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CENTRL FARM MACHINERY TRAINING & TESTING

INSTITUTE, BUDNI MADHYA PRADESH


REPORT ON INPLANT TRAINING

SASI KUMAR K, BE AGRICULTURE,116UAG041


MAHENDERA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
FROM 31-12-2018 to 25-01-2019
 CONTENTS - REG TRAINING DAYS AND TIME
 HISTORY OF CFMTII
 VISIT TO TRACTOR MUSEUM
 WALK AROUND TRAINING CENTRE
 TRACTOR MAINTENANCE
 TRACTOR DRIVING
 TESTING PROCEDURES
 TILLAGE PERFORMANCE
 COMPONENTS OF TRACTOR AND ITS SYSTEM
 ENGINE HANDLING
 SOWING OPERATION
 IRRIGATION APPLICATION
 PLANT PROTECTION APPLICATION
 COMBINE HARVESTER
 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION ON ALC A1 TRAINING BUDNI

PAGE 1
 INTRODUCTION - HISTORY OF FMTTI
The ministry of agriculture and farmer’s welfare has
organized four testing centers in India
1. CFMTTI (BUDNI MP -1958)
2. NRFMTTI (MISAR HARYANA – 1963)
3. SRFMTTI (GARADINNE AP – 1983)
4. NERFMTTI( BISWANTH CHARIALLI ASSAM – 1990)

The mandates of the institute has started for the development of human
resources on farm machinery. The objectives of the center is to evaluate
and certify the operation of tractors and other farm machinery and
implements.

 TESTING ACTIVITITIES AT DIFFERENT FMTTI

 CFMTTI – Performance testing of tractor, CMVR compliance


certification , testing of other agriculture machinery, power tiller,
combine harvester and implements. exhaust mass emission test

 NRFMTTI – performance testing and CMVR compliance certification of


combine harvesters, sprayers, small power operated machines ,
implements and BIS certification of engines .

 SRFMTTI- Performance testing of power tillers,planters, tractor


operated implements and other agricultural machineries and
implements

 NERFMTTI- Performance testing of small power operated equipment,


hand tools and tractor and animal operated implements.

PAGE 2
 LANDMARKS IN CFMTTI JOURNEY

SINO YEAR LANDMARKS

1 1956 Human resources development by creating man power in


field of mechanization

2 1960 Started testing of agriculture machinery

3 1961 First commercial tractor test was conducted

4 1987 This institute is accredited by organization for economic


cooperation and development (OECD)

5 1989 CMRV Test is authorized for tractor and power tillers

6 2006 The institute has started testing of mass emission of diesel


engines

7 2016 Institute has authorized for official testing ROPS (ROLL


OVER PRODUCTIVE STRUCTURE) as per CED codes

8 2016 Indigenous sugarcane harvester was tested first time in


country (Shatiman SSCH 3737)

PAGE 3
 VISIT TO THE TRACTOR MUSEUM

SI NO YEAR INVENTION

1. 1769 James watt patented engine

2. 1892 Rudolph diesel patented diesel engine

3. 1906 The term tractor is used

4. 1907 First ford tractor produced

5. 1917 Fordson - first assembely line tractor-


ford

6. 1948 First ferguson tractor produced

7. 1961 Centre hydraulic system

8. 1967-2003 List improvements made

 TRACTOR MAINTAINENCE

PAGE 4
Maintenance of tractor is done to reduce failures, save operating cost
prevent accident , improve working condition by minimizing wear and tear.
 FUNCTIONS OF MAINTENANCE CHECKUP
 Inspection and checkup
 Cleaning
 Servicing
 Periodical case adjustments (1000 hours )
 Record keeping and analysis (log book maintenance)
 Storage

 LOG BOOK
Date, timing hours, actual hours , progressive hours , type of operation,
fuel oil consumption in litre s, breakdown (IFANY)

 PROCESSING IN CHECKUP
 Clean the tractor
A. Pre checking ( External)
B. Post checking (Internal)
 Fuel check up
 Oil check up
 Cooling system
 Air pressure
 Fan belt tension
 Air cleaning system
 To check the free play of clutch & brake
 To check all the nuts
 To check the battery level (33% acid 66%distilled water)
 PROCEDURE
 FUEL SYSTEM

PAGE 5
1. Keep the fuel clean
2. Change the fuel filter periodically as recommended by the manufacturer
3. Prevent leaks which waste fuel
4. Always top up the fuel tank after closing the work

 AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM


1. clean the air cleaner and change the oil/cartridge periodically
2. Replace the muffler when it is burns so that ear damaging noise doesn't
develop and free from sparks

 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
1. Keep the starting motor of the engine in working condition
2. Check and top up battery with distilled water and maintain the desired
electrolyte density
3. Clean the battery terminals periodically

 COOLING SYSTEM
1. Check and adjust fan belt tension
2. Check the radiator with clean coolant
3. Keep the radiator screen clean

 LUBRICATING SYSTEM
1. Keep the right amount and right grade of oil in the system (SAE 20W14
for lubrication SAE 19 for transmission and hydraulic & SAE 20 for
mechanical steering )

 NOTES
 FUEL SAVING TIPS

PAGE 6
 Park the tractor under the shade whenever it is possible
 Point the diesel tank to avoid leakage
 Replace fuel filter, after finishing of working hours
 Maintain speed limit
 Check Tyre pressure
 Use proper implement according to tractor Hp.

 FUEL FILTER
 primary filter- 5-7microns (250 hours) - COTTON
 Secondary filter - 3-5 microns (500hours)- PAPER

 HITCHING OF TRACTOR
It is of three types
 Mounted - primary and secondary tillage implements
 Semi mounted - harrows and seed drill
 Trailed - tipper etc

 PROCEDURE FOR HITCHING


1. First left lower link is to be attached in the tractor
2. Right lower link is attached then which is adjustable link
3. At last top link is attached to the tracto

 PRACTICAL SESSION

Driving of tractor is learned to each and every students of training


programme in low 1 and 2 gear of front and rear movement of tractor

 TESTING PROCEDURES AT BUDNI


 OBJECTIVES OF TESTING

PAGE 7
TESTING , EVALUATION, AND CERRTIFICATION OF

Tractors , implements , engines, pumps and other agricultural


machines manufactured within in the country or imported for the
functional suitability and performance characteristics and publish the test
reports.

 TYPES / NATURE OF TEST

TYPE OF TEST

COMMERCIAL TEST
CONFIDENTIAL TEST

INITIAL COMMERCIAL TEST

VARIANT TEST

BATCH TEST

 PROUCT TEST CYCLE AS PER IS 5994


 PERFORMANCE TEST

PAGE 8
1. PTO performance test (IS 12036)
2. Drawbar performance (IS 12226)
3. Hydraulic performance ( IS 12224)
 SAFETY TEST
1. Braking performance (IS 12061)
2. Location of centre of gravity (IS 10743)
3. Turning ability (IS 11859)
4. Safety tests (IS 12239)
 COMFORT AND ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS
1. Noise level (IS 12180)
2. Mechanical vibration ( IS 5994)
3. Smoke level ( IS 12062)
4. Operators field of vision ( IS 11442)
 MISCLLANEOUS TESTS
1. Air cleaner oil pull over test ( IS 5994)
2. Field And Haulage test ( IS 9253)
3. Component/ assemblage inspection ( IS 5994)

 PTO TEST

PAGE 9
To find out the characterists of tractor at pto shaft for full engine engine
speed range in regard to power and torque characteristics and
corresponding fuel consmuption under the following ambient conditions
 NATURAL AMBIENT
1. Max power search
2. Two hour max power
3. Test at full load condition and varying condition
4. Varying load at rated engine speed
5. Varying load at standard PTO speed
6. Smoke level
 HIGH AMBIENT TEST
1. Test at full load and varying speed
2. Two hour maximum power
3. Oil and water consumption

PTO Power (kw) = PTO Shaft torque (Nm)* PTO speed (rpm)
Dyanamometer constant

 PRESENTATION RESULTS

PAGE 10
The data shall be reported in tabular form for each test condition. If also
presented in graphical form (which is optional ) the following , covering the
full range of engine speed tests shall be included.
 . Power as function of speed
 . Torque as function of speed
 . Fuel consumption as a function of speed
 . Specific fuel consumption as function of power
 DRAWBAR PERFORMANCE TEST
To determine the input power utlization of tractor for draft work on a
standard concrete test track under unballasted and ballasted condition. The
loading device is a computer controlled load car.
The following tests are conducted
1. Varying load/speed test - Maximum pull in each gear with a limiting
factor at 15% wheel slip and 12kph in lower gears and engine stalling in high
gears. Under ballasted and ballasted condition
2. Ten hours test - five hours test
A. Maximum pull on 15% wheel slip and another
B. Five hour test at 75 % of pull at maximum power in gear normally used
in field operation.

