количество современной информации вызывает рост
специальностей научной литературы, которую необходимо читать и понимать.
Умение понимать специализированные тексты является неотъемлемой
частью подготовки специалистов той или иной области, что является
непосредственной целью данного пособия. Другая цель - это развитие навыков
перевода на русский язык оригинальной литературы. Тематические задания
пособия способствуют развитию речевых навыков и умению в
профессиональной сфере коммуникации. При составлении учебного пособия
авторы уделили большое внимание проблеме отбора языкового материала в
плане подготовки студентов к профессиональному общению на английском
языке работников авиастроения.
При отборе текстового материала в качестве основного критерия
служила информативная ценность текстов и их соответствие интересам
студентов.
Пособие состоит из 16 самостоятельных и законченных блоков,
охватывающих следующие темы:
1. Aircraft Classification.
2. Aircraft Structure.
3. Helicopters.
4. Aircraft Armament Systems.
5. Aerial Armory.
6. Gulf Airwar: Lessons Learned.
7. A New Era For Aircraft.
8. How High Are We Flying?
9. How Fast Are We Flying?
10.Airport Lights And Markings.
11.Naval Aviation.
12.How Do Aircraft Fly?
13.Primary Flight Controls.

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14.Jet Transport Takeoff.
15.The Return Of the Dirigibles.
16.Off the Ground: How Do We Find Where We Are Going?
17.What Do Wing Flaps Do?
18.The Smooth Approach.
19.Supplementary Reading.
Отобранные из оригинальных источников тексты дают представление о
главных составляющих летательных аппаратов, принципах действия
отдельных компонентов и будущем развитии. Каждый текст
соответствующего блока иллюстрирован рисунком и схемами самолетов и
вертолетов и сопровождается терминологическим словарем.

7
LESSON 1

Aircraft Classification

1.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

buoyancy - подъемная сила газа


balloon - аэростат
dirigible - дирижабль
glider (gli) - планёр
fixed-wing aircraft - ЛА с неподвижным крылом, само-
лёт
rotary-wing aircraft - винтокрылый ЛА, вертолет
blade - лопасть
rotor - несущий винт (вертолета)
lift - подъемная сила ЛА
hover - зависать
landing gear - посадочное устройство, шасси
landplane - сухопутный самолет
seaplane - гидросамолет
fuselage - фюзеляж
low-wing aircraft - низкоплан
mid-wing aircraft - среднеплан
high-wing aircraft - высокоплан
swept wing - крыло стреловидной формы
delta wing - крыло треугольной формы
vertical takeoff and landing aircraft - самолет вертикального взлета и
(VTOL) посадки
short takeoff and landing aircraft - самолет укороченного взлета и по-
(STOL) садки
variable-sweep wing - крыло с изменяемой геометрией
swing-wing aircraft - самолет с изменяемой стреловид-
ностью крыла
bomber (bmr, B) - бомбардировщик
fighter-bomber (ftr-bmr,FB) - истребитель-бомбардировщик
attack aircraft (atk acft, A) - штурмовик
interceptor - истребитель-перехватчик
observation aircraft (obsn acft, O) - самолет ближней разведки (наблю-
дения); корректировщик
reconnaissance aircraft (recon acft, R) - разведывательный самолет
special electronic installation - самолет со специальным электрон-
aircraft (E) ным оборудованием
cargo aircraft (C) - транспортный самолет вертолёт)

8
tanker (K) - самолет-заправщик
trainer (T) - учебно-тренировочный ЛА
submarine launched ballistic missile - баллистическая ракета, запускае-
(SLBM) мая с подводной лодки
pilot (plt) - летчик, командир корабля
copilot - второй летчик, правый летчик
navigator (nav) - штурман
aerial engineer - бортинженер, бортмеханик
bombardier (bmdr) - бомбардир
gunner (gnr) - стрелок
characteristics (char) - тактико-технические характерис-
тики
performance - летно-тактические характеристики

interdiction - изоляция поля боя


Mach number - число Маха, число М
thrust - сила тяги, тяга
booster - ракетный ускоритель
electronic countermeasures (ECM) - радиопротиводействие
early warning radar station - станция дальнего радиолокацион-
ного обнаружения
refueling - дозаправка топливом
helicopter - вертолет
payload - полезная нагрузка
bomb load - бомбовая нагрузка
span - размах крыла
wing area - площадь крыла
takeoff weight - взлетная масса
takeoff distance - взлетная дистанция
landing distance - посадочная дистанция
fuel endurance - продолжительность полета по топ-
ливу
cruising speed - крейсерская скорость
takeoff speed - взлетная скорость, скорость отрыва

rate of climb - скороподъемность


landing speed - посадочная скорость
absolute ceiling - абсолютный (теоретический) по-
толок
service ceiling - практический потолок
combat radius - боевой радиус действия
ferry range - перегоночная дальность

***
9
to search out targets - вести поиск целей
to be used for interdiction missions - использоваться для выполнения
задач по изоляции поля боя
to dodge ground fire and missiles - осуществлять маневр уклонения с
целью избежать поражения огнем
зенитной артиллерии и ракетами
to outfly enemy fighters - летать лучше, чем истребители
противника
to spot targets - обнаруживать цели
to locate enemy aircraft - определять местоположение само-
лётов противника
to track enemy aircraft - вести самолеты противника
to jettison boosters - сбрасывать ракетные ускорители
after takeoff - после взлета

1.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES


1. Найдите в тексте, расшифруйте и переведите сокращения:

LTA acft; HTA acft; gli; hel; GM; msl; V/STOL; mil acft; bmr; en; tgt; ICBM;
SLBM; wpn; plt; bmdr; chars; max; ftr-bmr; atk acft; msn; strat; tac; veh; tk; cft; ftr;
frd; obsn acft; dspo; ECM; pers; equip; cbt; armt.

2. Подберите эквиваленты словосочетаний:

использовать для выполнения задач


device capable of being supported by по изоляции поля боя и
the buoyancy of the air непосредственной авиационной
поддержки
bring to life variable-sweep wing
получать методом наблюдения и
aircraft
докладывать сведения, касающиеся
состава и расположения войск
противника
to deliver thermo-nuclear warheads on устройство, способное удерживать-
to distant targets ся в воздухе за счет аэростатичес-
кой подъемной силы
to use for interdiction and close air
support missions дозаправка в воздухе

обладать маневренностью, доста-


to be sufficiently maneuverable to точной, чтобы уклониться от
dodge ground fire and missiles зенитного огня артиллерии и ракет

10
to observe and report information обладать способностью осуществ-
concerning composition and лять радиопротиводействие
disposition of enemy forces

to possess ECM capability приводить к созданию самолета с


изменяемой геометрией крыла
in-flight refueling
доставлять термоядерные боевые
части к отдаленным целям

3. Выпишите из текста соответствующие термины и заполните табл.1. Термины


переведите.
Таблица 1
Typical Characteristics and Performance
of
Bombers Fighters

1.3. TEXT

AIRCRAFT CLASSIFICATION

The word aircraft is defined as any weight-carrying device capable of being


supported by the buoyancy of the air such as lighter-than-air aircraft (LTA acft); or
by the dynamic action of the air, such as heavier-than-air aircraft (HTA acft). This
definition includes balloons, dirigibles, gliders, helicopters and airplanes.
HTA acft are called glis, hels, or airplanes, or in some cases GMs. Originally, a
gli has no motive power and depends upon air currents for its power. Airplanes, hels,
and msls are engine driven. Airplanes are also termed winged or fixed-wing acft
while hels are called bladed or rotary-wing acft.
Rotary-wing acft are supported by rotors of two or more blades and have no
propellers to create forward push or pull. The rotors provide both lift and horizontal
motion. The hel can rise and descend vertically, fly backward, sideways, forward or
hover over one point.
Fixed-wing acft are most widely used. They are usually described1 according
to the type of landing gear (landplanes, seaplanes and amphibian planes), type and
number of engines (jet-powered and propeller-driven; single- or multi-engine) and
wing arrangement. Airplanes with one main wing called monoplanes; those with
two wings, one above the other, biplanes. The location of the monoplane's wing
vertically with respect to the fuselage designates it as a low-wing, mid-wing or
high-wing. Jet planes usually have swept wings or delta wings.

11
4
2
7 3 5

8
9 6
1 11
12

14
13 15 16

18

17 20
19

Рис.1.Wing configuration and shape:


1 - span - размах крыла; 2 - high-wing monoplane - моноплан с высокорасположенным
крылом; 3 - shoulder-wing monoplane - моноплан с высокорасположенным крылом и
подкосами; 4 - midwing monoplane - моноплан со среднерасположенным крылом; 5 -
low-wing monoplane - моноплан с низкорасположенным крылом; 6 - triplane - триплан;
7 - upper wing - верхнее крыло; 8 - middle wing - среднерасположенное крыло; 9 - lower
wing - нижнее крыло; 10 - biplane - биплан; 11 - sesquiplane - полутороплан; 12 - low-
wing monoplane with cranked wings (inverted gull wings) - моноплан с
низкорасположенным крылом типа “обратная чайка”; 13 - elliptical wing - эллиптическое
крыло; 14 - rectangular wing - прямоугольное крыло; 15 - tapered wing - трапециевидное
крыло; 16 - crescent wing серповидное крыло; 17 - delta wing треугольное крыло; 18 -
swept-back wing with semi-positive sweepback - стреловидное крыло с
полуположительной стреловидностью; 19 - swept-back wing with positive sweepback -
стреловидное крыло с положительной стреловидностью; 20 - ogival wing - крыло
оживальной формы

Recent developments in aeronautics have brought to life the vertical and/or


short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and the variable-sweep wing (or swing-wing)
acft.
1.4. ТEXT
TYPES OF MILITARY AIRCRAFT
Mil acft are classified as bombers, fighter-bombers and attack acft, fighters,
interceptors, observation acft, reconnaissance acft, special electronic installation
acft, cargo acft, tankers, trainers and helicopters.
12
Bmrs are acft designed for bombing en tgts. Side by side with the ICBM and
SLBM the piloted bmr is one of three wpns of vast destructive power. All three are
capable of delivering thermo-nuclear warheads on to distant tgts. The crew
members of a bmr are plt, copilot, navigator, aerial engineer, radio operator, bmdr,
and a gunner. The main chars and performance of a bmr include a great max
takeoff weight, heavy bomb load, large max range or fuel endurance, long safe
takeoff and landing distances and a rather high cruising speed.
Ftr-bmrs and atk acft are designed to search out, atk and destroy en land and
sea tgts, using conventional or special wpns. They are also used for interdiction and
close air support msns. Unlike strat bmrs, tac atk acft normally operate over battle
areas near their own airfields. Their plts must be able to find the tgts, whatever the
conditions - even when those are highly mobile vehs such as tks and small naval cft -
and destroy them. They must be sufficiently maneuverable to dodge gnd fire and
msls, and to outfly en ftrs.
Ftrs are designed to intercept and destroy other acft and protect frd bmrs. They
possess high absolute and service ceilings, great max and cruising speeds (of the
order of Mach number 3), and a very high rate of climb. Their safe takeoff distance
is usually relatively small due to both powerful turbojets giving tremendous thrust
and boosters jettisoned after takeoff. The takeoff and landing speed of a jet ftr are
also very high.
Obsn acft are designed to observe and report tac info concerning composition
and dspo of en forces and supplies in an active combat area. Special electronic
installation acft possess ECM capability or have electronic devices to permit
employment as an early warning radar station. Cargo acft are designed for carrying
cargo. Tankers are used for in-flight refueling of other acft. Trainers are acft
employed for training pers in the operation of acft and/or related equip and having
provisions for instructor personnel.
Some of the most essential chars and performance of an acft include: its
type, power plant, crew, armt, payload, span, wing area, takeoff weight, takeoff and
landing distances, fuel endurance, cruising and max speed, takeoff and landing
speed, rate of climb, ceiling (absolute and service), cbt radius, and ferry range.

1.5. EXERCISES

1. Переведите вопросы, ответьте на них по-английски, ответы переведите на русский


язык.

1. Что понимают под термином "летательный аппарат"?


2. Какие летательные аппараты тяжелее воздуха вы знаете?
3. Какие летательные аппараты называются аппаратами с неподвижным
крылом?
4. В чем отличие винтокрылых летательных аппаратов от самолетов?
5. По каким признакам характеризуют летательные аппараты с неподвижным
крылом?

13
6. К созданию каких самолетов привели последние достижения в
аэронавтике?
7. Назовите основные типы военных летательных аппаратов.
8. Для чего предназначаются бомбардировщики?
9. Каков состав экипажа бомбардировщика?
10. Каковы летно-тактические данные бомбардировщика?
11. Каково назначение истребителей-бомбардировщиков и штурмовиков?
12. В чем отличие стратегического бомбардировщика от штурмовика?
13. Для выполнения каких задач предназначаются истребители?
14. Какими летно-тактическими данными характеризуются истребители?
15. Какие сведения тактического характера добываются с помощью
самолетов ближней разведки?
16. Каковы основные летно-тактические данные, которые используются для
характеристики авиационных средств?

2. Переведите предложения.

1. Различают летательные аппараты легче воздуха и тяжелее воздуха.


2. HTA aircraft include gliders, helicopters, airplanes and missiles.
3. Самолеты называют также летательными аппаратами с неподвижным
крылом, а вертолеты - винтокрылыми.
4. Rotary-wing aircraft are supported by rotors providing both lift and horizontal
motion and have no propellers.
5. По типу посадочного устройства летательные аппараты с неподвижным
крылом делятся на сухопутные самолеты, гидросамолеты и самолеты-
амфибии.
6. Jet planes are usually swept-, delta- or swing-wing aircraft.
7. Бомбардировщики - военные самолеты, предназначенные для нанесения
бомбовых ударов по морским и наземным целям.
8. To extend aircraft range, more than 600 KC-10 and KC-135 tankers can take to
the sky to refuel in flight the entire US Air Force and Navy.
9. Истребители предназначены для перехвата и уничтожения воздушных
целей противника и прикрытия своих бомбардировщиков.

3. Переведите устно с опорой на текст.

SWEPT, STRAIGHT OR SWING WING?

Most high-speed aeroplanes built since the war have had sweptback wings.
Sweepback minimizes the effects of the shock-waves of air that build up when an
aircraft approaches the speed of sound. However it has been proved that sweepback
is not essential if an aircraft is built strongly enough and some supersonic aircraft,
like the F-104 Starfighter, have stubby straight wings.
In general, it can be said that straight wings are best at slower speeds, especially
during take-off and landing, while sweptback wings are better at high speeds.

14
"Swing-wing" aircraft, like the F-111 fighter-bomber, get the best of both worlds.
During take-off and landing, their wings are only slightly swept. For high-speed
cruising, the wings pivot back giving almost a delta-wing shape as the wings and
tailplane come together.

4. Переведите на английский язык.

ИСТРЕБИТЕЛЬ F-15 "ИГЛ"

На вооружении ВВС США состоят самолеты различного назначения.


Одним из них является тактический истребитель F-15 "Игл", который
разработан по программе FX, предусматривающей создание истребителя для
завоевания господства в воздухе, с возможностью его применения для
нанесения ударов по наземным целям. Он представляет собой сухопутный
двухдвигательный реактивный моноплан с высокорасположенным
стреловидным крылом.
Основные тактико-технические характеристики истребителя F-15 "Игл"
следующие: максимальный взлетный вес - 25400 кг; максимальная боевая
нагрузка на наружных подвесках - 5500 кг; максимальная скорость полета на
высоте 12000 м составляет М = 2,5, а на высоте 300 м - М = 1,2; скорость
отрыва - 260 км/час; посадочная скорость - 220 км/час; длина разбега (takeoff
run) - 270 м; длина пробега (landing run) - 760 м; боевой радиус действия в
варианте истребителя - от 460 до 1100 км в зависимости от нагрузки;
практический потолок - 21000 м; максимальная продолжительность полета с
подвесными баками (external tanks) без дозаправки в воздухе - 5,5 часа, с
дозаправкой - 15 часов; длина самолета - 19,43 м; высота - 5,63 м; размах
крыла - 13,05 м; перегоночная дальность - 4600 км. Экипаж - 1 человек.

15
LESSON 2

Aircraft Structure
2.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

structure - конструкция
structural unit (member) - элемент конструкции
fuselage (fus) - фюзеляж
control surface (con sur) - поверхность управления, рулевая
поверхность, руль
undercarriage - шасси
landing gear - шасси, посадочное устройство
tail surface - хвостовая поверхность, хвостовое
оперение
empennage - хвостовое оперение
cockpit - кабина летчика
canopy - фонарь кабины (летчика)
attitude - положение в пространстве
framework - каркас, остов
spar - лонжерон
rib - нервюра
wing tip - законцовка крыла
wing section - профиль крыла
covering - обшивка
leading edge - передняя кромка; носок (крыла)
trailing edge - задняя (хвостовая) кромка
airfoil - аэродинамическая поверхность
auxiliary flight control surfaces - (здесь) средства механизации крыла

aileron - элерон
elevator - руль высоты
rudder - руль направления
rolling motion - движение крена
horizontal stabilizer (horiz stblz) - горизонтальный стабилизатор
pitching motion - движение тангажа
vertical stabilizer (vert stblz) - киль, вертикальный стабилизатор
yawing motion - движение рыскания
control stick - ручка управления
wheel and yoke assembly - штурвальная колонка
trim tab - триммер
spring tab - пружинный сервокомпенсатор
recess - крепить заподлицо
hinge - устанавливать на шарнирном сое-
динении; крепить шарнирно
16
handling characteristics - характеристики управляемости
retractable - убирающийся
flap - закрылок; щиток; предкрылок
spoiler - интерцептор
speed brake - воздушный тормоз; тормозной щи-
ток
slat - предкрылок
landing gear unit - опора шасси; стойка шасси; нога
шасси
air-oil shock strut - воздушно-масляный амортизатор;
воздушно-масляная амортизацион-
ная стойка
wheel brake assembly - колесный тормоз
wheel and tire assembly - колесо с пневматиком в сборе
shimmy damper - демпфер шимми; гаситель коле-
баний

2.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES


1. Найдите в тексте, расшифруйте и переведите сокращения:

acft; fus; a HTA acft; const; spt; nec; flt; sur; gp; vert stblz; horiz stblz; prim
con surs; plt; chars.
2. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний:

основными элементами конструкции являются; независимо от положения


самолета в пространстве; выдерживать напряжения; зависеть от требований,
предъявляемых к конструкции; создавать большую часть подъемной силы;
каркас, выполненный из; придавать профилю крыла форму; изменять
положение самолета в пространстве; управлять движением крена; управлять
набором высоты и снижением; управлять элеронами и рулем высоты из
кабины летчика; управлять с помощью штурвальной колонки; приводить руль
направления в движение педалями; врезать триммеры заподлицо в задние
кромки; стабилизировать полет при возникновении неустойчивого положения;
прилагать усилия к органам управления; шарнирно крепить закрылок;
выпускать предкрылок; улучшать управляемость.
3. Выпишите из текста соответствующие термины и заполните табл.2. Термины
переведите.

Таблица 2
Flight Control Surfaces
Primary Group Secondary Group Auxiliary Group

17
2.3. TEXT

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

The principal structural units of an acft consist of the fuselage, wings, flight
control surfaces and undercarriage or landing gear.

9
10
5 8
6
7
4

3
2
8
11
1

13 12
14
15
16
Рис.2. Principal structural units of the F-16:
1 - nose section - носовой отсек; 2 - canopy - фонарь (кабины); 3 - fuselage forward section
- передний отсек фюзеляжа; 4 - slat - предкрылок; 5 - aileron - элерон; 6 – flap - закрылок;
7 - fuselage aft section - хвостовой отсек фюзеляжа; 8 - all-movable stabilizer -
управляемый стабилизатор; 9 - vertical stabilizer - киль, вертикальный стабилизатор; 10 -
rudder - руль направления; 11 - trailing edge задняя кромка; 12 - wing tip - законцовка
крыла; 13 - wing - крыло; 14 - leading edge - передняя кромка, носок крыла; 15 - landing
gear - шасси; 16 - cockpit - кабина летчика

Fuselage

The fus is the main structure of an acft which houses the crew, and sometimes
the armament and the power plant. The tail surfaces or empennage and landing
gear are attached to it. The fus also contains the pilot cockpit with a canopy.
Regardless of the attitude of an acft, there are always stresses on the fus
structure. It must be constructed to withstand all such stresses. Detail design depends
upon the function and structural requirements to the acft.

Wings

The wings are designed to develop the major portion of the lift of a HTA acft.
Wing const is similar in most modern acft. The wing is a framework composed
chiefly of spars and ribs covered with metal.
18
1

3
Рис. 3. Wing construction:
1 - spar - лонжерон; 2 - rib - нервюра; 3 - stringer - стрингер

The spars are the main structural members of the wing, extending from the fus to
the tip. All the load that is carried by the wing is ultimately taken up by the spars. Ribs
give the wing section its shape and also transmit the airload from the wing covering to the
spars. They extend from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing.
A complete wing assembly consists of the surface providing lift for the spt of
the acft, together with the nec flight control surfaces.

Flight Control Surfaces


The flight control surfaces are movable airfoils designed to change the
attitude of the acft during flt. These surs may be divided into three groups usually
referred to as the primary group, secondary group and auxiliary group.
The primary gp includes the ailerons, elevators and rudder. The ailerons are
attached to the trailing edge of the wings and control the rolling motion of the acft.
The elevators, attached to the horizontal stabilizer, control the climb or descent
(pitching motion). The rudder, attached to the vert stblz, determines the horiz dir of
flt (yawing motion).
The ailerons and elevators are generally operated from the cockpit by a control
stick or by wheel and yoke assembly. The rudder is operated by foot pedals.

