Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56
PacuyeTbl Ha pacTAKeHne-CKaTNe sopromat.xyz/projects/tension 08 Y Tlocrpoenue amtop N,o, A v Tlogpo6uo pacnucaH xoy pacueta Y Bo3mMorkeH pacier craTHyecku HeolpeAesJIMMOro CTepoxKHA Daapnaa flexyus 2. OceBoe pactaxkeHve — cxkaTHe Conepxcanne Tiposonpupie utes w nonepesubis ceuenusx Hanpmxenue » nonepeumntx cevenunx crepas [ehopmanun w Hepewemenns. 3akon Dyka Torennuasenas 2neprus aE ‘Haupaxeunoe u seopmuponanuoe cocros nue py pacts:kenma 4 CAAT Pacuersi craruueckm onpenesuMbix crepasHeii Yuer coBersenuoro neca py pactaxeumu u caaTM TlogGop cevenmii c yreTom coGcreeHHoro Beca (pH pacTsACHBN M CKATHH) Komnosurussii Gpye Pacuer craruuecku onpeyesmumutx crepauenuix cxerem lous tue o crarwyecku HeoupeyesuMerx cucremax Ocopnue nosoxenus, Can2u HeoGxoauMnle 1 lonoTHMTeATEHEIE. Crenenp cratmyeckoii eonpenesumoctu. Meroguxa ee onpenetenna Packpsrrue crarueckoii neonpeseamumocra TIpavtepet Tanonsrx pacteTos craTHeckM NeOMpeneAUMEIX cHETeM Pacer kauerpyinuii no JonycKkaemuIM HarpyzicaM Pacer crarmHeckw onpeseUMEIx cHicTeM M0 ctocody yonyeKaeMEIX Harpy20K Pacer crarueck neompesteauMstx cucreM 110 cH HyCKAeMEIX HarpyI0K Pacuer ruGxux nureii Bompocer 151 camomponepxn Npodonbuere cunsi ¢ nonepenbix cevenuax Tha pacmamcenuem (cxeamuem) nOWMaIOT TKO! BH HArpYAXeHHR, pH KOTOPOM B onepesHIAIX ceHenHLEX CTEPAHA ROSHINKAIOT TOEKO Moose CHIN N, a MpOMe CHLIORME dakTopHt (NonepesuELe CHIN, KPYEALILAH H EsrHGaxonLE MoMHTs) asus HynI0. ‘310 camuili npoctoli # uacto ReTPesaWMUiica BM pedopManMH. OGuIHHO Of HaGmonacTea Kora BHCUIHAA HarpysKa ACHCTBYET BAO MPOAOABHOH OCH CTEPKHA. MPOOONbHOU OCbIO CTEPKHA HASbIBACTCA MHHA, NPOXOMMMAT HEPES LEHTPBI TDKECTH nonepesisix cevert OGnrammsme sBTACTER PACTERETME CTEPAHA CHTAMM, MpHTOKEMMBIMT K ero Konan. Tlepenawa YC K CTEpIRITO MOET Okrms OcyiHlecTHsICHA PasAINHIMIMH coCOGAMH, KaK 970 NloKasalo Ha pH, 2.1 @ Puc. 2.1 Bo ncex caysasx, omtaKo, cveTeMa RHeITHNX cH obpasyer pasnozelicmyromylo F, Hanpannemmyto BOM OCH crepana, TlosToMy HesaBHcHMo OT yenoRHlt KpeMIeHHs pacTAHYTOTO CTEPATA, PACHeTAA CXEMa B PACCMATPHBAEMEN CHYTAR (pie. 2.1, a, 6) oxassmactes ennnoit (pac. 2.1, #) coracto mpmmumy Cer — Benara, Eoam Bocriomssonarsca MerostoM ceHentit (pic. 2.2), 1 CTAHOBMTCS ONEBILINBIM, TO BO BCEX TloMepeHEBM ceMeHHAX CIUPKIA BOSLUKAIOT HOpMabuBIe ciLtbI Nz, pasubre ce F (puc. 2.2, 6). Cxame ovmsuaeres or pacwexenist, GopMalsHo PoBops, ToNKKO aHaKoM cHLibt N,. Tip pacDoKeHAN HOpMaNGHAK cHLIa iz, Manpansena or cesenma (puc. 2. F F <== N, N, a 6 8), a mpH exam ~ x cexenno, Puc. 2.2 Pacmacusaowyue npodomusie curb npunsmo caumam> nonoxcumensunnu (prc. 2.3, a), a coeumarouue — ompuyamensnoinu (pic. 2.3, 6). Puc. 2.3 Bwecte ¢ TeM MexAY PACTEXCHMEM H CARATHEN MOTYT OGHAPYANTLCA H KAYECTREHHBIE PASMHNMA, KAK, HANpHME, mpi MSYHEHHH MpOLECCOR PASpYIMEHHA METepHasIa MIM MPH HCCARTORANKH NORENENHA AHHH M TOHKIX CTEPA-Hel, AA KOTOPHIX CRATHE CONPOBOAIIACTES, KAK TIPABLLTO, HSTHGOM. Tipn pactere crepaxtteli, nermmsmeaontHi nehopManiio pacOKeHHA, Ha NPONHOCTS Hi 2KCCTKOCTS pH craTIMeCKOM aeilcTRIM Harpy3KH, HATO PemIITTs 7Be OCHOBHEIE samamH. 1 onpeereHMe HaNpaKcHHii (oT Nz), BOSAUKAROMIAX B CTEPAHE, 1 naxoKueIe aMMeTiMEIX HepeMenterntit B SanNeuMOCTI OT BHteUMIeH HarpySKH. TIpogomsubie cwist (Nz), BOSHHKAIOUIME B NONEPEYHBIX CONCHIEX CTEPAHA, ONPENEMIOICA HO BHEMIHEH HarpysKE ¢ oMOMtHo Meola ceNent Tpadnx, noxasninatoutsii MsMeHeHHe NPORONbHBX CHIT NO AINE OCH CTEPRHA, HASHIBACTCR ImMpolt NpodotbHEsx cit (on. Nz). Ont aaer narasatioe mperieTaRTeHNe 0 SaKOKIe HBMeNeHHA MPoslosIHOl CHB Ocwio aGemrce ceMeHHH CTEP HE. Dmopa nloswosser onpeyeT, B KAKOM CeEHHM seliCTyeT MAKCHMANSHOS BHYTpEHHEE yowNe (HaNpuep, Halt Nmax IyAUE och crepxna. Kaxyas opmunata rpacuka — upooabHas c (8 MacurraGe cast) & jaHKom UpH pactoxcrmmeexamn). Ceaenne, re elie mayer MaKCHMAlIBHOe YeHUTHE BY;IEM HasHIRATs OMACHELM. Teper noctpoennem omop neoGxonuMo ocuoGo;u Gpye, B KOIOpOM GysleM CIPOHtT 9mOPs OT OUOPHBIX cRxsei (amen O6seKT panHonecHs) H MPHIOKHT K HeMy Bee selicTayIONMe BIeMNMe cHIB (aKTUBUEIe M peaKTHBHte). 3aTeM HEOGXONHMO YCTAHOBHTE IpAKIMIS YHACTKOR, H MPCIETAX KOTOPKAX S2KOH HSMCHEHHA BHYTpCHIUX CHL NocToRMUEIl, TparHttaNt TAKUX YHACTKO ARAALOTEA CONCHHA, TNE MPHLTOKHA COCPEAOTONCHEBIE CHLIM HIM HANMMeTER H KOWACTeR pacmpenecntian “ea HepesiOM CTep AHS. HATPYSKA, a TaloKe CCUCHMA, Fike HMI HpUMeHaAA METOR Ce4CHHH HM YHHTBIBAA NMpaBitla 3HAKOB H31OKCHHIC BbIIIe, MOTYYaeM YPABHEHMA H3IMCHCHHA BHYTPEHHHX CH B Tpeslenax JLIMHBI KaKNOTO YeacTKA Opyca. Bate, HeMIOMKSys, TlOMyYeHMHe SARMCHMOCTA CTPOMM rpadHKH (omopst) 3THx yoru, OpaHmaTst omop B OMpeneTeHHOM MactITaGe OTKTATEIBAeM OT GasHCHOH HEM, KOTOPYIO MpOROAHM spantessi10 oc 6pyca. PacemonpM CTepAeHs MOCTORHHOTO MOTIepesHOTO CeEHHA, *KCCTKO SAILEMIICHHGI MpABBIM KOHLIEBSIM CCHCHHIEM arpyAcHHBI 1aj1aHHOi! BHCUIKE! CocperOTONeHHO! HarpysKoli Fu pacnpeseneHHotl g (puc. 2.4, a). Tipexae scero onpestenu onopuyto peaxunto R}., saaBMIHce ee HANpABTEHHEM B01 OCH Z. 2/0, -Ry = 22+ 24-0,6=0, {= -7,6 KH. Hak MHHYc TOBOPHT o ToM, TO sLeiicTRHTETBHOE HaNpaREHHE OnOpHOll peaKuIH Ry MPOMAROMIONOKHO TOKASAHHOMY Ha pu, 2.4, a. Vempannsent ero it aanbiteliannx paceTax s1aK Mumye y onopuoli peakiwin R] ue ysumnaem (pre. 2.4, 6, 2). Tha yuaemkom Gysem noHHMaT acs cTepxHE, Ha KoTopolt Nz MpeNcTARAReTeA HEKOTOPEIM aHATHTAETECKEM ssipaxennen. Ha zpyrom yuactke Nz Gysier onpexeastsca pyroii ymxun Tpannuamst yuactka sBIHOTCR HaYAIO H KONEL CTUpAHH, CONEHIO, TAC MPHLIOKEHKI COCpELOTOMEHHBIE HArpyskH, HAMMTHAETCA 1 SAKAHMMBACTCR PACTIPeeTeHAAR HarPYSKA. B ame caysae crepwenb pasGupactca Ha jlBa yuacrka, B npesesiax nepBoro YHaCTKA MBICIICHHO paccesem CTepAeH ja nme acta HOpMambrbmM cevemIeM (pute. 2.4, 6, e). Puc. 2.4 Hanpassenma mpogoasesix cuit (pic. 2.4, 6 —<) npHEATBI B MpeMMOTOXeINM, 470 OHI ABAMOTeA PACTATMBALOLINMEE (T. ©. jorsuresoninn). Eosim 8 pesysurare pacuera suanenne Nj NOnysHTeA CO SHAKOM cMUMYCD, 10 910 Gyser OSAMA, 10 H NeHCTRHTENBHOCTH CTEPXKeHK B TOM CeNEHIMN C>KAT, Tlockomay oG¢ YactH cTepanA amamoTeA paRKonpanHMH, 1%] N] Ha TepsoM yuacTKe B CeveMIEK, ompertesteMoM Koopmmiaroit z], MowKHO onpenemiTs paceMatpHeas pastionecwe ero Mpasoit (pre. 2.4, 6) mGo menolt (prc. 2.4, 6) wacTel Buauem eaysae 2218 onpenenenns Nj npednoumumenonce pacemorpem paplioncexe Mpanofk wacmH — x tei psLtoxeHO Menbinre cw (pu. 2.4, 6). Haya1o KoopmHHaT COBMEMIaeM C MPABBIM KOHI[eBEIM CeNeHHEM NepBoro yacTKa. Ock Z HaNpaBnsen jateno. LIpenenst ISMeHEHHA NOTOKEHMA CeHeHHA B,l0 NpOsIO-BHO‘ eH Oz] <0,6 wt. CrIpoexmHpyeM Bi e cin, slefieTayrontHe Ha Npasylo acts, Ha NpOAOABHYTO OCs. EF A0, Ny 2421 Nj =24z1, Ni(O)=0, 40,6) 14,4 HL. Nockonsky dyxkuux Nj =24-71 nomy4wiack suNeliHax, TO UIA NOCTPOEKHH rpapika ce HEMEHEHHA BONIS MpOsOABHO! cu (an, Nz) ROCTETONO BAEC SHaYeHHA npOAOABHOMK CHT Ha TPAuHUAX MePROTO YHACTKA, OTIOAHTH HX MepTeNAHKY AAPHO npononsuolt ocH BRepX (CTEPACHD pACTAHYT) M MpORECTH Hepes HEX MPAMYIO THHIIO (PHC. 2.4, 3) Taxus o6pasom, 8 Mpenenax nepHoro ysaCTKa CTepKEHS PACTIHYT H HOPMATBHAR cHIa WMEHAETCR TO -1HKeliHOMy saKORY. (JTOT KE PESYAbTAT MOKHO TOMYYHTh, PACCMATPUBAA PABHOBCCHE NCBOH YACTH CTEPAHA. BAeck MPH BEIGOPe CHCTEMBI KOOPAMHAT PaccMOTPHM jBa Bapwarta, TlpH NepROM RapHaHTe Hayao KOOPMAN CORMEIIGEM © TEBKIM KOHTIEBAIM CeNEHHEM BTOPOTO yuacTKa, Ock z HanpaBAaeM Hanpaso. TIpenes MaMeHeHHA noTOREHs CeNeHHA B05 UpOLOMsHOH OCH 0,4 M1) Jaa nempansio cxxarax Geronmbix snementoe dopmysia (2.33) 3annenmaeres R Bie =a Sah, (2.34) rye @— KoxdybHKMeHT, MpHHNMAeMbtli juit Gerorla ‘DrKesIOrO, MeKOSEPHHCTOLO H serkoro paztbist 1,00: aBTOKIaBHOrO — 0,85; 71a AHeHCTOrO HeAaBTOKIABHOTO — 0,75. B wexoropsx caysasx paGorcnocoGHocTs oeMeHTa KOHCTPYKUMM ONpeeIeTCA HE TOABKO eFO TPOUHOCTSIO, HOH HCECMKOCMbIO, Te, CHOCOSHOCTHIO WeMeHTA BOCHPHHNMATS HArpySKH Ges HeLOMYCTHMBX yupyrHx nepopmamtit. Cpu pacHeTaX Ha -KCCTKOCTH ONPevIeNOT MaKCHMBIBHBIE NepeMeMLeHIA CeNeHH M COnocTARIAIOT IK CON nepemententonw Venonue 2xectkoctH, orpakiemmaromee MaMeHeHe JUTE ats [ai, rae Al ~ usmeneune pasmepos eran; Ia EHC TOO /eKaeMbIME feMenTa, HMeeT cenyromit oGmuii BHT: [Al] - aonyeKaemaa Remranta 21Oro HsMeHeHIA, Vaurisas, 10 MpH pachoKeHHH (CkaTH) AGCOMOTHOS YALIHHEHHE B OGLIEM BHLIE OMperesIxeTes KAK asIreSpanteckas cymaa nemisuis AT uo ysacrKa - y I NG@)dz a ~ EA(z) 2.35) YeTONHe 2KECTKOCTH IH pACTHKeHHH (CxKATHMH) SaMHMTEM cTeAyFOMTINM OGPAsoM: NG@)d: tail L/S lad. (2.36) Tax Kax nepememtenne, cortacHo saKony TyKa, saBHcuT OT HarpySKH H paSMepOB HonepesHOrO ceNeHHA, yesOBHE KECTKOCTH HOIBOIET PEMA Te KE TPH BIA SAAN, HT H YCHOBHE NPOMHOCTH. Pacueme! cmamuyecku onpedenumeix cmepxHeti Cmamurecku onpedenunoit cmepsicens — 910 crepxetth, KoTopsili MOO PACCHMTATH, HCHONSSYH TOAKKO ypaBHetits panwonecna (ypasieHnn cTaTHKH), B snoGoi nayke, KoTopas HasbiRacTes , Ey - SHAYCHIIK MoslyNeH ynpyrocm MarepHasioR Gpyca x Kanyoro yaacTKa; Ay, Ap, Ay - MMOUIAIHE HONepesHILIX CeHeHHit CTEPAIK Ha MEPBOM, BTOPOM H TpeTseM Y4ACTKAX. Hockomey xeersocm Reex 1pex yu kos OjumaKosne (GAIKA HSTOTOBLLENA HS O7MOTO MaTEpHALIA M HMeeT HOCTOSOE no neeit amme monepemoe cexermie), Moxno oGosriawm E, A, = Ep +A; = EAM BumecTH oTor MmioxiTeM 3a cKo6KH. B PesyMKTaTe NOAYSHM BUIPEKCHHE B BHT a= Lyte taba Ny l 1 ~ 2-108 - 12-104 Tae Ny = 2F wH, Ny = 0 xH, N3= -Fxi, b= b= EA AL QF -140°1-F-2)=0, my =3m. Mpumep 8. TiponepHm mposocts syryntoro Gpyca (pwe.2.16, a). Tipwmem cy = 150MMla; of = 650 MMa, sonycKacnti Kooddpmumtenr santaca mpoxmioe ns [n]= 4 Pewenue. Crponm omopsr nporonasix cot N it Hopsarsirx Hanpaxenit (prtc.2.16, 6 14). Ag= 150mm? Ay = 80 mm? Feni6xH F,=10x mH | i 1 Gxt 9) 20H ite ei 4omnal 9) 1 a R 125 Mla 667M 8) Puc.2.16 Hanproxeuna nia yaactwax 6pyca N;_ 10°10? = —125 + 108 Mla = -125 Mla; 66,710 Ta = ~66,7 Mila; ous = = — Fey aggre 740108 a= 40 Ma Tak Kak MatepHan 6pyca HMeeT pasMNTHY!0 MpONHOCTS Np PACTRKEHIBE H CRATE, pOBepKy poyHocTH cxenyer BRIONITS ULE CRATOFO M PACTINYTOTO yuACTKOR, aGcomoToMy sHaHeHiHt0. Koodvbiiuermr saraca mpounocm eeMOIPH Ha TO, IO Ha yuacrKe I HANPHKEHHE SHAvIETEDHO Go.IIe 10 37 125 7 92> In) ~ npostiocts oGecnexerta; S150 faa 75 < In] ~ nposniocts oGecneverta, Vs pemenns sanani Moxto cileraT cmemyIONte BRIBOABI: 1) mposnoct, crepxns He oGecteeHa, TAK KAK Ha OJlHOM ero yuacTKe KoNddmMeHT sanaca MpoNO THE MeHKME speSyemoro; 2) ma yuaciwax Iw II xoopypimmenr sanaca npownocts saBsiteH, citexORaTeABHO, It yuacTK Bpyca MomKHO cxe:1aTb Menburero sIHaMerpa. Tip NpOeKTMAPOBAHKE DuIeMEHTOB KOHCIPYKUM CHIeAYET CIPEMHTSCH K TOMY, NIOGBI BO BCEX CeHEHHAR Kooppnumerrr sanaca mposmiocts Gxt panent 11m Gans0K K TpebyeMoMy. Tponepky mpoutiocm Gpyca MoxkHo GhL10 RMINOMITE, HeTOMys YeAORME MPONHOCTH BRILL npenpapHTensHo TOMYcKaeMBIe HaMpRXEHAE To GopMymaM lol = 28: tol =24 [oh ompenennn lo.) = In)’ Yuem co6cmeenozo eeca npu pacmsxkeHuu u ckamuU MlodGop ceyeHull c yyemom co6cmeexnozo eeca (npu pacmskeHuu u cxKamuUU) Tip yeTaHOBTCHIM BHEMIHNX CHM, PACTATHRAIOIIUNK HAH CRUNAIOMNX STeMOHTAI KOHCTPYKUMII, MBI MO CHX mop MTHOPHPORATH COOCTHEHEIA Bec 9THK sueMeHTOR. BoSHHKAeT ROMpOC, He RHOCHTES NM STAM YNPOULeHMEM. pactieTa CAHIIKON Gousntaa HorpentHocTs? B CRASH C OTM NOICHTAEM RETIMIMEEI HaIpEXeHHi H AehopMatunii up yHeTe BIHAN cOBCTEEHHOTO Boca PAC THHYTENX HI CaKATEIX CTEpAHEIH Tlyetm nepmixartbuti crepxens (pitc.2.17, @) SaKpenineH CROHM BEPXEHM KOHTIOM; K HIPKHEMY ero KOHIY nOZBeItICH rpys P. Jluma erepacis [, womans nomepesoro cesenna F, yacasmaii nec marepuasa y H Moaym yupyrocns E. Tloxeutaen HaNPAKEIHA TO CeHeNHIO AB, PACTOAOKeHHOMY Ha PACCTOANAH X OT CROGOAHOTO KOHA CTEPYKHA. Y Pue.2.17 Paccevem crepkens cevennem AB 1 BEUIeTIM HIPKHIOT “ACTS JLIMHOH x ¢ TPHIOKeHNBIMIE K Heit BHEIIHME c7LTaMH (puc.2.17, 6) — rpysom Pw ee coGcmemmin necom yFx. Im ARE CHLIBI ypABHONCUMEAIOTEA HANPpsKCHMAMH, selicTHYLONUENH na romans AB or oGpomeniois vactH, Int HanpwoKeMnA BynyT HOPMANIBHBIMNS, PABHOMEpHO PacrIpesleTeHTIBIMH NO CeMeKIO H HaNPABeHHBIMM Hapyaxy OT PACCMaTpHBaeMO! HACIA CTEPACE, T. €, pacrArHBarONAEH, BesuIsuMA Hx Fysler paBHt: oy Pte _P ol Fa RtYE Taxi o6pazom, mp ysere coGcmenvioro Reca HOpMAIbHIIe HANPPKCHMA OKASKIRMOTCA HEOAMAKOBKIMI BO RCEX conenmax. HanGonce HANPHKCHEBIM, onacuoLu, OYAeT BEPXHEE CONCHHE, AAA KOTOpOTO X TOCTATaeT HaNGonEMeTO sHaTeHHE HanpRONCHMLe B HEM pEBHO: ? Gnas = 5401 Yeaosne npownocm AomkHo 6mm RbINOAKeHO HMeHHO AUR WOTO CeveHA P Cmax (+ i) < [0] Ftr) sta) Orciowa HeoSxoquMad HOM crepaKHA pant: P [ol-yt Or Gopmy.1, onpexenmontelt mtomans pactaytoro crepaHA Ges yueTa BritaHHA coBcTBeHHOTO Beca, 91a opmyzta OUIMMACTCA JIN TEM, TO HS OTTYCKACMOTO HANIPHOACHHE BHIUTACTCS RETHIHHA YL Urobsr ones sHasene oO; MOMpARKH, MOMeNHTAeM ce JLT WBYX cmyaen. BosbMeM CTEpKeH 1G MarKOit CTaTH Fz yunnoi 10 m; ja nero [¢] = 140 MMla, a newmunna yl = 78,5 H/om?. Takum oGpasom, 1a crepxus 43 Markoii Cram HOUpaRKa cocragur 78,5/140 1. ¢. oxono 0,6%. Teneps BosbMeM KuprMuHBI cr1ox6 BEICOTOH TOKE 10 4; aaa Hero [o] = 1.2 MMla, a 18 H/ma?, Taxi o6pasow, sci kuprmsmoro cron6a nonpanKa coctasit 18/1,2, Te. yxe 15%. Boone HowTo, WTO BIKAHHEM COGCTREHHOTO RECA IPH PACHOKEHHM H KATH CTepAHE! MOKHO mpeHeGperats, ec. MbI He HMeeM fea ¢ JUIMIENMIE CTEPAIEMM HTH CO CTEPAWAMI 3 MaTepHarta, OGnanaromero cpanmTerbHO HeGombMTOl NpowHOcTHO (KAMeHD, KHDMH) MPH AOCTATOYHOM Bece. TIpH paCteTe AUIMEHKIX KaHATOR TlOTKEMEEKOB, pasmMHHOTO ora TVIMHMBIX IITAHT H BKICOKHX KAMEHHSIX COOpy2KeHI (GAIIHH MasKOR, ONOH! MOCTORKIX (PepM) MPHXOMHTCA RROTHTH B Packer coGeTbeHHBtt Bec KOHCTPYKII. B raKux cay4aax RosHuKaer Ronpoe 0 HerecooSparnoi hopme crept. Ecmm Mbt 1oAGepeM CexeHHe CTEPAHA TAK, 51 TaMIM OIHY M Ty XKE THOMAs NonepeTHOTO ceNeRHA TO Bceit MIMAC, TO MaTepHAN cTepAHA GyseT MIOXO HeTIOTSSOBAR: OPMANMIOe NaNpHKEIME BTM OFTEN AO OMYCKACMOTO JTHINK R OOM REPXHIEM CeHETHN, RO RCEX MPO cove MH Syiem METS sande & HANPHOKEHHAX, T. ¢. HOTMUINU MarepHas. TlooTOMy *KEAATEAKHO TAK S2m|pOEKTHpORATH PasMepHL CTEPHKHR, umoBD 80 acex e20 nonepeditett CevenluAX (nepnen dUKYAApHELX K OCU) MOpMaToIole NaNpADKCenter GoLTU NocmostrtE, Taxoit cepxenh HasMmacTea cmepscnem pasnoz0 conpomusaenua pactaRetmo min cxKaTMO, Ecam mp 3T0M laNpHOKCHINA Paninst AOMYCKACMAIM, TO TAKOH CTePACHK GYNET MMET HaNMCUBUI Re Bosaaem {UINHEBI CTepACHB, HojKepACHEBIH CATO CHLIO P x COGcTREHHEIM BeCOM (pHc.2.18). Hem GmnKe K OcHORANITO CTEPAIA Mat GysteM Spam ceucune, TeM GONbINC GYAET CHA, BAGHAIOMLAT HANPMACHMA B TOM CeMeHHH, TEM SonBUIOM npHeres Gpar pasMmepst IHIOWaaH ceseHHs. CrepxeH® Hoxy'HT GopMy, pacumupsoMyrocs KHISY. [biowate cevextts F Gyner wMenincs 0 BRIcoTe B saBHcMocT OF x,t. €. F=f{2). ‘YoTaHORHM 3TOT SaKOH HEMEHEHHR MMOMIATH B SABHICHMOCTH OT PaCCTORHHA CeHEHIR X OT REPXA CTEPAHR, pesmmua y! Puc.2.18 Thouars sepxnero cesenna crepana Fo ompeemtes us yenosna nposHoc TE P P <=[o]) #h=5 RB fo] HAT rae [o] — aouycxaemoe nanpmxeune a coxame; HAIpHAeHKA BO BCEX MPOSHX CeNEIMEX CTEPAIM TAKE {0:04 paBiurrscx Besse P o=l[o]=> fy UwOu BALACHITS SaKOH HSMCHCHNA THOME NO BNCOTE CILPKIA, ROTKMEM jIRA CMEKUKK GecKoHCHHIO GmKsKHX CeMeHIBA Ha PaCCTOAHHH X OT REPXa CTEPARHA, PACCTOAHHE MeAY CeHeHHANM dx; IMOMLAIS BepxHETO HasoREM F(x), MIoMas Ke ememnoro F(x)+dF(x). Tipupamenne nnoma dF(x) npw nepexome of omHOTO CeyeHHA K APYTOMY JOMKHO BocKPHEATE Bec YF (x)dt aneMexTa CTEpKIA MeKuy cesenmaM, Tak KaK 1a tromann d(x) on noxUKeH BEESBaT HaNpwOKeKMe, Passo’ AONYcKacMoMy [¢], 1 dF(x) ONPEMeAHTCA HB YCHOBIE yF(x)dx aF(z) Orer0x aF@) _y dx F(x) o Tlocie marerpapoganuia nonysaem: in) +0= Tipu x-0 wiomaas F(x)=Fo; nonerasasn 9m suaveuns, uwcert Infy + C= 0nC = —Infy Orciona y Fu) ge InF(e) — Inf = nS ad Fy FQ) = Rel, Ecsimt Melis CexeIX TONNO 10 STOMY SaKoHy, 10 GoxoRMe ram cTepAU nOsyNEr KpHOsmelinoe o¥eprauHe (puc.2.18), "10 yonoxnzeT # Yzopoxaer paGoTy. TlostoMy oGEMHO TKOMY CoopyxetMO MpialoT AMM MpuGmDKeMHYIO bopMy IPMMep E RMe VeeucHNO! HMpaMMnnt ¢ MIocKMMH rpatiamn, Upuecacuiuiit pacuer sneres CTepREN paBHOTO CONPOTERNCHE, 5 UPHOJMOKCHHBIM. Mbi Upcquouarain, 410 10 BCCMY CCHCHHIO CT¢pAKHA PABHOFO COLNPOTHBIICHHA NCPC AAIOICA TOIBKO HOPMA/IbHBIC hanpsOKeHMx, Ha CaMoM slesle Y KPAce COCHIN HaNPHKEHNA Gysty’ HaNpaBuIeHB! HO KaCaTeTSHO! K BOKOROH NOBEPXHOCT, B cuywae wvunmnix KaHaIOR WIM pAcTAY TAX uTAN GOpMy CrePAHA pasHOrO ConpommuteMAX OCyMIECTRIMOT 1OxE MpHOMOKCHHO, PASTeAAA CTEPREH NO UME Ha PRL YHACTKOR; 1a NPOTHKEHUM KARNOTO Y'HacTKa CeHeHMe OCTACTER NOCTORIEEIM (puc.2.19) — nonysaetcs Tak mun eryneuianull cTepakeH. Puc.2.19 Onpenererme nomareit F, Fy .. up euiSpamnr yyumax mporsnommtes exentyromut oSpasom. ULiomazs nonepestoro CeYeHHA lepBOrO HiNKHEFO yHacTKa Byster mo opmyaxe pasta =a 4 Tel= ly YOK MOAYSHTS IONIAN Horkepesitoro ceveMHA BTOpOTO y4acTKa, Halo HarpysHMm ero sBiteutueH cHOl PH necoM nepaoro yaactka yF, ly Ptyhly [o]-yi." Jp tpensero ywacrxa K sHemeli ciuIe AOBantmoreA RecA TepROrO H BTOPOrO yHacTKOR. HoqOGEIN ae OBpAsOM nOcTYNAIOT H ZL APYTHX yuaeTKOB, Alecbopmauuu npu deticmeuu co6cmeenHozo seca Tipu onpeyeneHi Biman CoGcTREHHOTO Beca Ha jePOpMALMO IPH PaCDOKeHHH H CKATU CTepaHeli UpuseTeA y4eCT, TO OMMOCHTENBHOE Y;LINHCHIC PALIN YUACTKOR CTEPAHA GyleT TepeMeMBM, KAK H HaNpHKeHHC (x). Jam mbIHCsTeNES HOTHOTO YiNTHHCHHA CTePKEM NOCTOsHHOTO CeieHHA oMIpeeAHM CHATATA YAAMEeHHe GecKOHeYHO MaslOro YHACTKa CTepKHA nmol dx, MaxossMerocs Ha paccTosIMH x OT KOMTIA CTepaKttA (puc.2,20). mu AScomamioe yznmmemte aro yuscT paso (P + yxF)dx aay = CARD = FE + val Tlostoe ysumnnenne erepacus AI panno: t 1 7 faz ee PL yl? = are l tr] =aet age Bemrwnna yFI npenctasnset coGoii nommsiit nec cTepasia, Takin Ipysa H COOCTREHHOTO RecA MOAHO BoCTIOsIKSOBATECA MPEAHEH +opmy:0H: SL EF nonpasymenax ox $ erennino1o cHuty H HosoRMY COBemEITOTO RecA CTEPAIR, Uno Ke Kacaetcx jLeopMaumit crepxueH pasHoro CONPOTHBNIEHHA, TO, TAK KAK HOPMANBHBIE HANPwKEHIA BO BCEX oGpasom, Aaa BBMuNICTeHHA yruMHeHHA oT AeiicTBIE cexenax onMaKOBLI H pannel NoTycKaeMBMM [o], oTHOCHTEMBHOE ac = IMHTene TO RCei LIME CTEpATIA OFLHHAKOBO Ht PARHO AOCOMOTHOE KC YLIMHCHHE IPH ALIKE CTEp AHA | PaBHO: [oll PL EER Fledopwanmno ctynensamx cTepanell cmenyer ompesleamTm lo 4aCTHM, RRMOTHAR MONcHETK NO OTleTBHBIM IpHSMATINECKHM yuacrkaM. TIpH ONPELeNeHAH jLehopMAlIHH KAATOTO YHACTKA YHRTTMBACTCA HE TONIBKO Ero COGCTREHBIH REC, HO H BEC TEX YHACIKOB, KOTOPBIC BINAIOT Ha cro sePopamo, TOGaBANACS K BHeMMeH cite, TlomnaR nehopmanne noaysTCA CYMMMPOBAHHEM LeDOPMAL OTAEBHBIX YACTKOB Al=al Tpumep 9. Onperemm. Stem KxaIKH MocTonoi onopst BACOTOH 42 M, narpyxenmoi cxUMaIOULe! cHLTOM F—400 1, suU8 AByX papHanrTos: 1 eapuanm - onopa nocroanioro ecveHHy; 2 eapuakm - onopa cTyneHaTaa HS Tpex HacTeit osMHAKOBOH BBICOTBI. OGzemustii nec watepwarra Krank y = 2,2 m/s, pacteTHoe compoTHBAeHHe MaTepHaLTA KIQIKH Ha CRATHE Roy = 12. = Peuenue. OGsem xupmrmoit knamkn BarmteazseTes mo opmyze: VEAcH, rae A[M2] - niomans nonepesoro cetenna cTonGa; H[M] - snicoTa cTon6a. Taku o6pason, JLs PemICHH 3a:1a4H HeOOXOAHMO 31laTR MLIOMIAMIH MOMepeMHTsIX ceMCHHH MocTORO! OFIOPKI. LBAPHAHT. Pacsemiaa cxema u smopa BHYTpEHAUX youAMit 174 AaNMOTO BapHatTa HsoGpaxeHa Ha pic. 2.21 £ ms iw} Paw Pue.2.21 MaxciMansiias CAHMAOIIA MpOAONSHAR CHa ROIHUKAET Y OCHOBAHMA ONOpA H ONpeseMseTeA BMIpAKEHTEM (17 yno6etma 6yeM MoACTARAAT. SHAYEHHA BHYTPEHNX YoHMi no abcomionoit neanutte) N™* = Fig H=F+y:A-H, N™* = 4000 + 2242-4 = 4000 + 924-A [xi]. SamestBaeM yerosue nporwocmi OF = —— S Reg Hloneranney x avo supaxere sen Re, = 12 = 1200 = 1200 xia nary 4000 +9244 A Oretona tpeSyemaa MoUtaNs HS YeuIOBHA NPOUHOCTH KNaNKH Ha coKATHE pasta 1200 xfla, Aa eae. 27min O6pew Kaaukn 3U14 ueporo Bapuauta Gy.\cr paRet Vie =A+H = 144-42 = 604,807, 2 BAPHALIT, Pacseman cxema 1 a1nopa Buy tpennnx yout juix anor BapiaHTa HsoGpaxcena Ha puc. 2.22. 4 ' « Moctosaa onopa coctour 1 1pex ctyneaeli, nhIcoTa Kao! hy = hy = hy = >= 14, Toman nonepewmix cevent crynenei coomerementio Ay, Az,dz, B CRASH C HEM B Mpeneax KaxAoH eryneim oF sclicreHA coGeTmeHHore Reca Gyayt BOHIKaTs PASTHTHBe NO RETINTNE NpOsOAGHBIe CRIT H HaTpseAeHH Takum o6pa3oM, Ju1a peticHHa 3a1a4H HeOGXONMMO paccMOTpeTS YcsIOBHe NpouHOCTA maxnoli crynesma omen ; Fay tart hl Pue.2,22 1-8 cmynen», Makcumansiiaa CKHMaIONas NpoombitaK cHiTa Aa nepRO! cTyneHK (Puc. 2.22): NEES Ft qyachy =F ty: Agshy, NP** = 4000 + 22-4, 14 = 4000 + 308-4, [xi]. Tho axanorun ¢ eapuanmox 1, 2ansceibaens jL18 HepBolk CTyNeHH YCAORHE MPONHOCTH H HOACTABILAEM B HETO HExO,tHBIE sane ort* < Ry, NPS 4000 + 308 Ay Fo 1200 a Orciona spe6yemtan romans neproit erynenm pasta: 0 = 1000 sw? ALS gp = 450 2-8 cmynenb, MakcuMansHad CKHMaOIIad MPOMONBHAA CHa WE BTOpoii cTyneHH (puc. 2.22): NZS = F + gyy hy + Qya thy =F +y-Ayshy y+ Az shy =F +y “h(a, +2), NES = 4000 + 22 -14G,5 + A,) = 4000 + 308 (4.5 + 4,) [xa]. Bacnmaes ;L1% BIOPO! C1y!ICHH yeuIORHE UPONHOCTH H HOACTABALEN B EO HeXOANNE NAHB: Ong” S Roxy NF _ 4000 + 308 - (4.5 +43) 7 $000 5 308 188 4) 1200 ita, Orcioa 1pe6yeman 1ioutae Bropoll cryncHH pasta: 3386 oa a2 iakeovimheasad 3-8 cmynenb, MakcuManbias CKUMAIOIIaA NOONAN CHa Lt Tpetbeli crynenn (puc. 2.22): NES = Ft qys chy + Qy2tha + Qya'hy =F ty: ha, + A: +z), NZ** = 4000 + 308 + (4.5 + 6,04 + Az) = 4000 + 308 - (10,54 + Ay) [xa]. BancbiBaeM jULA TpeTbeli CIyNeHH YCuOBME MpOYHOCTH, 43 KOTOPOrO HO AHAIOrHH ¢ NpebUIyNUNMH samHCsMN onpesienaem TeByenyo tomas Hontepesmoro cee ory* < Rx, = 863 gat Ag = Gop = 82m, OGseM KatKH MocTOROII OMOpEI {L14 BTOporo BapHAHTA ONpesesLICTeA RMIpAKEHHEM: Vagsy = V, +; +V; = hlAy +A +g] = 14[4,5 + 6,04 + 8,12] = 261,207, ‘Takum o6pasom, mMoctosaa onopa, cocioamtas H3 cryHeHeli pasmMNO! HIOMANH, BEIrOWHeE HO pacxony Marepuaa, Hem onopa nocTosHOro 110 BCeli BbICoTe ceNeHa, Mpumep 10. Onpeserim, nommoe yamunenne crepxns, ¢ yaeTo coSeTeMOrO Reca, a Take MepememeNe cetenit m-n, Thoma uonepeaHoro ceHexua— A, Mony:ts yupyrocm — E, oGbewmpili nec Marepnaia - yy. PacteTHaa cxema crepxKHA moOpaxexa ta one. 2.23. Pue.2.23 Pewenue. Zina pemcens sanasn vcriomssyeM npHHUNIN HeSABHCHMOCTH neiicTRHA CHA, a HMCHHO: OTRETBHO MOCTpOHM ITHOpRI NPONONSHBIX CHI OT elicTRHA cocpeHOTONeHHOH cw F Mor xelicTRHA cOGcTBEHHOrO BeCa, TO ECT OF paBHoMepHO pacmpenesieHHoli mposobHoli HarpysKu g = y~ A. Pacuemax cxema u omopsi mpouosHBKX cit Ny HN, WOGpAKCHEI Ha PHC. 2.23. Tloswoe yanmnenve crepxua Al Gyser cknamsinaTecs 1H yaKNHeN, MOnyseNoro cTepxteM oT aelicTEHs cocpenorowenoii ciuabt F 1 or nelicTsis coGemennoro meca: Al= Al; + Aly. Vinw w apyros ese: F(b+e) y-A(a+b+ 40)? air 7 7 2A F(b+c) y@+tbtcy Ea 2 Zlaa toro, s10Ger onpertemitm nepeMentente ceseImHa m-n OTGpACHIRAEM HacTs CTEPANA IOKe CeMeTA M-n, 2 ee jtelicTRKE saMenien cocpejoTOYeHHOH CHMIOl F’, pasHoll upoxomuoll cue B CeMeHHH min. F = Nn =F + (0 +5). B pesyaistare nony'aem HoByio pactemtyio cxeMy, KOTOpaa MpMBeeHa