1 3 5 6
Рис. 4. Principal maneuvers of the aircraft:
1 - pitching motion - движение тангажа; 2 - lateral axis - поперечная ось; 3 - yawing
motion - движение рыскания; 4 - vertical axis- вертикальная ось; 5 - longitudinal axis-
продольная ось; 6 - rolling motion - движение крена

19
Included in the secd gp are the trim tabs and spring tabs. Trim tabs are small
airfoils recessed into the trailing edges of the prim con surs. The purpose of trim tabs
is to enable the pilot to trim out any unbalanced condition which may exist during
flight, without exerting any pressure on the prim controls. Each trim tab is hinged to
its parent prim con sur, but operated by an independent control. The purpose of
spring tabs is to aid the plt in moving the prim con surs.
Included in the auxiliary gp of flt con surs are the wing flaps, spoilers, speed
brakes and slats.
Wing flaps are used to give the acft extra lift and are hinged to the trailing or
leading edge of the wing.
Spoilers are for the purpose of decreasing wing lift. They are long narrow surs,
hinged at their leading edges to the upper sur of the wings.
Speed brakes are hinged surs used for slowing down the speed of an acft and
attached to the wings. On some acft they are hinged to the lower sur of the fus.
Slats are movable control surs attached to the leading edges of the wings. When
the slat is extended forward, a slot is created between the slat and the leading edge.
At low airspeeds this increases lift and improves handling chars.
Landing Gear
The landing gear or undercarriage of an acft consists of main and auxiliary
units. The main landing gear contains two landing gear units, one under each side
of the fus or one under each wing. The aux unit is located either under the tail or the
nose of the acft.
A typical landing gear consists of three retractable landing gear assemblies.
Each main landing gear is equipped with a conventional air-oil shock strut, a wheel
brake assembly, and a wheel and tire assembly. The nose landing gear is equipped
with a conventional air-oil shock strut, a shimmy damper, and a wheel and tire
assembly.
2.4. EXERC ISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What are the principal structural units of an aircraft?


2. What structural units are attached to the fuselage?
3. What is the construction of an aircraft wing?
4. What does a complete wing assembly consist of?
5. What are flight control surfaces designed for?
6. What groups are flight control surfaces divided into?
7. What flight control surfaces belong to the primary group?
8. What are the functions of the ailerons, elevators and rudder?
9. What is the difference between the trim tabs and spring tabs?
10. What flight control surfaces belong to the auxiliary group?
11. What are the wing flaps (spoilers, speed brakes, slats) used for?
12. What does the landing gear consist of?
13. What is the main landing gear (nose landing gear) equipped with?
20
2. Переведите словосочетания.

основные элементы конструкции самолета; to house the crew, armament and


power plant; кабина летчика с фонарем; to withstand stresses on the fuselage
structure; предназначаться для создания подъемной силы ЛА тяжелее воздуха;
variable-sweep wing; каркас из лонжеронов и нервюр, покрытый металлической
обшивкой; spars extend from the fuselage to the tip; придавать форму профилю
крыла; flight control surfaces; управлять движением крена с помощью элеронов;
horizontal stabilizer with elevators; руль направления, смонтированный на киле;
auxiliary wing control surfaces; шасси состоит из трех убирающихся опор.
3. Переведите текст на английский язык.

САМОЛЕТЫ И ИХ КОНСТРУКЦИЯ
Самолет представляет собой летательный аппарат тяжелее воздуха с
неподвижным крылом. Боевым самолетом называется самолет, имеющий
разнообразное вооружение и предназначенный для поражения наземных и
воздушных целей или для выполнения специальных задач. В зависимости от
выполняемых задач боевые самолеты подразделяются на бомбардировщики,
истребители, истребители-бомбардировщики, штурмовики, разведчики и
транспортные самолеты.
Конструкция современного самолета включает в себя следующие
основные элементы: фюзеляж, крыло, оперение, силовая установка и шасси.
Фюзеляж - это корпус самолета, к которому крепятся крыло, хвостовое
оперение, убирающееся шасси и двигатель. В нем также размещается кабина
летчика с фонарем, вооружение и оборудование.
Крыло предназначается для создания подъемной силы и может быть
стреловидным, треугольным или изменяемой геометрии. Оно состоит из
каркаса, выполненного в основном из лонжеронов и нервюр и покрытого
металлической обшивкой. На нем также крепятся элероны, служащие для
управления креном самолета, и средства механизации крыла: закрылки,
предкрылки, интерцепторы и другие.
К хвостовому оперению относятся неподвижные горизонтальный
стабилизатор и вертикальный киль и подвижные рули направления и высоты.
Фюзеляж, крыло и хвостовое оперение составляют планёр самолета.
4. Переведите с опорой на текст.

F-111

The F-111 entered the USAF in 1981. It is a supersonic all-weather attack


aircraft with high variable-sweep wing (the first in production in the world).
The variable-sweep wings' limits are of 16 (extreme forward) and 72.5 (swept
back). To take off the limit is 16, for landing - 26, and for the supersonic flight -
72.

21
Basic features of the F-111 include also side-by-side seating for the pilot and
right-seat navigator, large main gears with low-pressure tires for landing on soft
strips, very great internal fuel capacity, and emergency escape by jettisoning the
entire crew compartment, which has its own parachutes and can serve as a survival
shelter or boat.
The aircraft is equipped with a terrain-following radar (TFR) (РЛС
обеспечения полета с огибанием рельефа местности) which permits the plane to
fly over hills, mountains and steep-sided valleys in blind conditions, in blizzards or
by night, holding a steady 200 ft distance from the ground at high-subsonic speed.
According to the US press the aircraft possesses good maneuverability at low
speeds and has short take-off and landing distances. This is possible due to auxiliary
wing control surfaces: flaps, slats, spoilers and others.
The aircraft's tail unit includes a vertical fin and all-movable stabilizer.

22
LESSON 3
Helicopters
3.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

hover - висеть, зависать, парить


airframe - планёр; корпус, каркас
pilot's cabin - кабина летчика
cargo compartment - грузовой отсек
tail boom - хвостовая балка
tail rotor - хвостовой винт, рулевой винт
tail support - хвостовая опора
drive system - (здесь) трансмиссия
main rotor - несущий винт
turboshaft engine - турбовальный газотурбинный
двигатель
power-to-weight ratio - удельная мощность
axial-flow turboshaft engine - турбовальный газотурбинный
двигатель с осевым компрессором
combustion chamber - камера сгорания
main gear box - главный редуктор
single-rotor helicopter - одновинтовой вертолет
dual-rotor helicopter - двухвинтовой вертолет
tandem-rotor helicopter - вертолет продольной схемы
side-by-side twin-rotor helicopter - двухвинтовой вертолет
поперечной схемы
co-аxial helicopter - вертолет соосной схемы
angle of attack - угол атаки
blade - лопасть
tilt - наклон
cyclic pitch - циклический шаг
pitch - шаг
pitch angle - угол установки (лопасти)
sweep - нестись, мчаться, проноситься
swivel - поворачиваться, разворачиваться
linkage system - (зд.) система тяг
swash-plate - автомат перекоса
wobble - колебаться, качаться
engine speed - число оборотов двигателя
helicopter - вертолет
attack - огневой поддержки, ударный
observation - разведывательный (наблюдения)
utility - общего назначения
combat assault transport - транспортно-десантный

23
electronic warfare and target - РЭБ и разведки целей
acquisition
antiarmor - противотанковый

3.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Переведите предложения, используя приведенные слова и словосочетания.

1. Подъемная сила вертолета образуется за счет вращения несущего винта. 2.


Планер вертолета состоит из фюзеляжа и шасси.
3. Фюзеляж является основным конструктивным элементом винтокрылых
машин, в нем размещаются кабина летчика, грузовой отсек, топливные
баки, силовая установка и вооружение.
4. К хвостовой балке крепятся рулевой винт, плоскости стабилизатора и
хвостовая опора.
5. Турбовальный газотурбинный двигатель с осевым компрессором включает
в себя компрессор, камеру сгорания, турбины и главный редуктор.
6. Летчик управляет полетом вертолета путем изменения шага лопастей
несущего винта, наклона его плоскости вращения и уменьшения или
увеличения числа оборотов двигателя.
________________
to tilt the main rotor; axial-flow turboshaft engine; main rotor rotation; helicopter
airframe; tail boom; combustion chamber and main gear box; to change the pitch
angle; fuselage and undercarriage; to derive lift from; to house pilot's cabin, cargo
compartment and propulsion system; tail rotor, stabilizers and tail support; to control
the helicopter's flight by; be attached to; to manipulate the engine speed.

2. Подберите эквиваленты словосочетаний.

to be provided with a tail rotor перебрасывать по воздуху пехотное


producing a counteracting thrust отделение с вооружением и
оснащением
angle of attack is increased every time заставлять лопасти поворачиваться
the blade sweeps over the tail of the то в одну, то в другую сторону по
machine мере их вращения

to swivel about the longitudinal axis состоять из планера и силовой


установки
регулировать число оборотов двига-
to perform a sort of wobbling rotary теля
motion around the shaft
to swivel the blades to and fro as
they rotate
24
предусмотреть хвостовой винт,
to manipulate the engine speed создающий обратную
уравновешивающую тягу

вытеснять самолеты в различных


сферах боевого применения
to displace military fixed-wing aircraft
in many roles
угол атаки лопасти увеличивается
всякий раз, когда она проносится над
to consist of the airframe and хвостовой частью вертолета
propulsion system
совершать на валу определенного
рода колебательно - вращательное
движение
to carry a squad of equipped
infantrymen
поворачиваться вокруг продольной
оси

3. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

винтокрылый летательный аппарат; совершать вертикальный взлет и


посадку; неподвижно зависать над одной точкой; дальность полета с
дополнительными топливными баками; основной элемент конструкции; в
настоящее время на вертолетах применяются; обладать высокой удельной
мощностью; создавать уравновешивающую тягу; уравновешивать крутящий
момент друг друга; подъемная сила образуется за счет вращения
аэродинамической поверхности; несущий винт с механическим приводом; шаг
циклически изменяется через систему тяг; подъемная сила точно равна весу
вертолета.

3.3. TEXT
HELICOPTERS
General Characteristics and Structure
Helicopters are rotary-wing aircraft able to take off and land vertically, to
move in any direction, or remain stationary in the air. The word helicopter comes
from the Greek words meaning "helical wing" or "rotating wing". Modern
helicopters can hover over one point at zero speed and attain a top speed of up to 300
knots and more, their range being up to 2000 miles with extra fuel tanks. They can
climb to an altitude of 10,000 feet and carry a load amounting to 40 tons.

25
5
4

6
2
7
8

9
1

Рис. 5. Principal structural units of the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter:


1 - pilot’s cabin - кабина экипажа; 2 - main rotor blades - лопасти несущего винта; 3 - main
rotor hub - втулка несущего винта; 4 - tail (anti-torque) rotor - хвостовой винт; 5 - vertical
fin - киль, вертикальный стабилизатор; 6 - horizontal stabilizer -горизонтальный
стабилизатор; 7 - tail boom -хвостовая балка; 8 - fuselage -фюзеляж; 9 - landing gear -
шасси

A helicopter consists of the airframe and propulsion system. The airframe


includes a fuselage and undercarriage. The fuselage is the principal structure of the
helicopter and houses the pilot's cabin for a crew of two or three, and cargo
compartment designed to carry a squad of equipped infantrymen or different cargo.
The tail boom is a structural element of the fuselage connecting the tail rotor to the
cargo compartment. Stabilizers and tail support are also fixed to it. Undercarriage
with main and nose landing gears and tail support and propulsion system - major
structural elements of the helicopter - are attached to the fuselage as well.
The propulsion system consists generally of the engine, (transmission) drive
system and main and tail rotors. The turboshaft engines having a high power-to-
weight ratio are currently used in helicopters. An axial-flow turboshaft engine is
comprised of a compressor, combustion chamber, turbines, and main gear box. The
latter is of utmost importance as the safe operation of the entire system
depends on it.
The rotation of the main rotor tends to cause the fuselage to rotate in the
opposite direction. To prevent this, the single-rotor helicopter is provided with a tail
rotor producing a counteracting thrust. Alternatively, the helicopter may have two

26
rotors which revolve in opposite directions and thus counterbalance each other. Such
helicopters can be tandem-rotor, side-by-side or co-exial.

3.4. ТEXT

Principle of Operation and Control

The helicopter derives lift from rotating an airfoil called the rotor. Usually it is
equipped with one or more power-driven rotors. When the angle of attack of rotating
rotor blades attains a certain value, the lift overcomes the weight of the aircraft and
then it takes off vertically.
To achieve horizontal flight, the pilot tilts the rotor forward at a certain angle.
This is done by what is known as cyclic pitch change, i.e. changing the pitch of each
blade once per revolution. More particularly, the angle of attack of each blade is
increased every time it sweeps over the tail of the machine, thereby temporarily
developing a greater amount of thrust than the other blades.
Additionally each blade can swivel about its longitudinal axis and its pitch is
changed cyclically, through a linkage system, by a so called swash-plate, which
performs a sort of wobbling rotary motion around the shaft and swivels the blades to
and fro as they rotate. The tilt of the swash-plate can be varied by the pilot, and the
tilt of the rotor follows the tilt of the plate.
So, by changing the pitch angle of the main rotor blades, by manipulating the
engine speed and by tilting the main rotor, the pilot controls the helicopter's flight in
any direction.
Hovering over one point is done by selecting the correct speed and setting the
rotor blades so that their vertical lift is exactly equal to the weight of the helicopter.

3.5. ТEXT

3.5. Classification of Military Helicopters

Hels are a separate group of acft and have now begun to displace mil fixed-
wing acft in many roles. They are classified as atk, obsn, utility, cbt assault transport,
electronic warfare and target acquisition, antiarmor, etc.

3.6. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is a helicopter?
2. What is the origin of the word helicopter?
3. What are the general characteristics of modern helicopters?
4. What are the principal structural elements of the helicopter?
5. What does the airframe consist of?
6. What does the fuselage house?
27
7. What does the undercarriage consists of?
8. What are the general components of the propulsion system?
9. Which type of engines is currently used in helicopters?
10. What is the purpose of the tail rotor in single-rotor helicopters?
11. Where does the helicopter derive lift from?
12. In which way does the pilot achieve horizontal flight?
13. What is the purpose of the swash-plate?
14. By means of what can the pilot control the helicopter's flight?
15. How can hovering over one point be achieved?
16. How are military helicopters classified?
2. Переведите предложения.

1. Вертолет - ЛА тяжелее воздуха, у которого подъемная сила и


поступательное движение обеспечивается одним или несколькими несущими
винтами.
2. The airframe includes a fuselage with a cabin, cargo compartment and tail
boom, and undercarriage with main and nose landing gears and tail support.
3. Вертолет способен совершать вертикальный взлет и посадку, полет в
различных направлениях, а также висеть над заданной точкой и на заданной
высоте.
4. According to their mission helicopters are classified as atk, obsn, utility, cbt
assault transport, electronic warfare and target acquisition, antiarmor, etc.
5. Одновинтовой вертолет состоит из следующих основных частей:
фюзеляжа с хвостовой балкой, силовой установки, трансмиссии, несущего
винта, рулевого винта, органов управления и шасси.
6. An axial-flow turboshaft engine having a high power-to-weight ratio is
comprised of a compressor, combustion chamber, turbines, and main gear box.
7. Трансмиссия вертолета служит для передачи мощности от двигателя к
несущему и рулевому винтам.
8. By the swash-plate the pitch angle of the main rotor can be varied
simultaneously on all blades to change the lift and vertical movement of the
helicopter.
9. Или же он может варьироваться циклически - для изменения наклона
несущего винта и осуществления поступательного движения и управления
вертолетом.

3. Переведите с опорой на текст.

HELICOPTER OPERATION
In a helicopter flight characteristics are determined by the rotational speed and
pitch variations of the rotor blades. Since its flight characteristics are independent of
forward speed, a helicopter is able to move in any direction at a controlled low speed
and still remains safely airborne.

28
Many factors determine the amount of lift available in helicopter operation.
Generally speaking, the pilot has control of two of these. One is the pitch angle of
the rotor blades; the other is the power delivered to the rotor. By controlling the
pitch angle of the rotor blades, the pilot can establish the vertical flight of the
helicopter. By manipulating the engine speed, the pilot maintains the desired amount
of lift of the aircraft regardless of the increase or decrease in blade pitch.
The cyclic pitch control is similar to the control stick of a conventional aircraft.
It acts through a mechanical linkage to cause the pitch of each main rotor blade to
change during a cycle of rotation. The rapidly rotating rotor blades create a disk area
that can be tilted in any direction with respect to the supporting rotor mast.
Horizontal flight is controlled by changing the direction of tilt of the rotor disk to
produce a force in the desired direction.

4. Переведите на английский язык.

МИ-28: ВИНТОКРЫЛЫЙ ИСТРЕБИТЕЛЬ ТАНКОВ


Ми-28 представляет собой двухместный боевой вертолет, экипаж
которого состоит из летчика (командира) и штурмана-оператора, выполненный
по традиционной одновинтовой схеме. Новая машина сразу же показала себя
как мощное боевое средство для поиска и уничтожения различной боевой
техники и в первую очередь танков, БМП. Специалисты считают, что по
боевой эффективности Ми-28 превосходит зарубежные боевые вертолеты, в
том числе и широкоизвестный американский вертолет огневой поддержки AH-
64 "Апач".
Важное достоинство Ми-28 - его высокая боевая живучесть. Это
единственный вертолет, имеющий полностью бронированную кабину экипажа.
Остекление кабины выдерживает прямое попадание пуль калибра до 12,7 мм, а
также осколков снарядов. На Ми-28 широко применено экранирование
жизненно важных элементов конструкции менее важными. Многие системы
дублированы. Двигатели, например, разнесены так, что между ними уместился
главный редуктор, и их практически невозможно вывести из строя одним
выстрелом.
На машине применена надежная система пассивной защиты экипажа при
возникновении аварийной ситуации на малой и предельно малой высотах при
ударе о землю со скоростью до 12 м/сек. Ее основу составляют неубирающееся
в полете шасси с амортизационной стойкой и энергопоглощающие кресла.
Если аварийная ситуация возникла на большой высоте, летчики могут
покинуть машину с парашютом. При этом лопасти несущего винта
отстреливаются.
У Ми-28 принципиально новые конструкции лопастей и втулок несущего
и хвостового винтов, автомата перекоса, главного редуктора, ряда других
систем. В конструкции планера также применены композиционные материалы,
вот почему вертолет обладает отличными летными характеристиками на
любых высотах.

29
Основные летно-технические данные Ми-28: взлетая масса - 10400 кг;
практический потолок - около 3500 м; крейсерская скорость - 270 км/ч;
дальность полета - 460 км. Вертолет оснащен двумя турбовальными
газотурбинными двигателями мощностью 2200 л.с. каждый. Вооружение: 30-
мм пушка, управляемые противотанковые ракеты, бомбы, неуправляемые
реактивные снаряды.

LESSON 4
Aerial Armory
4.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

strafe - атака (нанесение удара) с брею-


щего полета
gunsight - стрелковый (пушечный) прицел
aim - прицеливание; прицеливаться,
наводить
bomb rack - бомбодержатель
target of opportunity - выгодная внезапно появившаяся
или обнаруженная цель
cockpit video display - электронное устройство отоб-
ражения информации в кабине
экипажа (летчика)
navigation radio - навигационная радиоаппаратура
sensor - датчик; сигнализатор
ground-mapping radar - РЛС отображения рельефа мест-
ности; РЛС картографирования
земной поверхности
forward-looking infrared (FLIR - ИК система переднего обзора
system
inertial navigation set - инерциальная навигационная сис-
тема
integrated tactical ECM devices - единый комплекс оборудования
РЭП
programmable armament control - программируемый блок управле-
set ния вооружением
pod - (подвесной) контейнер
Low-Altitude Navigation and - маловысотная ИК прицельно-
Targeting Infrared for Night навигационная система ЛАНТИРН
(LANTIRN) system
- светомаскировка; затемнение;
blackout режим запрещения работы
радиотехнических средств на
передачу

30
head-up display (HUD) - индикатор (с отображением инфо-
рмации) на лобовом стекле (на фоне
лобового стекла)
windscreen - лобовое стекло
aircraft armament system - комплекс авиационного вооруже-
ния
terrain-following equipment - оборудование обеспечения полета
с огибанием рельефа местности
radar acquisition horizon - нижняя граница зоны действия
РЛС
attack area - район цели; зона выхода на цель
IR return data - данные, полученные на основе
отраженных ИК сигналов
multifunction display (MFD) - многофункциональный индикатор
ground clutter - помехи от земной поверхности;
отражения от местных предметов
look down/shoot down system - система обеспечения обнаружения
и поражения целей в нижней
полусфере
glass cockpit - интегрированная кабина
cathode-ray tube - электронно-лучевая трубка (ЭЛТ)
round dial - круговая шкала; (зд.) индикатор с
круговой шкалой, круглый
электромеханический индикатор
throttle - рычаг управления двигателем;
сектор газа (двигателя)
hands on throttle and stick - система обеспечения управления
(HOTAS) system без отрыва рук от РУД или ручки
управления (ХОТАС)
dogfight - воздушный бой
lock on - захватить цель на автоматическое
сопровождение
arm - взводить (взрыватель); ставить
(взрывное устройство) на боевой
взвод; приводить (взрывное
устройство) в боевое положение
release - сбрасывание/пуск
explosive items of ordnance - боеприпасы взрывного действия
stores - средства поражения; боеприпасы;
вооружение
torpedo - торпеда
depth charge - глубинная бомба

31
4.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES
1. Найдите в тексте, расшифруйте и переведите сокращения.

cbt; atk; WWI; ftr; plt; MG; en trps; acft; tgt; gnd; rdo; rdr; FLIR; ECM; armt;
con; std equip; LANTIRN; IR; HUD; MFD; info; HOTAS; wpn; msl; comp; rkt.
2. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

обстреливать из пулеметов с бреющего полета войска противника в


окопах; обеспечить точность прицеливания; становиться неотъемлемой частью
бортового оборудования; не входить в зону поражения средств ПВО хорошо
защищенных объектов; лететь над сильнопересеченной местностью; ИК-
изображение формируется на основе тепловых излучений; выглядеть такой же
яркоосвещенной, как при дневном свете; получить изображение на экране
многофункционального индикатора, установленного в кабине; выводить
информацию на индикатор на лобовом стекле кабины; выносить основные
переключатели управления на ручку управления; производить захват самолета
противника бортовой РЛС на автоматическое сопровождение; самое
разнообразное оборудование и отдельные узлы.

3. Дополните английские эквиваленты, используя приведенные слова и


словосочетания.