Ha prc, 2.24. (ny \ Op) (4) ____________} Pae.2.24 Avreneps pettiaeM HoRyio 2anayy 0 HaxoATeHHIN NomHOTO YANHHEHIEA Mmm YAC DUA AaHWOTO CTEPAHA (pH. 2.23): a ly [F+q(atdyle 2EA EA Komnosumneiti pyc Bpyc, coctosuuli 1s pasiwainx MatepHaloz, HasbiRaered KoMnoqumuem. Byjem mouarats, 470 cocqmHeHne MarepHatos 10 Bceit zpMKe Spyca obecreMMBAeT HX CORMECTAYIO paboTy. TIpH 9TOM CeHeHHR OCTAIOTCR MHOCKHMH, a sinHeHitiaR ePOPMALMA OTeMHOTO BONOKHA pakHoMepHas, Y1oGs coxpakHis 91M NpeuNOAOXKeHHA JIM TOpyeRBIX CeveHMii, Harpy3sky MOXKHO OCYIICCTBHTS, HalpHMep, Yepe3 XKecTKylo ObOKMY. FaccMOTpHM Opyc, COCTOSIIMH H3 pa3IHTHBIX MaTepHanon Ha pnc.2.24.1, a. Tip noctoase tse siedbopsaurnt £ HaNpexCHMA pactIperte-imioTes To CeseHMO HepaRHOMepHO Ha pite.2.24.1, 6, 570 oGbscHACTCA pasiMIHeM MoayiIel nposONSHOl YmpyroCTH COCTABIATONUK MaTepHALIOS. a 6 Puc.2.24.1 OxesnH0, IE, BA ‘Le. Hampsxcims pacnpenenstorcs MpsMo MPonOpIHIOTATEHO MOAY-AAM YMPyrOCTA, Tipt onpenenemar nepenemernnit yZAMHeTH MOxHO HenlonEsoBaM GoPMYIE Ix OsHOposIHOTO Gpyea c saMenolt EA EA. wa D2 Pacem cmamuyecku onpedenumbix cmepxHeabix cucmem Cmamunecku onpedewuman cmepacnesan cucmema — 310 cHCTeMa, 8 KOTOPOli BCE HeHsBeCTHBIe PeakUMH OMOP H SHY TPEINIMe YorLINE MOKHO OnpenenitTs Hs ypastenmi pannonecHs (CraTHKH), Tina «pemtenna mosoit cTepaHeBoi cHcTeMDE HEOGXONMMO BEITETHTS # Heit OGREKT pasHoBecHa, B cBAIH C STAM, BCE CHETEMDI MOxHO pastes Ha 7a TAN L_mun — crctemst, coctosmmte 13 aGcomoTHo weCTKHX (HenebOpMEpYeMBIX) CTEpRHEH H ONHHONHEX HeBEcOMbTX (aehopwupyennix) ctepanell, [lua CrepAHESKIX CHCTEM 9TOTO THTIA OOKEKTAMH PaBHORECHA sBULMOTES HeNebopMuPyeNBie eText 2 mun — cHeTeMB, COCTORIIMe 15 HECKONSKIX HeopMupyeMBX CrepAHCH, COCAMHCHEEM B OsIHOM TOKE. TOuKH COCAIMHEHHA ARYX H Gouee CTEPAHCH HASHIRAIOTCR YS.AAMM, KOTOPHIC H SRLIAOTEA OBREKTAMM PaRHORECHA JVIA CHCTeM 2-ro ‘MATA. Bee Coeumen & SHeMeHTaX CHCTEM MIApHNpHME, OKO CYILECTHYIOT ONPENEIENEIIE MpABILIa, NO KOTOPHIM BRO;UHTCS Deakin 1 YCHLTHK B cTepAHAX: = 6 MapHMpe, CoeTHHMOMIEN aGcoMOTHO -eCTKMIL STEMEHT CHETEMEI ¢ «GeMTelh> HUE ¢ Pyro! KoHeTPYKIHeH, Bera BOSHINAIOT Re PeaktInH — ropusonTanstiaR Hm BepTAKamBHIOR R; ~ 8 UlapHHpe, CocAMMOULEM AehopMUPYeMBili CTEpACHD ¢ ABCOMOTHO KECTKHM CTEPARHEM KLIK c Npyrol KoHeTPYKLHE!H, BCETHIA BOSHUKACT O:tHa PeAKIUEA, HANPAB:ICHHAR B1O%T ITOTO CTePAHR H PABHAR NO BEMIMNE YCHNHO, BOSHHKAOMIEMY B HEM, B abcomomuo seecmnux cmepacuax nuxozda He eostuKaem snympennux yeusuit, onu He deqopmupyromcs! =m mapmupe, coesmuTomteM necKObKO xehopMupyeMNX crepxnel (ysionoH urapimpe), RosiMKaror yerins, HANPABNEHEBIE BOND THK CTEPAHE! H CXOAAMLHECH B 910M 3st. Tlopsaox pemem Gomsmunictea 3a1a4 0 MpOREPKe MPONHOCTHE CTATHNECKH ONpeNEHMBIX CTEPAHERKIX cHCTEM TPH pacteTe MO NOMYCKAEMLIM HANPRACHIAM CRORMTCR K CHENYIOINHM 9TAMaM: 1) Haxoan pnytpennme yews (mporomBHy}o CMY MpHt PAcTOKCHMN-C2kaTHM) H BBIKRAEM OrlacHBIe CeeHTE, 2) onpenessen RanpaKeHTs, 3) nocHe BEUBTENA MaKCHMANDUBIX HaNpmKeHHiL HeTOMISYEM YestOBHE MpoMMOcTA (spopmy-ibt (2.26), (2.28), (2.32)) IPH pac DOKEHMH-C KATHE). Npumep 11. Adcomiomo 2kecTeui Opye CD nosvtepaxtmactes cTaKIKIM cTepatem AB, HMCIONIAM MOMANk Horlepesttoro cexeITs 100 ww? (puc.2.25, a). Onpenemm Hs yenoBH npowHocT cTepaHa AB zonyckaemyro Harpysky [P] H nposepim, oGecnevera 1M XKECTKOCTS CHETEMBI, ECAH TONycKacTeA nepementerme cevenma D Gpyca non nelicmmnem crm P we Gonee 2 MM. 150 MI, Moayas ynpyrocm E = 2-10" Tl. Jlonyckaemoe Hanpmkexve upuusm pasusi [o] Puc.2.25 Pewenue. Vertomsys MeTos, cevennii, onpereniM cooTHOMIeHHe MexAY MposonbHO! CHI yonoRMa parrionecHa cua (puc.2.25, 6) naxonuM IM, =0; P+1,5—N-1sina =0; Nsin30°_N-05 N 1S 153 Honyexaenax upostossaaa cura (N] sta ctepaa AB is yeaonua ero mposttocTa IN] = [o]4 = 150 - 10° - 100 10-* = 15-10? # = 15 KH. Tlonyckaewas narpy3Ka va cucremy [P]=[NJ/3=15/3=5 KH. Tipu narpyxcunn cuctemm crepxcub AB yapumuctes ua Al, a a6comomo xcenKHii 6pyc noBopayunactes, ocTaRASC upaMonmielini. Cactema nocue ebopmauim crepana AB nokazanta upHxonoii Huei 1a pucyuke 2.25, ¢. Hz peyronsninka 5 crepane AB 4 narpysKoit P. Vis ABC onpexenaemt zzumy | cTeprkna AB: /=1/c0s30°=1,153 a Ha OcHOBAHI pHa HaYANBHBIX pasMepos MpUHUIMAeM, “IO SHAYeNMe yruza @ He HEMeWieres, a TONKH BMD nepementatorea 110 Reprikastn Vie upawoyroanioro speyvoutiunka BBE waxost BB! = B'E/sina; tak Kak BB' = 65,B E = Al. 0 at NL 15-10" -1,153 08 Sina ~ Easing ~ 2-105 +100» 10-*sin30® Tlepementenne toxky D onpenensem iss 10;(06ux 1peyronsaiKos CDD' w CBB’ 2,65 mm > [6]. = 173-107? w= 1,73 208 op Feo BS: by = 156, 2Keenoem cnetewot He oSeenevena Creayer sament, 10 HeAK3A HOBKICHT KECTKOCT CHCTEMM, NpUMEHHE 7yIA CreprHA AB Gone upounyio crate, TAK Kak XapakTepweTHKO CROHiCTB MarepHaa, RAMATOMMEH Ha KECTKOCTA, ARIAETEA MOMY.Th YIPYTOCTH, SHANeHHE KOTOPOTO UNA HEX MapOK CTaseli MpEMepHo onHMAKOKO, TIOBMICHT KECTKOCTS CHCTEMEI MORHO, MHGO YREIICNE THOMLAMs MoMepemMOTO ceveHT ereprxuia AB, smHG0 yMeubmnB ero mamHy. 15-17: Npumep 12. Onpeaeairs zonycKaemyro warpysky [P] M18 CHCTEMBI HS ABYX CrePAHE!, WSTOTOBNEHEEIX H5 JGOPATOMMEHEEEIX 1py6 ommmaKoBOTO MOnepesToro ceNerMA (pie.2.26, a). JlonyeKaemoe nanpaKenme nprmaTs [c] = 100 Mila, aon d=20mm Puc.2.26 Pewmenue. Veuomays meron coven, empesuent yseu Bi ite ypannenii pasnoxeev emt EX = 0; N,sin45? — N,sin30° = 0; EY = 0; N,cos30° + N,cos45* +P =0 haXORHM HeIBBeCTIBNe NpOLOLTIBIe CHS, BOSTHKAIOILNE B CTEpHKTIAK, Hepes Harpy3Ky P (puc.2.26, 6) N, = 0,732P; N, = 0,518P. HonyckaeMyto Harpy3sky [!’] Olpeseiaem W3 YCOBHA MPOYHOCTH HaHOONee HArpyACHHOTO CTEPAHA /: ® - {N,] = (ola, = 100 - 10° zor —16*)- 107 (M] 113 [l= {Ns} 0,732 = o7a2 = S4nH. Cueayer ormenc, so crepaxenb 2 nexorpyaxen, Haupoxenne 8 wex Nz 0518P 4-0.518-15.4- 10? 70,7 10° Mla = 70,7 MM =a A, mQ0? —16)-10- ‘sro mpumepHo 1a 30% murxe gonycKaeworo, Jaa cTepKHA 2 MoxHO HenonstoReT 1pyOy MeuIerO HoMepesoro erepasta. Npumep 13. Paccmorpim crepxnenyio cuctemy, cocromtyio 3 abcomomo %eciKorO (HtexepopMupyemoro) crepxnA A WapHNpHO saKperLieHHOro B TOKE AM HeBeCOMOTO (LeopMUpyeMoro) crepxHA BD, wapHupHo saKpervteHHoro no KOHUAM, sarpyrKeMnyio B TOKE C cocpenoToNeMoli cnaoit F (pue, 2.27). Pewenue. OGvekiom pasHoRecits B JaHHIOM euysae Gyner sBUNICA clepweHl AC, {HK KOIOPOrO GyseM COCTaBILATS ypaBHeHHts panionecut. Tlog geiicrsue sueminelt HarpyskH, Wa OCHOBANMH BRENEHHDIX BANE NpABILI, 8 TOKE A GyayT BOSHUKATH ABE peaKLIN R, WH, an ctepxne BD nostmaer yowne Ngo, Hanpanentoe no cTeprito (pc, 2.28). Onpenenum Hecyityro crlocoGxocTs (rpysonoxbeMHOCTS) Sa7aHHO CHCTEMBL, TO ECT oMTyeTAMYIO HarpysKy F, ecm OMAN ceveHMA CTepxHA As, = Sem’, pacseTioe conpotuBsenHe MatepHana crepxua R-200 MIa, Jus s1oro MoxHo cocrasH cueayIoUINe ypaBHeHUN pasHOBecHK: {i =0, =M, =0. Pue.2.28 Tlockomsky 8 KOHeuHOM HTore petlieHHe saqauy GysleT CROAMTECA K ONpeeneHMO youIHA B cTepaHe BD, To octapaaem B PAaCeMOTPeLINM YpaBHEHMe pazuOnecns, conepxanice TOABKO Ng5, TO eCTb ypaBHENHe MOMeHTOR OTHOCHTeTBHO TONKH A. Pacrimuies slaHHoe ypaBHeHHe: IM, =F +2a — Ngp + sin30° a, orcioga HewaBectHoe youitHe 2F X, 5D sin30° Bammcnmaen yesronne npo% om 1a cTeparis BD 4 auparkaem tarpysky F: 25 x. Tpumep 14. OMpeAeIHTh HEOOXOAMMBIC PasMepbI NOMCpeHHBIX CCYCHHH MCTAUUINYCCKHX TAT B CTEpAHCBOH CHCTEME HS YCIOBHA upownocn, ect tara Ne | — 1s eran, pacsemioe coupommaeime Rep, = 210 MMla, nonepesnioe cesenme ~ ussesep; tara Ne 2 — H3 anoMuNA, pactemioe conponsB.teHHe R., = 130 MIla, Kpyrioro nonepewworo cevenus, CrepaxHesan cHcTeMa Hs0GpaKeHa Ha pe. 2.29. Pemenue, Tlon aelicTauest Brenmnelt narpyskH 8 TosKax oop cHcTeMBT A, Bt C nostimkaror peat Ry, Hy. Toro, B TATAX ROSHHKKAKOT YenHA cooTReTETREHHO Ny HN, Jia pemmeHus 7aHHO! s4jla4H HeOGXO{HMO No OvEpET PACEMOTPET PABHORECHE jTBYX ABCOMHOTHO KECTRUX CTPA! Cnasaia paccekaem cncTemy cevenuem 1-1 10 Tare Ne | st paccmanpusaem pasonecne mioxHero Opyca (pc, 2.30, 6), a saren - pannonecue nepxnero Gpyca (puc. 2.30, a). Ms yesonst paswoBecHs /uIx HIDKHEN HacTA ByneM HaXOTUMS YoHTMe B nepROH THe NV, 2.43 YCHORHA panonecHA suIa BepxHei - NV; (npH 10M yore NV, cHHTaCTER Yoke WSRCCTHBIM). Jn onpeneneni yeruina N, neoGxoxmo a1 IM, =10+4+2-N,-4=0, oncrona Ny = 20m ~ yenwe pacranerts Hy.Re, He Kpome {cats ypanstemte MomerTon OmHocHTeHO TONKA (pic. 2.30, 6) Teneps, cunmaa yume N, WRecTHBIM, HeoOXouHMo paccMoTpeTs paBHoRecHe cpemHeli YaCTH, AIA “ero sanMcaTs ypaBvenie MoseHTon omHocHTEssHO TO¥KH B (pute. 2.30, a): 4 Nav sind5? -2= 0, Fpage y= 5037. = 56,37 - youme pactoxenns. Tlanee, ju Kawaoli TarH sane MBAeM YerroBHE LPOSHOCTH H BBIPAAAEM IGIOMIBIN HONePeYEKIX ceveH A, ~ mIOMIA par Ne 1, Az = neromate warn Ne 2. TATA Ne max Ne OFS =< Row 0 APS = 4 = Sa = 952 10-4 oe? = 9,52 cm, 0,9 cm jain cevenus omcna Brumb He sen rue mpeByeuoil To copramenty npytmwaew imentep [Ne10], 4 Aonaateas trainee pyruioe cevenne, 1orga 1peSyemsii auaserp: a 4-43, ages 314 acnmeckaa wiomage Kpyrnoro ceueus: nj, 3,14-7,57 A= 2 a Aen? Mpnmep 15. Onpeseaien yewms, sosmxaioutne 8 creprctx eneTeMbt (pue, 2.31) nox jeliemHeM BHEMIE HarpysKH, ‘Pewenue. Tox netic mien Breuelt narpySKH 8 TOAKe OuIOPHI CucTEMBI A BosHNKaIOT peaKiUM Ry, Hy, @ THKE YeHLDN w CrepARH Nac» Nep. Nee» B kavectre oGnextor pannionecua e 910i 3azaue BuIcTyNaior aGcomomo x%ecTKHi Gpyc AB u ysen C. Hostomy, U3 ONpeeneHiHa HENSBECTABIX YCHIIHi CHaaTa paccekaeM cHeTeMy ceveruem J-] no cTepxHiO BC n paccmarpuBaem paBHoBecte lkvielt wactA (pic. 2.32, 6), a 3arem pacemarpumaeM partionecue ysna C (pic. 2.32, a). Bd 20H oe Jun onpesenenia youn Nee HeOSKOAUMO SaNHCATs ypABHeHHe MOMeHTOS oTHOCHTEsIBHO ToUKH A (puc. 2.32, 6): IM, =-50+2 +Ngc+4+20=0, onetona Ngg = 20 KH - yermme pactoxenn. Teneps, cunrran youne Ng- HSBECTHBIM, HeOGXOHMO paccMoTpeTs pationecHe y3ia C, 21a Yero SanMcaTs ypantients CYMM NpoekiHii BCeX CHI Ha BEpPTHKAUIbAyo HM PopRyoHTamMBEyio oc (puc. 2.32, a): LF, = Nepc0s30° ~ Nop cos45? = Nepsin30° ~ Nop sin 45° — Nae B pesyastare nony'aem chcTeMy ABYX ypanvicnntii ¢ ABYMa HeMSRCCTHBIMH: (2 = 081Nee 0.5Nep + 0,71Nee = 20 Peuraa cucremy oupeyenien yen 2 crepaxisix CD ut CE: (Nop = 14,5 xH Nee = 17.9 5H Npumep 16. Thea cransimux (E = 2-105 MM) crepactia, maprmpio cocummennute & TouKe A, HaxojwTes nos jclicTanes cH P (prc. 2.33), Tepastit ctepxenb meer JuIMAY cH IbIOMIate onepesHoro cexenna F, BTOpolt ruMHY a HW roroMtae - 2F. 1) Halim senmunne: HopMarsHBN HanpsKcHH, jelicTRyIOUUNK 8 CTEpAHAX 2) Halim aGcomonaywo 1 oTHocHTeTBHYIO Tehopmarunt cTepAHCI Jano: P = 130 KH, c= 1,5 m,a=2M, F= 12 om 4 4 4 x “ “4 oy Puc.2.33 Pewenue. (Crepyxint npuxpertensi k cTene M coequHeHst Mexay coGoi mapumpas (ToxKax B, Cu A), Mapampst npeanosaraiotes WLCQIBHKIME, T. . TAKUM, TpeHME B KoTOPAIX orcyTayer. Harpyska P upwlowena 2 ysue A. ToxroMy crepakHH Gyayt NCHIBITEIBATS TOHEKO MPONOTSHBIE (PACTATUBALOIINE IIH CRUMAKOME) YORI, Te, B MOMEPEMHBIX CeHEHHAX CTEpAHE! BOSHHKAET TOTBKO OME BHYTPCHHHT CHIOROH cbakTOp = npos(osrBHas ca N. 1. Jas onpexenenna yeni pacemomprm paronecue y3na A (pre, 2.34), x KoTopoMy mpmToxenst HarpysKa Pit 18a snsnectHBX yews Ny, 1 Nz, jelicmyiomne co cropons CrepaHei AB u AC w naupansiemanie BAO Hx Ocel Tipu onpenenemm HewsnecTHax YHA B CTEpKHEX OGKMHO MPHHATO CHITATs IX PACTHHYTHMH H COOTRETCTECHHO STOMY NPARAAT KEKTOPH CHI OT ys:1a, 3HAK MHOC B PELIEHK WIA YCHNMA GyleT MoNTEpANAT MpaRHMHOCTE cytesaHHIOrO NPEAMOMOEHIR O HANDABAEHHH YcuTHR, a SHAK MMHYC YKOXET Ha TO, 10 B AeficTBITeRbHOCTH