обстреливать с бреющего полета войска противника - ... enemy troops;


устанавливать пушечный прицел - to install ...; обеспечить точность
прицеливания - to ensure ...; атаковать внезапно обнаруженную выгодную цель
- to attack ...; превратить истребитель в более грозное оружие - to make the
fighter more ...; поражать цель с высокой точностью - to strike a target with ...;
взлетать с аэродрома, на котором соблюдается режим светомаскировки и
запрещения работы радиотехнических средств на передачу - to take off from ...;
наблюдать за целью с помощью РЛС отображения местности - to observe the
target, using ...; оснащать самолет радиолокационной аппаратурой обеспечения
обнаружения и поражения целей в нижней полусфере - to equip the aircraft
with ...; оценивать расстояние до самолета противника в воздушном бою - to
estimate the distance to the enemy aircraft in ...; захватывать цель на
автоматическое сопровождение - ... the target; по способу применения
боеприпасов - according to the method of ... employment.
____________________________
look down/shoot down radar system; high precision; to strafe; formidable;
ground-mapping radar; gunsight; blacked-out airfield; dogfight; stores; accuracy of
aim; to lock on; target of opportunity.

32
4.3. TEXT

AIRCRAFT ARMAMENT SYSTEMS


General
The art of air-to-air cbt and air-to-ground atk was born in the smoke and flames
of WW I battlefields, when low-flying ftr plts used MG's to strafe en trps in the
trenches or to fire at en acft. Later on some kind of gunsight was installed on the ftrs
to ensure the accuracy of aim and bomb racks were fitted so that they could atk any
"tgts of opportunity" spotted on the gnd. And then came a never-ending succession
of other devices to make them more formidable.
Today, cockpit video displays, navigation rdos, sensors, on-board computers,
ground-mapping rdr, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems, inertial navigation
sets, integrated tactical ECM devices, and programmable armt con sets are std equip
aboard modern acft such as USAF's F-15E. These enable the ftr plt strike a tgt with
precision. In many cases, they can employ certain types of ordnance without having
to fly over a heavily defended tgt.
Using the two-pod Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for
Night (LANTIRN) system, a two-man F-15E crew can take off from a blacked-out
airfield and fly a moonless night atk msn only 100 feet above rough terrain, traveling
at airspeeds greater than 500 knots. The IR picture, which the plt sees through the
head-up display (HUD) in his windscreen, "reads" heat emissions to show him the
terrain ahead, which shows up almost as bright as in daylight.
The terrain-following equip enables the plt to stay below en rdr acquisition
horizons. Once in the atk area, the aircrew can "see" the tgt, using ground-mapping
rdr or IR return data displayed on one or more of their cockpit multifunction displays
(MFDs), and atk it before the defenders know they are threatened.
Staying beneath en rdr, the plt uses gnd clutter to fool any searching acft that
might be equipped with look-down/ shoot-down rdr systems.
The glass cockpit is one more crucial innovation. Several cathode-ray tubes
replace most of old round "steam gauge" dials familiar to generations of plts. These
screens display all the info the plt needs to fly the plane and use it as a fighting machine.
Whatever info the plt needs at any moment can be projected onto his HUD, so it appears
to be floating out in space, where his eyes focused in his search for en planes.
Coupled with the programmable rdr and the glass cockpit is the hands on
throttle and stick, or HOTAS, system. With all the critical con switches on the stick
or throttle, the plt never has to let go of the controls to fly or fight.
Once the plt drops his bombs, he immediately switches his rdr and all his wpn
systems from air-to-gnd to air-to-air with a slight movement of the thumb of his
right hand where it rests on the con stick to prepare to deal with en ftrs. In the past, if
he could do it at all, it took the plt many seconds to reconfigure the plane as a ftr and
in a dogfight he had to estimate the distance to his tgt and then use his gunsight to
calculate how far in front of the other plane to aim so the bullets would arrive at the
right moment. At present the plane's rdr measures the distance to the other plane and

33
the computers do all the calculations with much more precision than the plt could do
them in his own mind.
When the rdr is locked on to the en plane and it is within range of the gun or
one of the msls, a strobe light on the HUD flashes "SHOOT ... SHOOT ... SHOOT".
If the plt presses the trigger on the stick, a hit is almost certain.
So the term "aircraft armament system" covers a wide variety of equip and
comps designed to carry, arm, release, and maintain overall control of the various
explosive items of ordnance which are frequently referred to as "stores" for brevity.
According to the stores used and the method of their employment the aircraft
armament may be classified as guns, bombs, rkts and GM's, mines, torpedoes and
depth charges, and special purpose wpn systems.

4.4. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. When was the art of air-to-air combat and air-to-ground attack born?
2. Why was the gunsight installed on the fighters?
3. What enabled fighter pilots to attack any targets of opportunity spotted on the
ground?
4. What does the standard equipment aboard modern aircraft include?
5. Using what system can the F-15E crew take off from a blacked-out airfield
and fly a moonless night attack mission?
6. What equipment enables the pilot to stay below enemy radar acquisition
horizons?
7. What is the purpose of the pilot's using ground clutter?
8. What is the advantage of cathode-ray tube displays as compared to old round
dials?
9. What is the convenience provided to the pilot by the glass cockpit?
10. What is the advantage of the hands on throttle and stick system?
11. Does it take the modern aircraft pilot long to reconfigure the plane as a
fighter?
12. Is it difficult to engage enemy plane after the radar is locked on to it?
13. What does the term "aircraft armament system" cover?
14. What is the classification of aircraft armament according to the stores used
and the method of their employment?
2. Переведите.

to ensure the accuracy of aim; установленные в кабине устройства


отображения информации; to penetrate enemy air defenses in total darkness;
многофункциональный индикатор отображения информации на фоне лобового
стекла; to fly over rough terrain; заменять устаревшие электромеханические
индикаторы; hands on throttle and stick system; сводить все данные воедино;
within range of the gun or one of the missiles; с бреющего полета обстреливать

34
расположенные в окопах войска противника из пулемета; to fit bomb racks to
provide the engagement of any targets of opportunity; инфракрасные системы
переднего обзора обеспечивают летчику возможность поражения цели с
большой точностью; low-altitude navigation and targeting infrared for night
system; легкость восприятия всей необходимой для полета и управления
оружием информации; aircraft equipped with look down/shoot down radar system;
отображать только один параметр; critical control switches; отвлекать внимание
летчика на восприятие большого объема информации.

3. Переведите следующие предложения с опорой на текст.

1. During WW I low-flying fighter pilots used machine guns to strafe enemy


troops in the trenches.
2. Для того, чтобы обеспечить точность прицеливания, необходимо было
установить какое-либо прицельное приспособление для пулемета, а чтобы
была возможность поражать внезапно обнаруженные выгодные наземные цели
- бомбодержатели.
3. Standard equipment aboard modern aircraft such as cockpit video displays,
sensors, on-board computers, ground-mapping radars, FLIR systems and
programmable armament control sets enable the fighter pilot to strike a target with
precision.
4. Маловысотная инфракрасная прицельно-навигационная система
ЛАНТИРН, размещаемая в двух подвесных контейнерах, позволяет летчикам
преодолевать ПВО противника в условиях полной темноты.
5. The all-aspect head-up display allows easy comprehension of all needed
navigation and weapon delivery information.
6. Осуществляя полет безлунной ночью на высоте около 40 м над
сильнопересеченной местностью, летчик также использует помехи от местных
предметов, чтобы ввести в заблуждение любое авиационное средство, ведущее
поиск целей и оснащенное радиолокационной системой обеспечения
обнаружения и поражения целей в нижней полусфере.
7. The integrated electronic displays replaced old electromechanical dials
familiar to generations of pilots that could represent as a rule only one parameter.
8. Органы управления основных бортовых систем вынесены на ручку
управления самолетом и рычаг управления двигателем, что позволяет летчику
вести бой и контролировать полет, почти не снимая с них рук.
9. The integration of the whole data is laid on the on-board computer and as a
result in the course of combat the pilot's attention is not diverted to the
comprehension and memorizing of the huge amount of information that would lead
to the decrease of the action effectiveness.
10. Если захват самолета, вертолета или ракеты противника бортовой РЛС
произошел в пределах досягаемости пушечного или ракетного вооружения, то
летчику остается лишь нажать на гашетку, и цель будет поражена.
35
4. Переведите на английский язык.

БОРТОВЫЕ УСТРОЙСТВА ОТОБРАЖЕНИЯ ИНФОРМАЦИИ


И УПРАВЛЕНИЯ СОВРЕМЕННЫХ САМОЛЕТОВ
Повышение боевых возможностей авиации в странах НАТО связывается в
первую очередь с улучшением летно-технических характеристик состоящих на
ее вооружении самолетов. Это достигается как за счет совершенствования
аэродинамических характеристик планеров, силовых установок и оружия, так
и благодаря применению дополнительных, более сложных бортовых систем.
Использование последних требует установки в кабинах все возрастающего
количества устройств отображения информации и управления.
Существенным недостатком традиционных устройств отображения информа-
ции является то, что на каждом приборе мог быть представлен, как правило, только
один параметр. Интеграция всех данных возлагалась на интеллект самого летчика.
Поэтому при ведении боя его внимание отвлекалось на восприятие и запоминание
огромного объема информации, что снижало эффективность действий.
В настоящее время, по сообщениям иностранной прессы, устройства
отображения информации проходят модернизацию. Электромеханические
приборы заменяются электронными индикаторами, сопрягаемыми с органами
управления различными бортовыми системами.
Так, кабины современных истребителей, как правило, оборудуются
двумя-тремя многофункциональными индикаторами на электронно-лучевых
трубках. В состав современных устройств отображения информации и
управления входят также электронно-оптический индикатор с отображением
обстановки на фоне лобового стекла, нашлемный прицел, очковый прибор
ночного видения, многофункциональный пульт управления системами связи,
навигации, прицеливания и опознавания.
Органы управления бортовых систем, используемых в бою, вынесены на
ручку управления самолетом и рычаг управления двигателем. Это позволяет
летчику вести бой, почти не снимая с них рук и не отрывая взгляда от
обстановки вне кабины.

5. Переведите с опорой на текст.

HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY
The modern fighter is a multi-role aircraft which must be capable of equal
performances in interception, air combat and ground attack. With the accumulation
of new and old combat mission requirements, additional displays and controls
appeared in the cockpit, but at the same time the physical size of the cockpit shrank.
At this point the design engineers came to the rescue by developing a HUD
which is integrated to the pilot's helmet, allowing the pilot to receive the HUD
information wherever he turns his head. This system is called Helmet-Mounted
Display (HMD) and seems to offer the best solution today to the cockpit problem in
general.

36
The technical basis for this method is the widely introduced helmet sight. The
position of the helmet's axis is measured exactly by electronic or magnetic sensors.
A computer calculates the direction in which the pilot is looking in relation to the
longitudinal and vertical axis of the aircraft. The result can be used to mark targets,
guide weapons or to navigate under difficult conditions.
The helmet sight is provided with simple reticle (визирная шкала), used to fix
the target. The HMD incorporates a combiner (объединитель) on which the
complete HUD information is projected in miniature form. The combiner may either
be the helmet visor (смотровой щиток) or a special combiner (устройство
индикации) for one eye only which is slid into position when needed. FLIR images
can be projected simultaneously with the HUD symbology to give the pilot full night
vision capability.
However, the limited amount of information which can be displayed on a HUD
or HMD is no substitute for the far more detailed information available from the
cockpit-mounted instruments. This led to the concept of the integrated cockpit. In
addition to a standard HUD, the integrated cockpit usually consists of three multi-
function displays which replace many of the traditionally singly-mounted
instruments, displays, subsystem indicators, dials and gauges. The displays resemble
TV screens on which the desired information can be called up according to need.
The screens are full-color cathode ray tubes which provide on request any
information and data available to the aircraft's central computer.

LESSON 5

Aerial Armory

5.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

precision-guided weapon - высокоточное управляемое оружие


(боеприпас)

dispenser - кассета, кассетный контейнер;


кассетный боеприпас; автомат
разбрасывания (сбрасывания)
submunition - боевой элемент (кассетного
боеприпаса); поражающий элемент
(боеприпаса); малокалиберный
боеприпас
overflight weapon - кассетный боеприпас для
поражения целей сверху
stand-off weapon - оружие, применяемое вне
досягаемости средств поражения
противника

37
beyond visual range (BVR) - с дальностью полета, превышаю-
щей дальность прямой геометриче-
ской видимости
advanced medium range air-to-air - усовершенствованная УР класса
missile (AMRAAM) "воздух-воздух" средней дальности

'fire-and-forget' missile - ракета, запускаемая по принципу


"выстрелил-забыл"; самонаводяща-
яся ракета
'iron' bomb - обычная бомба
'dumb' bomb - неуправляемая бомба
filler - снаряжение, боевой заряд
thermonuclear (TN) - термоядерная
high-explosive (HE) - фугасная
fuel-air explosive (FAE) - объемного взрыва; объемно-дето-
нирующая
fire - зажигательная
drill - учебная
practice - практическая
semiarmor piercing (SAP) - полубронебойная
general purpose (GP) - общего назначения
low-drag (LD) - с малым аэродинамическим сопро-
тивлением; с улучшенной аэродина-
микой
fragmentation (frag) - осколочная
aircraft depth (AD) - авиационная глубинная
rack - балочный бомбодержатель; пуско-
вая направляющая
shackle - замок бомбодержателя
bomb bay - бомбовый отсек
station - точка подвески
release - сбрасывание (бомб); пуск (ракет)
train - серия (авиационных бомб)
salvo - бомбовый залп, залповое бомбоме-
тание
low-level delivery - бомбометание с малых высот
area coverage - площадное бомбометание, бомбо-
метание по площади
target penetration - пробивная способность при пора-
жении цели
retardation - замедление
metal airbrake - металлический воздушный тормоз
air-inflatable retarder - замедлитель баллонного типа,
заполняемый воздухом
laser-guided bomb (LGB) - авиационная бомба с лазерной сис-
38
темой наведения
laser designator system - система лазерного целеуказания
guided bomb unit (GBU) - управляемая бомба
cluster bomb unit (CBU) - кассетная бомба; авиационная
бомбовая кассета
combined effects munition - боеприпас комбинированного дей-
ствия
bomblet - мелкая бомба бомбовой кассеты;
бомба (боевой элемент) кассетного
боеприпаса; бомба малого калибра
denial version - вариант для воспрещения занятия
района (противником)
dispenser weapon - кассетный боеприпас (разбрасыва-
ющего действия)
overflight laydown - для поражения целей сверху с
предельно малых высот
непланирующая
sensor fused weapon (SFW) - боеприпас с неконтактным взры-
вателем (с чувствительным датчи-
ком
tactical munition dispenser (TMD) - кассетный боеприпас (оперативно-)
тактического назначения
level release - бомбометание с горизонтального
полета
dive release - бомбометание с пикирования
toss release - бомбометание с кабрирования
hypervelocity missile (HVM) - гиперзвуковая УР
laser data-link - линия (канал) передачи данных по
лазерному лучу
folding-fin aircraft rocket (FFAR) - НУР со складывающимся стабили-
затором
flechette warhead - кассетная боевая часть со стрело-
видными поражающими элемен-
тами
pylon - пилон
rotary cannon - (автоматическая) пушка с вращаю-
щимся блоком стволов
pintle-mounted - на турельной установке
pod-mounted - установленный в подвесном конте-
йнере
chin turret - подфюзеляжная турельная стрелко-
во-пушечная установка, закреплён-
ная в носовой части
man-portable air defense system - переносной зенитный ракетный ком-
(MANPAD) мплекс
39
5.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES
1. Найдите в тексте, расшифруйте и переведите сокращения.

abn; rkt; wpn; ftr; msl; AAM; def; acft; cbt; GE; rd/min; gnr; hel; sys;
MANPADS; ATAS; BVR; AMRAAM; gnd; HE; nuc; TN; FAE; SAP; GP; LDGP;
frag; AD; fus; tgt; rel; pcht; LGB; GBU; whd; CBU; SFW; TMD; proj; armd; kt;
atk; op; gp of tks; HVM; FLIR; FFAR; lchr.
2. Дополните английские эквиваленты, используя приведенные ниже слова и
словосочетания.

поступать на вооружение - ... service; использовать на вертолетах


пулеметы на турельной установке и в подвесных контейнерах - to use ...
machine guns on helicopters; производить высокоточное управляемое оружие -
to produce ...; относиться к категории ракет с дальностью, превышающей
дальность прямой геометрической видимости - to belong to ... category;
осуществлять сбрасывание и прицеливание традиционным способом - ... in the
traditional way; классифицировать по характеру применения - to class ...;
размещать бомбы в бомбовом отсеке с помощью бомбодержателей или замков
- to carry in the bomb bay by ...; проводить бомбометание серией или залпом - ...
bombs in ...; обеспечить замедление падения бомб при бомбометании с малых
высот - to ensure ... at ...; размещать бомбы с лазерной системой наведения на
различных точках подвески - to suspend ... at various ...; прибегать к
бомбометанию по площади - to go for ...; представлять собой сбрасываемый
контейнер с большим количеством бомб малого калибра - to be ... with a large
number of ...; изготавливать кассетную бомбу в варианте для воспрещения
занятия района противником - to manufacture ...; вести бомбометание на любых
высотах с горизонтального полета, пикирования и кабрирования - to deliver
bombs at ...; разрабатывать кассетные боеприпасы разбрасывающего действия -
to develop ...; уделять внимание проблеме уничтожения нескольких целей за
один заход для нанесения удара - to direct attention toward the problem of ...;
разрабатывать авиационную неуправляемую ракету со складывающимся
стабилизатором - to develop ...; нести кассетную боевую часть со
стреловидными поражающими элементами - to carry ... .
_________________________________
precision-guided weapons; laser-guided bombs; to enter; pintle- and pod-
mounted; stations; beyond visual range; a flechette warhead; a folding-fin aircraft
rocket; all altitudes with level, dive and toss release; a droppable casing; dispenser
weapon; to release and aim; racks and shackles; according to the filler; to drop in
train or salvo; destroying a number of separate targets in a single firing run;
retardation of bombs; low-level release; area coverage; smaller submunitions;
dispenser system weapons; a cluster bomb unit in the denial version.

40
3. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

в результате совершенствования появились боеприпасы для поражения


целей сверху с малых высот; авиационное стрелково-пушечное вооружение;
временные ограничения, связанные с малой продолжительностью периода, в
течение которого можно вести стрельбу; для защиты вертолетов в бою; старые
запасы бомб можно легко приспособить для применения в условиях боевых
действий ХХI века; на внешних узлах подвески под крылом или фюзеляжем;
иметь буквенное обозначение; на основе кассетных бомб были разработаны
кассетные боеприпасы разбрасывающего действия; бомбовые кассеты,
сбрасываемые вне досягаемости средств ПВО противника; бомбовые кассеты,
снаряженные боевыми элементами специального назначения со средствами
искусственного интеллекта; пробивать броневую защиту цели за счет
кинетической энергии; нести кассетную боевую часть со стреловидными
поражающими элементами.

5.3. TEXT

AERIAL ARMORY

It was the gun which led the way in abn weaponry to be followed by the bomb
and abn rkt. Over the years, however, these simple categories have become more
complex and developments have produced precision-guided wpns and submunition
dispensers, overflight and stand-off wpns.

Guns

About the only wpn which has remained, essentially, the same is the abn gun,
which reigned supreme as the principal ftr wpn until the mid-1950s, when the first
air-to-air msls (AAMs) entered service. Such were the advances that by the mid-
1960s, several major nations had entirely abandoned the abn gun in air def acft. Yet
from the reality of modern air cbt in the late-1960s, the lessons of history were re-
learnt and guns rapidly re-introduced. The resurgence was led by General Electric's
20 mm M61 Vulcan rotary cannon. This wpn was rapidly integrated on board a
Phantom and has been on virtually every major US ftr since. Of course, the M61 is
not the only GE product. The company produces a wide range of abn wpns varying
from 30 mm down to 7.62 mm with the rate of fire from 300 up to 6000 rd/min that
can be selected by the gnr.
Lighter wpns, including pintle- and pod-mounted machine guns, are used on
hels. They can also be installed in chin turrets and are available in single- to six-
barrel forms.
Fixed-wing acft can carry heavier cannon than the average hel, but firing
opportunities are generally restricted in duration. Number of barrels is usually from
five to seven.

41
Short-Range AAMs
Defending battlefield hels are variants of man-portable air def sys
(MANPADS) msls. First in the field was the General Dynamics FIM-92 in a version
known as Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS). Undoubtedly the classic 'dogfight' AAM must
be the AIM-9 Sidewinder series.

Beyond Visual Range AAMs


The AIM-7 Sparrow series has been the classic 'yardstick' in the medium-range,
beyond visual range (BVR) category. The US follow-up to Sparrow is the AIM-120
AMRAAM which is a true 'fire-and-forget' msl.

Bombs

The original element of air-to-gnd weaponry is the bomb and it still remains so
albeit with a little more sophistication. One often hears talks of 'iron' or 'dumb'
bombs and these refer to conventional high-explosive (HE) bombs released and
aimed in the traditional way.
In essence, bombs remain unchanged from 50 years ago and older stocks may
well find themselves updated for the 2000s with a new fusing sys. They are
classified according to filler as nuc, TN, HE, FAE, fire, drill, practice, and
chemical. HE bombs, in turn, are classed according to use as SAP, GP, low-drag GP,
frag, and AD.
Bombs are carried by racks or shackles in the acft's bomb bay, or as external
stores at stations under the wing or fus and can be released singly or in pairs in
preselected intervals, or in train or salvo.
In the use of unguided bombs, the principal advances have been made in terms
of low-level delivery, area coverage and tgt penetration. Low-level rel demands
retardation of the bomb to ensure adequate separation from the launch acft at
detonation. Braking is achieved by means of a conventional pcht, by metal airbrakes
or by an air-inflatable retarder.
The need to ensure more accuracy led, during the Vietnam war, to the
development of the laser-guided bomb (LGB) and its associated laser designator
sys, usually pod-mounted under the wing of the carrier acft. Texas Instruments is a
US leader in LGBs, with its Paveway sys fitted to many US bombs (with the
designator GBU).
Where accuracy is not so important, another way of obtaining kills is to go for
area coverage and the cluster bomb fits this niche. Effectively, it is a droppable
casing containing a large number of smaller submunitions which, when released,
cover a large area. Whds may be simple HE, delayed-action mines or armor-
piercing. In the US, such wpns are assigned the designator 'CBU' (Cluster Bomb
Unit) usually with a secondary name relating to its role. The CBU-87 Combined
Effects Munition is one example. The best known is probably the 222 kg Rockeye,
which releases 247 armor-piercing bomblets. In the denial version of the bomb 87

42
bomblets explode on impact and the remaining 160 detonate later at individually
preset times.