ycuIMe HanpanTeHO NpOIMBOTIONOAHO H CoOTRETETBY ION CTEpACeH CHKAT Tlonarag o6a crepxna pactanymnn, Hanpasm yore N|, mN2 Tak, KaK oKasaHo Ha puc.2.34. [na mocKoit eHreTeME cL, HEPeCeKAIOIXEA B OOH TONKE, KAK HBRECTIO 12 KYPCA TOPENMECKO!L MEXAIMIKH, MOKHO COCTABIT TOKO je SSARHCHMBIX YPABHEHUK PABHORECHA - B BULLE CYMM NPOEKUMA RCEX CHI Ha jIBE OCH, He HlapasLebHbIe ZPYT APYTY. B xavecme rakux oceit nuiGepem ocit X ut ¥ (pu. 2.34). Tora yparienna paniorecns npexcTansTex ® BiLte: EX = -N,sin30° — N,cosa + Psin 45° = IY = —N,cos30° + N,sina — Pcos45° = 0. a Ms otoii cuctemm (1) MoxHo Gst10 Gu onperemiTs HemSRecTAME yenmMA N], Np, ecm Oot Grint weReCTHDK SHaeHR cosa u sina. Oupexeanm 9m wenn. Jax 910ro paceMorpaM AanuyIo cTEpAHeByIO eHeTemy (pHe. 2.34). Ve TosKH A onyctum nepnenamxyaap AD Ha npsmyro BC, nonyaHM Ba npsMoyromBHEX TpeyromsHuKa AABD u AADC. Us speyronsimaxa ABD oupenesu4 AD: AD = ABsin30° = 15-05 = 0.75 » Hs 1peyrosninuca ADG mony. AD _ 075 cosa =—— Fe 0875 sina = J1— costa = (1 — 0375" = 0,927. ‘Teneps onpenenua wenspecTaBe yeunna N], H N2 Hs cHeTeMBI ARYX mHMeHHX ypaRnenmit (1). Tlepensmem ypannests B CmENYTOUIEM Buu: N,sin30° + N,cosa = Psin45°; =N,cos30° + N,sina = Peumum ory cucreny uenomnsya mero, Kpanepa sina 08a] = sin30® -sina + cos30° -cosa = 05 -0,927 + 0,866 -0,375 = 0,788. _ 1 ppsings® cosa} _ P(sin45® «sina — cos45° cosa) 9 Me Tpcosas? Sil - 0.788 = prea"? = 0495" = 64,32 KH. : 4 sin30®Psinas0) _ P(sin30® -cos45? — cos30%sin45%) 7° Blcos30° Pcos45°! ~ 0.788 _— = 159,5 KH. 2, OnpesiesnM KopMaTbHBIe HANpHKEHE, NETIC TRYIOUIHE B CTEPIKUAX. Hanpoxenia 8 ctepacnax omperessioncs no hopmye N Tos neproro crepans 32+10* 10H O15 FF piper 7986 y= 536MM, Ju BTOPOTO CTEPREA Nz _ 159,25- 1 H oe = 663-10 = 2 = 3p = Sp qga = 863" 107 5 = 66,39MMa 3. Halinem aGcomomiyto H omHociTeatayto eopmanun crepanel, AGcomomias jehopwanna cTepxns THMoii | paBrta: NL alae ABcoutomHas Jedopmauua nepsoro erepaxH Nyc 64,32-10-15 Al, =e = yo aps 7 2“ 10F m. ASconomas sehopmania Toporo crepxtA uy, BE BS age 2° 5. 2F 2-108. 24-108 a Omocimensiyto aeopsatuno onpeenm ws saKoxa TyKa o=Ee. Oniocirrenbias sedbopMauia nepgoro crept 268+ 10-5 = 0,268 10-3, Nlonamue o cmamuyecku Heonpedenumbix cucmemax OcHoeHbie nonomenun. Cen3su HeobxoOUMbIe U ConosHUMeNbHEIe. Tox pene sarat conpommercnia MaTepHaion HcOSXeAHMO slam Ree BIeIINMe CHM, selleTByroMHe 1a KOHCTPYKIUHO, BKMOYAA PeaKIUM HATOACHHANX Ha Hee CBAs! Vs TeopenmecKoll MEXAHKKH HEBECTHO, TO JA paBHOBecHA THEPHOTO TI, HArPYACHHOTO ILIOCKOH CHCTEMO! CHI, OCTATOYHO HANOKHTS Ha TIO TPH CBNSH, a HArpyKCHHOTO NpocTpaxeTmeHHOll cueTeMoli cw — wiecTs cRaseli. COOTCICTECHHO WIA TAKIX CHCTEM MOKHO COCTABI IPH H Ulcct (CSABHCHMBIX ypaBHenMit pannonccns. Keun tps PACCMOIPCHMH SANAHHOH CHCTEMBI, HAXO:IRUICHCH B PABHORCCHOM COCTORIIH OT NeHCTRHA SQLAHHBIX BHEWINHX Harpy30K, BCE PeaKLOM B CBASEX JAKPEMLIEHHE MOKHO ONPEseT ¢ MOMOUIMO ypasHeuN panoneciis, Ges HCHONSSORAKIEA AONOSIHITETEHBIX YCNOBHT, TO TAXAK CHCTEMA HASHIBACTCR CmamusecKU onpederUMol. B peansioit mpakTHke BoTpeyaIOTCA TAKME KOHCTPYRINMM, TPH PacteTe KOTOPHIX ONHHX TMs ypanHeHHit pasnoRecna OKASRIRACTCR HeTOCTATOSHO, B CRASH C HEM TpeGYeTeA GOPMYNMPORAHHE AOMOTHMTENKBN ypARKEHHl, CRASAKHKIX ¢ YCsIORHANH neopMmponaitHa Kore TPYKIINH. Cuctemni, 8 KOTOPHIX KONINMECTRO HAIOKCHEBX CBs Gombe, HEKCIN IHCIO HESABHCHMBIX ypaBHeHHl PARHORECHS, HASBIRQIOTCR CMaMUNeCKU HEONpEdETUMDLMH. B saummocrpocumm 1 C1pomrenbipix KONCIPYKWWX TAKHE CHCTEMDI HAXOALET MMAPOKOE upuMeneHne. B omMHX earysasx CTATMHECKAA HEOTIPEsLeAMMOCTs AHILRETER CYIHOCTHIO CAMO KONE'TPYKIUAH, Pp a, 8 Puc. 2.36 Tipamepanm taxex KoueTpyKustit MoryT GsrT»: apwmponamte yronKanat crofiKH (puc.2.36, a); MaKlens KpEtTa caMozeT2, CocTHAIIAA 15 OGMINBKH I ¢ nponONBHBIMA peSpamit 2 (pic. 2.36, 6); CoCTaBHOM 1WUIMHLAP, NOIYNCHHE nyTeM HaNpsoKCHHO! nocanky ARYX "PYG HS PASMHAWX waTepHaTOR (pc. 2.36, 4). B APYTHX cayHaRX, ¢ HENRI TORMENT KeCTKOCTH Ht RAACKHOCT CHCTEMBL, BROAATCA OMOANMTEMBHBIE CBASH CBEPX TEX MHIHMATEHO HeOGXORHMBK, KOTOpHE OGecTeTHBALOT ce KiHemameckyio eisMesemocTs, Haroxentne na cHeTeMy jonomHiTenbHX cRsseli mpespamaer ec B cTATIMECKH eonpenemmyro, HaMoMEHM, To KIMIeMaTHFTeCKag TEHSMCHeMocT. THocKoH cHcTeMBI OGecTIoMMBacea TpeMa, a upoctpanieTBeMHoli — miecTBIO CBASAME Kone1pyxium, coctosmine 18 cTepaeli, COCNHHeHHBIX IapHHpAMN, HasBBAIOTeS dapHupno-cmepsicnessimu. B THX KONCIPYKIUX CCT CTEPAKUH, KOTOPHIE OGectIeMMBAIOT reoMCIPHMECKYIO ITeHSMeMAEMOCTE KONCTPYKLVAH Ht MIpHL YatesreMAHE KOTOPEIX CHCTEMa npespaullacrex 8 MexaHIESM. TaKHe CrepaHH GyseM uassiBam Keobxodumoleu. EcsK 2e TPH YAQIEHHH HeKOTOPEIX cTepPKUIeH TeOMETPIMECKAN TEMSMENEMOCTs KONCTPYKIUN He Mapyniaeres, TO TAKHE CTEpPKIM wasoneM stem, JTiuTINE TAKHE CHASM HASKIBAIOTEA TOABKO TIOTOMY, “TO OHH HE ARIAOTCH HEOGXOAHMBIME JIA OGECTIEMEHHA PaBHORECHA KOHCTPYKIMH H Ce reOMETPIMECKOH! HeMSMeHseMOCTH, XOTH NOCTAHOBKA MX AMKTYeTeR YcnoRHaMM oKcrTyaTauM, Tl YenOBHAM MpONHOCTH KeCTKOCTH KONCTPYKIWE THIEME CBASH MOTYT OKA3ATRCH HEOGXO HME. B erammeckn onpex TMIIKHX CTepAHeli paBHO CTeNeHH cTaTIeCKOH! HeoMpesTeTIEMOCTH. MMOH CHCTEME CCT TO:IKKO HEOGXONIMBIE CIEPAHH, B CTAMMECKH HeonpestemHMol — HCHO I L a) 6) 8) Puc. 2.37 Ha puc.2.37 mpuseseHst CxeMBI 3-X TLIOCKHX CHCTEM € GIMLIKHMUDy CBIEIMH: a — saKPermeHHOTO OBOHMH KOHTIAMI; & — CTEpIKHEROTO KDOHIITE Tepauesol HouBecKH; 6 — CrepAH, 1a, BexeMe, nloxasanmoii na pic. 2.37, «, Bea cHeTeMa COCTOMT HS ynpyrHx smeBes, TlonceveT WHena HANOKEHHBX CHAE MPOMSROAHTCE 8 STOM cMyNAE CHeAyIOMAM OGpasoM. Kax stil cTepHeH cRa3aH € OMOPHOH NOREpXHOCTMO ABYMA CBABAMH, Beero TAKHX cassefi %, [lapump, cocmmmoNM KOHN cTepAHC, cHMMACT CRASH, OTPAMIMIMBAIOMIMe OTHOCHTENKIBIL HTH BsaMMIB HX TloRopor. TIpH coemMMEMM qBYX cTepAHEi om mapHMpoM CHHMACTCR Osa CRIS, TPEX CTEpAHEH — jlRe CRASH, MeTpeX — IPH MT. B AMO cHysae CHHMAIOTEA TPH CRIS CrenopatensHo, BCeX CBsReii, HAOXKCHHBIX Ha J1Y CHCTEMY OKa3BIBACTCA MTB, [Be 13 KOTOPEIX MOTYT CUHTATECA CTHLHHMED». (CTaTHYCCKH HEOMpeACMHMBIC KOHCTPYKIMA XapaKTepH3yiOTesA PAIOM OCOOCHHOCTEH, NO CpaBHEHHIO CO CTATHYCCKH OnpeneMHMBIMIK CHeTEMAMH, BaKTONAIOTER OHH R TOM, NTO B OIEMCHTAX CTATHMECKH HeOMpeseaMMBIX CHeTEM Hans KHIR BOSHHKAIOT HE TOmBKO OT JIcHiCTAHA BHCITHNX CHT, HO HB PeSYTATUTE MSMCHEHHA TeMMepatypst, ReTONHOCTH HsTOTORITCHHE neraveli, HeTOSHOCTE! HX COOPKH, CMEHICHHER MeCT OLlOpHBIK KperLtentt a paa apyrux ups, OGpxcumeteA 270 TeM, 70 AeOPMALUA OAHOTO HS SIEMEHIOB B CTAMMECKH HEONPERENUMOl CHCTEME NPHBOIMT K JeDOPMALUEH H JIPYTHX ee IHEMCHTOR, Hanpunep, ecsnt ovat vs ctepxnelt cretewat (pic. 2.37, 4) wsroronen 110 uIMe Het, 1 coesUMENHE KOMTIOR ClepKtieli OHM IWapHHPOM BOSMORKHO TOIDKO HyTeM eopMaNvu BCEX Crepxueil Ciura, nosmmkaiomiaa mpm nebopManiy O;HOTO HE CTEpPAHUeH, BRODIRAET YORK 8 JIPYTHX CTEPAUAK, HAXOAAUXCH c HAM B WApHMpHOM cocMMHEHHH, CMOHTpOBANHAR CHCTEMA NpUXOAUT B pasHOBECHe, CHETOBATENKHO, COBOKYMHOCTS CHI CTEM ODKCHeMHMBACT Co PARHORECHe, ‘ITH CHIN BNSKIRAXOT COOTRCTETBYIONING, HASKIRACMBIC HAYATBHLIM, HANPSRCHHA B cTepaKHAK B cranmeck MeoupesterHMbix KONCTPYRUMX IPH MSMeHEHMM TeMILepaTypsI ee NeMeHTOR 0 cpaBHeHKO resmeparypoli, upH KoTopoit OcyuLecTBAIACS CGOpKA, BOSHHKAHOT AOTONENTENEEBIE YIN M HANPOKCHHA, KOTOPHIE TIpHEATD jasBaTs TeMTTepaTypHbIMT Pacnpenerenne YCuTHii MexAy 9TeMeHTaMHE CHCTEMBI SABHCHT OT HX 2KECTKOCTI, ECmH YBEIHNHTE KECTKOCTR KAKOTO- 1nGo aaemenTa, To on MpHMer Ha ceOx Gomes yeruHe. MsMensx COoMHOMENHE %eCTKOCTEH NeMEHTOR KOHCTPYKIU, MOKHO MenIATS pacnpeme rene youaHt Mek THMEH Om ocoGeMOCTH CTATIMECKH NeoMpeNesIHMENX KONCTPYKUH jLOmKUKI YUHTEMATECA pH MpoeKTpoRAIMAM HI npHMEHEITI TAKHK CHCTEM. Cramiieex HeONpeHeNHMBIe CHeTEMS! OFM1ANAIOT MOBBIUCHHO! wANBYMCCTHION. PASpyIMICHHe OAHOTO HIM HECKONIBKEX SHEMEHIOR (B SABHCHMOCTH OT HHCIIa AONONHNTETSHBIX CBASeH) HE BKIBIBACT HOTEPIO HECyLIeli CHOCOGHOCTH KOHCIPYKUI B Tak paspyurenme 1@Ke j1BYX CEPARHCH B CHCTEME, HOKASANMO! Ha puc. 2.37, 6 He UpHBOANT x HOIepe CHocoGuOC ROCTPHHAMATs CHULy P OCTARINUMHCH ABYMS CTEPATAINH, KOHEHO, IPH YCsIORHH HX LOC TATOO MPOHKIO TH. CmeneHb cmamuseckoti Heonpedenumocmu. Memoduxa ee onpedenenus. (Crmmeckn HeonperiesHMBie CHCTEMBI XapaxTepHsyloTex Cmenenbio cmam wueckoit Keonpedenumocmu, KOTOPAR paBlia AMeAy GMX eBMBeiL H MOKET Gort BAIMNEAICHA KAK PastlocT MEAGLY HHCHOM HEHBWECTHBIX CHA M HHIeHIOM HESABHe HAHN ypapHicHuii pasnosecus. Tlo wicny emosun 210i pasHocTH cueTeMBt GEIBaLOT 1,2,3.... Pas CTATHHECKH HEOMPeHesHIMEIME, Thum pacueros coctasaxeres cHioBAK CxeMA SajaKHOH cHCTeMM, Ha KOTOpOl ykassiBaloIcA BCE HGBCCTHME Mt lewsmectubie cHs1oBNe (pak Toph Lipa cocransx IM CORO! CXEMM B cya OME; 1H BHYTPENIIX CHULOSHIX akTOPOD UpHMEnETEA MeION CexeNti cormacHo KOTOPOMY KOXOE SBEHO CHCTEMBI PASAIEMACTER Ha MBE YACTH B MPOMSBOABHOM CeyCHHM, 3aTeM OTOpackIBarOTeA HaCTH, NPHMBIKAIOWIME K OMOPHBIM IEMCHTAM, 2 HK ZC CXEME MOKASMBAIOTOR BCE SANAHHBIE BHETIEME CHET H Peak OTD. Banem mo 970M CXeMe YCTAHABIINBACTEH BOSMOKHOE HHCHIO HESABHCHMBIX ypaRHEHHi pasHoBecHs, CrenieHb cTaMCHEcKoil HEOMPENeMIMOCTA TOXCHTBIBACTCR, KAK PASHOCTS MERMY “WCTOM HEISBECTHEIK CHT H IHCIOM HesaRHCHMGIX ypasHeHtt panwonecus. Ha pne.2.38, a mo6paxken kponmrTein, cocTosIHii 18 ABYX CTepANe!, WapHMpHO cKPerIenHEN MexAY co6oH, Benssn ¢ TEM, MID Ha KOHCIpyKIUGO AelicTHyer sIKU SepmuaMHOE YoHIHE P, a CHCTEMA mBNAEICH ILIOCKOH (Te. BCE a.TeMeHTE fi MOCKOCTH), MOTyNAeTEA, HT YORIMA B CTEPRHAX eTKO ONPEETATOTCA 13 CTBHE Ha OCTARIMIHECS HacTH saMeHseTeA MporOMEABINH CHAM, Tloese 3TOTO Ha KOHeTPYKIVIN H ReKTOp BHETIHNX cH seAKAT B ONT yenoBHii pasnionecns ysma A, Te Ir=0, Sy=0. (237) PAackpsiBad 97H YpABHCHH, HOTYAEM SAMKHYTYIO CHCTEMY AHECHHISX ypaBHeHHli OTHOCHTETBHO HeHsBeC TAB yorTHTt Ny w.N2 8 KoTOpoit KomMMeCTRO YpaBHeHMt PaBHO KOHMECTEY HEMGBEC TABI: -N,— Nasina = 0; -N,,cosa — P =0. Resid KOC pYKIgHO KPOHITEIIHA YCIOAHITS, TOGABHE eMLe OWE CrEpKeH (puC.2.38, 6), 1 youu # crepyHAX Ny, NZ w.N3 npextmm crocoGoM onperenins yake He YAcTeR, TK, MPH TEX Ke ABYX ypaBHeNMHAX panttonecHs (2.37) HMeIOTeA Ye TPH (eHSRECTHBIX YoHUIE B CTEpAHAX, BTAKHX caysasX FOROPsT, TO CHCTEMA OHH pas CTATHYECKH HeoMpesTesMa. a) 4 Ay A Ny Puc.2.38 Ha puec.2.39 mpusenessi npuMepsi cramecky HeonpesemMe cuctem. B crepaHe C AECTKO 2ANEIAHHDIMIC KOHLANH (puc.4.2, G) BOSEMEMOT ABC PCAKIRM, & yoesEX sORATeAEIO, KONCTPYKLMA Aue PABHOBCCHE MOKHO COCTABHTL TONLKO OHO, OAH pas CTaTH4eCKH HeonpenenuMa. He Hapyiilad paBHOBeC HA CTepxKHA, MOXKHO OTOPOCHTE OsHy M3 ONOp. F 4 j F a F 8 é 2) % D) 2 ‘Pue.2.39 Joe cuetemst 1s Tpex crepxntelt (pic.2.39, 6) MOKHO COCTABINTS 18a YPABHICHHA PABHOBCCHA, @ HEHSBCCTHBIX CHLT B CHCTEME IPH, CHENOBATETEHO, CHCTEMA OME Pas CTATMHECKH HeoMPeeHMMA. OAK HB CTEPAHEH HE HyDKeH JIM PaBHORECHR CHCTEMM, H ero MOKHO OTOPOCHT. Pacey KIAX AIATOTHINO, MOANO YeTAHORHTs, HT eHeTEMa M3 Henpex crepxtteli (pxc.2.39, d) ABOKAK CTATIMECKH HeOTIpEsTETHMA, Zo onpenencims enyrpemmx cit m cHeTeMe Hs naMt cTepxtICit (pue.2.39, 2) NeoGXoAHMO nMIPesaTs pacemorpers pasmenbHo pasHonecue yston A x B. K KaxsoMy YSmy MpHMBIKAIOT TpH CTepAHA (BETO NAM, CTepAHE! H, CHeAOBATEABHO, TATE leWSRECTHBIX CH), @ YPABHCHM PARHORCCHR {UI KMANIOTO Ysa MOAHO COCTABHTS j1BA, Te. BCerO HeTMpe ypanenna. CHcTeMa ounH pas crammeckH HeonpenemuMa, Hanon, "10 218 MpocTpanlc ReHHOH CHCTEMDI CHET MORHO COCTABHTS MIECTS HesABHICHMBIX ypABHeHt papHonecHs: IPH YPaBHeHHA, BHIPAKAIOUIHE