Dispenser Weapons
From the cluster bomb came the dispenser sys wpn, which is available in
several forms: overflight laydown; stand-off dispensers with 'smart' submunitions; or
sophisticated cluster bombs with dedicated submunitions for specific roles.
Textron Defense Systems' CBU-97 Sensor Fused Weapon (SFW) is one of the
latter examples. It consists of the SUU-64 Tactical Munition Dispenser (TMD)
containing ten BLU-108 submunitions. Each submunition contains four 'smart' projs,
which are capable of detecting and penetrating moving armd tgts. The wpn can be
delivered at airspeeds between 20 and 650 kts at all altitudes with level, dive or toss
rels.
Air-to-Ground Missiles
From the various permutations of what may be called 'bombs' it is a short step
to the air-to-gnd msl. Systems of this class include categories covering dedicated
conventional land atk, anti-armor, anti-radiation and anti-ship ops.
In the past most air-to-gnd guided wpns have been designed to atk a single tgt,
such as a bridge or concrete emplacement. Attention is now being directed toward
the problem of destroying a number of separate tgts in a single firing run, such as a
gp of tks. The sys that has gained favor in the US is the Hypervelocity Missile
(HVM), with a FLIR sensor tracking both tgts and msls and generating corrective
signals that are transmitted over a laser data-link. The msl defeats the armor of the
tgt by means of its kinetic energy.

Unguided rockets
In recent years the high cost of guided wpns has encouraged the further
development of unguided rkts. The starting point for several new designs was the US
Navy 70 mm Folding-Fin Aircraft Rocket (FFAR), the third generation of which can
take a flechette whd. Rkts are housed in 4 to 36-tube pod-mounted lchrs which are
usually suspended from the underside of the wings.
Some abn lchrs are short racks, others are streamlined pylons.

To summarize, abn wpn systems are gradually providing day/night op, longer
ranges and higher kill probabilities against a broad spectrum of tgts.
5.4. EXERCISES
1. Расположите следующие вопросы в логическом порядке, подберите к ним ответы и
переведите их.

( )Can you classify these weapons according to the principle of relative location
of the launcher and the target?
( ) What weapons do you understand by bombs?

43
( ) How can you classify rockets and missiles?
( ) What is the classification of rockets and missiles according to the principle
of guidance?
( ) What types of weapons does aerial armory include?
( ) How are rockets and missiles classed according to the range?
( ) What do you mean by guns?
( ) What are these principles?
__________________________________

2. Переведите.

безраздельно господствовать в качестве основного вооружения


истребителей; to abandon the airborne gun; выбирать скорострельность; to use
lighter weapons including pintle- and pod-mounted mgs; размещать в
подфюзеляжной турельной установке, закрепленной в носовой части; to belong
to the category of beyond visual range weapons; действовать по принципу
"выстрелил-забыл"; to release and aim bombs in the traditional way;
приспособить для ведения будущих боевых действий с помощью новых
систем взрывателей; to classify according to filler and use; нести авиационные
фугасные бомбы на различных точках внешней подвески; to achieve retardation
by air-inflatable retarder; авиационная бомба с лазерной системой наведения,
размещаемая в подвесном контейнере; to assign a designator; выпускать
кассетные боеприпасы в различных вариантах; to detonate bomblets at
individually preset times; снаряжать боевой частью с неконтактным
взрывателем; to deliver cluster bombs with level, dive and toss releases;
уничтожать за один заход группу целей; to take a flechette warhead; размещать
НУРы в 36-ствольном пусковом контейнере.
3. Переведите на английский язык. Рекомендуется для абзацно-фразового перевода на
слух с заметками.

АВИАЦИОННОЕ ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
Под термином "авиационное вооружение" понимаются средства
поражения и обеспечивающие их боевое применение системы,
устанавливаемые на летательных аппаратах. К авиационным средствам
поражения относятся: авиационные пулеметы и пушки с боеприпасами,
управляемые и неуправляемые авиационные ракеты, бомбы, бомбовые
кассеты, кассетные боеприпасы разбрасывающего действия, торпеды и мины.
Их боевое применение обеспечивают устройства для размещения средств
поражения, прицеливания и управления стрельбой, сбрасыванием и пуском, в
том числе и в темное время суток. Обязательной принадлежностью является
бортовая ЭВМ, которая выполняет математические операции при решении
задач определения целей, выбора средств, обеспечивающих максимальную
эффективность их поражения, а также прицеливания и наведения.

44
Для поражения наземных или морских целей применяются, в основном,
бомбы, кассетные боеприпасы, и управляемые и неуправляемые ракеты, а
также стрелково-пушечное вооружение. Бомбы размещаются на внутренней
подвеске в бомбовом отсеке с помощью бомбодержателей или на внешних
точках подвески под крылом или фюзеляжем. В области применения
неуправляемых бомб развитие шло в направлении совершенствования
бомбометания с предельно малых высот и бомбометания по площади. При
бомбометании с малых высот необходимо обеспечить замедление падения
бомб, которое достигается за счет применения обычных парашютов и
замедлителей различных типов. При бомбометании по площади широкое
применение получили кассетные бомбы, содержащие в себе большое
количество боевых элементов, накрывающих при разбрасывании большую
площадь. На основе кассетных бомб были разработаны кассетные боеприпасы
разбрасывающего действия, такие как непланирующие для поражения целей
сверху с предельно малых высот и бомбовые кассеты, сбрасываемые вне
пределов досягаемости средств ПВО противника. Потребность в большей
точности попадания привела к созданию бомб с лазерной системой наведения.
Ракетное оружие размещается на авиационных пусковых установках, которые
могут представлять собой подвесные пусковые контейнеры, короткие пусковые
направляющие или пилоны с улучшенными аэродинамическими характерис-
тиками. В области применения управляемых ракет внимание уделяется проблеме
уничтожения ряда отдельных целей за один заход. Наибольшее предпочтение
отдается гиперзвуковой УР, которая пробивает броню за счет кинетической
энергии и оснащена ИК датчиком переднего обзора, осуществляющим как
сопровождение целей, так и ракет. Развитие НУР идет в направлении
совершенствования их боевых частей. Так, новое поколение НУР может нести
кассетные боевые части со стреловидными поражающими элементами.

LESSON 6
Gulf Airwar
6.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS
- воздушная мощь; авиация, силы и
airpower
средства авиации; ВВС
- доктрина; основные принципы;
doctrine
основные положения
- гибкость; оперативность; гибкость
flexibility
боевого применения
nomenclature - список, перечень; зд. перечень
типов (наименований) ЛА
- развертывать(ся) (в боевой поря-
deploy
док); передислоцировать
- накапливать запасы (материальных
stockpile
средств)
45
outcome of a war - исход войны
unified command - объединенное командование (си-
лами и средствами разных видов
ВС)
assets - силы и средства
joint doctrine - концепция совместных действий
Joint Force Air Component - командующий объединенными си-
Commander (JFACC) лами авиации
theater commander - командующий войсками на ТВД
technology - технология; техника, технические
средства
stealth technology - технология конструирования (ЛА)
с низким уровнем демаскирующих
признаков, технология "стелт",
технология малой заметности
precision guided munitions (PGMs) - высокоточные управляемые бое-
припасы
deception - введение противника в заблуждение

decoy - ложная цель (ЛЦ)


sortie - (боевой) вылет; самолето-вылет
hardened target - цель, защищенная в противоядер-
ном отношении
electronic warfare (EW) - радиоэлектронная борьба (РЭБ)
jam - создавать помехи
jammer - постановщик помех (о ЛА)
- штурман наведения
controller - очковый ПНВ (прибор ночного ви-
night vision goggles
дения
- обнаруживать цель; захватывать
acquire a target
цель
- получение данных о цели; целеука-
targeting
зание

***
to enhance one's effectiveness - повышать боеспособность; увели-
чить эффективность
to gain air superiority - добиваться превосходства в воз-
духе
to determine the outcome of a war - предопределять исход войны
to ensure smooth coordination - обеспечить четкое взаимодействие

46
to sustain battle damage
to react to air strikes - получать боевые повреждения
- предпринимать ответные действия
по отражению воздушного нападения

6.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES


1. Перeведите предложения, используя приведенные словосочетания.

Уникальные возможности, присущие авиации, позволяют ей наносить


быстрые, мощные и точные удары на большие расстояния.
2. Авиационная доктрина в значительной мере повышает боеспособность
ВВС.
3. Высокая скорость, большой радиус действия и значительная мощь
обеспечивают гибкость боевого применения авиации.
4. Превосходство в воздухе не самоцель, а средство, позволяющее
успешно выполнять другие наземные, морские и воздушные операции.
5. Ни один самолет не был сбит или поврежден в бою.
6. Высокоточные управляемые боеприпасы повышают эффективность
ведения боевых действий за счет уменьшения количества боевых вылетов.
7. РЭБ значительно снижает способность войск противника своевременно
обнаруживать угрозу воздушного нападения.
___________________________

to sustain battle damage; great speed, range and power; to strike quickly,
powerfully, accurately and at long range; to make largely unable to see air strikes;
other land, sea and air missions to operate effectively; electronic warfare; to reduce
the number of sorties; air superiority; to provide flexibility; precision guided
munitions; to enhance the forces effectiveness; airpower's unique abilities; air
doctrine.

2. Подберите эквиваленты словосочетаний.


искать способ лишить противника
major doctrinal lessons have emerged возможности укрываться в темноте

на долю F-117 выпало уничтожение


it is not the nomenclature of the самых трудных для поражения
aircraft that matter целей

"Буря в пустыне" стала первым


Desert Storm was the first war to военным конфликтом с участием
employ a Joint Force Air Component командующего объединенными
Commander авиационными силами
in this war high-tech air weapons
dominated

47
выявилось несколько важных тео-
ретических положений, которые сле
the F-117 drew the most difficult
дует уяснить
targets
являться следствием неудовлетво-
тельной деятельности разведки, а не
either jam or actively destroy air исполнителей
defenses
либо для постановки помех, либо
для непосредственного разрушения
attempt to strip away the protection of
объектов ПВО
darkness from the enemy
в данном военном конфликте
авиационные средства поражения,
основанные на использовании
высоких технологий, сыграли
to be a failure of intelligence, not решающую роль
execution
решающим фактором должен быть
не тип авиационного средства

3. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

важная роль в достижении успеха в войне; обеспечить не имеющую


аналогов гибкость боевого применения; применять средства, оптимально
подходящие для достижения поставленных целей; выполнять боевые полеты
практически безнаказанно; оказывать влияние на исход войны; решить
проблему децентрализованного управления авиацией; обеспечить четкое
взаимодействие; широко применять меры по введению противника в
заблуждение и ложные цели; использовать специальные самолеты для
постановки помех; нарушать связь между перехватчиками и штурманами
наведения; нести на борту противорадиолокационные ракеты; обнаруживать и
захватывать цели ночью с помощью очковых приборов ночного видения;
играть ключевую роль в получении данных о цели; составлять основу ведения
боевых действий.
6.3. TEXT

GULF AIRWAR: LESSONS LEARNED


(US views)

Air theorists have always argued that airpower's unique abilities allow it to
strike quickly, powerfully, accurately and at long range. In a war against a modern
industrialized country this capability would be dominating.

48
6.4. Doctrinal Lessons
Doctrine, guidance on how to fight most effectively, is vital to success in war.
Iraq possessed a large, modern air force, but the lack of doctrine nullified their
combat power. The Coalition's air doctrine, on the other hand, enhanced the US
forces effectiveness. Nevertheless, several major doctrinal lessons have emerged.
Because airpower has unique characteristics of speed, range and power that
together provide an unmatched flexibility, it should be considered indivisible. Over
the decades airpower has tended to split into strategic and tactical camps. This
division is artificial. It is not the nomenclature of the aircraft that matter, but the
objectives sought and targets struck. The air commander must use the assets most
appropriate to achieve his objectives, whether they be bombers, fighters or cruise
missiles launched from a ship.
The second fundamental principle of air doctrine was the importance of air
superiority. It is difficult, if not impossible, for an army to survive once it has lost
control of the sky above it. Air superiority is not generally an end in itself but an
enabler that allows other land, sea and air missions to operate effectively. Air
superiority gained in the first days of Desert Storm, against one of the most heavily
defended areas in the world, allowed Coalition forces to maneuver, deploy, resupply,
stockpile and fight where and when they wanted and granted the aircraft a safety and
freedom that permitted operations at high and medium altitudes with virtual
impunity. By the end of the war the Coalition was actually flying combat training
missions over enemy territory. We may thus witness a new phenomenon: the battle
for air superiority may determine the outcome of a war.
Another important doctrinal lesson was the importance of the unified
command of air assets. Airmen have long argued that in order to maximize
airpower's flexibility it must be centrally controlled. This concept has been resisted,
and there was no overall air commander in either Korea or Vietnam. The problem of
fragmented command structure made it difficult for airpower to concentrate efforts
and was corrected only in 1986. Then joint doctrine established the Joint Force Air
Component Commander (JFACC), an airman from any service who would control
all the air assets of a joint force and focus them to meet the theater commander's
objectives. Desert Storm was the first war to employ a JFACC, and this unity of
efforts ensured smooth coordination and an efficient use of Coalition air assets and
allowed the conduct of strategic, operational and tactical level air campaigns
simultaneously.

6.5. Technology Lessons


Technology has always been closely linked to airpower, and in this war high-
tech air weapons dominated. For years, critics maintained the emphasis on
technology was misguided and that the equipment would not work in combat. This
war proved the opposite. Several categories of air weaponry made the victory
possible.
Stealth technology works better than most had anticipated. The F-117 was the
premier strategic bomber of the war, striking over 30% of the targets during the first
49
two days and all the targets in Baghdad throughout the war; yet it comprised less
than 3% of the air assets. The F-117 drew the most difficult targets because of its
near invulnerability: not one aircraft was lost or even sustained battle damage. It is
likely the Iraqis never knew it was overhead until the bombs impacted. In one sense,
the F-117 combat employment has returned airwar to the days before radar.
Another important technological innovation is precision guided munitions
(PGMs). PGMs have contributed to the efficiency of airwar by reducing the number
of bombs needed to neutralize a target. The laser and television guided bombs of the
Coalition seldom missed, even though the Iraqis made extensive use of camouflage,
deception and decoys. Precision reduces the large number of sorties needed. The
ability of PGMs to penetrate and destroy hardened targets was so impressive that
concrete may become obsolete.
Electronic warfare (EW) was another advance used extensively in the Gulf
War. Specialized aircraft like the EA-6B 'Prowler' were used to either jam or
actively destroy Iraqi air defenses. The jammers confused enemy radars or prevented
communications between Iraqi interceptors and their ground controllers. In addition,
F/A-18s and other aircraft carried antiradiation missiles that homed on radar
emissions. These missiles were so effective that Iraqi defenders were afraid to turn
on their radars for fear they would immediately be targeted and destroyed. As a
result of EW operations, the Iraqis were largely unable to see or react to air strikes.
For decades, airmen have attempted to strip away the protection of darkness
from the enemy, and in this war Coalition airpower owned the night. Systems such
as FLIR, LANTIRN, and night vision goggles allowed airmen to acquire and attack
targets easily both by day and night.
Intelligence was of crucial importance in Desert Storm. It has long been a
truism that the key to airpower is targeting, and the key to targeting is intelligence.
This war demonstrated that linkage. If a PGM is now capable of hitting a specific
office in a large headquarters complex, then intelligence must know the correct
office. The inability to eliminate entirely the Iraqi nuclear research capability was a
failure of intelligence, not execution.

The Gulf War seems to indicate we are moving into a new era in warfare. Past
centuries have been dominated by ground and sea forces; the 21st century will be
dominated by air forces.

6.6. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the air theorists' point of view concerning airpower's unique


abilities?
2. What is a doctrine? Could you illustrate its importance?
3. What are the major doctrinal lessons of the Gulf Airwar?
4. Why airpower should be considered indivisible?
5. Why air superiority is of vital importance?

50
6. What are the advantages of the unified command of air assets?
7. What did the Gulf Airwar prove in the field of technology?
8. What are the major technological innovations used in the Gulf War?
9. Why was the F-117 the premier strategic bomber of the war?
10. How have precision guided munitions contributed to the efficiency of
airwar?
11. What were the results of EW operations?
12. Why did Coalition airpower own the night?
13. Why was intelligence of crucial importance in Desert Storm?
14. What does the Gulf War seem to indicate?
2. Переведите.

применение авиации в военном конфликте в зоне Персидского залива; to


draw a conclusion; выводы доктринального характера; guidance on how to fight
most effectively; играть жизненно важную роль в достижении успеха в войне;
airpower's indivisibility; господство в воздухе; unified command of air assets;
пересмотреть деление ВВС на тактические и стратегические; to initiate the
USAF restructuring; упразднить авиационное командование; to enhance
effectiveness and maximize flexibility; авиационные средства поражения,
основанные на применении высоких технологий; to dominate; высокоточные
управляемые боеприпасы; effective use of EW equipment; возможность ведения
боевых действий ночью; centuries dominated by ground and sea forces.

УРОКИ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ АВИАЦИИ


В ВОЙНЕ В ПЕРСИДСКОМ ЗАЛИВЕ
(по взглядам военных специалистов США)

3. Переведите на английский язык.

Анализ применения авиации в военном конфликте в Персидском заливе


позволяет сделать ряд выводов, которые можно разделить на две группы:
выводы доктринального характера и выводы, касающиеся применения новых
технологий и техники.
Доктрина, т.е. основные руководящие положения максимально
эффективного ведения боевых действий, играет жизненно важную роль в
достижении успеха в войне. Важнейшими ее положениями, которые
выявились в ходе данной войны, стали: концепция авиации как единого и
неделимого целого; положение о жизненной важности господства в воздухе;
вывод о необходимости объединенного командования силами и средствами
авиации.
Так, на основе концепции авиации как единого и неделимого целого было
пересмотрено деление ВВС на стратегические и тактические, и в США
началась структурная перестройка военно-воздушных сил. В частности, были
упразднены стратегическое и тактическое авиационные командования, а на их
основе создано новое боевое авиационное командование. По мнению

51
американских специалистов в области авиации, это в значительной мере
повысит боеспособность и гибкость боевого применения авиации.
В области боевого применения новых технологий и техники отмечается,
что в данном военном конфликте авиационные средства поражения,
основанные на использовании высоких технологий, сыграли решающую роль.
Особого внимания заслуживают технология "стелт", высокоточные
управляемые боеприпасы, умелое применение средств РЭБ, возможность
ведения боевых действий ночью за счет использования приборов ночного
видения и ряд других.
В целом делается вывод о том, что в отличие от войн нынешнего и
прошлых столетий, в которых ведущая роль принадлежала сухопутным и
военно-морским силам, основным средством достижения победы в войнах
XXI-го века станет авиация.

LESSON 7

A New Era For Aircraft

7.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

amount - количество
combined with - в сочетании с
combustion - горение
complicated - сложный
conventional - обычный, стандартный
currently - в настоящее время
disadvantage - недостаток
measure - мера
overall - полный, общий
overcome - преодолевать
resistance - сопротивление
apart from - помимо, кроме
way out - выход
efficiency - производительность,
extreme - крайний, чрезвычайный
friction - трение
heat - нагревать(ся)
52
inject
- впрыскивать, вводить
substitute
- заменять, подставлять
vaporize
- испарять(ся)
velocity
- скорость
Le Bourget airfield
- аэропорт Ле Бурже
the looks
- внешний вид
can enjoy
- с удовольствием (здесь)
heat-insulating materials
- теплоизолирующие материалы
accounting for
- составляя
by one-third
- на одну треть
coolant
- охлаждающая жидкость
succeeded in
- удалось
7.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Просмотрите текст и ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is this text about?


2. What aircraft was displayed in Paris?
3. What are the characteristics of the new liner?
4. What are the difficulties in building a hypersonic plane?

7.3. TEXT

A NEW ERA FOR AIRCRAFT

Aviation experts expect that today's aircraft will begin to be replaced with some
new form of supersonic transport in a few years' time. A 21st century hypersonic
aircraft may open a new age of aircraft design.
The designers of this country displayed the project of such a supersonic passenger
liner among the prospective models at one of the latest Aerospace Salon held on the
old Le Bourget airfield1 in Paris. An elongated fuselage with a sharp nose and
without a horizontal stabilizer makes it look more like a rocket. The speed matches
the looks2. This plane will fly at a speed five to six times above the speed of sound,
e.g., it will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours.
The diameter of the fuselage will be 4 meters and the overall length 100 meters, with
the cabin accomodating 300 passengers. The future superplanes of such a class will
have no windows, but the passengers can enjoy3 watching the panorama of the Earth
53
on the TV monitor at the front of the cabin. They will fly so fast that ordinary
aircraft windows would make the structure too weak to withstand the stresses at such
a speed. At high velocities the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is so great that
the skin is heated to very high temperature. The only way out is to fly higher.
Therefore, airliners' routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere.
In general, to build a reliable hypersonic plane one has to overcome a whole set
of technological and scientific difficulties. Apart from creating highly economical
combined engines and heat-insulating materials4, designers have to make such an
amount of thermodynamic computations that can't be performed without using
supercomputers. One of the ways to make planes as economical as possible is
lightening the aircraft by substituting new composite materials for conventional
metal alloys. Accounting for5 less than 5 per cent of the overall aircraft weight now,
the percentage of composite material parts will exceed 25 per cent in new generation
models. An extensive use of new materials combined with better aerodynamics and
engines will allow increasing fuel efficiency by one-third6.
Because of the extreme temperatures generated by the atmosphere friction, a
hypersonic craft will also require complicated cooling measures. One possibility is
using cryogenic fuels, such as liquid hydrogen, as both coolants7 and propellants.
The fuel flowing through the aircraft's skin would cool the surfaces as it vaporizes
before being injected into combustion chamber.
In addition, specialists in many countries are currently working on new propeller
engines considered much more economical and less noisy than jets. The only
disadvantage is that propeller planes fly slower than jet planes. However, it has
recently been announced that specialists succeeded in8 solving this problem. As a
result a ventilator engine with a propeller of ten fibre-glass blades has been built,
each being five meters long. It will be mounted in the experimental passenger plane.