CYMMY NPOCKIMi BCEX CHI Ha TPH BIAMMHO HeprenMKysApHBIe oc (LX = 0; LY = 0; LZ = 0), H TPH - CyYMMY MOMeHTOR BCeX CHM OTHOCHTEMBHO ITHX we oceH (LM, = 0;OMy =0:0M, = 0). Jaa o6mero caysaa cua, TeRAINUK B OHO MMocKocTH - TPH HesanHcHMEX ypantemmia (nanpmwep: EX = 0; SY =0: DM, = 0). B wactmm cnysamc BOCKOH CHCTEMBI MOAKHO COCTABHTS Jha HesaBHCHMMX YpABHeNHR PABHOBECHA: UIA CHCTEMEL MAPAATCTRBX cHMT (HAMpHMEp: E My = 0; LY =0) 1 aaa crctemer cw, THHHH jelicTRHA KOTOpLIX NepeceKalotea B OHO! ToUKe (LX = 0; LY = 0). las cna, THE sefiC TBH KOTOPBIX TeKAT Ha OMHOH MPAMOfl, MOXKHO 3amTHCATs TOBKO ONKO HesaBHCHMo’ ypasHeHHe (HanpmMep: DX = 0). Ha puc, 2.40 noxasanet upaMepsr COCTABITCHION CHLIORBIX CXEM 1 ONPENETEHIMA CTeLICHH CTAMEICCKOH HeOUpexeAMIOCT! wo opmy.ne S=1-m, rye m - OGulge “HCO HeHSRECTHBIX CH, BRITCAR PeAKHH OTOP; mM - HCO BOSMOKUBIX JIA sa ARVCHMBIX ypaRniennt cTaTHKH, ‘eueTeMs Packpbimue cmamuyeckoti Heonpedenumocmu Onepaium 0 oupeneieMmo HEHSBECTIIX CHIOBKIX PAKTOPOR B CTAMMIECKH HOMpeNCIHMDIX CHCTEMAX IpHHETTO ASKIBATS PACKPHIEM CraMMeCKOI HeonpeHEMUMOCTH, TIpoHSBoUsIe OHM cxeMyIONNM OOpAsOM. B HAYAIe HCXONA HS CILIOBO!t CXEMBI COCTABIIMOTES YpARHICHHA PaBHORCE HS. Tip peuennt 06sx sana4 sHeH0 ypaBHeHHi JowKHO GEM paBHO sucay HeHSREcTHX. Ja ONpeAeNEHHIA CHI B CTUPAIAX CTHTIMECKH HEOMPEILEAHMBIK CHCTEM CHIEMYET COCTABIIATS YPABHEHHE, ONOSINAOIIE YpABHEHAK PARHORECHE JO IHC.TA HeMSBECTHBKX cH. JLOTIOTEHTEMBHBIC YPABHCHHA, HASKIRAEMBIC YPABHENKAMN COBMecMHOcMU nepeMeWenuit uu depopmanutt, COCTARIIAIOT, ONPE METAR MepEMELICHAR OTICTMILK CTEPAHEH CHCTEMEI H YCTAHABSINRAA MEY HAMH CRASK, Tipmngm cosmectiocms steopMuposanax BRIpARAeT YouIOBHE, SaKOYAIOMIeeCR B TOM, YTD KOHCTPYKUNA j0;0KHa secbopmuposarbcs Ges pasbenMHeHIA H HENPEAYCMOTPEHHOTO BIAKIMHOTO NepeMeILEHHA OTACIBHBIX C€ SBEHKES. Jaa oGnersemax samicelt ypasnermit nepememernit ctpoar cxemy secpopMaunit Bcex ynpyTHX 97eMeHTOR HTH cxeMy neopmmposanioit cnctensi Jbn mOG0H crAMCTHHECKH HEONpEACTHMOH CHCTEMSI RCCT/A MOKHO COCTABIET CTOABKO JOTOTHMTTeBHEIK ypaRHeNM, CKONBKO Pa3 CeTEMa CTATIMECKH HeoMpesIeTMMa. B cuay pasmmmoti ssauwosanvcumoctt siemens, pastas HaxTaqumaeMENX cpaseli uw yeroBMit nebopyuponanns, ypannicHa conMecTHOCTH edopMannii cHcTeM 3anncKIRatoTea ro pastiomy. Ho Ree OHM BMPAKaIoT cooTHOMTENHA sledpop Matt (Tepementernii) oTeTBHEIX ynpyrHK sneMeHToR cHcTeMBL, HampHMep, Ha cxeMe, wa pwc. 2.40,¢ Al, = Aly ana pue. 2.40, 2. Al, = Al, TK, BeCh CIePACHE He MOKCT He YaMMEITBCS, HM yKopoTITEcs. Ha cxeme (pic. 2.40, a) MO-HO YeTAHOBIT reomemMirecKoe coomouienne jecbopmannii crepaneii 1, 2 1 3. vu Yee I Pue.2.40 Tlocne Hony4eHi yKasaHHBx PeoMeTPHECKUX COOTHOLICHHI: BeNHMUIHBI AGCOMOTHBIX HSMeHEHH, pub CTepaHEl Al; samexmor no saKony D'yka ix BbIpaxxenmawn sepes your N;: Nek faa Tlomysenminie TaKHM OGpasoM YpaRHeMHA, COMEPKAMINE B KATECTRE HEMSRECTHIX MpOAOTBHBIe CHT, W sBMIAOTCA TononumTenBHEIM ypaniteHaMn, OM BKMOYAIOT TAKKC NOKABATENH ACCTKOCTA OTICMBHBM SREHDCR KOCTPYKIMH, BROT TEM CaMBIM SABHCHMOCTE PACTIPETENCHAR CH BHYIPH CHCTEMBE OT -KECTKOCTH ee ameMeHTOR, BMeCTe ¢ ypaBHeHHAMHE cTATHCTHKH oStitee HHEO ypaBHeHHii paBHO “HICHy HeMSBeCTUBIX cH, PettlaR HX, oNpesleTMOT HeHSBeCTUBIe BHYTpeLMe (MpONOsTbHBLe) CHT B saxmoseHue MOxeT G51 BDITONIHEHA THeprenmecKAX MPOBEPKA PeLICHHA sa7a4H, OHA 3AKNOVACICA 8 COCTABICHH H yROBAETBOpeMM paneHeTBa paSort BHEMNX CHT A Ht CYMMBI HOTEHMMATBHO‘ Inept RePopManunt 2zeMeHToB cHeTeMBt U. CHOKMBE CTEMECKH HEOMPEXeUIMBIE CHCTEMBI, B TOM HHCHe CAMHUECKH HeOMpeeMNEIe epamt (oneMerM! Sepa paSoraior ita pacPOKeMMe, CATH) H CTATHNECKH HEOMPENEHHMIE PAME!, PACEMATPHBAIOTER B KYPCE CTPOITENEHO! MexATHKM CTepAHEBBIX CHCTeM. B Kypce COMpOTHB:IENH MaTepHAsIOR paccMarpHBaloTes OGKEHO MpocTelimne cTAMMECKH HeonpereMMMEIE CHCTEMM, K KOTOpBIM OMIOCTes a) MpaMBLe CTPA NOCTOAHHOTO, KYCOUHO-MOCTOAHHOTO H MepeMeHHOTO ceueHHl, SaKpeMTeHHBIe C ABYX CTOPOH, OT larpYSKH pleficTaYIOMLeH RyLOTe OCH CTEPKHS; 6) cHCTeMsI UIApHMpHO COCMIEAEMEIX CTEpACHEH C BOMOAHBIM BKUIOYCHHEM ECTKUX HEEOPMUPYEMBIX 3s1EMEHTOR, Lip pemienmit crammecks HeONpeseHMBIX CHCTEM, B CTEPAHAX KOTOPHIX JleficTByIOr NposlomTBABIE CHT, OIMETITs OCHOBHBIE FANE: 1) anames paGorm KonetpyKiuH ¢ ykasannem jleficmyIoNUX cHAIOBNX chaKTOpOR Hi BAIKCHEMHEM jeFopmatuM c SEMEHTOB, ONPCNCNCHRC CTENCHH CTENTMECKON HEONPENeNHMOCTH, 4) Cmamuyveckaa CmMopona 3aNa4Hh — COCTABIAWT YPaBHCHHA PaBHOBECHA AA CHCTEMBI WIM OTCCTCHHBIX €¢ 3) eeoMempuveckan cmopona saxain — BHMCHMOT, KAK jeopMUPyIOTeA CTepKHH CHETEMB!, mOGpaKarOr cHcTeMy B je{hOPMUPORAIIOM Ne, YCTANARANNMIOT CRIGH MEK/Y MePEMeTKeHMAMH OTACITKHAIX IeMeMTIOR cHCTEMEL, cocTARAaIOT ypaRHenin conMecTHOC TH MepeMentenif; 4) @usuxeckas cmopona sanaim — nupaxact jledbopwaum sneweron, coractio saxony Tyka, wepes relicTayloUe B HK HeMSRec THe YCHLTH, 5) cummes ~ onpexeasior nein cio cHeTeMY ypasiteiuii pasuonects 1 riepeseutcitt Crammiecku HeompeienuMsle KOHCIPYKUMH XapakTepIsyloICd paLOM OCOGeHHOCTEll, uO cpaRHeHIHO CO CTITHECKE OUpeHeTIMEIMK cHCTeMaMH. Tak, pH 9KCILIYaTALJAH KOHCIPYKUMH ROSMOKHO ISMCHCHHE ce TeMIIeparypHl, BbIsRANIHOC YouOBHAMH paGoTsI HIM cMeHO!L BpeMeH roa, C HSMEHEHMIEM TeMUeparyPSI HEMEHMOTCA suueliuKte PaZMepsI sleMexIOB Koueypykiuin: yneunuMeaIOTes pH HarpeRe, YM Al, =aldt, (238) rae a Tenmeparypritl Koop uttHeHT HneliHoro pacitupenns (cM, pasiten «Crpanownbte 7a ie CHUIB, PeMtad COBM: {LUNAIOTCA LPH OXIA EHHM Ha Bessy >); ~ sunima sure merrta; At - wswenenne tewneparypsr, (°C), B crammeckn onpesteaNMBIX CHCTEMAX JLUMHIA CTEPARHA MOXKCT CROGOIIHO HSMCHATIACA MPH HX HArpeRE IIE OXLTAA LEHI (puc.2.41, a, 6). Puc.2.41 B cranmteckn neonpenenmn ciicTemax TIpi WBMeHeHIM TeMTIepaTypBt ROSHAKatoT orTomTURTeNbHIBKe cM, KeoH WarpeTs CTEPEHD, KECTKO JaKpeMTeHHBH To KOHTAM (pHC.2.42, d), To ero AIHHA He MOKET HEMEHATECH: STOMY MPENATETAYIOT KeCTKHE sartenkn. B onopax (sajlenkax) RosHkaior peaKtINM, CKUMAIOIIIHE CTEPACHH, Tak Kak HeHSRECTIMK CHI ABE, @ YpARHCHMe paBHoRecHA MoxHO cocraHTMm TomBKO onHo: Ez CHCTEMa OW pas CTAMHECKH HEOMpestesiMa, Peulas reoMeTpHYeCKYIO YACTS SAA5H, COCTABNAEM ypaBHeHNe nepemeutenmii. OrGpocum onKy HS OOP H SaMeHHN ce nelicTaue HentsBecTHOH cHLIoit Ry. Teneps cTepxekb MpH Harpene MOKer YAUIMHHTECA Ha Bem Al, (pHe.2.42, 6). Ry- Ry =0, & A 8 Ry Tak Kak UUM CTepAxHE ocTuTeA HeHBMeHHOll, nepementenne CHa Ry MOANA CAAT CTEPACHS Ha REMIMUHY, PARHytO eTO YALINHEHMTO pH Harpene: 5 = Al, + Alg, = 0. Peuas pusisseckyio acm saat, © yucroM pageHctsa N = Ry uoaysaen, senna B romkno Gum pasio Hymo, cuexoBaT its =o aldt += =0. EA Torna nporombHas cima B ceTeMHUX cTepAKHA N= ~aEAat; HanpwkeHHe B CTEpKHE => =-aESt. a Omen, 10 HanpoxeHne 8 CrepAHe He SABHCHT OF ILIOMIaIH CeNeNE uemeHTE: KOHCIPYKUBIC HSTOTOBAAOT c ONpereTeHHO! TOHHOCTEIO, TIpH COOPKE CTAMMHECKH HEONpEeTMEEX CHCTEM, HMCIOUUNX HeTONHO s8rOTOR: CrepAMH, CrepAHM UpHXoAITeA ehOpMMpORAT (y;LINEETTH HIN YKOPAMEATS), MPH TOM B HX BOSHHKAIOT HANPHKEHHA, HASHIBAEMBIMIN HANAAIBHBIMH HLTH MOHTEOKHEIM PaccMOTpAM CHCTeMy, OM #3 cTepaneit KoTopoit HIroTORNeH Kopode, Tem Ipebyetca, Ha BeMEUMY A (puc.2.43, a). OnpeHenM BHYTPCHHHe CHIBI M HalIpwOKCHHA, BOSHHKAIONIAE B CTEpAKHAX CHCTEMBI pH c¢ COopke. CTepxKHH HMCHT OAHHAKOBEIC pasMepm H HsToTOR:TeMBI HS O;WHOrO MTepHArTA, a) 6) ‘Puc.2.43 Tip cGopke CHCTEMBI BCE IPH CTEPKIA HEOOXONMMO YAUIMITS, NPWIOKHE K HAM pactIrHEAOMKE CHIL. B CoGpaHHOM Be eHeTeMa TOKasaia UMpHXORKIMH THMHAMH (cM. pHe.2.43, a). Bupexem ysen A (pic.2.43, 6), cocTanHM ypannens pagnonecua cit Bx =N,sina — N,sina = 0, omysa N,= Ny Iz = Ny — N,cosa ~ N,cosa = 0. Cuerema oui pas craMsieckn Heoupestesmma. PaceMorpuM reoMerpieckyio wacm sata HM cocraBHM ypapsienMe lepementenisi, Hs cxeMbi, rpestcTaBsteHHoit Ha pwc.2.43, a, curenyer, #10 Al; Al +6, rae by == Ypasuenme nepementeuit npunuacr BH ah + Venomays sakox ['yKa, BhpasuM YauIMKeHHe tepes HeISBeCTHBIE CHLIBI B CTEPAHAK Nl NL Eat Eacosa Peuiits ypanvenie nepenceufeHuii ConMeCTHO © YpaBHEHKAMM paRHOReCH, OMy'HM 2AEAcos*a 11 + 2cos?a) ‘GEAcosa fees 1. + 2cos?a)’ Havasbiiie HanpseKeHIN ACTO CHCHHAIBHO CORNBIOT B CTETIMIECKH HCONPEACTHMBX CHCTEMAX, TAKHX, HANNpHMCp, KAK COemIMICHHE C HODITOM 1 peaeGose cocmmenss, CossaRax 8 91EMCHTIX CTATIMECKH HeOMpeseMMOli CHCTEMBI HaYaTBHBIE JAUPRKCHI, 3HAK KOTOPLIX UPOTMBOUOTOKCH SHAKY HANPHOKCHIL OF BHCHINUX CHL, MOXKHO UORLICHT. LIPOHOCTH KOHeTpYKUUU WMH yRennuitTe ONyeKaeMYO JUIA Hee Harpy3Ky. Pacupeneuenne youauii mexay ouemenmaMn cHeTeMs aaRnerr oF ux 2xecIKOeTH, Fou yeemmET KeCTKOCT. KAKOrO- sGo snemenTa, TO OH NpHMeT Ha cebx Gomme yerine, VsMenax coomomenne KecTKOCTe 2TeMeMTOR KOHCTPYKUH, MOxHO Mei. pactmpentenenme yCwIM Mey HIN Im ocoGenocM CTEMMECKH HEONpeNeAMMANX KOHCTPYKIM TOKUB YSETMATCA MPH MpoeKMpoRANAH WI UpHMeHeHIAH TaKUK CHCTEN. Crmmmeckn Heompesienmmate cucTeMsi O6:1aja0T HOBSIEHHO! , ONNIAKO, B eHMTY MaLIoeTH jespopmanutii, Al, MoxHo no: MIT, ONYCKAA TepheHAMKY!ap W3 TOUKH A Ha HOBO HANpABMEHHE CTEpXHA [,. B co6paHHom cocTosHMH yron McxAy cTepxKHAMH |, GydeT McHBIIC, 4eM 2p. OgHaKO, B cHuIy MalocTH AebopMannil, HSMEHEHHE Yrv1a ~@ OTpASITCA Ha 5 iM 6 SHAKE KOCHEYCA, TO HecyuLeC TREHED. 3. Dusuueckan cmopona sada. Cornacno saxony T'yxa Nl EF! Al Xl 77 RE EF Tlogerabinix 910 & (2) nomysia: 26 -E+F+ cosp Ny: cosg + 2N, =—————> © 7 4. Onpedenenue neuseeemnsix. Pemas cueTemy ypasnerit (c) # (a), ¢ yueTom, 10 Ny=Ry, a N2=R2 meen: 26+E-F -costg I(t + cos*p) SEF cosp Nz= 3ycocioy 2° 1d ¢cos*g) rte N] i N2 Tak HasBIBaeMBIe MorTTIORUBIE yeHLIL N= Npumep 23. Onpenesims yorum B CTepKHAX CHCTEMBI, BOSHHKAIOIINE & PeSYABTATE MOROPOTA ABYXCTOPOHHeH BHETOROH CDUKKH > ura yrom 8°, KeeTKoet CTHKKH pantta rkecTKOCTE TpeTEero cTepArIs (pH. 2.50) Jano: E1-E-E3=E, Fy=2F3-2F2-2F; mar symrrosoii napesxn raiixn- hy 1y=l. aC Pue.2.50 Pewenue. 1.Cmamuveckan cmopona sadaun, CocmaszseM ypassiexna pasuozecut yaaa 4 (prc. 2.50, 8), Yaureiwaa cumaterpinio oniocrenbHo octt Y, uMteev: IV = 2N, +cosp - Nj = 0 Orerona Ns Jose CoctansiaeM ypantietma pantioneeun ys.ta B (pic. 2.50, ¢) Y Ny ~ 2Nz cos 0 oreronia N= Ny 2cos z ® 2 Tor cterens ciammueckolt Heoupeyeneuoem Hoxewirnsnacen 1: 2, Teomempuueckan cmopona saoauu, als Tips nonopore raiikn na yron 8° ctepxkent 3, cocTommit us sARyX YacTell, RBMITTHTeA B Talixy Ha RenHUMy 6 = Puc. 2.51 3a cTeT BRHTTMBaHHE cTepaT 3 TOTKH A WB cOnMSATCA Ha RETIEMMY 6, a Sa CHET pACDOREHHA 9TOTO CTEPARTA Ht CDPKKE on pasolinyres Ha Bemmumny Al, (pic. 2.51). Torta, wa ocHosanmm cxembt neopmupoRaniolt cHcTeMbi, yeuoBHe COBMECTHOCTA AeopMaLLHit GysIeT HMETH BILL: ae, es ay © 059 * cos$ . 3, Dusuneckan cmopona sadaru. Cormacno sakony Pyka. Nyly _ Ngly © _ Nala “ER EF 3nec [1-12 no yeaonmo, a 17 1/3 MoxkHO onpenesItT 1 panentemma MpoeKtwHit cTeprKHel Ha FopMOHTATHTYO Ht nepTukambntyio ocH (pH. 2.50, a): Al, = ts sing: I= ly c0s5 +1, -cosp Tlogetasnas (A) & (€), nonysne Nl, ot 2EFcosp EFcos $ 4, Onpedenenue neussecmnsrx. @ Peuraa cuctemy, coctanenmyto 3 ypasuicunit (a), (8) H (e), nosysiHn: 26 EF -cos*$ -cosp +2l,cos*p + 4scos?$ - cos?g 26 EF -cos$: costg + 2l;cos*p + 4lqcos? $+ costp 46 +EF -cos?$ scostg + 2lzcos@ + 4lgcos? $+ cos?g Mpumep 24. Onpenesim yews crepxHax CHCTEMDI, ROSHKAIOMIN B PesYsIDTATE NOBBMMEHHA TeMTIepatypH RCeK CTepACHEfH Ha At®C (pue. 2.52, a) ano: Fy=F2=F; E)=0,5E; E2-E; az a, = 1,20; uel Puc.2.