7.4. EXERCISES
1. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста. Исправьте не-
правильные утверждения.

1. Today's aircraft will be replaced with a new form of supersonic transport in a


few years' time.
2. The new hypersonic aircraft that looks like a rocket will cover the distance
between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours.
3. The future superliner of this class will have large windows that will allow
passengers to watch the panorama of the Earth.
4. Airliner's routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere because the air resistance
in the lower atmosphere is too great.
5. Designers can easily make all the necessary thermodynamic calculations to
build a reliable hypersonic plane.
6. It is possible to lighten the aircraft by substituting conventional metal
alloys for new composite materials.

54
7. Cryogenic fuels are used as both coolants and propellants.
8. The great advantage of propeller planes is that they fly faster than jet
planes.

2. Ответьте на вопросы. Работа в парах.

1. What kind of aircraft may begin a new age in aviation? (a hypersonic


passenger liner)
2. What is the shape of the new liner? (an elongated fuselage with a sharp nose)
3. What distance can the new liner cover in less than two hours? (the distance
between Tokyo and Moscow)
4. What are the main problems of building a reliable hypersonic liner?
(developing an economical engine and new heat insulating materials combined
with better aerodynamics)
5. What is one of the ways to make a hypersonic liner as economical as
possible? (using new composite materials)
6. What will be used for cooling a hypersonic craft? (cryogenic fuels)
7. What combined engine was developed? (a ventilator propeller engine).

7.5. ТEXT
1. Переведите устно.

TYPES OF COMBAT PLANES

The Air Force may be charged with numerous combat missions for the
performance of which various types of aircraft are required.
The main types of combat planes are:
1) fighters;
2) bombers;
3) attack planes;
4) reconnaissance planes.
The main task of fighters is to fight enemy bombers. They may also be used to
destroy ground targets. Fighters are generally single-seaters. They are armed with
cannons, machine guns and rockets and possess a very high speed and ceiling.
The bomber is an offensive weapon. The basic mission of bombers is to attack
various enemy objectives. Sometimes they may be used for distant reconnaissance.
The defensive armament of bombers consists of machine guns; besides, they carry a
great load of bombs.
Attack planes are designed for low-level attacks against enemy tanks, troop
concentrations and communication lines.
Reconnaissance planes obtain information of the enemy.

LESSON 8

55
How High Are We Flying?
8.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS
altimeter - альтиметр
linear - линейный
to bounce off - отскакивать рикошетом от чего-
либо
airborne - переносимый по воздуху
on track - по курсу, по пути (полета)
altitude - высота
obstacle - преграда
pounds per square inch - фунты на квадратный дюйм
barometric pressure - барометрическое давление
pressure altitude - высота по давлению
cruise altitude - крейсерская высота
vent - снижать (давление)
radar altimeter - радиолокационный радар

8.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES


1. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1.Why must a pilot know how high a plane is flying?


2. What types of altitude do you know?
3. How does atmospheric pressure decrease?
4.What are air traffic controllers monitoring?
5. When is a radar altimeter used?
6. Why do jet transport systems use three independent altimeter systems?
2. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

Направление движения, высота над уровнем моря, измерять, точный


прибор, определять высоту, база данных, постоянно следить, безопасное
расстояние, аварийная система, спутник.
3. Подберите синонимы.

Obstacles
To function total
To conduct caution
To move to operate
To monitor obstruction
Warning to supervise
Global to accompany
to shift
8.3. TEXT

56
HOW HIGH ARE WE FLYING?

Have you ever wondered what keeps pilots "on track" in the sky? A pilot must
know how high a plane is flying as well as its direction of travel. Key in measuring
altitude or the plane's elevation, is the altimeter, since the aircraft must maintain a
safe distance from terrain and other obstacles. How does the altimeter function and
how does the information it provides help the pilot safely conduct the flight?
Depending on the reference point used, there are several types of altitude. The
most commonly used is true altitude, or an aircraft's height above mean sea level.
Height "above ground level" (AGL) is, quite simply, the absolute or actual altitude
of an aircraft. Pressure altitude, also used in flight planning, represents the height of
the aircraft above standard sea level pressure. Aircraft flying above 18,000 feet use
"flight levels" (FL), which represent pressure altitude in hundreds of feet. For
example, FL 210 represents a pressure altitude of 21,000 feet, FL 240 is 24,000 feet,
and so on. The pressure at sea level, about 15 pounds per square inch, is caused by
the weight of the atmosphere. As altitude increases, the associated pressure
decreases, although not in a linear manner; decreases occur in smaller and smaller
amounts. Atmospheric pressure decreases by one-half for every 20,000-foot rise in
altitude. At 20,000 feet the pressure is about half of that at sea level, so at 40,000
feet (cruise altitude) the pressure is approximately one-quarter of that at sea level.
The height of the aircraft can be determined by measuring this decrease in pressure.
As high and low pressure systems move overhead, changes occur in the pressure at
sea level. So why is the altimeter not tricked by these constant changes? The pilot is
able to set the altimeter to the existing sea level pressure; the altimeter then indicates
how high the aircraft is above this pressure level. Air traffic controllers are
constantly monitoring the changing barometric pressure and relaying this
information to pilots.
The aneroid altimeter is very similar to a barometer. Inside, sealed wafers expand as
the pressure around them decreases. The pressure inside the altimeter is vented to a
static port on the outer surface of the aircraft so that it can measure the outside
pressure.
A highly accurate device known as a radar altimeter is used when the aircraft
is close to the ground. A radar signal is bounced off the terrain below to determine
the aircraft's AGL height. This information is used in a ground proximity warning
system that alerts the pilot before the altitude becomes dangerously low. Future
systems will benefit from the global positioning satellite system (GPS) because an
airborne GPS receiver can determine position as well as altitude. A computer
database that is part of the system stores the elevation of terrain and obstacles and
constantly monitors the safe separation of the aircraft.
Because maintaining a safe distance from obstacles is of utmost importance to
aviation safety, jet transport systems use three independent altimeter systems.
Altitude information is backed up by a radar altimeter and ground proximity alerting

57
system. Even though the current system is incredibly safe, future innovations using
satellites and computers will undoubtedly enhance air safety even further.

8.4. EXERCISES
1. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.

1. Depending on the reference point used, there are several types of altitude.
2. The most commonly used is true altitude.
3. The pressure at sea level, about 15 pounds per square inch, is caused by the
weight of the atmosphere.
4. The pressure inside the altimeter is vented to a static port on the outer surface
of the aircraft so that it can measure the outside pressure.
5. Future systems will benefit from the global positioning satellite system.

2. Переведите текст 8.5. без словаря.

8.5. ТEXT
BOEING B-52 G/H STRATOFORTRESS
Primary Mission: Strategic Bombing / Sea Surveillance

Boeing planned to build 193 B-52Gs as the last in a run* of 603 aircraft
supporting 11 45-aircraft wings. They had double the fuel capacity of the B-52A.
But this ‘G’ run was extended, bringing the total aircraft in our inventory* to 642,
not including the 102 new B-52Hs that were already being built.
These new B-52Hs could go to 30% farther than even the formidable B-52G.
This new range of 12,5000 miles again doubled the range of earlier versions of the
aircraft. In 1972, there were about 275 Boeing B-52G/Hs left. Despite constant
updating, this is still the same basic plane that was developed in the 1950s.
 Crew: Two pilots, one navigator, one electronic warfare officer, one gunner*
 Powerplant: 8 Pratt and Whitney J57-P-443WB turbojets, each rated at 13,750 lbs
 Max Level Speed* : 630 mph (at high altitude)
 Range: 10,130 miles (max internal fuel, internal load only)
 Armament: 0,50 caliber guns in tail
8 SRAMs* and free-fall bombs internally
12 AGM*-86B ALCMs* internally
G models can carry 8-12 Harpoons in underwing clusters

* Notes :
run - партия (изделий)
inventory - список, общее количество
gunner - авиационный стрелок
level speed - горизонтальная скорость

58
SRAM = Short Range Attack Missile - управляемая ракета класса “воздух-
земля”
AGM = Air-to-Ground Missile - ракета класса “воздух-земля”
ALCM = Air-Launched Cruise Missile - крылатая ракета воздушного
базирования

LESSON 9
How Fast Are We Flying?
9.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS
pitot tube - питотная трубка
fuselage - фюзеляж
Mach - Мах
ram - таран (авиац.), плунжер, поршень
port - воздушный канал
chart - график, карта
indicated airspeed (IAS) - приборная воздушная скорость
calibrated airspeed (CAS) - индикаторная воздушная скорость
tailwind - попутный ветер
headwind - встречный ветер

9.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

измерять, атмосфера, сжатый воздух, плотность воздуха, высота,


воздушные массы, скорость звука, скорость ветра, определять скорость,
соотношение, сложный, компенсировать, воздушный поток, влиять на
давление.

2. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Why it is important how fast an aircraft is traveling?


2. Is it complex to determine the aircraft speed?
3. What types of airspeed do you know?
4. What must the pilot do when flying at high altitudes?
5. How do fast-moving aircraft express their speed?
3. Подберите синонимы.

Traveling to decide
Important to look
To glance significant
To measure outer
Exterior voyage

59
To determine dissimilar
Different to find the size of

9.3. TEXT
HOW FAST ARE WE FLYING ?
Knowing how fast an aircraft is traveling is as important, if not more
important, than knowing how fast a car is moving. Determining the aircraft's speed,
however, is a bit more complex than simply glancing at an automobile's
speedometer. Let's examine the various types of airspeed and how they are measured.
Pilots speak of several types of airspeed. The value read directly from the
airspeed indicator is called "indicated airspeed" (IAS). To determine the aircraft's
actual speed over the ground, two types of pressure must be measured. A pitot
tube is positioned on the exterior of the aircraft so that the air molecules of the
atmosphere "ram" into it. The faster the aircraft is traveling, the greater this ram
pressure will be. As an aircraft climbs, the atmospheric air pressure decreases, as
does the ram pressure. To correct for this, the aircraft has a static air pressure port
that is also connected to the airspeed indicator. The greater the difference between
the ram and static pressures, the greater the indicated airspeed. When an aircraft
slows down and changes its configuration, as it does by lowering its flaps and
landing gear, the airflow pattern over the fuselage changes. This change of airflow
will affect the pressure in the pitot tube and static port. To account for this, the pilot
refers to an "Airspeed Calibration Chart." The "calibrated airspeed" (CAS) is read
from this chart.
The air ahead of an aircraft flying faster than 200 knots becomes compressed,
increasing the air density and the pressure in the pitot tube. To eliminate the
compressibility error, the pilot refers to an "Airspeed Compressibility Chart " The
greater the CAS and the higher the altitude, the more the pilot must subtract from the
CAS to obtain the "equivalent airspeed" (EAS). When flying at high altitudes, the
pilot must compensate for reduced air density. Imagine the space shuttle in orbit.
Even though the orbital speed is more than 17,000 knots, there is virtually no
atmosphere to ram into the pitot tube. The indicated airspeed would be almost zero.
By knowing the air density, the pilot can calculate the actual, or "true airspeed"
(TAS), at which the aircraft is moving through the airmass. It is to the TAS that the
velocity of the wind is applied to determine the speed over the ground. The presence
of a tailwind or headwind will increase or decrease the ground speed.
Fast-moving aircraft express their speed in Mach, the Mach number being the
ratio of the TAS to the speed of sound. Mach 0.5 would be half the speed of sound.
Similarly, Mach 2 would represent twice the speed of sound, and so on.
Keeping track of all of the different types of airspeed is a bit complicated. Pilots do
have one thing going their way - there are not nearly as many speed limits in the air.
The next time a police officer stops you and asks if you know how fast you were
driving, you may want to respond by asking, "Do you mean indicated, calibrated,
equivalent, true, groundspeed, or Mach?" That should just about guarantee that
you'll get a ticket!
60
9.4. EXERCISES

1. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.

1. Pilots speak of several types of airspeed.


2. To correct for this, the aircraft has a static air pressure port that is also connected
to the airspeed indicator.
3. The air ahead of an aircraft flying faster than 200 knots becomes compressed.
4. When flying at high altitudes, the pilot must compensate for reduced air density.5.
The presence of a tailwind or headwind will increase or decrease the ground
speed.
2. Переведите текст 9.5. без словаря.

9.5. ТEXT
McDONNELL DOUGLAS F-15 EAGLE
Primary Mission: Air Superiority*
The USAF requested development funding for a new air superiority fighter in
1965. On 23 December 1969 it was announced that McDonnell Douglas has been
selected as prime airframe* contractor. First flight of F-15A was made on 27 July
1972. A production go-ahead* for the first 30 operational aircraft was announced on
1 March 1973. By 1 February 1981 a total of 597 Eagles had been delivered.
Designed specifically as an air superiority fighter, The F-15 Eagle has proved
equally suitable for air-to-ground missions without degradation of its primary role.
Internal changes include installation of a modified central computer, a modified
signal data processor for a pilot’s heads-up display* , and new or modified flight/fire
control software. Under a program dubbed “Streak Eagle”, the F-15 demonstrated its
climb capability by capturing eight time-to-height records between 16 January and 1
February 1975.

 Crew: pilot
 Powerplant: 2 Pratt and Whitney F100 turbofan engines, each rated at approx.
23,390 lb of thrust
 Maximum Level Speed: Mach 2.5+
 Design G Limits* : +9/-3
 Armament: AIM* 9L Sidewinders
AIM 7F Sparrows
20mm MM61A1 six-barrel gun with 940 rounds*

* Notes:
air superiority - завоевание превосходства в воздухе
airframe - корпус (самолета)
go-ahead - сигнал к старту

61
heads-up display - дисплей с отображением информации на стекло кабины
design G limits - прочность по перегрузкам
AIM =Airborne Interceptor Missile-управляемая ракета класса “воздух –воздух»
round – выстрел
3. Переведите предложения с русского на английский язык.
1. Штурмовик предназначен для нанесения ударов по наземным целям.
2. Бомбардировщик имеет большую бомбовую нагрузку и большую
дальность действия.
3. Самолеты-заправщики обеспечивают действия стратегических
бомбардировщиков.
4. Дальние воздушные переброски осуществляются транспортными
самолетами.
5. Вертолеты широко используются для эвакуации на поле боя.
6. Бомбардировщики представляют собой наступательный компонент ВВС.
7. Самолеты-разведчики выполняют задачи тактической и стратегической
разведки.
8. Истребитель был сбит зенитной ракетой.
9. Вооружение штурмовика состоит из пушки и бомб.

LESSON 10
Airport Lights And Markings
10.1 ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

takе off - взлетать


land - приземляться
beacon - радиомаяк
taxiway - рулежная дорожка
runway - взлетно-посадочная полоса
tower - аэродромный диспетчерский пункт
go beyond - превышать
strobe - импульсный фотоосветитель
touchdown - посадка, приземление

10.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

определять местоположение аэропорта ночью, гражданский аэропорт,


работать круглосуточно, схема рулежной дорожки, размещаться под защитными
покрытиями, подход к зоне аэродрома, изменять интенсивность света по
требованию пилота, определять местоположение взлетно-посадочной полосы при
низкой видимости, пунктирная линия, сплошная линия, округлять,
буквенное/цифровое обозначение.
62
10.3. TEXT

AIRPORT LIGHTS AND MARKINGS

Have you ever wondered why there are so many brightly colored lights and
painted symbols at airports? If you guessed that they are "road signs" for pilots, you
were correct. They provide pilots with information necessary for taking off and
landing.
The most predominant light, the rotating beacon, is usually located near the
center of the airport. It allows pilots to locate the airport at night. These lights are
green and white at civilian airports. Beacons that are green followed by two quick
white flashes are found at airports located on military bases, while beacons for
seaplane bases are yellow followed by white. Beacons generally operate from dusk
until dawn. If lit during daylight hours, they signal that weather conditions require
an instrument clearance for arrivals and departures.
Other airport lights also serve important functions. Providing outlines for
taxiways are blue lights. Green lights indicate the start, or approach end, of the
runway. The departure end is marked by red lights. Lights along the edges of the
runway are white, changing to amber near the departure end of the runway.
Recessed lights are located on the runway's centerline at most large airports. For
most pilots, it is initially a bit unnerving to land on these. They are, however, safely
situated under protective covers.
Sequenced flashing strobe lights line the approach threshold. Air traffic
controllers can change the intensity of the lights from the tower at the pilot's request.
The highest intensity is used to help incoming pilots locate the runway in times of
reduced visibility. The lights are usually set at a low intensity at night so they won't
interfere with the night vision of pilots.
Markings on taxiways and runways also have meaning. Taxiway centerlines
are yellow while those on runways are white. A hold short line, consisting of two
parallel solid lines and two parallel dashed lines, is located at the approach to each
runway. This is the equivalent of a stop sign. An aircraft must be cleared by the
tower to go beyond this point. Each taxiway intersection has a letter designation
which allows pilots to advise the tower of their holding location.
Number designations are painted on each runway. These are determined by
the runway's magnetic direction. Assume, for example, that a runway is oriented in a
southeasterly direction with a compass heading of 145. This is rounded up to the
nearest ten degree number (145 in this case becomes 150) and the final zero is
dropped. This runway's number becomes 15. Similarly, if we consider the position
that is 180 degrees opposite this, the resultant compass heading is 330. Because this
number doesn't need to be rounded upward, we simply drop the final zero and the
runway becomes number 33. An aircraft using this runway would be taking off in
the opposite direction from that in the first example.

63
Also painted on the runway are touchdown zone markings. These provide a
visual aiming point for approaching aircraft and are followed at fixed 500-feet
intervals by pairs of one, two, or three bars on each side of the centerline. In times of
reduced visibility, these markings assist the pilot in evaluating the remaining
runway.
The next time you taxi, see how many of these "road signs" you can identify!

10.4. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What do road signs provide pilots with?


2. Where is the rotating beacon usually located?
3. What do they signal if lit during daylight hours?
4. What do blue lights provide for?
5. What do green lights indicate?
6. What are red lights used for?
7. Why are white lights changing?
9. Where are recessed lights located and how are they protected?
10. Can air traffic controllers change the intensity of the lights?
11. What has a letter designation?
12. How are number designations determined by?

2. Переведите текст 10.5. без словаря.

10.5. ТEXT

GENERAL DYNAMICS F-16 FIGHTING FALCON

Primary Mission: Counter Air / Ground Attack

Starting as a small technology demonstrator, the F-16 swiftly matured into a


brilliantly capable multirole fighter. In January 1975 the F-16 was selected as a
major type for the USAF inventory, suddenly transforming it from a mere demo
program to a 2,795 aircraft program for worldwide deployment. The largest user of
the F-16 is the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at Hill AFB* , Thunderbirds
demonstration team.

 Crew: pilot (A and C models)


pilot and co-pilot (B and D models)
 Powerplant: 1 Pratt and Whitney F-100-200 turbofan rated at 23,840 lbs of thrust
 Max Level Speed: Mach 2.05
 Range: 340 miles (tactical radius)
 Design G limits: +9/-3
 Armament: 1 M61AI 20 mm gun

64
Mk 82 bombs
Mk 84 GP bomb (2000 lbs.)
AIM-9L / J Sidewinder
AIM-12A AMRAAM*
* Notes :
AFB = Air Force Base - авиационная база ВВС
AMRAAM = Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile -
усовершенствованная ракета класса “воздух- воздух” средней дальности

1. Переведите предложения с русского на английский язык.

1. Морская цель уничтожена гидросамолетами.


2. Основными частями всех типов самолетов являются: фюзеляж, хвостовое
оперение, шасси и двигатель.
3. Основными авиационными двигателями являются: поршневой,
турбовинтовой, турбореактивный и др.
4. Управление рулевыми поверхностями осуществляется из кабины летчика
с помощью ручки управления или ножных педалей.

LESSON 11
Naval Aviation
11.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

to spot - корректировать стрельбу, обнару-


живать, наблюдать за результатом
стрельбы
to buoy - ставить бакены; поддерживать на
поверхности
to embark - грузиться на корабль; отправиться
на корабле
obsolescent - устаревающий, отживающий
arrester wire - проволочное заграждение
a port - левый борт
a realignment - перестройка, реконструкция
to slew - поворачиваться, кружиться
concave - вогнутый
to align - выстроить в линию, выровнять
approach - заход на посадку, подход к зоне аэ-
родрома
approach flight - траектория захода на посадку
crash barrier - з ащитный экран ( перегородка)

65
11.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

авианесущий крейсер, широкий спектр действий, корректировать


стрельбу боевых кораблей, перевозить почту и плазму крови, сопровождать
восстановленные суда в порт, доставить солдат с полным вооружением в
заданное место за 12 мин., взлетать с палубы крейсера, схема взлетно-
посадочной палубы, проволочные заграждения, защитный экран, расширение
взлетно-посадочной палубы к левому борту, перестройка проволочных
заграждений, угол (глиссады) захода на посадку, устройство палубы под углом
10.5 градусов, вогнутое зеркало, отражать траекторию захода на посадку,
регулировать зеркало под разные траектории захода на посадку, ЛА и гиро –
стабилизаторы.