§2 Pemenue, J. Cmamuneckan cmopona sadaun. C yserow cunmetpmm omiocutea LY =R; - 2R,cosp = 0, orerona R; = 2R,cosp @ 2. Feomempuueckas cmopona 2adaui. B pesyasrare Tepwareckoro pacummperma Touka A nepenectimea B Aj (pute, 2.52, 6). Mexoga ms cxemsi 10 oc Y uMeent sedhopnuposanioi: Koucipyxium MOAHO CocTaBHT YevlosHE CoBMEcTIOC ME {ehopscaLUt Al = @) 3. Dusureckan cmopona sada. Kpainme crepacum 1 suimnnce cpenuero crepxns 2; Kpome Toro, y Kpalimx ctepaneli Koxpibuunerr mneiiHoro pactumperna Goumre, Hem y cpentHero. To stoi mpiimie TouKa A y mepBHX cTepRHE!i OMYCTHIaCK Got HIDKE, HEM TOHKA A y BTOPOTO CTEPAHA, ecsH GSI OHM HeopMHpoBAINC OTeNSHO. Ho TAK KAK OHH 8 TAKE A CBAZAHSI WAPHAPOM, TO BOSHHKAET CHORD BIaMMOreficTaNe GoKOBSIX H CpesIHeTO CTEpAHe!i. BOKOBBIE CTEPKHH, YIUMHAACK 3a CHET TepMIriecKorO BosTeiicTENR, yay? ONHOBPEMCHHO YKOPANHBATECA & PesysIsTATe jeliCTBHA ROSHNKAIOMeTO YouA, cpeAHM Ke ClepaREHD Byer yiUIMRATECS Kak 3a CHET TepMMecKOTO PACTIMPeHAA, TAK 3a CHET MeXaHMecKOrO sRelieTRNA Ha Hero KpaiiHiIx cTepAHeII Crexonatens# Nl Al, =a, +1, at? - © rae l= [y+ cosa noyeTaBaiia (¢) 8 (6), ony: 2N, +N, +cos*g = aEF (1.2 —cos*g) - At? @ 4. Onpedenenue neussecmnsrx. Peias cuctemy ypannermii (a) 1 (d) © yserom, so Ry @EF (1,2 ~ cos*g)- At® 20+ conte) 7 EF (1,2 — cos?g) «cosy -At® T+ cos*y W R2=Np, nonysam: Ny Npumep 25. AdcomoMO 2eCTKHIi Gpye OHMpActCs Ha LapHMPHO HeNOABIOKHYIO OHOPY H NPHKPEILIEH K ABYM CTEPARHAM pH OMOLL maprmpor (pic. 2.53). Mexontmte namie: a ~ 2,1 4, 6 = 2,4, ¢= 1,5 m, F= 12em?, B= 2105 Mla, ‘TpeSyencs ait: 1. Yours 1 HanpwxeHMA B CTepAHAX, RAIpASHR HX Hepes cHy Q; 2, nonyeKaemyto warpysKy [Q], mpupasie Gonsuiee 1s HANPOKCHHI B ABYX CTEpKHAX JONYCKAeMOMY HANpmKCHHO [c] = 160 Mila; 3. mpeneabnyt0 rpysonoxBeMHocTs cHeTeMB! Qnp, H LonycKaemyto Harpysky [Qnp], ccaum mpesten Texyueem o,= 240 Mila x sanae nposnioct n= 1,5; 4, cpanmirm nemounist nonyexaemnx arpysox [Q] # [Onp] Pewenue. Yewna Mj, «N27 w crepxwax Ad], 4 BB], wapimpno upaKpemienmsix no KommaM, Nanpanitenst Bj{0:1 ocelt ITH crepaxuieli, Peaxiuor onopsi K umeer roprsonmaniyio cocrasimonyio I/K, H BePMIKBIMHYIO CoCraRMOMy!O RK; LX, 918 ONOpA NPeHATCTBYET TOpHSONTATBHOMY H BepTUKaTsHOMY nepememterno ToxKH K 6pyca, Takum oGpasom, Re cTumie peakima (pre.2.54), a ypaRticnnii parnonecua juia miockoii Tea ueTupe HeHSRe CHCTEMBI CHI MOXKHO COCTABHT BCCTO TPH. CACHOBATCIIBHO, AaHHAA CHCTEMA OHH Pa3 CTATHYCCKH HCOMpe/CsIMMa. CTATHYCCKH ACOMPENCHTUMBIE CHCTEMSI PACCHINTBIAIOT HIYTEM COBMECTHOTO PELICHHA YpARHEHHH, TONYYCHHBX B pesysbrare paceMoTpeHs CTAMMECKoll, reoMeTpHHecKoit H usiMecKOH cropoH Sama. M, 7 i Puc. 2.54 1, Halinem yewns H HanpoxcHH 8 crepaniax, BMpasin Wx sepes cHty Q. (Cramriecxas cropoxa saan, Tlo yeaonmo saan #eo6xonmMo onpenemm yews Nj, «Np cTansipix cTepaHeit AA |, # BB], a8 onpexercmit peaxuil Hx, wR Her HeOGXOAMMOeTE. TlosTOMY OCTATONHO 1% TpeX BOSMORHEN ypaRHeH PABHOBECHA HCHIONEIOBAIS OHO, B KOTOPOE He BOM Gor peaKun AK, w RK . TaKHM ABANCTCA ypABHCHHE 8 BNDIE CyMNI IM, = N,h+Nzb~ Qe =0, re h = asin45® = 2,1: 0,707 = 1,485 ™. Tloactaraias 8 yparnenne snaenus h, b, c, Hony uM LAB5N, +2.4N, = 159. @ a, /4 aa Ay 51 EK |B A & Ba Puc.2.55, Teomempuseckan cmopona sadan, Vox selicrsven sieumeti cum Q aGcomome xxecrKuii Gpye nosepuercs BoKpyr ToHKHK, Hlapanpsi A mB nocae neopmannn nepexorar B nonoxerte A7 w B2 cooTReTeTREHHO, Te. MepemeraroTes 10 eprmkani a neansinnnt 6, H Sy (puc.2.55) Vis nios1oGus tpeyroasuiKos 449K u BB2K naxosm & a 5 a ® Bupasma yxopoxenne Al, erepanx 14] w yzummeme Al, erepxns BBY, wepes nepewemenns 5, #5. aly O8 nas 6 =Al,. omyna & al & nse 1 ¢ yaterost pagenema (b) sings? al, = Al, = © @usureckan emopona sadaun, Veuomayx sax yauIMmeNa cTepane wepes yout 1 Tyka, sammcanmi ja a6comonmx jebopsanusii, enpasuin @ Tloactasi seipaxeri (c) & yesosne (d) N,aV2_Nzb asin45° DEF EF b ee NOSED ISOS OEE N,=N, @ Penmaem cosmectio ypasnienma crams (a) # ypastiennte (2): fuaesn, +24N, = 159 Ny = Ny N,=N; eas? 0,369. Onpesensem Hanpaxcenia » crepkuax 1 1 2: Nz 0,386Q 0. = Esa gs = 160.80 Ma XE _ ides 321Q Tl: 22°F = Tapa 2200 Me 2. Halimew onyekaemyto warpysky [Q], mpupasiim Gommece Hs anpexennil 8 AByX cTepxIUX sOMTYcKaemoMy danparxesso [c] ~ 160 MTT. 321- [9] = [a], omyna oe ~ [a] _ 160-1 (Ql = 5p = gay = 0498 108 3. Halinen upenesnuyio rpysonogpemnoctn cue temo! Opp, u AOuycKaemyto uarpy3Ky [Opp], €Cu1H upenes rexyseem a, - 240 MIla n sanac mposocts n~ 1,5. Tipu yscanscnnn warpysku Q cnepx suaenna [Q] Hanpaxctwa 8 OGONX cTepAHIX cHasaia yReNMUMBAcTEA peo nporoptoronansio Harpyske. Tip ysenitiennm Harpyskn Ao HexoTopoit sem Q>[Q] HanpaxeMme c, BO BTOpOH cTepAME yocTMraior upestesa TeKyueeTH op, a yewMe Np = upexexuoro snavenux No_p = c[F. ipa 91M waupwoxenne o, » epBoM CTePARHE OcTACTCH MeHBIIe o;. B mpouecce janbHeliMeTo YBCTINCHHA HArpy3kH HANPAKEHIA BO BTOPOM CTEPKHE OCTAIOTCA HOCTOAIIINMH, PARIIIM MPeNeTY TEKYECTH, & B TePROM = ROSPAcTAIOT, OKA TOKE Ne CHATORATEA PARINIMH G, yeruINE Ny] UpH HOM Pablo Nyse = Gp +2F. HO COCTOANHE CHCTEMMI HasHIBACTEX mpeeMAHIM, CoomeIemytoNUIM MEYEpHAMO ee rpysoriombemnoctH. Jlamueiiites, ake HesHaWTENsHOe YeenTieNMe HArpySKH CRASAKO C RechMa GomBIIMMH TeopMarnan cHeTeMsl, BOIMiHy Q, ERISKIRAIOIIYIO MpeTesIBHOE COCTORIIHE, OGOSHEAIOT Ony H HaskiBator MpeesbHHOH HarpysKolk Zam onpenenenma Onp, NoncTasHM 8 ypasnenme (a) sHaveHma cH, COOTRETETBYIOMINK MperleTBHOMY COCTORNMO, Kora O= np» N= Ninps N2= Nan 1485 -op + 2F + 24:07 °F =1,5Qap, omyzta, Or FLAGS 2+ 24) _ 240 108112108537 _ oe - Qe _ 163-108 ws , =2-—— . [eg] = ; 7 1,687 «10° H. 4, Cpasnam neminmmist nonycKacmerx rarpy30K [Q] 4 [Onp] [Qsp] _ 0,687 - 108 [Q] 0,498 - 108 ~ Crenonarexsno, mp paciete 1m mposmocn sanmo% cuctewst no mpeze: yaenmuusacres Ha 38%, 1,38. oi Harpy3Ke rpysonoxueMHocTs ee Pacuem koxcmpykyuli no donyckaembim Hazpy3KaM. Pacem cmamuyecku onpedenumbix cucmem no cnoco6y donyckaembix Haepy30K. B MpexBinyMIe HATOKCHHEE METOIOB PACHeTa MBI HCKORWNM HS OCHOBHOTO YCTOBHA MPOHHOCHI Gag < [a]. IT uepanextc Tso 1peGyer sKIGoPA PASMePOR KOUCIPYKUNE C TAKIM PACHETOM, OH MaNGoubiNIee IANPHACINE B CAMOM O1ACLION MecTe HE NpesOCXOAHUIO HONyCKAeMOrO. Ho Moxno cram tla APyryio ToHKy spems, Moxno saan yeronne, wro6H selicmmirensiax varpysKa Kone TPYKIBMO He MpeRocXoAHAA HeKoTOpoll ZoMYCKaeMoit BemITTEE VeTOBHe 970 MOHO BMPASHTE TAKIM HepaBerteTBOM: Prox © Poon 3a aonycKaemyto warpysky Haq BuGpam HeKoTopyio L/k YacTs Tol NArpYSKH, MPH KoTOpoll KoHCTPYKUMIA MepecTAHeT PYNKUNONNpORAT> UpABILIBHO, KepecTANeT BBITONIUTTs CHOC HasHAYeHMC, Taka Harpy3Ka OOBIIHO HASKIBACTeA UpestesHO, HHOrA—paspyuawoulell B WHPOKOM CMBICHe CsIOBA (1101 paspyUleHKIeM KOHCTPYKUMM nOapasyMeBaiOT mpeKpaneHue ee HOpMatsHtoii paGorsi) B kauectme mpumepa Bo3bMeM CHC’ ew 3 2BYX CTaIBHBIX crepaHeli ABM AC (puc.2.56), narpyxkennbix cHnoii P. A & Pue.2.56 Paccusmisas ary cucremy OGmuMIM HyTeM, P salient yous Ny = Np no hopmy.ne: N 2cosa . (us pastionecta ysaa A), Orciona momar KaxnOrO Hs cTepaRHell paBtia: P F25=> 7 [co] © 2[e}cosa Tlo cnocoBy xonycKaewnx Harpy3oK uMeeN: Ps Poon Bae B Katee KoxphnmeHTa sanaca juin KOHeTPYKIUNH B eEOM Ty Ke ReNWMHY k, KoTOpAX Guia MpuELTa B kavecTae Konpinmienra saniaca sia HanpsKeM, MBI NONYSHM, TO RecA Poe Pyon = TipesemsHol, onacHoll nemeunoll Pry» Gyxet 7, npH KoTopoll HaNPaKEHI B CTepHAX AOllAYT 0 Mpenesta TeKyeeTA: Ppp = 2Fozcosa Takin o6pasom, onyckaemas nema P paesa: 2Fazcosa Pon = — Yenonue npounoet mpmtnimaer Bit 2Fa,cosa ped k a ysursieas, 70 o += [co], z= lh nrouysae P< 2F[o|cosa Oren: P 2[elcosa Taxi o6pas0M, pacteT Mo AONYCKaeMBIM HATpYSKAM MPHBe B MAHHOM Cay*ae K TEM Ae PESYATBTATAM, TO Ht PaCHeT Mo OHycKAEMSIM HaMpHKeHHIIM. OT RCEryla HMCeT MECTO jLIA CTIMMMECKH ONPEeNIMAX KOHCTPYKIUAH mpi paBHoMepHOM pacipestenerimn Hantpsrxesmii, KOTia MaTepHait 10 RCEMY CeHeHINO HCTIOASSYeTCR NOAHOCTHIO. FS Pacuem cmamuyecku Heonpedenumbix cucmem no cnoco6y donyckaembix Haepy30K Coscem apyrie pesymsranst MBI HOnySHM, ecm GyaeM MpHMeHsTs cocoG JOMYCKAeMBX HarpysOK K cTaTMiecks COMPEAETHMLIM CHCTEMAM, CTePAHM KOTOPHIX HSTOTORNEHK 18 MaTepHaa, oBnaaIOMero cnocoGHOcTHIO K GosbIHN mac THeckHM Ae(bopMaMINAN, HaNpHMep HE MaTOYF-AepomHICTOMK cra, B kavectae mpumepa paccMoTpHM CHCTEMY i "peX cTepAHeli, Harpy IKeHUBK cHLIOK Q (puc. 2.57). Hyem Ree crept AeHAHBL 1S MaLOyraepONLCTOH CTA ¢ NpeMEHOM TeKyHeCTH c. JLB! KPAlIHNEX CrepAHe, KAK H BEING, OGOSHATHM J; ANH cpeatero fy. JHonyexaewoe nanpaxene [c] Pac.2.57 Kax m paxnute, npy pactete oof cTammyeckH HeonpereMMMoi! CHCTEMBI 3aNAAHMCA OTHOLTEHHEM Tomareit cTeprxtell NpHMEM, TO RCE TPH CTepALA OyyT HMETS osMAKORYTO TUOMAS F. TlonysHM: LN, =N, 2.Ny+2N,-Q=0 3. Al, = Alzcosa. Menomssya saxon T'yka, nomysi Ny = Nycos*a Crreaonateasuo: Q N,=———: T+ 2egta Qeos*a N,=——— =, 11+ 20ska 7 Tax Kax Ny > Ny cpentnii crepe nanpwxen Gonsme, tem xpaiieme; novromy nonGop moma ceven F waix0 nporsnectit no bopmyste: F h 2a + 2cos?a)[a] Ty 2ke RENHTHNY OMANI 1a1O jlaTs Ht BOKORKIM CTEPAIMG B IHX MlosTy"acTes HeKOTOpHIl TomoamMTEBIE Tipster crioco6 onycxaemsix Harpy30x; YenosHem MposHocT Gy1eT: 0 Quon = Uo B AaHHOM cHysae crexyer NOMHMAT TO NpeeNKHOH HArpy3KOll KOHCTPYKIMH? Tak KAK KOHCTPYKU BHITOTHEHA mS MaTEpHaIa, HMEIOMeTO TLIOMAAKY TEKYeCTH, TO, TO AHATOTHM ¢ MPOCTSIM PACTHKEHMEM CTEPAHA HS TAKOTO MaTepHaLta, 34 NPeMEMBHY!O HAPYSKY CHEAYET SATS TPYS, COOTRETETAYIONTU NOCTIOKEHMIO COCTORHHA TeKYIECTH dx aceti KoNCMpYKYUL 6 lero. Hasonem oty warpyaky Q¥. Moxa cna Q we aocTurna sToro siavenns, nna nanbueliuieli zehopsauns (onyeKanHa TOKE Ha: yy iS. Tk ry A) speByetea nospactanme narpyskn. Kora xe Q cneaaeter pasa Q%, siaiauefimni pocr sebopmanntit Gyner uponexozuts yake Ges YBenWYeHHA HarpySKH, — KOHCTPYKuME BeiliNeT Hs CTPOR. Aa onpextenenns remrammr Q® pacemorprm nocterenHBti xox xebopManm Hamel cTepAHeROH cucTeMbL. TAK KaK Cpe CTepAeHL HaNpoKeH cHLIbHee KPAX, TO B HEM PaHIlle, HEM B APYTHX, HANpHXCHHE AOE NO mpestea TeKyHeCTH Harpysky, coomrereTmytomyto 9ToMy MomeHTy, O6osnasnmm Q7; ona Syster pann Q, = (1 + 2cos* a5 rae NI = Fo, — Yyoumue s cpeaue cTepauie, coomen tylouiee ero npeseny Texyee, Hanpaxcuna & KpaMiiHx CTEPKIDX, HMCIOUUUX Ty %KE ILIONLAS, B OTOT MOMEHT eme He JoFAYT NO Mpesiena TxyHee TH, H om CIepxHM GyayT yupyro conpomBnsmcs aansueiamek yehopmamm. Zana toro sToGs 97a aehopmanua mpoucxomua, HeOOXONIIMO JBIBHETIE’ YREANEHKE HArPYSKH HO TEX HOP, OKA 8 KPAiiNUT CTEPRHAX HAIPHKCHA TORE He AOHAYT 10 Upeesa rexyuecnt, Jiu rorga 6yzer docmMrHyTa mpexesmbuad rpysorioxLe soe T. KoNeTpyKUNAH Q*. Tax kax npn narpyske O7 HanpmKeHHA R cpesUieM CrepAHE OMULYT ake s10 Npesea TeKY4eCT gy, TO MH sabHeTMIEM ROSpACTANHM rpysa OHH, a craTo Gums H yewHe Nj NpeapaMATCA B CTATIHECKH ONpeAETHMYTO, CoCTOAIYIO WS ABYX cTepRHei AB Ww AC w narpyxennyto B TOKE A cHTOit Q, , OcTaHyTER Ges yeenuenux. Hama cramueckt HeonpeteTHMas cHCTEMS HanpancHMol BANS, Hussecmunem yore N5, pasnnm Foy (pic.2.58). Pucd.58 Takaa cxema pa6onal natielt KoHetpyKIMH OyneT HMeTs MecTo, OKA @, uarpyweuubKx cwioll Q— Foy, Hl mexyuecta, Taxax saia4a pew nostysaeM: (Q- For), = Qf — Fo; Ore1o1a QE = For(1 + 2cose) Tlonycxaewas narpyska Gyser panna _ a _ Far(1 + 2cosa) 2Forcosa aon Tk k a yoursisas, 170 & = [co]; ran rrouysiaem son = Flo] + 2cosa) Okonvaremsu: Q < Onon = Flel(t + 2cosa) " F @ a * [ol + 2cosa) Sra nema meme, eve Honyserman OGwEMIM MeTOOM pactera, 7. &, ne [o](1 + 2cos?a) Tipu Q=40 xH, a = 30°, [c,] = 1000 MMla (crams) nonyuaem: no oGurmomy cnocoby: 4000 = tt nt F= To0C + 2easta0n) 174 no