11.3. TEXT

Naval Aviation

Since the earliest days of Naval aviation, an aircraft carrier always had at least
one “planeguard” destroyer following close astern while she was operating her
aircraft, ready to pick up aircrew after an accident. On “Thesus” final patrol off
Korea early in 1951, the destroyer was replaced by a helicopter. In Korea,
helicopters demonstrated the full range of their versatility. They not only rescued
ditched or crashed aircrew, but evacuated wounded to hospital, acted as aerial staff
cars carried mail or blood plasma to units in the line and ships at sea, spotted for
bombarding ships, buoyed a crashed MiG in a river estuary and then guided
recovery vessels to the spot.
The Royal Navy had become interested in helicopters during the World War II
and the first Sikorsky R-4 Bs arrived from America in January 1945. The Navy
Helicopter training squadron ,705, formed in May 1947 to fly the Hoverfly I, as the
R-4 B was named. But it was a primitive and under-power design. The Royal Navy’s
fist “real” helicopter was the Sikorsky S.51, built by Westland under, as the
Dragonfly.
The Royal Navy’s fist operational helicopter squadron 848, equipped with the
Sikorsky S.55 the Whirlwind, was formed in October 1952 for operations in Malaya,
where they arrived in January 1953 and transformed the tactical situation on the
ground. One whirlwind could take five fully- equipped soldiers and them in 12
minutes to a position in the jungle which would have taken them 12 hours to reach
on foot.
The first controlled landing by a true jet aircraft was made on 3 December
1945, off the Isle of Wight, when Lt Cdr “Winkle Brown landed a Vampire I on
“Ocean’s” flight deck. Two days of trials, with 15 take offs and landings, convinced
the high –ranking spectators embarked that jet flying from carrier was feasible. The
Royal Navy’s first operational jet was the 590 mph (950Kph) “Supermarine
66
Attacker”, which began carrier trials in 1947. 800 squadron was equipped with
“Attacker” F.ls in August 1951. the “Attacker” and the “Sa Fury” were both replaced
in 1953 by the 560mph (900Kmh) “hawker Sea Hawk” jet fighter for anti-submarine
warfare, the “Fairey Gannet” entered frontline service in 1955. The Royal Navy’s
strike aircraft of the 1950s was the 308mph (611Kmh) “Westand Wyvern”.
Higher landing speeds and heavy aircraft made obsolescent and dangerous the
traditional flight deck layout, with arrester wires, crash barriers and the forward half
used as deck park for other aircraft.
The solution was simple: slew the direction of the approach and landing a little
to port, so that an aircraft which missed the wires could put on the power, take off
and go ground again. The first experiments were made by painting new line on the
flight deck of “Triumph”. Further trials required an extension of the flight deck out
to port and realignment of the arrester wires. After trials the angled deck was
adapted for all carriers, first with a 51/2 degree “interim” deck, then by a full 101/2
degree angled deck.
The mirror landing aid, where by the pilot himself could monitor his own
approach, consisted of a number of while lights, shining into the curved inner
surface of a concave mirror. The pilot flew so as to keep this apparently horizontal
line of white lights, aligned with green datum lights fixed on the sides of mirror. The
pilot could see by the lights whether he was too high too low? Or correct. The
“mirror” was adjustable, to give different flight approach paths different aircraft and
gyro-stabilized, to compensate for the ship’s motion.
The “mirror” was introduced into service in 1954, the same yea as the third
British flight-deck innovation of the 1950s, the steam catapult, that worked by using
steam from the ship’s min boilers.
“Ark Royal”, commissioned in 1955, was the first British carrier to have
operational stream catapult.

11.4. EXERCISES

1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. How many “plane guard” destroyers had an aircraft carrier since the earliest days
of Naval aviation?
2. What was the purpose of the aircraft carrier at that?
3. What happened on the “Thesus” during its final patrol off by Korea?
4. Why was such modification done?
5. When did the first Sikorsky R-4 arrive to the Royal Navy?
6. What were its characteristics?
7. What was the Sikorsky S-51?
8. What was the first operational squadron 848 equipped with?
9. What were its characteristics?
10. What was on 3 December 1945 off the Isle of White made?
11. What was the traditional deck layout considered?
12. What was the first solution of the point?

67
13. What did further trials require?
14. How could a pilot monitor his own approach?
15. What were other innovations on the aircrafts?

2. Переведите текст 11.5. без словаря.

11.5. Техт

Naval Aviation

The Royal Navy had achieved its own air arm almost in a series of inspired
experimental lurches. “Empress”, “Engadine” and “Riviera” were converted cross-
Channel ferries. “Ark Royal” was a collier, bought off the stocks at Blyth in
Northumberland and completed as a seaplane carrier. “Manxman”was a converted
packet, “Nairana” an Australian mail steamer, “Pegasus” the Great Eastern steamer
“Stockholm”, “Campania” a converted Cunard liner.
In March 1917 the large cruiser “Furious” had her forward 18-inch gun
removed and replaced by a flying off deck, on which Squadron Commander Edwin
Dunning made his historic first deck landing, off Scapa Flow, on 2 August 1917.
“Argus” the word’s first true carrier, with a flush flight deck 550 feet (168 m) long
from Stem to Stern, was converted from the ex-Italian Liner “Conte Rosso”; from
“Argus’s” deck in October 1919, Commander Richard Bell Davies lead the fist
squadron to be embarked on a carrier. But by then, the Royal Naval Air Service had
ceased to exist.
When the case for a “unified air service” was debated in 1917, the Admiralty
through indifference, or lingering doubts about the value of air power at sea, did not
fight the Navy’s corner with any force or conviction. When the Air Force Bill
became law on 1 April 1918, the Royal Naval Air Service was abolished at stroke,
and all its resources – more than 100 air stations, some 55.000 officer and men, any
over 2.500 aircraft – were transferred to the newly-created Royal Air Force.
“Air” officer who stayed in the Navy, with dual RNRAF ranks, suffered
perennially from an occupational unease, constantly aware that their long-term
career prospects were in Jeopardy because they were aircrew. Having let control of
their air arm go the RAF, the Navy spent the best part of the next 20 years trying to
wrest it back.

Notes:
1) a packet – суденышко, посудина
2) unease = uneasiness – неудобство, беспокойство, стесненность
3) perennially – всегда, вечно, постоянно
4) to wrest – (1) вырывать, выдергивать; (2) получать ценой больших
усилий; вырвать (победу у врага); (3) искажать, извращать

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LESSON 12

How Do Aircraft Fly?

12.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

drag - лобовое сопротивление


thrust - сила тяги
Venturi - принцип Вентури
speed up - ускорять
airstream - воздушный поток
camber - кривизна профиля крыла
push through - проталкивать
push over - разрезать (воздушный поток)
take off roll - разбег при взлете (до скорости
отрыва)

12.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

давление воздуха над крылом ниже, чем под крылом; если скорость
жидкости увеличивается, то давление, которое она оказывает на окружающих,
уменьшается; принцип Вентури; сохранение энергии воздушного потока;
изогнутая поверхность крыла; кривизна профиля крыла способствует
ускорению потока молекул воздуха; создавать подъемную силу больше массы
ЛА; разбег при взлете; увеличивать скорость воздушного потока при снижении
давления.

2. Подберите синонимы.

Passenger to haste
To propel compulsion
To examine wayfarer
Force to inspect
Aircraft to accelerate
To speed over aviation

12.3. TEXT

HOW DO AIRCRAFT FLY ?


Every day millions of people board aircraft headed for destinations around the
world. It's puzzling how an aircraft made of metal, much heavier than air, can safely
and effortlessly lift hundreds of passengers miles into the sky and propel them at

69
speeds over 500 knots to points thousands of miles away. In this article we will
briefly examine the laws of nature that allow this to be accomplished.
Every student pilot is first taught about the four forces acting upon an aircraft in
flight: weight, lift, drag and thrust. The downward force of weight must be
overcome by an upward acting aerodynamic force called lift.
The wing lifts the aircraft by producing an air pressure above the wing which
is lower than that below the wing. This lower pressure pulls or lifts the aircraft
upward. In the 1700s a Swiss mathematician named Daniel Bernoulli discovered the
principle of a venturi, or that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure it
exerts on its surroundings decreases. The basis for this is in the conservation of
energy of an airstream. The potential energy of a gas is proportional to its pressure,
just like a compressed spring. As the speed of the air is increased the kinetic energy
increases, resulting in a potential energy or pressure decrease to conserve the total
energy.A wing has a curved upper surface referred to as camber. Air molecules
traveling over the top of the wing are forced to speed up by this camber in the same
way air molecules in a venturi are sped up. The increased airstream speed over the
top of the wing decreases the air pressure and produces the lift necessary to
overcome weight.
In order for the airstream to be pushed over the wing, the aircraft must be
pushed through the atmosphere. On the takeoff roll, the aircraft accelerates until
reaching a speed with sufficient airflow over the wings to produce the required lift.
Hopefully this cursory explanation has answered some basic questions about
how an aircraft flies.

12.4. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1.Is it puzzling how an aircraft made of metal effortlessly can lift hundreds of pas
sengers miles into the sky?
2.What are the four forces acting upon an aircraft?
3.Who discovered the principle of a venturi?
4.What produces the lift necessary to overcome weight?
5.What is the conservation of energy of an airstream?

2. Переведите текст 12.5. без словаря.

12.5. Техт
McDONNEL DOUGLAS F-15E Strike Eagle
Primary Mission : Air Superiority / Deep Interdiction*

The F-15E is a two seat dual role version of the Eagle capable of performing
long-range, deep interdiction, High ordnance* , air-to ground missions by day or
night and in adverse weather, while retaining its proven air-to-air capabilities.
Production F-15Es also have front cockpit* modifications that include redesigned
‘up-front’ controls*, a wide field of view heads-up display, and three CRTs*

70
providing multipurpose displays for improved navigation, weapons delivery and
systems operation. For tactical missions at night and in all-weather conditions, the F-
15E has advanced radar and infra-red systems. Some 60%of the F-15s structure was
redesigned to create the F-15E, the airframe of which is expected to have a fatigue
life of 16,000 flying hours. Construction of the first three F-15E prototypes began in
July 1985.
 Crew: pilot and weapon systems officer
 Powerplant: 2 Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-100 / 200 turbofans, each rated at
23,830 lbs of thrust
 Max Level Speed: Mach 2.5
 Range: 3,450 miles (external tanks)
 Armament: 1 M6IA 20mm six barrel cannon
4 AIM-9L / M Sidewinder and
4 AIM-7F / M Sparrow air-to air missiles or
8 AIM-120 AMRAAMs carried externally*
* Notes :
interdiction mission - изоляция района боевых действий
ordnance - вооружение
front cockpit - зд. передняя часть кабины пилота
up-front controls - передние рычаги управления
CRT = Cathode Ray Tube
carried externally - здесь размещающиеся на передней подвеске

LESSON 13
Primary Flight Controls
13.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS
bank - вираж, вводить в вираж
yaw - поворот в горизонтальной плоско-
сти
to pitch up - кабрировать
to pitch down - опускать нос, выводить в пики-
рование
aileron - элерон
spoiler - интерцептор
trailing edge - задняя (хвостовая) кромка
wing tip - законцовка крыла
to deploy - развертываться
attitude - положение в пространстве
touchdown - посадка
tail/empennage - хвостовое оперение
horizontal stabilize - горизонтальный стабилизатор
elevator - руль высоты

71
rudder - руль направления
vertical stabilizer - вертикальный стабилизатор
to match - согласовать, выровнять
rate of turn - угловая скорость разворота
to slosh - расплескиваться
slip skid indicator - индикатор скольжения полозково-
го шасси
turn - вираж
control yoke - штурвальная колонка
to deflect - отклоняться от прямого направ-
ления
to steer - управлять

13.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

летать со скоростью, близкой к скорости звука; четко контролировать


полет самолета; вводить в вираж; совершать движение крена вокруг
продольной оси; поднимать одно крыло и опускать другое; поворачиваться
вокруг продольной оси или совершать движение рыскания; кабрировать или
опускать нос при взлете или посадке самолета; использовать элероны и
интерцепторы при вращении вокруг продольной оси; чтобы снизить высоту
полета используются интерцепторы; снижаться не опуская нос; оказывать
сильное давление на шасси для эффективного торможения; руль направления
самолета используется, чтобы сделать вираж; согласовать угловую скорость
разворота в вираже; проектировать самолеты с максимальной степенью
комфорта для пассажиров.

2. Выпишите из текста соответствующие термины и заполните табл. 3.


Термины переведите.
Таблица 3

Primary Flight Controls Purpose

13.3. TEXT
PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS

While comfortably seated on a jet airliner flying many miles above the ground,
at speeds close to the speed of sound, one may wonder just how the pilot is able to
keep the aircraft so smoothly under control. This article will explain how flight
controls allow this 20-ton aircraft to be maneuvered so gently and precisely.

72
Unlike an automobile or boat, an aircraft can rotate about three axes. To turn,
an aircraft must bank; while raising one wing and lowering the other, the aircraft
rotates or "rolls" about its longitudinal axis. An aircraft rotates about its vertical or
"yaw" axis to change direction or "heading." When climbing and descending, the
nose must be pitched up or down about the lateral axis.
To rotate about the longitudinal axis a combination of ailerons and spoilers are
used. The low speed ailerons are located on the aft or "trailing edge" of the wing tip.
These operate in opposing directions, that is, as the right aileron extends upward, the
left aileron extends downward. Additional ailerons are located about halfway to the
wing tip. These high speed ailerons are used to make slower, more gentle changes in
bank while at cruising speeds.
Centrally located on the wings are the spoilers. These deploy upward to make
small changes in bank by eliminating or "spoiling" lift. Spoilers can be used
simultaneously on both wings to significantly reduce lift. By using spoilers, the pilot
can make a descent without having to lower the nose. Keeping the pitch attitude
level with the horizon is more comfortable for passengers and makes cabin service
easier. Upon touchdown the spoilers deploy automatically, creating a firm
downward pressure on the landing gear, which aids in braking effectiveness.
On the tail or "empennage" of the aircraft are two more flight controls. The
horizontal stabilizer and elevator provide the pitch control to establish climbs and
descents. The rudder is located on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. Unlike a
ship, in which the rudder is used to steer, the rudder on an aircraft is used to
coordinate turns. While an airplane is turned by banking the wings, the rudder is
used to match the rate of turn with the bank. That's why the beverage in your glass
on the tray table does not slosh when the airplane turns. The slip skid indicator on
the instrument panel shows the pilot how much rudder is necessary for perfectly
smooth turns.
The pilot actuates the elevator and ailerons by use of a control yoke. Rotating
the yoke to the left and right moves the ailerons and spoilers. Moving the yoke
forward and aft deflects the elevator for pitch control. Next to the pilot's feet are
pedals to deflect the rudder. The rudder pedals also turn the nosewheel used for
steering while on ground taxi. At the top of the rudder pedals are toe brakes used to
stop the aircraft's ground roll.
It may sound as though the flight deck is a confusing place of levers, yokes
and pedals, but the controls have been so exquisitely constructed that their use
becomes very natural with practice. As you can see, the aircraft has been designed
with the highest priority placed on passenger comfort.

13.4. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. How can an aircraft rotate?


2. Why must an aircraft bank?
3. How does an aircraft roll about its longitudinal axis?

73
4. What is yawning motion? Why does an aircraft rotate about its yaw motion?
5. Why does the nose pitch up and down about the lateral axis?
6. What are the types and functions of ailerons?
7. Where are spoilers located? What are they used for?
8. What are the flight controls on the tail?
9. What does the elevator provide?
10. What is the rudder used for?
11. How does a pilot actuate the elevator and ailerons?
12. How to deflect the rudder?

2. Переведите текст 13.5. без словаря.

13.5. ТEXT

LOCKHEED 117A STEALTH FIGHTER

Primary Mission: Deep Penetration / Strike

First flown in June 1981, this is a highly classified stealth reconnaissance attack
aircraft, of which some 56 are in operation with the USAFs 4450th Tactical Group at
Nellis AFB Nevada. The F-117A features a radar absorbent airframe* , twin canted
tailfins * to help mask the above fuselage engine nozzles, and internal weapons bay,
and a flush cockpit. The aircraft cannot use radar because of its stealth mission, so
navigation is by the Global Positioning System.

 Crew: one pilot;


 Powerplant: 2 General Electric F404-GE-400 turbofan engines (unknown rating);
 Max Level Speed: unknown;
 Range: unknown;
 Armament: estimated weapons load is 45,000 lbs;

* Notes :
deep penetration - здесь проникновение в глубину обороны
противника
radar absorbent airframe - корпус с применением радиопоглощающих
материалов
twin canted tailfins - хвостовое оперение из двух плоскостей под
углом

LESSON 14

74
Jet Transport Takeoff

14.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

to position - устанавливать в заданном поло-


жении
takeoff - взлет
runway - взлетно-посадочная полоса (ВПП)
throttle - рычаг управления двигателем
to advance - подавать вперед
acceleration - ускорение, приемистость
(двигателя)
in a blur - расплывшимся пятном
impressive angle - большой угол
meticulously calculated - точно рассчитанный
raw power - первичная энергия
strictly physical interpretation - чисто физическое объяснение
square of the velocity - скорость в квадрате
equation - равенство
Newton's second law of motion - второй закон движения Ньютона
identity - тождество
inversely proportional - обратно пропорционально
airport elevation - высота аэродрома над уровнем
моря
multiply - нажать

14.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

устанавливать самолет на ВПП в заданном положении; подать рычаг


управления двигателем вперед; ощущать на себе сильное ускорение; объекты
земли уменьшаются; нос самолета поднимается вверх под большим углом;
точно рассчитанный управляемый процесс; чисто физическое объяснение
работы реактивных двигателей при взлете; увеличение или потенциальной,
или кинетической энергии; умножить ½ массы объекта на скорость в квадрате;
составить два противоположных друг другу равенства; второй закон движения
Ньютона; вывести окончательное равенство путем вычисления расстояния;
взлетная скорость; взлетная дистанция; обратно пропорционально взлетному
ускорению; набрать высоту; уменьшить взлетную скорость и расстояние;
высота аэродрома над уровнем моря.

14.3. TEXT

75
Jet Transport Takeoff

Takeoff is one of the highest performance maneuvers of an entire flight. The


aircraft is quietly positioned onto the runway, the throttles are advanced smoothly,
and the engines roar to life.
Passengers feel the firm acceleration as they are pushed back into the cushions
of their seats. The speed of the aircraft is considerable as the ground rushes
backward in a blur until liftoff occurs. The nose of the plane climbs at an impressive
angle upward toward the sky and objects on the ground fall rapidly away until they
appear insignificant. Takeoff may appear to be an uncontrolled release of raw power,
but it is actually a meticulously calculated, controlled, and evaluated event.
To fully understand takeoff performance, we must examine some basic physics.
From a strictly physical interpretation, the jet engines perform work on the aircraft.
When work is done on an object there is an increase in either potential or kinetic
energy. On takeoff, there is no change in potential energy, so the work of the engines
increases the aircraft's kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object is found by
multiplying one-half its mass by the square of the velocity. Because work is defined
as force multiplied by the distance through which the force acts and this is equal to
the kinetic energy, the two equations can be set opposite one another.
Next we must remember Newton's second law of motion, which states that an
applied force is equal to the mass of an object multiplied by its acceleration. By
replacing the term for force with this identity, the equation becomes mass multiplied
by acceleration, with distance equaling one-half the mass multiplied by the square of
the velocity. As mass now appears on both sides of the equation, it is canceled, so
acceleration multiplied by distance is equal to one-half the velocity squared. The
final equation is found by solving for distance. Thus, takeoff distance is equal to the
square of the velocity divided by twice the acceleration.
Because the takeoff distance is proportional to the square of the takeoff velocity,
the takeoff distance would increase by a factor of four if the takeoff speed were
doubled. The distance is also inversely proportional to the takeoff acceleration. The
greater the acceleration, the shorter the takeoff distance. The more an aircraft weighs,
the faster it must be moving to create adequate lift. This means the heavier an
aircraft is, the more runway it will need. To minimize the takeoff speed and distance
required, wing flaps and slats are used. The thrust of the engines provides the
accelerating force.
On warm days, or when taking off from high-elevation airports, the reduced
density of the air reduces the engines' thrust. The higher the elevation and
temperature, the higher the power setting of the engines on takeoff.
It is comforting to know that according to Federal Aviation Regulations the
aircraft must be able to climb to an altitude of 35 feet by the end of the runway or
clearway even if one engine is not working. Is it any wonder why transport aircraft
can take off and climb with such impressive strength?

14.4. EXERCISES

76
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is takeoff ?
2. What is necessary for the aircraft to make the takeoff ?
3. How do passengers feel at the firm acceleration ?
4. What are objects on the ground when the nose of the plane climbs at an
impressive angle upward toward the sky ?
5. What are the changes in energy on takeoff ?
6. How is the kinetic energy defined ?
7. What does Newton's second law of motion state ?
8. How is the final equation found ?
9. What does the takeoff distance depend on ?
10.How does an aircraft weight influence the runway ?
11.What is necessary for the aircraft to minimize the takeoff speed and distance
required ?
12.How do the elevation and temperature influence the power setting of the
engines on takeoff ?

2. Переведите следующие предложения с опорой на текст.

1. При взлете самолет устанавливается в заданном положении на ВПП,


рычаг управления двигателем подается вперед, начинают свою работу
двигатели.
2. Passengers feel the firm acceleration as they are pushed back into the cushions
of their seats.
3. Нос самолета поднимается вверх под большим углом, а объекты земли
внизу уменьшаются.
4. The ground rushes backward in a blur until liftoff occurs because the speed of
the aircraft is considerable.
5. Работа реактивных двигателей самолета требует чисто физического
объяснения.
6. On takeoff, there is no change in potential energy, so the work of the engines
increases the aircraft's kinetic energy.
7. Согласно второму закону движения Ньютона прикладываемая к объекту
сила равна его массе, умноженной на ускорение.
8. Takeoff distance is equal to the square of the velocity divided by twice the
acceleration.
9. Взлетная дистанция обратно пропорциональна взлетному ускорению.
10.The greater the acceleration, the shorter the takeoff distance.
11.Чем больше масса ЛА, тем быстрее он должен двигаться, чтоб набрать
высоту.
12.To minimize the takeoff speed and distance required, wing flaps and slats are
used.

77
13.Чем выше температура и больше высота аэродрома над уровнем моря, тем
больше мощность двигателей при взлете.
14.According to Federal Aviation Regulations the aircraft must be able to climb to
an altitude of 35 feet by the end of the runway or clearway even if one engine is
not working.

3. Переведите текст 14.5. без словаря.

14.5. RECONNAISSANCE TORNADO

The Tornado are to replace Jaguars and provide NATO’s day / night all-weather
reconnaissance capability.
The RAF* Tornado electrical-optical reconnaissance system uses an infrared
linescanner for horizon-to-horizon coverage, together with two sideways-looking
thermal imagers. All three electro-optical sensors can be monitored by the Tornado
navigator using one of the aircraft’s two video-cassette recorders. Tactical
information can then be relayed to a ground station by radar.

*Notes:
RAF (Royal Air Force) - Британские BBC

14.6. USAF B-2

The Northrop Grumman B-2 is more than satisfying the operational and
maintenance demands placed on it by the US Air Force during the first months of
flying.
The first B-2 was accepted by the Air Force’s Air Combat Command on
Dec.17,1993, and the 509th Bomb Wing launched its first training sortie* five days
later on Dec.22.
Whiteman AFB will be the home of all 20 B-2’s to be assigned to the 509th
Bomb Wing. If an additional 20 B-2’s are funded, they also most likely would be
based here and assigned to the same wing. The base’s support infrastructure has
been sized to handle 40 aircraft.
The B-2 is a big step forward in the modernization of the US Air Force’s
bomber force. The new technology embodied in the B-2 is reflected in the two-
person crew, half that of the B-1 and later models of the B-52. The stealth
characteristics of the B-52, combined with its range and payload capabilities, add yet
another dimension to operational combat missile flexibility.
From a pilot’s view point, Northrop has given the Air Force an aircraft that is
not only reliable, but easy and enjoyable to fly.

* Notes:
sortie - самолетовылет

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LESSON 15

The Return of the Dirigibles

15.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

dirigible - дирижабль
to exploit - разрабатывать
to make geological survey - производить землемерную съемку
to map - наносить на карту, чертить карту
to man - укомплектовать личным составом
metal hull - металлический корпус
superstrong material - сверхпрочный материал
cargo vehicle - грузовое транспортное средство
cruising speed - эксплуатационная скорость

15.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

вернуться в прошлое; неожиданно появиться вновь; проектировать этот


вид транспорта; 60 миль в час; дешевле в работе, чем вертолет; идеально
подходить для исследований; оставаться в небе втечение недели; производить
землемерную съемку; чертить карту; доставлять тяжелые грузы в отдаленные
регионы; производить геологическую разведку; доставлять туристов в
непроходимые места; укомплектовывать большим личным составом; изменять
технологию производства дирижаблей; не нуждаться во взлетно-посадочной
полосе; быть абсолютно безопасным в полете из-за использования гелия
вместо водорода; строить дирижабль с металлическим корпусом; строить из
сверхпрочного материала; перевозить сотни пассажиров.

15.3. TEXT
THE RETURN OF THE DIRIGIBLES

When it comes to technology, people are not inclined to return to the past. Yet,
some expectations do exist. Such is the attitude at present towards dirigibles. Having
abandoned the skies more than 40 years ago, they have suddenly begun to reappear.
Designers have once again sat down to design this kind of transportation. Their use
can still be limited, but there is no doubt, that dirigibles are coming back.
Why is dirigible attractive? What do you do with it? As its cruising speed is
about 60 miles per hour it is too slow to be used as a passenger carrier. But it is
cheaper to operate than a helicopter, comfortable and capable of flying for several
days. The craft’s large size and staying power (dirigibles have reminded in skies for
as long as a week) make it ideally suited for exploration.

79
Their use in countries that have large territories and are rich in forests and are
planning to explore and exploit new regions is most promising. They may be used to
make geological survey and to make maps, to look for off-shore oil and minerals, to
take tourists to roadless, but beautiful places, to deliver heavy loads to remote
regions and bring the products back. They have a potential use as a flying platform.
In general, their possibilities are endless. They do not need expensive runways
required by cargo planes.
Besides, the technological possibilities of manufacturing these crafts have
changed. In 1920 and 1930’s the dirigibles were manned by a big crew. Today being
equipped with electronic control they can be operated by three pilots.
The modern dirigibles have one more important advantage aver older models –
that of complete safety in flight, for, instead of hydrogen, they are filled with helium
which does not burn. The craft is 200 feet long and is made of superstrong material.
In future it may be possible to build a dirigible with a metal hull that could carry
hundreds of passengers and transport cargo around the world. In fact, it is probably
as a cargo vehicle that the dirigible will have the best chance to find its use.

15.4. EXERCISES

1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What are the exceptions of returning to the past?


2. Why is dirigible attractive?
3. What is it ideally suited for?
4. How have the technological possibilities of manufacturing these crafts changed?
5. What is the important advantage of the modern dirigibles?
6. Why will the dirigible have the best chance to find its use?

2. Переведите следующие предложения с опорой на текст.

1. Люди не собираются возвращаться в прошлое, если дело касается техники.


2. Dirigibles have suddenly begun to reappear.
3. Так как его рабочая скорость 60 миль в час, она слишком мала для
перевозки пассажиров.
4. It is cheaper to operate than a helicopter, comfortable and capable of flying for
several days.
5. Дирижабль идеально подходит для исследования и проведения межевания
новых регионов, организации геологической разведки и составления карт
местности.
6. Dirigibles may be used to take tourists to roadless, but beautiful places, to
deliver heavy loads to remote regions.
7. Возможности дирижабля безграничны.
8. Besides, the technological possibilities of manufacturing these crafts have
changed.

80
9. Современные дирижабли абсолютно безопасны в полете, так как вместо
водорода их заполняют гелием.
10. The craft is 200 feet long and is made of superstrong material with a metal hull
that could carry hundreds of passengers and transport cargo around the world.

3. Переведите текст 15.5. без словаря.

15.5. ТEXT
The Role of Weather Station
« Even the birds aren’t flying today» is an old saying used to indicate that the
weather for flying is extremely bad. And for man nothing has a greater effect on
flying than the weather. And because of its changing so quickly and without warning
an extensive network of weather stations has been established for helping the pilots
get all the information about weather. Before flying pilots may get current
information on changing conditions along their rout or at their destination. The
weather reporting system helps overcoming many difficulties in flying. In winter,
e.g., icing can cause the reduction of lift efficiency of airplane by changing the flow
of air. Pilot’s being informed about the weather allows him to avoid weather
problems. The weather being too bad, pilots just stay on the ground like any wise
bird.

Lesson 16
Off the Ground: How Do We Find Where We Are Going?
16.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

dead reckoning - cчисление пути


celestial navigation - астронавигация
radio navigation - радионавигация
radar navigation - радиолокационная навигация
radio transmitter - радиопередатчик
radio receiver - радиоприемник
terminal - аэропорт назначения
radar guidance -радиолокационное наведение
transponder - ретранслятор
aeronautical map - авиационная карта

16.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES


1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний:

«седьмое чувство »; лететь над землей и водой, не потерявшись;


счисление пути; основа навигации; астронавигация; лететь по солнцу и
звездам; настраивать радиопередатчики; оборудование, измеряющее

81
дистанцию; приземлиться на ВПП; следить за индикаторами радиоприемника;
обеспечить радиолокационное наведение; электронный ретранслятор.

16.3. TEXT

OFF THE GROUND: HOW DO WE FIND WHERE ARE WE GOING?

Scientists who are concerned with such a problem generally agree that birds
have some kinds of so-called «second sense» that allows them to fly over land and
water without getting lost. Indeed, birds are always able to find their destinations
and make a return fly without any trouble at all.
But people need help in finding their destination when piloting their own
airplanes. This, of course, is called destination.
Navigation is the art of finding your way from where you start your
destination. Whether used by the seamen, explorers or the pilots navigation falls into
three basic categories: dead reckoning which is the basis for all navigation, celestial
navigation which is flying by the aid of the sun and stars, and radio and radar
navigation.
Several different kinds of aeronautical maps provide all the details which
might be needed by the pilot. And hundreds of radio navigation stations are located
at different places around the world to help guide the pilot. All the pilot needs to do
is to tune to these radio transmitters and will get the directional signals he needs.
Distance measuring equipment now used in many airplanes tells the pilot exactly
how far he is from a radio station and what speed he is traveling over the ground.
When certain types of weather prevent the pilot from seeing the ground,
additional radio transmitters let him make his approach to an airport by simply
watching his flight instruments and radio receiver indicators. These receivers help
the pilot descend on the runway, thus landing at an airport even though he cannot see
the ground.
At the world’s larger air terminals airplanes are provided with radar guidance
as another means of guiding the pilot to the destination. With the help of an
electronic transponder in each airplane which shows it in the radar screen, radar
controllers guide hundreds of airplanes to landing.
Because of the great improvement in electronic and radio navigation
equipment, flying to where you are going is done as efficiently as the birds do it and
much more scientifically.

16.4. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the difference between the flight of the bird and the airplane?
2. What is navigation?
3. What are the three basic categories of the navigation?
4. How is the basis for all navigation termed?
5. What type of navigation helps to fly by the aid of the sun and stars?

82
6. How do radio navigation stations help the pilot?
7. How do distance measuring equipment influence the safe flight of the airplane?
8. Why does the pilot need the receivers?
9. What is the means of guiding the pilot to the destination?
10. What is the importance of the electronic transponder?

2. Переведите следующие предложения с опорой на текст.

1. У птиц есть так называемое «седьмое чувство», которое позволяет им, не


теряясь, летать над землей и водой.
2. Navigation is the art of finding your way from where you start your destination.
3. Навигация делится на три категории, независимо от того, пользуется:
моряк, исследователь или летчик.
4. And hundreds of radio navigation stations are located at different places around
the world to help guide the pilot.
5. Приборы-измерители дистанции точно указывают, как далеко летчик от
радионавигационной станции, и с какой скоростью он летит?
6. Radio receiver indicators help the pilot descend on the runway, thus landing at
an airport even though he cannot see the ground.
7. С помощью электронного ретранслятора, который показывает самолет на
экране радара, диспетчеры ведут сотни самолетов на посадку.
8. Because of the great improvement in electronic and radio navigation equipment,
flying to where you are going is done as efficiently as the birds do it and much
more scientifically.

3. Переведите текст 16.5. без словаря.

16.5. ТEXT

Thing about the air-to-surface missile is that it enables a bomber to release its
weapon before reaching the most heavily defended part of an enemy’s territory.

* * *
Here is a definition of air superiority as it is understood by US AF experts. A
power is said to have air superiority within a given airspace when: (a) its aircraft of
all types can operate without serious interference from the enemy, and (b) it can
limit the The E-3A AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) aircraft is
equipped with extensive radar, communication and navigational devices.
The system has a dual use. It is used for airborne surveillance and as a
command post. The E-3A provides long range low level surveillance of all air
vehicles in all weather and above all kinds of terrain. As a command post this
aircraft is able to command and control all kinds of air actions: strike, air superiority,
support, aircraft reconnaissance and interdiction.

* * *

83
There are two types of smart bombs currently in use by the USAF - the laser-
guided bomb and electro-optical or HOBO* bombs. The former type of munition is
used in 500, 2000 and 3000 lb. categories and the HOBO bomb is produced in 2000
and 3000 lb. sizes.
The laser-guided type consists of a conventional bomb to which stabilizer fins*
and a guidance module with a laser seeker* are added. The electro-optical bomb
has control surfaces at the rear with a TV guidance module at the front. The weapon
is released after lock-on* by the bomb’s camera. The guidance module steers the
bomb to the target automatically.
* * *
The air-to air missile is an important type of modern aircraft armaments.
Modern missiles of this type are usually guided by radar or infrared homing device,
or sometimes a combination of the two.
An important enemy’s aircraft to shallow penetrations of the airspace.

* * *
A search-radar is switched on in danger zone so that when an attacking fighter
shows itself on the screen, it is automatically tracked and engaged by the gun when
it approaches within a range. Any equipment used to assist the pilot, bombardier* or
gunner to bring the aircraft, guns or launcher in proper relation to a target is
considered to be fire-control equipment.

* Notes
HOBO (Homing Optical Bomb)- авиац. бомба с оптическим
самонаведением

stabilizer fins - блок стабилизаторов


seeker - головка самонаведения (ГСН)
lock-on - захват цели
bombardier - оператор системы самонаведения самолета

84
LESSON 17
What Do Wing Flaps Do ?

17.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

control surface - поверхность управления, руль


flat - закрылок
slat - предкрылок
trailing edge - задняя /хвостовая/ кромка
drag - гидродинамическое /лобовое/ со-
противление
lift - аэродинамическая подъемная сила
to approach - заходить на посадку, подходить к
зоне аэродрома
camber / curvature - кривизна профиля крыла
leading edge - передняя кромка; носок крыла
dirty wing - аэродинамически грязное крыло
clean wing - аэродинамически чистое крыло
to extend - выпускать
to retract - убирать
to deploy - развертываться; вводить в действие
to cruise - лететь на крейсерском режиме;
крейсерский полет
approach speed - скорость захода на посадку
slot - щель крыла

17.2. UCTORY EXERCISES


1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.
современный реактивный транспортный самолет; эффективно работать в
широком диапазоне скоростей; увеличивать как лобовое сопротивление, так и
аэродинамическую подъемную силу; заходить на посадку под большим углом,
не превышая скорость; регулировать скорость лобовым сопротивлением;
выпускать закрылок частично или полностью; выпускать закрылок вниз или
назад; увеличивая кривизну профиля и площадь крыла; выпускать вперед
предкрылки; низкая скорость полета; испытывать сильное лобовое
сопротивление; ускоряться до крейсерского режима; выпустить закрылки на 1
градус; снижать скорость самолета до скорости захода на посадку.
17.3. ТEXT
What Do Wing Flaps Do?
Modern jet transport aircraft have wings designed to operate efficiently within a
wide range of air speeds. Transport aircraft must be able to fly at speeds of from 100
miles per hour to close to the speed of sound. A look at the wing's secondary control

85
surfaces -- flaps and slats -- will explain how the highly adaptable wing
accommodates this range of speed.
Flaps are located on the aft or "trailing edge" of the wing and increase both lift
and drag. Because of the increased drag, flaps are only partially extended on takeoff,
and fully extended on landing. The added drag created by full flaps on landing
allows the aircraft to approach at a steep angle without excessive air speed. Think of
a car as it rolls downhill. If the hill is too steep, the car's speed becomes excessive.
By using the drag of the brakes, the speed stays under control.
The greater the wing's camber, or curvature, the better the wing will perform at
slow air speeds. Flaps extend downward and rearward, thereby increasing both
camber and wing area. The flaps extend in several segments, creating gaps, known
as slots, in the wing. The slots allow high energy air from below the wing to vent
over the top of the wing. This high energy air "tricks the wing into thinking" it is
traveling faster than it actually is, enhancing the low speed performance. On the
leading edge of the wing are the slats. As the slats extend forward another slot is
opened on the leading edge of the wing. The combination of the slats and flaps
creates an airfoil of significant camber for low speed operations.
The wing is said to be "dirty" when the flaps and slats are extended, referring to
the high amount of drag the wing experiences. In the dirty configuration the wing is
capable of low speed flight; the high drag would, however, prohibit high speed flight.
After takeoff the wing is "cleaned up." After climbing through 400 feet the air speed
is allowed to increase, reducing the need for the flaps and slats. After the completion
of the flap and slat retraction, the aircraft can accelerate to cruise speed. During the
approach for landing, the flaps and slats are again extended. The flaps are set to an
initial setting, usually one degree. The leading edge slats are later deployed. When
initiating the final descent for landing, the flaps are fully extended. Now that the
wing is again in its low speed configuration, the aircraft can be slowed to its final
approach speed.
Aircraft designers know that no wing is efficient at all speeds. By using flaps,
slats and slots, a wing can take on beneficial low speed characteristics for takeoff
and landing, and characteristics beneficial for high speed flight while at cruise. If it
were not for flaps and slats, the takeoff and landing speeds would have to be much
greater and runways would be prohibitively long.

17.4. EXERCISES
1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. How are wings designed in modern jet transport aircraft?


2. What is the range of speed the transport aircraft fly at ?
3. Where are flaps located and what are they for?
4. When are the flaps partially and fully extended?
5. Why does the aircraft approach at a steep angle without excessive air speed ?
6. What does the better perform the wing depend on at slow air speeds?
7. What helps to increase camber and wing area?
8. What are the slots and their function?

86
9. Where are the slats located?
10. What do they create in combination with flaps?
11. What is the difference between the dirty and clean wing?
12. Can the wing be efficient at all speeds?
1. Переведите следующие предложения с опорой на текст.

1. Крылья на современных транспортных реактивных самолетах


спроектированы таким образом, чтобы эффективно работать в широком
диапазоне воздушных скоростей.
2. Transport aircraft must be able to fly at speeds of from 100 miles per hour to
close to the speed of sound.
3. Закрылки крепятся к задней кромке крыла и увеличивают как
аэродинамическую подъемную силу, так и лобовое сопротивление.
4. Because of the increased drag, flaps are only partially extended on takeoff, and
fully extended on landing.
5. Чем больше кривизна профиля крыла, тем лучше крыло работает на
малой скорости.
6. Flaps extend downward and rearward, thereby increasing both camber and
wing area.
7. Закрылки выпускаются сегментами, оставляя зазоры, известные как щели
крыла.
8. The wing is said to be "dirty" when the flaps and slats are extended, referring
to the high amount of drag the wing experiences.
9. Крыло называется аэродинамически чистым при взлете, когда
увеличивается воздушная скорость, и отсутствует необходимость в
закрылках и предкрылках.
10. After the completion of the flap and slat retraction, the aircraft can accelerate
to cruise speed.
11. Во время захода самолета на посадку закрылки и предкрылки снова
выпускаются.
12. Now that the wing is again in its low speed configuration, the aircraft can be
slowed to its final approach speed.
13. Если бы не закрылки и предкрылки, скорость самолета при влете и
посадке была бы значительно выше, а ВПП длиннее, а это запрещается.

2. Переведите текст без словаря.

17.5. ТEXT
The Su-80GP multi-purpose mixed cargo aircraft

The Su-80GP multi-purpose mixed cargo aircraft is designed to carry, in a


pressured cabin, 30 passengers or cargo weighing up to 3,300kg on commuter and
regional air routes in any geographical setting, in daytime and at night, under
favourable and adverse weather conditions.

87
The aeroplane is certified under AP-25 airworthiness standards for transport
aircraft.
The design/configuration concept is that of a twin-boom high-wing monoplane of
normal aerodynamic configuration with a highly-mechanised unswept high-aspect-
ratio wing. The tail unit is formed by two vertical fins each placed on one of two tail
booms and joined at the top with a horizontal stabiliser. The plane's fuselage is a
separate module with attachment lugs for nose landing gear, wing and support
pylons. The booms house engines, equipment bays and aeroplane systems. The
fuselage

Рис. 6. The Su-80 GP multi-purpose mixed cargo aircraft

houses a radar bay, cockpit, avionics bay and mixed cargo cabin. The plane has
retractable tricycle landing gear with a nose strut. The cargo ramp in the rear
fuselage is used to board passengers and load/unload cargo.
Aeroplane is fitted with two ST7-9B turboprop engines developed by General
Electric (USA), which are installed in the bays at the front of the booms.
The cockpit is engineered for a two-member crew. The standard-configuration
mixed-cargo cabin is designed to accommodate 30 passenger seats in a 2+2
arrangement and a seat for a flight attendant. The total passenger/cargo cabin space
available is 27m3. Luggage space is provided for at the tail-end of fuselage. The
passenger/cargo cabin design enables its reconfiguration for transport of cargo in
pallets or in bulk.
The plane's takeoff and landing performance and landing gear with low-
pressure tyres make it possible to use it on small airfields, including unpaved, ice
and snow-covered runways.
The aircraft can be used in a wide temperature range: –50˚C to +45˚C.
G limit (operational): +2.7…-1.
The design provides for multi-role configuration:
 mixed cargo aircraft Su-80GP,

88
 transport aircraft Su-80GP-100.
The Su-80 GP's hallmark is its convertibility, i.e., an option of quick
reconfiguration from a passenger plane into a cargo carrier and back. Preliminary
estimates indicate that this will enable the aircraft to accrue more flying time on
commuter airlines than any dedicated passenger or cargo aircraft.
The Su-80 was developed based on the requirements for a modern aircraft to be used
on commuter and regional air routes, such requirements having been identified as a
result of analysing the aircraft inventory in Russia and abroad, the nature and
conditions of aircraft deployment and data on typical routes.

LESSON 18
The Smooth Approach

18.1. ACTIVE TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

a flight attendant - стюардесса


an initial descent - начальный этап захода на посадку
a final desсent - конечный этап захода на посадку
an approach - заход на посадку, подход к зоне
аэродрома
a landing - посадка
a checklist - карта проверки, ведомость техни-
ческого контроля
radar air traffic controller - диспетчер радиолокационного мар-
шрута
to rout - устанавливать маршрут, отправ-
лять по определённому маршруту
a teeter-totter - детские качели (доска, положен-
ная на бревно)
a roller coaster a rate of descent
a center of gravity - американские горки
a pitch attitude - центр тяжести
fight control surfaces - положение по тангажу
a spoiler - средства механизации крыла
a throttle - интерцептер
to pitch down - рычаг управления двигателем
- детские качели (доска, положенная
a cabin pressurization на бревно)
- опрессовка кабины, наддув кабины,
flair герметизация кабины
a drag - склонность, способность
- гидродинамическое, лобовое со-

89
противление a forward force
- скорость посадки - порог ВПП
a runway threshold - посадка, приземление, касание
a touchdown ВПП
- боковой ветер
a cross wind - амортизационная опора шасси
a landing gear shock strut - сила, направленная вниз
a downward force - реверсивная (обратная) тяга
a reverse thrust
- прямая тяга
a visual flight - визуальный полёт
a tribute - награда
expertise - знания и опыт
to move - перемещать, переносить

18.2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты словосочетаний.

полны ожиданием; осуществлять начальный этап снижения; безопасная


посадка самолета; критическая фаза полета; совершить заход на посадку с
высокой точностью; вести самолет по установленному маршруту до подхода к
зоне аэродрома; диспетчер РЛС; направлять авиалайнер на ВП; держать
самолеты на безопасном расстоянии друг от друга; быть похожим на качели,
напоминающие доску, положенную на бревно, и на американские горки;
двигаться вокруг центра тяжести; изменять положение самолета по тангажу;
откидываться на спинки сидений; заполнить ведомость технического
контроля; легкое ощущение полета; не подвергать пассажиров таким
ощущениям; минимизировать эффект качания; привести в действие
интерцепторы; ограничить действие рычагов управления двигателем;
уменьшить подъемную силу крыльев; начинать снижение, не опуская носа;
постоянно регулировать герметизацию кабины; выпускать шасси;
дополнительное сопротивление; сложный маневр; проходя порог ВПП;
уменьшать скорость посадки; смягчать посадку с помощью амортизационной
стойки шасси; увеличивая силу, направленную вниз на шасси; увеличивая
тормозную мощность; реверсивная тяга; создавать прямую тягу; замедляя
скорость самолета; награда конструкторскому проекту ЛА и хорошей
подготовки летного состава; высшая оценка знаний и опыта пилота.