eocoBy jOUyeKAeNAIX Harpy3OK: ‘4000 = 146 wn? F=———___ 100(1 + 2cos30°) Takum O6pasom, METON pacer NO jLONYCKAeMGIM HArpYsKaM NOSBONAET CHPOEKTHPOBATS CTATHHECKH HEONpEREAMytO CHCTeEMY H3 MaTepuana, o6nanaloul IVCKACMBIM, HaLIpsKeNMSIM, © EMOUTANKOll TEXYGCCHL, SKONOMBUNES, Yee DH PAacueTe DO AC J NOHATHO: MPH Crlocobe pacdeTa No JOMYCKacMbIM HalpwkKCHHAM MBI CMHTAIH 3a Mpes[eMbHyW Harpy3Ky Hallie KOHCTpyKIHH nemmanny QT, mpm KoTOpoli No Mpenera TekyHeeTH AOXOAHN aHIMK MaTepyAN cpenHero cTepAHS, Kpafiime Ke GuUIH eyonanpsexenst. Tip merone pas eTA HO JONYCKACMBIM HarpYSKAM MpeslensHa TPYSOTIONeMHOCTS onpes # > Q,. Tipu warpyake Q¥ nomoetsi0 uctiousyerea Marepuast BeeX TPeX cTepIKECL Takum o6pasom, HOBbIi Mero PACeTA HOSBONST PeEANGORATS CKPHIME PH CrAoM crOcOBE sanacK UpONOCTH B CLUMMHECKH HEONPENENHMBIX CHCTEMAX, OGHIECA MOBSILICHAR HX pacuemMoi rpysonONBeMHIOCTH u_ nelicTRHTEBHOH pasnonpownocmu ncex vacreli KoNCTpysivin. He upenCTaBHT HKAKHX sampyKeMMit Pacupocrpamrs 91Or MeTOR Ha Caysal, Kora cooTHoMeHHe momatelt cpenHero H Kpaiinnx cTepwHel He GyseT paso envenme. Vissioxkenmnle Baitie TeopeTHteckHe COOGpaKeHH MPOREPAINCH HeoAHOKPATHO Ha OMTTE, MPHIEM RCETIa HaGMORAIACe JOcTATONHO GTHSKAR CXOTHMOCTE BEMHTHH NPEAEMBHO! HATPYSKH — BLTIRCTeHHO! H ONPeMeTeHHOH MpH 3KcTEpHMeHTE, ITO AaeT IrpysoK, YBCpeIIOCTS B NpARWIGHOCTA TeOPEMMMECKUX MpE/OCKUIOK MeTOsIa jJOMYCKAEMBIX 1 Pacyem 2u6kxux Humet B rexiuke nerpesaetes emmle OnHH BIT PACTANYTANX IuIEMEHTOR, TPH ONpeNereHHTA NPONHIOCTHE KOTOPHX BADKHOE sHaYEHHE uMeer coGcTReHHGtit Bec. ITO — TAK HaSKIBAEMHIE THOKHE HUTA, TaKHM TEpMHHOM OGOSHANAIOTCR THOKHE SAEMEHTAI B AHBINAX SNeKTPOTIepenas, B KANATHKIK NOPOTAX, B RHCAHHX MOCTAX HE JIPYFHX COOPYACHHAR. Tiyets (prc.2.60) nMeeteR THOKAR HHTE NOCTORHHOTO CeNeHNA, HArpYAXeHHAR COGCTREHHLIM BECOM H TOAREIICHHAR B MYX TOIKAX, HAXOMMUNKE Ha pasBIX ypouneX. Toy stelicTmMeM COBCTREHOTO RecA TINT MpoRHCAET To HeKoTOpOH KPHEOH AOB. TopionTaisias mpockitin paccTosHi MEK,AY OropaNt (TOYKANHE ce SaKpervieHH), OGosHaNaemad [, HOcUT HasBaRHe nponema. Him uncer noctommoe cevenme, CuleqORAIeIBHO, BEC ee pacPEeTeH pasHOMEPHO NO ce jE, OGKMNO HpoRHEARHE hint sleReAHKO HO CpaBHeMiio ¢ ee MPONIETOM, Ht LINHA KpHEO! AOB mao oTumHaetes (ve Bone’ HeM Ha 10%) OF JUNI! XOPIII AB. BoToM cHysae ¢ AOCTATOSHIOH CTeNEHEIO TOUHOCTH MOTO CHHTATS, To BEC HATH PaBHOMepHO pacnpereTeH He Mo ee ALIKE, ano AMHE ee MPOCKIUH Ha TOpHEOHTAMBHYIO Ock, T. €. BONS npotema I. J 2 Pue.2.60 Dry Kaveropmio rHGKHx seit Mt H paceMompHM. TIpHMeM, STO HATCHCHBHOCTS HarpySKH, paBHOMepHO pacrpetesieHHOil no mponery HitTH, pasa g, Dra HarpysKa, wMeroMIaR pasMepHOCTS cieta/OnuNa, MOXeT 6bITS He TOTBKO COBCTREHEBIM BECOM HITT, MPHXOAMIUINCH HA CAMHMUY ALIMHBI MponcTa, HO H RECOM JIbAa HOME sHOGOH ApyroH HarpysKoli, TaKKE pasHOMEpHO pacnpenenenmoit, Cyeranrioe xomymenne 0 sakOHe pacnpeslenenna Narpy3KH sHawTeTbHO OGxerHaeT pacer, HO esTaeT ero BMECTE © TEM MpHGIOKEHEBIM; €C7H IPH TONHOM pemeNiaH (Harpy3Ka pacnpentenena BOTs KpHBOH) KpHBOH MpoBHCAHHA Gy.ter Heras amma, TO B NpHOAKEHHOM peItlenuH XprBas MpoRHicAHHs OKasHnacTCs KRaNpaTHO! Napaboxoik Havao KoopAnnar BRIGepeM B caMOH HHSMeit ToIKe MpoBHCaMTE HIM O, NOTOKeHHE KOTOpOIt, HaM MoKA HeHsRECTHOS, OMEBIANO, SABHCHT OT REMMI! HACPYSKH 4, OT COOTHONICHHA MexLIy LuMKOH MEM NO KpuBoi H ZNO! NporeTa, a TAKE OF OTHOCHTETSHOTO TOTOeHHA ONOPHEIX ToHeK. B touKe O KACaTEIBHAH K KPHEOH MpOBHCAHIEX RUTH, ONEBHIHO, TopHsoHTATEHA, Ilo oroit KacaTenbHO‘i HaNpABHM BIPABO OCS X. Bupexen jByMa CeveHHANHK — B HaHaite KOOPAMHAT H Ha PACCTORHKE x OT HaHa KOOpsHHAT (CeNeHHe m —n) — HacTs sem mms, Tak Kak my npeMonOnena rHOKOF, 7 €. enocoHO! CoMpoTTCR MT pactHKeTIO, TO. steficmUE oTGpoutenmioii qacTH Ha OCTABINYIOCA BOSMOAHO TOTBKO B BHU CHM, HaNpaBTENHOl To KacaTeMBHOH K KPHBOH MPOBHCANA HATH B MeeTe paspesa; HlIoe HanpanseKIne OTOH CHAM HeROSMOrKHO. Ha puc.2.61 npenctasnena suipesanmiag YacTs HHT ¢ nelicTayIONNEMH Ha Hee CHAE. PasHOMepHo pacnpestenentias Harpy3ka HITCHCHEHOCTIO q HanpasitcHa RepruKaMeHo BHM, BossciicTane stenolt orSpomienHoi stacta (ropusomrateaan cwia H) HANPABIIEHO, BBY TOTO, 470 HUTS paGoTaeT Ha pacTHReHHe, BuleBO. JlelicTBHe npasolt oTGpouleHHOlt Hacm, cua T, HanpaBsteKo BIpaRO 110 KacarestbHOH K KPMBOM MpOBHICAHHN HITE B 9TOI TOHKE. Coctasim ypasiieuse pasuosecHa BbipesamHoro yaacTKa 1mtTH. BOseMeM CYMMY MOMEHTOE BCeX cHLT OMOCHTENBHO TOuKH NpATOReHMA Crt TH Mpupannzem ee Hysn0, LIpH 910M. ysr paBHoneiicTaylomliad pacnpeseneHHoii Harpy3KH HHTeHCHBHOCTHIO g GyeT gx, H 4TO OHA MpuNoOxKeHa NocpemHHe oTpesKa x. Torna eM, ONMPAKCh HA MpHREy|eHHOe R HAYANe jONYUIeHHe, TO Pue.2.61 Hey qx oneyst ae yee (239) Oretoma crenyer, 470 KpHsaR mpositcanna MIM sBAReTeR NapaGonoli, Korma o6e TUK MomBeCA HITT HaXORATER Ha ontHom yposiie, 10 f, =f, =f. Bemmuma f # siamo caysse Oyster Tax masbiRsEMOl erpesoH uposHeanna, Ee s1erKo oupenemims, Tak Kak 8 TOM CHYAe, BBMLY CHIMMeTpHH, HIBUIAL TONKA HIT HAXOMUNTCA HOCpERHHe MpoueTa, 1 a=b=1/2; HoscTaB.0HK B ypasnenme (2.39) snasenns x=b=1/2 ge fa (240) Vs s10ik hopmyats uaxosen Besunsuny cna A: 2 P noaysaem: ao (2.41) Bennsnia H nasbinaetes PopHSONTAUIBHBIM HAOKEHIEM HITE, Taxn o6pasom, ect HSReCTHB Harpy3Ka q H HanEKeHHe H, To 10 hopayze (2.40) wafitem etpexy mposncarme f. Tpw sana q Hf HaDOKEHHE H onperensetes dopmysioi (2.41). Cass oTmK REIIEH C TUIMHOK § HEH NO KpHBOH npoRncans YOTAHABTHBACTCR pit TOMOIHE HSBeC THON HS MaTEMATHKH MpHOmoRcHMOH hopMyTst) sei(t 5) 32 Coctasi ete oHo YcuIOBHe paBHORECHA BAIpeSAHHO! YACTH HEFTH, a HMCHHO, TpHpas. {eM Hyso cyMMY NpockiyHli BEX cH Ha OC X: -H+Teosa =0 Ms ororo ypastenns Haine cisty T — nanexcHne 8 npousBosHoi To4Ke H Omysra cxeayer, 410 Huta T ysennsngactex oF MAGNE! TOHKH HENK K Onlopam M Byser HaHGosIbIHeH B TONKAX Hlo;wBeCA — nM, Tle KACATE:TKMAR K KPUROH NPORHEAM rTM CocTaRsRET HaNGomBINH yrox © roprsorTATMO, Tipit MaOM MponMcatnAN t1T OT Yor He AOCTHTaeT GombMHX sHaxeri, TOITOMY ¢ TOcTATONHOM MIA TPAKTHKH CTETENMO TOHTOCTH MO‘HO CHHTATE, TO YeHINE B IITA NOcTORIIO H panto ce HaDEKEIINO H. Ha oT RemHIMMY OOMHTO H REseTER pacer nposnocTH ATH, Ecnn nce Ae MOGyeTCR BECTH pacteT Ha HAHGONBILY!O CHY y TOMEK MoABECA, TO AAR CHMMETPHHO HHT ec BeMMNEY onpesTeMHN cuentyIonM uyTem. Bepmikaibuble COCTAB:IAOILUME PeaKIUtH OMIOP PABA MEKIY COBO H PABHDL NOTOBMNE CyMMApHO! HArpYSKH wa HTB, T. ¢, gl/2, TopmoxTaissBie cocTasimomne pasHer cise H, onpesiensemo ro hopmye (2.41). Tlommste peaxupn onop HOs1y'4AICH KAK TeOMEIPHMIECKHE CYMMBE 9IMK COC TARLISTONUNR: 2 2 167? © heathen 1 of e e Yexosne mpostiocny ja 6HOKo! ms, comm Hepes F oGosasiena moULak CeUCHAA, HMECT BHA H o=FSlel Sancums namexcune H ero sHayeaem no opmyne (2.41), nosy a sas fF His oroit bopwy.nst mp sanaimmx /, g, Fit [¢] Mono onpesiesms neoGxomnnyio ctpeny nposucamn f. Peurenme mpH TOM YNPOCTATCR, eC B q BKMOTEH TMM COGCTRETTBI B P- yFE al? 8F[o] 8[o] 1 e, nema F ne soibter pacuer. ca TO4KH HOABECA HIT HAXONICH HA PASHBIX YPOBHAX, TO, HloNCTABIIAX B ypaBHeHMe (2.39) sHaveHA x——a HC x-b, tora q = yF, re y — Bec eH: OGbeMa MaTepwama HIE, H uanowu fa f, wd f 2H fh 2H Oreo ne us propee pupancenua onper b* fo 2h a eu Tlepzoe Ha B1Opoe, HAXOAHM: &£_@ if S=5 wma=+ he A Hive 8 siay, sto ba=I, nomysaen: Tlogerane 970 snaxenme b r bopmyary onpexenenmoro napoxens H, oKoTaTENBHO OMPEZIeNIeM: y=—— 2@Wht Ji? J[ea 3naka B 3HaMeHaTene ykasLIBaloT Ha To, STO MoryT OKI Be OCHOBHEIC (PopME! NposvcanHs HTH, Tlepsax opma UpH MeHBUIeM sHaveHHH H (SHAK IDTOC Mepex BTOPKIM KOpHEM) jlaeT HAM RepLIMHY rapaGoaBt Mey onlopama Huta. TpH SoBUIeM HaDKKCHHN H (3HaK MHHYC Tepe; BTOPSIM KOpHeM) BepIIMA HapaGons! pacrionoxuTes seRee ontopst A. Toayyaem BTopyio opmy KpmBoil. BosMoxkHa m qpeTsa (MpoMeAYTOIHAA MOKIY ABYMA OCHOBHBIMM) dopma mpogHcanns, (2.42) coomeretyioitan yertonmo f, = O; Tora Masato KoOpyUMAT O3 conMeMtaeTex ¢ TONKA, Ta nam mnax Fopwra Gy; Ho.Tysen g SaBNCHMOCTA OF CooMOMIENK MeEKAY ALUM KHMH no KUBO NposHCauHA AOB (puc.2.60) 4 znMuoli xopyst AB. eam npit noapecke mit na pasiix yposnax HewsRccTaM cTPeTsK MPosucaMR ff, Ho MBRECTHO NaDEKENME HT, TO © Honysuen sien paceroamnit a ub ¥ erpex npowncaiua f, wf. Pastioets h yponiteli ozweckn pasta: R=A-h Tloxerasunm 8 910 empaxenne suavennx fu f, 1 mpeoGpasyen ero, mien 8 Baty, 10 a+b=f: aa? 4 ay 4 a B= Oe oy = ag & 8) = 59 + DO - a) =F (b-2) “2H 2H 2H omyina bea =2th naa a tak Kak a+b=1 10 l Hh L Hh ub 2 @ 2* a Creayer Mer B BnAy, 410 npH a>0 GyyeruMeT MecTO nepsas Hopma mposncaRus HITMK, pu a<0 — Bropas dopa HpoRMcanma H pit a=0 — spersa opwta. Tloxetan.aaK stave a ub R BUIPwKEIMA ILIA CTpeN Mponnicarnn fH fy noaysaen resus fH ge HW oh A BH” 2g? 2 ge oHw oh frp=mtsots 2” eH 2g?” 2 Teneps SsniCHUM, “10 npowsoliaer ¢ CHMMeIpHNHOI HiTEIO, HepexpsIBaroMLelt npoxer /, ecm NOCE HOABELINBAHUA Ce npM Tewmeparype £, Hl MITeHEHBHOCTH HarpySKM g, TeMHtepatypa HTM nosuicuMeH NO t, @ HarpysKA yBemNITIER x0 mirenieuBocTH ¢, (JtanpHMep, 8a ee Greener), Tpit TOM MperONO:KHM, TO R HepROM COCTORTINH sazalto HAM MaDHACetHE Hi], wan ctpesa nposiicanna f, (3iax ony 1s STK AHYX BEMIEHE, BeeT-a MoxkTIO ONpEEAHT APYTYIC.) Tip noscete depopmayuu Hirt, aBmOMelicR nO cpaBHeHMO c jUIMHOM HMM MatoH BemMHHOj, crenae JHA JOMYLLCHHS: JIMA HUTA paBHa Ce MPONETY, a HADNKCHHE MOCTOSHHO M pawHO H. Tip NONOrHX HErDAX 9TH AOMYMIeHH j1aKOr seSOMBINTYTO HOTPeMHOCT, BTaKoM carysae YAUIMHEHHe HIM, BBISRAHHOE yBEMIMEHHEM TeMTeparypsl, GynIer pasHo As, = a(t, - tt re ee — Koad munenr sumeiinoro weaneparypuoro pacumperia marepwaa tem, Tipa nonknierm tesmeparypat toms yamimactes, B cBsSH ¢ THM YRETMUHTER ce CTpeTa MpoBHCAHINE M, KaK cesIeTBHE, YMeUMUNTeA ce HaDoeHMe, C xpyroli CrOpOHL, 1-32 YRENIEHHA HarpysKH, Kak RYO HS opMtyun (2.41), Ha yecmmuca, JlonyeTIM, "TO OKOINaTeTKHO HAnOKeHMe ysemMBacTeA, Torna YaMHeHHe HMM, BAISRaHHOe yReTHCHHEM HADPACHHA, Gyster, CorsacKo Saxony T'yka, pasHo: as, @.- Hy 2 EF Ecan H, oxaxkerca menpine, ¥em H,T nemmanna As, 6yzer orpynarenbnoit. Tpw nonmKermn Temmepatyppt 6yzer ompmmarensHolt nema As). Tavs oGpasom, JL1mHa HTH BO BTOPOM e€ CocToRHHM GyeT PaBHA AUTHHE TPH TepROM ee COCTOAHIM c TOGaBTEHTEM Tex jePopMalUsl, KOTOPHIe NPOHSOHAYT OT NOBMIILEHHA TeMIepATYDHI H HaTwACCHE 52 = 5, + As, + As, Vissteueume suimust mint siisoser nswencune m ce c1peusr uposucaum, Baecto f,, ous craner f,. Temeps SaMeHUIM & MOCSIETHEM YpaBHeHMH 5, Hs, HX HSBCCTHRIMH BBIPAKCHHAMH, & NOPOPMAIMIH As, H As,— TAKA IX nony yest patiee savenman, Tora ypasnenne 21x 57 pret cnexytomnit Bi: (2 +34) 7 (1 +34) t+alt,— wise Botom ypansienmm sasenst Fu f vx sutaienniawn no opmyste (2.40): ae at fay "Fan, Tora, nocse HeKOTOpkIX npeoGpasoBaHN, yPARHEHHE JUL pacdeTa HADNKeHHA MOXET OLIN HANIHCAHO B BELLE: FFG? 24 + EFa(t, - t) 1) 8 - Onpenemus 1s store ypasniemnia namxenme Hp, Moxo nati no oputye (2.40) w empeay f,. B caysae, ecnm npH nepexoste oF nepsoro Ko BTOpoMy cocTomMIMIO HarpysKa He MSMCHRETCR, a MSMEHACTER “HII TEMHIepATYPA, 1O B HOCHEAINEM YpaBHCMHM yNTEHCMBHOCT g, seMCHCTeN Ha g,. B calysae, cc: pH HepeXOE OF HEpBOrO Ko BTOPOMY COCTORHIHO HE HBMCHRCTCH TeMIIepaTypa, a HSMEKACTCA NHN HArpy3Ka, TO B OM YpaBHeHKN cpenHI CH B Baslpamnot ckoBke panen ny.n0, Lloxyseunoe ypasnenne mNpHros 0, IPH HOHIDKEHKK TeMmIeparyphi HM YMeHbuTeHH narpy3KH, Brex caysanx, Kora ctpera mponit: cTpoTo TOROPA, HENPHMEHHIMEL, TUK KaK fleicTRHTENBHAA KPHRAX NPOBHCAHHA HHT, TeMHAA AMM, OyReT YE SHATHTEMBHO oMIMYaTKeR OT TapaGonk, NOTYSeHHOH HaMH GnarospA MpesITOOKeHHO O PARHOMEpHOM PACHpeAETEHHKE HArpysKH NO nponemy HHT, a HE TIO €€ AUHe, KaK TO HMEeT MECTO B ZeiiCTHHTENSHOCTH. TO SHaYeHHe MOrpelHOCTA B RETIIMHE HapokeHHN H, sBrsRaHHolt 9THM NHK He sRAETCA MAIO NO EpaRHeniO HposTeTOM, BHmEseHIE BHIIKE OPMY-t, Tonnbie mmoqeersl oKasBiBaror, NpeAMOTORCHHEM, TAKORO: NpH oTHOMEHHH f/'<1/20 norpemTHOCTs He MpenocKomHT 0,3%, mpx f/1=1/10 omHGKa cOCTARARET ye 1,3%, a mpa /71=1/5 norpemsHoeTs HeCKomBKO, mpeBocxomT 5%. Bonpoce! dns camonposepKu = Uro nasbinaetea ctepaniem? - Kaxoii Bit Harpy Xenia CTepATIA HaSbIBArOTEA OceBRIM pacTRAeHMeM (CAKaTHEM)? - Kakue niyrpennne cwiosne akTopsi ROSTINKAHOT B CeeHAH Opyca pH pacOReIIMH H cxkATIN? ~ aiine onpexenenne omopst BHYTpeHHeTO cHmToROTO aKTOpa, - Kaxoii ent Harpy xcHi0l cTepaCHA HaSBIBACTCR pac DDKCHHEM (CKATHEM)? - Uo nastiwaror Hopmansuoli cwI0;? - Kax onpeeaseres anaenme nopmatnioii cust 8 rlonepesion concn? ~ Kaxue narpy3ki nassinaior pacnpesteaennnimi? Ykasars pasmepHocts passiibIX BELEN CHI (B cHeTeMe CH). A SHANICHMe MpoOHON cHLAB NB NOHSBONIBHOM HomepesHOM ceeHHM Gpyca? + Kak snunenset - Uro nperetanager coGoi amopa MpOTOABEKIK CHIT H KAK OHA CTPOHTER? - Kak pacnpesexeHn Hopsansithie HaNpKEHHA 6x & HONEPEHHBIX CeEHHAX HleiTPAsHOTO pactaLyTOrO Gpyca M eMy ORM paBEst? ~ B kakinx ceveHiiex pactanyToro Gpyca BOSHUKAKOT HANGoNSITHe HOPMANBHBE HANpsoKCHI? - Uro naspipactea weeTKoCTHIO MOnepesHOTO CoNeIMA pH pacDoKenE? - Kak opmyampyercs saxo F'yka? 3anmmsre dpopmysist aGcomOTO Hf oTHOCHTENBHO! npoxoABHO AebopMarHIH Spyca? - Uro npenctan amor coGoit smopa nporombmE repememtertit? - Kak yermatnactes codctacuttsti nec Gpyca B aNaMHTHYecKOM BBIpaxciia 28 MporoTBHOH CHA? - Kak oGssciims nani soxuness 1/2 8 GopMyite YsUINHCHHA REPIMKANIOTO GpYca NOCTOAEHOTO CeyeHHA OF coBeTmentoro Beca? - Bem cies 1 kakoza (popmyiia nosepousoro pacsera? ~ Kak nasnasarorea 2OnyCKAeMBIe HANpSOKCHI JUIA ILIACTINIIX 1 XPYTIKHX MaTEpHATOB? - Kak ssirlomueta mpoexmposounssit pacer? ~ Kaxute tpn xapaxrepnbix pita 31a ReTpeatoTea pH pachere 1a npounocTs KoNeTpyK uM? - Tlovemy cunTaetos BOSMOKHBIM OTKTOHEHHE 10 5% bakTHNECKOTO HaMpaKeHHA OT LoTyeTHMOTO? - Tlosemy neo6xomHMo suinomIATs yesIORHE KeCTKOCTA? TpHReAVTE MPHMEPHI. - Tipu npozenenum pacueta Ha NpowHOcT. No MpeeNbHBIM COCTOSHHAM ¢ YeM CpaBHHRaloT dbakTH4ecKHe HaNpmKeHHR? ~ Kak pactperenalotca No CeqeHHIO CHIBI YpyrocTH Np pac DUKCHHH H C2xkaTHH: (MCTIONL3OBaTb THTIOTESY THIOCKHX concn). ~ Kak Bere aseTCs SHATCHHE MpOAOTSHOH CHIBI B MpOHSBOTEHOM TOTepeTHOM CeTCHHH CTEp AEA? ~ Kaxoro xapaktepa Hanpmxeinix BOSHIKAIOT B MOTIePENHOM CECH KPH PACDHKeMM H CATH: HOPMETBUBIE HI KacaTestbHBIe? = Kax pacnpestenems nopmarsime HaNpexeINA n MOMePENINX CeNeMMUX HeInpamTO-PAcraNyTOO WIM MerMpaLTbHIO= CRATOFO CTEPAKHA HO KAKOH! popMyste OM OPEeOTCA? = Tloxysurre dbopmyay nopMaramix nanpaxenni npr pactoxenmmcxanm? Kaxte mpesiochuiki HeHOMBSyIOTeA MPH Bb Bone 970i opmynsr? - Kak samcninactea yerosne mposioca 6pyca mpi pacnoxenmn (cram)? Kaxte nists sana pemtarotea ¢ noon yenoBua npowHocTH? ~ B xaxux exnnnuax HSMepseres HampmxenHe? - Kax Ws MeHmtcs BemeHAHa HaNpRACHHA, ecuIK IOLA HONepesHoro CeNeHHA BOSpacter 8 4 pasa? ~ Kar nasnavatorea svaxn nponossnofi cots HopMamsnoro nampsoxens? - Kak cassanet rimiotesa niocknx cexenmit (rimoresa BepHysity) W SaKOH PacMpeeTeHHA HOPMANBHBIX HaNpwKeHH B jonepesom cesennn pactamyroro (cxkaToro) crepaH? = Packpoiire Tonsmme omop MpoxombABxX cHT, HopMansHsIX HanpaxeHMit H nepememtenmi, [laa sero om cTpoATeA? Kakix pani npHtepacHnatoTea pH nocTpoettAH Imop? - Uro moKassrBaeT smmopa MponomBHO¥ CHUTE? - Yr0 mpestcraensoT CoGoHt sIHOpsI BHYTPCHHHX cHwIOBKIX *pakTopon? C KAKOH eTBIO HX CIpOsT? - OnmmaTe TeXHHKY TOCTPOCHUE SHOPS! NPOLOSHBIX CHL B GPyCe, 3ArPYAXCHHOM HECKONIBKUMH COCPENOTOYCHEBINE cwramt 10 ocx Gpyea? ~ Kax naineanns snasienne npodomsHoii CHAK R MpOHsRoTSHOM TlonepeaHOM Cees Spyca? + Kak sainicuins wanpsoxeniia & nonepeniom cevenme Opyca ups pacvoxennn u cxcarm? Kak on pacupenesenst 10 nonepestiomy cevenmto? - Kak onpetexmor aGcomomioe y{U1HHeHHe cTynenMaToro Opyca, HArpY-KEHHOTO HeCKOABKHMH CHAM? - Kax onpeeanetea yannneeie mpusmatiriecKoro Gpyca oT cofcTReHHOTO Beca? - Kaxoe BiMsHHe okasbiBacr COBCTRCHHEIM BEC CTEPAHH IPH MpOCKTAPORAHHA Coopy ACH? - Uro nomaeres rion Spycom pasHoro conpoms:teHiia? - 3ammunire hopmy.n61 su14 onpereneni yzumHeHH Gpyca. “10 xapaktepusyer npousseyenne AE u Kak OHO HasBIBAcTeR? = Kaxne aecopmanint Opyca nasiariotes a6comoriIsIMH 1 KakHe OTHOCHTENBHBIMH? - Yio HassmaeTeA yAIMHEHHEN CrepAHA (a6comomHolt mporonsHolt aeopmanutel)? “ro Taxoce omocitesbHas npononsias nepopmanns? Kaxonni pasMepnocTa a6comomioit 1 omHocHTembHOM MpoomsHBIx ste*bopscanttit? - Onuunite TeXHRKY OnpeneNeHHA MpoAOTBHE 1 onepesHBNX JeopMausit Opyca MpH pacTHKeRHH-cAaTHH? - Cransuoii crepxens sutimofi 1,5 M pbraystes ron Harpy3Koit Ha 3 wo, UeMy panto oTHocrTestbHIoe yuTAeHMe? Hemty paso ommocHTetsHoe cyaccxMe? (\u~ 0,25) - Uso xapaxteprsyer Mostyn yupyrocms marepraia? Kakowa exMenua IsMepeHIR Moxty.1a yupyrocTH? - Uo Hasswaetes Mogystem ynpyrocm E? Kak sutiaer BenusuHa E Ha neopmanuar crepaxHA? ~ Uo masnmaetes aecTKOCTHIO TlonepesTIOTO CeMeTIAA CTEPAI pH pacroKermAM (CATH)? - Onocirrensusie xepopmaunar w nepemeneni - Uro momaetes TON KECTKOCTAIO MPH PACDHKEHHH HLTH CHATS CTEPATA? - TIpwatuint pacera Ha weeTKoCT. - Tani 37124 mp pacserax Ha 2kecTKOCTE. - Tipwstepst s:maeia EcTKOCTH Ha paGoTOCTIOCOGHOC Ts KOHC TPYKAEN. = Chopmysmpyiire saxon Tyxa, Hamanmre dpopmynst zi aScomomoii 1 omocrrem crept. + Uro upoxexoaur ¢ nonepesitbIMH pasMepaMH CTep>xI pH ero pacpokenmH (cxaran)? - U1o xapaxteprsyer Koodbuuerrr nonepesno;! epopsauuss”? = Uno taxoe Koxdpmusenrr Myaccona? B kaxnx mpenestax on nsMenserea? - Kax onpexeraetea Koxppmgrent Myacconia? - Kaxaa pasimita Mexny CTaMMeckH OnpeeTHMOH H CTaMYecKH NeOMpeneAHMOl cTepKHeNOi cHETEMOH? - Kaxue cucTeme: nassimalor ctamieckit Heonpestemumbina? Kak yoTaHOBHs CTeNeHS CTaMHeCKOi HeOMpeNeEMOCTH cneTeMnr? ~ B xaxoii nocaeuonarensHocTs paccsHTeIBaioT CTaTHNeCKHN HEOMPeseTIMEIe CHCTEMBI? ~ CkoubKO ypaBttenii CAMIKH HAO COCTABHTS [VIA CHCTEMBI CHI, AEKALLAX Ha OsIHOT upsMOi? - CKONBKO YpABHeHHit CTATHKH HYAHO COCTABIETS ILIA CHCTEMBI CHLI, PACOAOKEHHBIX KAK YFORHO B ILIOCKOCTH, HO CXOTAMIUAXEA B OsWHO' TOUKE? - CKOTRKO YpaBHEHH CTATHKH HYKHO COCTABHTs TR CHCTEMBI CHA, PACTOTOKEHHBIK KaK YTOAHO B NTOCKOCTA H He EXONATIUAKEA B O;HOH TOUKE? - Kaxoe Bamanie oKaSMBACT Ha CTEPARHEBYIO CTATIMECKH HEOMpETETMMYIO CHCTEMBE HSMeHEHHe TeMMepaTypsl? - Kak yurrmamatotes 8 CTATHYECKH HEOMpeTeNIMBX CTEPKHERBIX CHCTEMAX MOHT@RHBIC HAIpsOKCHHA? ~ Kax BemeTes pacer cTammeckH HEOMPEsIeTHMENK CHICTEM MO MeTOAY paspyMraToINnNX HaTpy3OK? - OGbSCHHTe MCTOA pac4era CTAIMYCCKH HCOLPCHCAMMBIX CTCDKHCBLIX CHCTEM [0 TIPEACIBHOMY coc-TORHHIO? HOH MPO/OAIBHBIX 3 yop sani ~ Bo CKOABKO pas (IPHMCPHO) HONICpCHHaN ACMOPMALAA MCHBINC HPOAOABHOH MPH OCCBOM pac DoKCHHK (CxKaTHH) CTaRHBIX CTepAHEH? - Tip nponerenmm nermrranntt Onu1m moxytenmt pasnumime snavenns Koxpdinmtenta Tiyaccona sits cram: 0,15; 0,28; 0,4, Yeaxte, Kaxie suavenma omnGo%ust? = Baricsne npojiosbHy0 CH, ROSHHKAIOMLYIO H KlOMepeHOM CeYEHITK PACTAHYTOFO CTepAHA, ECM HOpMaLTAHBIE HANPAwKCHIA BOTOM ceyeHMH pazxer 140 MMa, a cro momags coctazsser 100 xa2? - Onpeste1cHHe HOPMAIBHBIX Ht KACATCHBHDIX HANPORCHHI Ha HAKTOMHBIX IUIONANKAX UpH pac poKeHHH — Cxanm, BoiwO opacyss ~ Buecew popayay onpesteuens Hopwantunix Hanpsexcii spit pac sox CMH ~ Bnonepestiom ceveti pacraytoro Gpyca BOSHHKAIOT HANPHAEHIA, KOTOPIE HASHRAIOTES.. ~ KeeTkoctms1o Monepeswioro ceveHHs MPH pac Doe HasuinakoT - Besonachiaa npostioe Spyca mpi pactaxcumn onpentearetes no dpopmy.ie... - Hlonyemmnte HanpsoxeHi JUIX MACTEHKX MarepHasion OpEesstOT 10 hopMy.1e ~ TlouyeTmsie KampsrxeHHs pH pacTHREHH XPyHIKHX MaTEpHA:IOR ONPEseMOT 10 (POPMYsIE ~ Onacibim omepesibiM cevenHem Gpyca sBiuteTes CeveHKIe, # KOTOPOM AelicTAYIOT HaNGonBUIHE - Lemparsabim pacnoxennem Haspipaior Taxol BH eDopMaium, Tp KOTOPOM B ToMIepeHHOM ceyeHMH BOSHHKAET TOKKO OHO BHYTPEHHE’ YoMTHE = ~ C yneairienmem >eeTKocTA nomepestioro cee Gpyca a6comotHoe yaynimente - Troma nomepesioro cenenna Opyca Hs YcTORHA GesonacHOi! MpOuHOCTH MH pacTHKEHHM ONpeneMaeTeA No dopMyme acai. - 3navrenme nponomstol cH MonepeNHOM ceTeMM Gpyca BRMHCAMOT HS YCTOBRE = Hanpsoxcnns 8 cneteme CH meror pasmepriocTs - Yanusenne pactaHyroro cTepxsis onpenenseTea no (popmysie - IIpu nonepoxnom pacsere cpasmusaiot - Tipu npoexmponostiom pacsere onpesiensor = Yeutonne xeeTKOCTH MH PacTHACINH ONpeNeNACTEA nIIPAACEMHEM .., - Orne pacteTa Ha nposHOC TH HO MPeEsBHIBIM COCTORINLEM OF PACHETA TIO ONYCTANGIM HANPAREHHAM COCTONT .. - Hebopwaiun (amelinste ¢ a yraossie y) CHNTAIOTCA MpaKMNIECKH MAIBIMH, ECA OFM He NPeBOCKORAT... 1) 0,12 (vent 12%); 2) 0,05 (want 5%); 3) 0,2 (axa 20%); 4) 0,1 (want 10%), - Bemit npesien nporoprvionanstocm Mateprana H cooTseTeTayIONIaR eMy se*opMartix pasnbt o[=100 Mla, e7F=0,0014, Torna RemHEHA MOAI yMPYTOCTA pant, 1) 83110 Mra; 2) 55782 Mma; 3) 71429 Mara; 4) 65822 Mura = Kaxon dhusimecknii emmien mony FOura? 1. Koobuuwtenrr nponopunonaisHocTH Mexay HonepesHOli H npostosbHO; Aeopsaumeli, 2. KoxhdM1vteHT MPOTIOpIMOHAMDHOCTA Mex TY HOPMANIBNEIM HANPHACHHEM. H THHHNOH ecpop MATA 3. KoxbdimuteeT nponopunoHaMDHOCTH MERAY KACATERHBIM HAMPAKEHHEM H YrnOBOH Aedbopmausteh - Yemy pasnmerca maxcumast Ha pucyHKe crepaHe? aA no aGcomOTHO!L BeMMIME NPOONHAA cHLta, BOSIMKAIONIAA B NpescTaBIENIOM Ayla OH Rate S — © © ® = Yemy panto Hopwamstioe Hanpsoxenne (& MIa) a tpembem yuactke HSOGparKeHHOrO Ha PHCYHKE CTEPAHA, ECsIt 29 mIoMays HOMepeHHOTO CeMCHHT CTEPAHA paBHa 4 = SCM! Fy=l0nH F=30KH Se © © ® + Onpenemm semrnory suemneit cum: (s KH), npwiome:oil x cTepaino, moGpaxenHoMy Ha pacyuKe. = Haim moma nonepestoro cesenus (8 cM2) jyIx upuBeseHtioro Ha PUCyHKe CrepRHA HB youIOBHA UPoUTIOC MI, = Onpeaesmm tromagt uontepeanore cesenns (8 em2) 2x NpHBeeHHOTO Ha PHCYHKe CrePATHR HS YHOBHA KeeTKOC TH. gettin [N)=5 1040 - Bepmikansio pacnonorsentsi eryneniani Gpye HarpyAKCH Ha CROGONHOM KOHUE pacrarMBaIOMIe cwIOH P. Hain pacmpetesienie NpOLONBHOH CHLISI, HOPMATSHOTO HANPOKCHHA M OCEBOTO HepeMeMteHiiA Ho suIMHE Bpyca. SanaesI rbIOMLaN F, summa [, yneusabili nec y, Monysth 1Oura E. My ~ Bepnikansno pacnonorkentisi etyneniansii Spye Harpyaxen na cRoGonHOM KoHIE cxKHMaKoMLeH cHLTO‘K P. Halt pacmperleneite npoxombHol{ CHI, HopMATOHOTO HaNpEAeHHE H OceROTO NepeMeMerAm No sUmAHe Gpyca. ManecTHm momar F, numa L, ynenbabifi nec y, Momymts KOura - Ha cepeamme secramst AB, yeorauoBIcHHOH! no yr1OM d, HaXOMTCR HenOBeK Becom P. Cummax necTEMMy 6a1Koli ¢ jonepewmbiM cexennent tiomansio F , MoMexTon mepuysn [, wuoi AB=I 1 Mony:xem IOura E, oupeacim suytpeunne yews w nepementenna, Civianit tpenns mpene6pesn. - Koncomssnili kpaut necér Harpysxy P. Onpenenuts sy pennne yew w nepenemtenim Gankn AB, cantar tary BC pacpoxnmolt, [prnsm aa Game AB riomans w Moment mnteputm TionepesHoro cesennx pansin F, [; Monysts }Onra — E Peomempyueckve pa3Mepbl yka3saHbi Ha pucyHKe. email: Karimov @rambler.ru Adpec: Poccua, 450071, e.Viba, noumoseiit suyux 21 Teopetuyueckas Mexanuka C1TponTesbHad MexaHuka puksaqnas Mexannka Jlerasm Mammn Teopus MalluH 4 MeXaHH3MOB HasvaveHne nepesona Npowy nog gepxkatb ana passuTua caiita cymma R Otnpasute 01:07:11_| [22 HotLog [x2