18.3. ТEXT
THE SMOOTH APPROACH
As the aircraft nears its final destination, the flight attendant announces it is
time to return tray tables and chairs to their upright positions. Passengers are filled
with the anticipation of either reaching their destination or returning home. Activity
90
on the flight deck increases as the crew begins the initial descent to safely return the
aircraft to earth.
Approach and landing is by far the most critical phase of the flight. To assure
the highest safety standards, approach procedures must be accomplished with great
precision. Checklists are completed and double-checked by flight crew members.
The aircraft is handed off from the enroute to the approach radar air traffic
controllers, who will direct the airliner to the runway while keeping all aircraft a safe
distance apart.
The long, rigid body of the airliner acts like a teeter-totter combined with a
roller coaster. As in a teeter-totter, the aircraft moves about the center of gravity
when the pitch attitude is changed, while changes in flight path create effects similar
to those experienced at the top and bottom of hills on a roller coaster ride. When a
roller coaster reaches the bottom of an incline, the riders feel heavy as they are
pushed down into their seats. This sensation is caused by the upward acceleration of
the coaster. The reverse occurs at the top of the hill, where riders experience a light,
floating sensation. Although roller coasters and teeter-totters are great fun, the flight
crew is careful to keep passengers from experiencing these sensations.
The teeter-totter effect is minimized by using flight controls called spoilers and
by making flight path changes extremely gently. By reducing the throttles and
actuating the spoilers to reduce the lift of the wings, the aircraft can begin
descending without the nose being pitched downward. As the air pressure outside the
aircraft increases with decreasing altitude, the cabin pressurization must be slowly
and continuously adjusted.
As the aircraft slows from cruise to approach speed, the wing flaps and slats are
activated to minimize the need to change the pitch attitude. When the aircraft
reaches the final approach fix and begins the final descent, the landing gear is
extended. The additional drag from the landing gear is used to assist in this descent.
`The most complex maneuver is the landing flair. Passing the runway threshold,
the throttles are closed and the nose is raised to the proper touchdown attitude. This
pitch change must be timed precisely so that the rate of descent at main gear
touchdown is kept to a minimum. The pilot must also compensate for any cross
winds. The landing gear struts act as shock absorbers, softening the touchdown.
After touchdown the spoilers deploy, increasing the downward force on the landing
gear and maximizing braking effectiveness. Assisting in this braking are the thrust
reversers. Devices on the jet engines engage, allowing the thrust to be directed
forward, thus slowing the aircraft.
The smoothness with which all of these changes are accomplished is a tribute to
the aircraft's design and the abilities of the flight crew. Amazingly enough, this
landing can even be accomplished automatically if weather conditions do not permit
the pilot to land safely using visual flight rules. Flight attendants sometimes have to
awaken passengers when the plane reaches the gate. That is indeed a compliment to
the pilot's expertise.

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18.4. EXERCISES

1. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What are passengers filled with when the aircraft nears its final destination?
2. Why does the activity on the flight deck increase?
3. What are approach and landing?
4. How must approach procedures be accomplished?
5. What are the functions of the radar air traffic controller?
6. Why does the long, rigid body of the airliner act like a teeter-totter combined
with a roller coaster?
7. Why is the crew is careful during the flight?
8. What are spoilers designed for?
9. Why must the cabin pressurization be slowly and continuously adjusted?
10.When is the landing gear extended?
11.What is the additional drag from the landing gear used to?
12.Why is landing the most complex maneuver?
13.How does the landing gear shock strut assist the softening the touchdown?
14.When is landing accomplished automatically?
13.What does the smoothness with which all of these changes accomplished
mean?

2. Переведите следующие предложения с опорой на текст.

1. Работа на борту самолета усиливается, когда экипаж готовится к


начальному этапу снижения.
2. Approach and landing is by far the most critical phase of the flight.
3. В соответствии с нормами безопасности, подход к зоне аэродрома
должен проходить с высокой степенью точности.
4. The long, rigid body of the airliner acts like a teeter-totter combined with a
roller coaster.
5. Хотя качели и американские горки – это веселье и смех, экипаж
авиалайнера старается не подвергать пассажиров таким ощущениям.
6. By reducing the throttles and actuating the spoilers to reduce the lift of the
wings, the aircraft can begin descending without the nose being pitched
downward.
7. Эффект качания уменьшается при использовании интерцептеров,
которые плавно меняют траекторию полета.
8. As the aircraft slows from cruise to approach speed, the wing flaps and slats
are activated to minimize the need to change the pitch attitude.
9. Проходя порог ВПП, носовая часть поднимается, пока самолет не
коснется земли.
10. This pitch change must be timed precisely so that the rate of descent at main
gear touchdown is kept to a minimum.
11. Амортизационная опора шасси смягчает посадку.

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12. Devices on the jet engines engage, allowing the thrust to be directed forward,
thus slowing the aircraft.

3. Переведите текст без словаря.

Рис. 7. Freighter versatile aircraft T-101 "Grach"

18.5. ТЕХТ
Freighter versatile aircraft T-101 "Grach"
The "Т-101" combines design simplicity and reliability, comfortable
environment for both crew and passengers, rather low aircraft cost and possibility of
its operation from the short ground strips. Aircraft is good for airlift of 9 passengers
or cargo of 1,200 kg at the range up to 1,270 km. Aircraft is versatile, since it can be
rapidly reequipped. The "Т-101" aircraft can be used as the air ambulance, wrecking,
patrol, people and cargo para-dropping, as the flight schools’ training aircraft.
The "Т-101" "Grach" is all-metal, single engine, braced high wing monoplane,
with standard single fin empennage and three wheel LG (tail wheel steering).
Aircraft is equipped with economical turbo-prop engine.
Cockpit accommodates two pilots and has seats with longitudinal and vertical
adjustment. On the portside and starboard of cockpit there are individual doors for
the crew members, equipped with emergency release mechanisms for aircraft
emergency abandonment.
High universality of aircraft is achieved due to wide opening of the cargo-
passenger cabin.
Aircraft anti-icing system is of three types: "air-heat" for the hot air supply from
engine to the windshield, "oil-heat" for engine air-intake and electro-metric for the
prop tips and pitots.
Fire equipment has the warning system with fire sensor installed in the engine
bay, fire extinguishing system with a fire bottle charged with chladone, installed in
the engine bay and operating from the squib. Crew cockpit and passengers cabin are
equipped with the air-conditioning system.
"Grach" has instruments and avionics, including airborne radar installed in the
pod, providing qualitative and safe (mostly in independent mode of operation) flight
and navigation at day and night, in VFR and adverse weather conditions, above
water or landmarks free territory.

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The main element of flight-navigation equipment are GPS receiver, ADF, radio
altimeter, directional gyro, meteorological radar.
The "Т-101" can be operated from unprepared RWYs and intended for the use
by geologists, oil and gas industry workers, farmers, shortly to say – by everybody
who needs reliable and maintenance easy aircraft.

18.6. TEXT
SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Su-35 multi- role fighter

On the world fighter market Russia’s Sukhoi is pinning its hopes, in the near
future, on a substantially modernized Su-35 multi-role fighter. The model must be an
interim type between today’s Su-30MK in various configurations and a prospective
fifth-generation fighter, whose deliveries may start in the second half of the next
decade. The Su-35 is a 4++ generation aircraft employing technologies of the fifth
gene-
ration. They make it superior to all other 4th generation fighters now under
development worldwide. In 2009-2015, thanks to these technologies, the Su-35 will
dominate the world market, outperforming other proposed multi-role fighters.
The first experimental Su-35, completed in summer 2007 at Komsomolsk-na-

Рис. 8. Su-35 multi-role fighter


Amure Aviation Production Association (KnAAPO) first appeared at Russia’s
MAKS-2007 air show.
A new aircraft with an old name
The Su-35 has long been a brand name in the aviation world. Since 1992, an
export version of the Su-27 fighter (created under the order of the Russian Air
Force) has been demonstrated at international air shows. At the turn of the
millennium, Su-35 fighters participated in the tenders of Korean and Brazilian air

94
forces. By the mid-decade of the new century, a general concept emerged of a
considerably modified Su-27 fighter, which retained the name of Su-35.
What is new in the Su-35? First off, the fighter will get an improved airframe,
which will dramatically increase its service life to 6,000 hours, 30 years of
operation (the time before the first test and recondition and the between-repairs
period has been increased to 1,500 hours, or 10 years of operation).
Aerodynamically it is similar to the Su-27. But unlike the Su-30MKI it will feature
no canard fins. All the three channels will have electrically signaled control without
mechanical cabling. The use of a new integrated control system (developed by
MNPK Avionika Moscow-based Research and Production Association)
simultaneously performing functions of several systems – remote control, automatic
control, limiting signals system, air signals system, chassis wheels braking system –
will enhance the fighter’s handling capability and maneuverability.
Among the Su-35 design features, worth of note is the absence of an overhead
brake flap, a standard characteristic of the Su-27. Its functions are performed by an
active rudder. The Su-35 chassis has been reinforced because of the increased
takeoff and landing weight of the aircraft. For the same reason, the front bearing has
two wheels. The improved radar stealth reduces the reflectance of the Su-35 in the
X radio waveband and in the angle range of ±60°.
The “heart” of the aircraft
Another important difference of the Su-35 from predecessors from the Su-27
family is the use, in its power plant, of new engines with an increased thrust. Those
engines, known as 117S, have been developed by NPO Saturn Research and
Production Association.
In terms of engineering, the engines are substantially modified AL-31F
production engines employing fifth-generation technologies. They use a new fan,
new high and low pressure turbines, and a new digital control system. A provision
is made for using a vectored thrust nozzle. The modernization has increased the
engine special mode thrust by 16%, up to 14,500 kgf. In the maximum burner-free
mode it reaches 8,800 kgf. Compared to today’s AL-31F engines, their capabilities
will grow substantially, by 2 to 2.7 times. For instance, the between-repair period
will grow from 500 to 1,000 hours (the operating period before the first overhaul is
1,500 hours). The designed period will vary between 1,500 and 4,000 hours.
The 117S engines will be co-produced by Ufa-based Motor Building
Association and Rybinsk-based NPO Saturn Research and Production Association.
The first production 117S engines were delivered to KnAAPO in early 2007 for
testing on the first experimental Su-35 aircraft.
New onboard systems
The distinctive feature of Su-35 is the employment of a new suite of onboard
instruments. Its core is the information management system (IMS), which integrates
functional, logical, informational and software subsystems into a single complex
that ensures the interaction between the crew and equipment. The IMS includes two

95
central digital computers, commutation and information devices and an indication
system built on the “all-glass cockpit” concept.
The core of the Su-35 cockpit instrumentation suite are two full-color multi-
function liquid crystal displays of MFI type, a multi-function panel with a built-in
display processor, a wide angle collimatory display on the windshield and a control
and indication panel.
MFI multi-function displays with a built-in processor measure 9 x 12 inches
(diagonal 15 inches) and have a resolution of 1400x1050 pixels. They are intended
for reception, processing and production, in a multiple window mode, of graphic,
numeric, alphabetic and symbolic information. They also present televised
information received from onboard TV sensors and impose on it synthesized
numeric, alphabetic and symbolic information. Besides, they produce and send
video signals in a digital format to the video record unit. The multi-function panel
with a built-in display processor presents the required information and issues
commands by pushing the buttons on the button array at any time in flight. The
airborne collimatory display with a built-in processor monitors the space beyond
the cockpit. The information is processed by control signals.
The collimator angle of view is 20x30о.
The onboard systems and armament in the new cockpit of Su-35 are
controlled by buttons and switches on the aircraft control joystick and engine
control levers as well as by a button array on multi-function displays. Thus the
HOTAS concept is realized on this type of aircraft. The displays and some other
avionics systems of Su-35 are developed by Instrument Design Bureau of
Ramenskoye and affiliated companies of Tekhnokompleks Research and
Production Association.
Eyes and ears
The core of the Su-35 armament is a new radar control system with a phased
antenna array (Irbis-E). It features unique capabilities in terms of the target
detection range. This is a development V V Tikhomirov Research Institute of
Instrument Production. In design, this is an X-waveband multi-role radar with a
passive phased antenna array (PAA) mounted on a two-step hydraulic drive unit (in
azimuth and roll). The antenna device scans by an electronically controlled beam in
azimuth and angle of elevation in sectors not smaller than 60°. The two-step
electro-hydraulic drive unit additionally turns the antenna by mechanic means to
60° in azimuth and 120° in roll. Thus, in using the electronic control and
mechanical additional turn of the antenna, the maximum deflection angle of the
beam grows to 120°.
Irbis-E radar control system detects and tracks up to 30 air targets, retaining
continuity of space observation and engaging up to eight targets. The system
detects, chooses and tracks up to four ground targets in several map-making modes
with various resolution at a range of up to 400 km, without stopping to monitor the
airspace.
Irbis-E radar detects air targets with an absolute cross section of 3 m2 on a head-on
course at a range of up to 400 km.

96
Being an improvement on radars with a PAA, Irbis has much better
capabilities: expanded (by more than twice) operating frequency band, increased
from 70о to 120о target detection and tracking zone in azimuth, substantially (by 2-
2.5 times) increased effective range, improved anti-jamming capability, etc. In this
aspect, Irbis is comparable to the best foreign counterparts, outperforming most of
the US- and Wes-European-made radars with passive and active PAA.
The Research Institute has been developing Irbis since 2004. By now, the
engineering prototypes of the system have passed the required bench trials. The first
of them has been installed on the Su-30MK2 flying laboratory and is undergoing
flight tests. The first flight of the flying laboratory with Irbis onboard occurred in
early 2007 at Gromov Flight Test Institute. During the flight, the laboratory proved
the superior performance of the new radar in the air-to-surface operating mode.
Among other new onboard systems of the Su-35 is modern navigation and
radio communication equipment, systems maintaining fighters operation in a
formation and a highly efficient electronic countermeasures suite. The component
package of the latter and its complementation with specific jamming devices can be
determined by the customer.
Armament
In addition to the armaments onboard the modern Su-30MK, it is planned to
additionally arm the Su-35 with new types of air-to-air and air-to-surface guided
missiles, including long-range types. The maximum ordnance load of the Su-35 is
8,000 kg. This is placed in 12 weapon stations.

Status of the program


Nowadays, the first flying prototype of Su-35 is undergoing ground tests. Its
first flight took place on February 19, 2008. Following the first prototype, now on
the assembly line of KnAAPO (Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Production
Association) are a further two examples of Su-35. Those will join the tests this year.
The production and delivery of Su-35s to customers are scheduled for 2010. They
will continue with the emergence of a fifth-generation fighter on the market.
SUKHOI SUPERJET 100

Рис. 9. Sukhoi Superjet 100

97
Sukhoi Superjet 100 aeroplane family is being developed based on the principle
of maximum standardization of frame assemblies and systems, viz.: wings, fins,
chassis, engine unit, crew cabin, basic aeroplane systems and component parts.
The standardization of the design will make it possible to improve the economic
performance of the aeroplane family operation with expenditures kept at a rational
level.
The aerodynamics and design of the aeroplanes of the family are based on proven
advanced technology to minimise technical risks at the stage of design, testing and
operation.
To broaden the customer base among airlines, each of the 2 standard sizes of
the aeroplanes of the family (for 75 and 95 seats)has a basic and a LR modification
designed for use on a network of various-length routes to make it possible for
airlines to improve the economic performance of their operations through a more
balanced composition of their fleets based on the route structure and passenger flows.
The Sukhoi Superjet 100 aeroplane family conforms to current and long-range
requirements of Russian and global market in commercial aeroplanes. The
design meets the specific requirements of airlines in Russia, the CIS, and western
countries,
and conforms to the Aviation Rules AP-25, FAR-25, JAR-25 requirements.
The Sukhoi Superjet 100 family aeroplanes conform to the ground noise level
requirements under ICAO Chapter 4 and FAR 36 Section 4 standards to come into
force 2006.
The M&R system provides for annual up time up to 3,600 FH
Aeroplane frame design service life:
 basic: 70,000 FH, 70,000 takeoff and landing cycles
 LR: 70,000FH, 70,000 takeoff and landing cycles.
Engine design service life:
 to first dismounting: 16,000 FH.
 total life: 36,000FH.
The aftersales support of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 aeroplane family is based on
the state-of-the-art principles followed in world practices.
Compatibility with 99% of the class A, B and C aerodrome profiles in Russia and
the and the CIS.
Long sea-coasts, abundance of rivers and lakes, coupled with other hard-to-
reach areas in different regions of the world are the right places for the Be-103 light
operation. A most attractive and universal feature of the aircraft is its ability to
operate from both paved and unpaved runways, as well as from inland water
reservoirs and offshore waters.
The aircraft is a low-wing monoplane featuring +-type tail unit consisting of
vertical fin with rudder and horizontal allmoving stabiliser, and tricycle landing
gear with nose wheel. The power plant includes two TCM IO-360 piston engines
mounted on horizontal pylons on either side of the fuselage. The low wing creates a
considerable aerofoil effect at takeoff and landing, thus ensuring a three-point

98
skimming capability (planning step, starboard and portside centre wing trailing
edges).

Be – 103

Рис. 10. The Be-103 amphibian

The Be-103 amphibian is designed for a variety of applications, namely:


 passenger transportation and administrative and liaison operations;
 transportation of small-sized cargo and mail;
 emergency medical assistance;
 forestry monitoring and water ecology monitoring with water sampling
capability;
 maritime border patrolling and air photography;
 pleasure trips and tourism.
LAYOUT VARIANTS DESIGN
The aircraft is of riveted design, made of aluminum alloys with special rust-
protective coatings to ensure operation in all climatic conditions. It also features
titanium alloys, polymers and glass-reinforced plastics. The materials were chosen
to ensure the required strength and weight characteristics, the set service life as well
as given fire safety and survivability requirements. The airframe is a one-piece
structure consisting of the boat, the centre wing section, the fin and engine pylons.
The detachable parts include detachable wing sections (cantilevers), the horizontal
stabiliser, the rudder and nacelles. The Be-103 systems and equipment comprises
the fire-fighting system, the control system, the hydraulic system, the heating and
ventilating system, the anti-icing system and the flight control and navigation
equipment.
POWER PLANT
The Be-103 amphibian is fitted with two US Teledyne Continental Motors
210 hp TCM IO-360ES4 air-cooled piston engines. The power plant ensures
reliable startup of engines in a wide variety of temperatures (from +45°C to –55°С),

99
and provides for comfortable conditions in the cockpit, complying with noise and
emissions requirements. The two engines allow flying at an altitude of 3,000 m at a
speed of 250 km/h to the ranges of up to 1,180 km. The engines are operated along
with the MTV-12 three-blade reverse-pitch propellers designed by MT-Propeller,
Germany.

RADIO COMMUNICATIONSFLIGHT CONTROLAND


NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT

Elements of the radio communications, flight-control and navigation


equipment, as well as the aircraft systems control panels are accommodated on the
instrument panel, the central, the upper and the side consoles in the cockpit. This
equipment provides for self-sufficiency during flight preparation or aircraft
maintenance, as well as VFR and IFR manual flight modes, in daytime and at night,
in any season and any region of the world. Also, it allows fulfilling the following
tasks: a 10-minute preflight preparation; continuous measuring of the aircraft
present position, the set track angle and lateral deviation; ICAO Category I manual
approach; measuring of the flight altitude, vertical speed and airspeed, and outside
air temperature; indication and warning of operating limitations and critical flight
conditions.

The Be-103 amphibian is equipped with the Bendix/King radio


communications, flight-control and navigation equipment including:
 KX 165 radio navigation and communication system, operating
 KY 196A radio operating within the band of 118-136.975 MHz
 KMA 28/29 intercom
 C 2400L4VT magnetic compass
 KR 87 automatic direction finder
 KCS 55A compass system
 KT 70 aircraft responder
 KLN 94 satellite navigation system with 1,602-1,616 MHz
frequency band
 KEA 130A aneroid altimeter
 P/N 8000 airspeed indicator
 P/N 7040 vertical speed indicator
 P/N 9551B gyro turn and slip indicator
 AI-330 attitude indicator
 307FC outside air temperature indicator
o The following auxiliary equipment can also be installed:
 RDR-2000 or RDR-1400 weather radar
 KAP-140or KFC-150 autopilo
 KRA 405 radio altimetert

100
The navigation system of the Be-103 aircraft comprising the KLN 89B satellite
navigation system, the KR 87 radio compass, the KX 165 radio navigation and
communication system and the KT 70 responder allows the pilot to find the actual
position of the aircraft and pick up heading, take the bearings of radio stations and
listen to weather reports and commercial radio stations.

OPERATION AFLOAT

The sea-going capabilities of the aircraft ensure its operation in sea state 2
(with 0.5 m high waves). There are waterproof bulkheads separating the boat and
the wing compartments to ensure floodability if part of the hull is flooded. The
landing gear wells are also waterproof and are separated from the inside of the boat.
The Be-103 can be operated both at berthed and free waters, using floating assets
and without them. The aircraft can independently climb soft slopes on the shore and
set itself afloat from the shore. The stationary slipway has winches that can be
attached to bow snatch cleats or the stern lug to help climb or descend the aircraft.
When afloat the aircraft can be tugged by a boat with the help of a special kapron
cord. At anchorage the aircraft is moored with the help of the anchor tab attached to
snatch cleats. The cabin houses seagoing equipment, including a drag-anchor, a
heaving line, a boat hook and water-resistant gloves. Also, a special pump is
provided to drain water out of the compartments.

The Be-103 Amphibian Certificates


Aircraft Type Certificate (USA) (application/pdf, 395 KB)
The Type Certificate Data Sheet (USA) (application/pdf, 86 KB)
Aircraft Type Certificate (Brazil) (application/pdf, 601 KB)

101
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Орловская, И.В. Учебник английского языка для студентов технических


университетов и вузов / И.В. Орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И.
Скубриева. – М.: Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2000. – 390 с.
2. Григоров, В.Б. Английский язык для студентов авиационных вузов и
техникумов / В.Б. Григоров. – М.: ООО «Изд-во Астрель»; ООО «Изд-во
АСТ», 2002. – 384 с.
3. Баринов, С.М. Большой англо-русский политехнический словарь: в 2 т /
С.М. Баринов, А.Б. Борковский, В.А. Владимиров. – М.: РУССО, 1997.
4. Мюллер, В.К. Англо-русский словарь / В.К. Мюллер. – М.: Рус. яз.,
1989. – 848 с.

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