 DRAWBAR TEST - SETUP

PAGE 11
 TEST track - leveled concrete surface 0.8km circumference oval shape
 Hitch height - adjustment device on loadcar to maintain straight line of
pull
 Load cell - 75KN drawbar pull capacity
 Coupling - tractor linkage drawbar connecting with front tow hook of
load car
 Drawbar height - vertical distance between ground level and centre of
linkage drawbar pin
 Fifth wheel - to measure distance coverage for travelling speed and
wheel slip calculation
 Eddy current dyanomometer
 General of loadcar
 Blower for dyanamometer
 SELECTION OF HEIGHT
The line of pull should be horizontal
Hmax= 0.8 *W*Z
F
Drawbar pull*Actual tractor forward speed
Drawbar power (kw)=
3.6

 HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE

PAGE 12
To find out the maximum static vertical force which can be exerted by the
hydraulic lifts at the lower hitch point and at a point 610mm to the rear of
the hitch point on a standard frame
 Relief valve performance
 Hydraulic pump performance
 Lifting capacity test at lower hitch point
 Lifting capacity test at standard frame
 Ability to maintain the load
 RELIEF VALVE PERFORMANCE
This test is intended to test the performance of the relief valve and its
characteristics present in the pump. In this test we find out the pressure at
which relief valve opens and the pressure at which the relief valve fully
opens.
 SAFETY TEST
 Braking performance
 Location of centre of gravity
 Turning ability
 Safety tests as per CMVR

 SAFETY BRAKE TEST

PAGE 13
Un ballasted condition ballasted condition
At 25 km/hr cold condition hot condition
At 35 km/hr At 25 km/hr At 25 km/hr
At 35 km/hr At 35 km/hr

 UNBALLASTED CONDITIONS COLD BRAKE PERFORMANCE TEST


The brake should be cold at the beginning of the test. A brake is deemed
to be cold if
 The temperature measured on the disc or on the outside of the drum is
below 100c
 In case of enclosed brake/oil immersed brake the temperature on the
outside of the drum is below 50C
 The brake have not been actuated in previous one hour
 First attach a suitable wheel trailer. The mass of trailer should be equal
to mass of tractor or weight equal to 3 tonnes whichever is less
 Then take reading of force foe both in up and down conditions 12% and
18% slopes

 LOCATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY

PAGE 14
The stability of tractor depends on the location of centre of gravity which
is determined through a method of weight transfer by lifting it from the
front side
 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT OF THE OPERATOR SEAT
LENGTH OF SEAT ; the base of the seat must be at an angle of 75 (+or-)4.5
with the horizontal. The back rest must be at an angle of 10 (+or-)5 with the
vertical and its length at least to be 260mm. The height of sip from the foot
rest must be at the most 630mm.
 PEDAL LOCATION
The position of the clutch and brake and foot accelerator from the SIP is
mainly dependent on the angle between the operator upper and lower leg.
The lengthwise distance must be less 355-700mm while the height wise
distance must be between 380-620mm
Steering wheel location ; the position of the steering wheel relative SIP is
mainly dependent on the upper arms to the torso and the angle between
the upper arm and lower arm
The steering wheel diameter is affected by the seating position steering
wheel diameter and the force required to turn the wheel. The steering
wheel must be in the range of 0-40 cm.
The minimum vertical distance from the SIP to top of the silencer is 800mm

 TURNING ABILITY

PAGE 15
The aim of the test is to measure the turning ability and clearance diameter
and clearance diameter of the unballasted tractor with and without brakes
is to determine the extent of width of the headland required for field
operation.
 COMFORT AND ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS
 NOISE LEVEL TEST
Measured in open on a concrete test track , both ambient and at the
operators ear level position and should not exceed 85 & 88 db and 92 & 96
respectively

 VIBRATION TEST
The amplitude of mechanical vibration (VD & HD) is measured on
assemblies , components and controls etc which affect the performance of
the operator.
The tractor is unballasted , inflated for fieldwork and parked on standard
concrete surface. The operator seat is loaded with a 75 kg mass. The test is
conducted under no load conditions and at 86% of maximum PTO power at
rated engine speed
The limiting factors is 100 microns.
 VISBILITY
Keeping the operator eye level at 760mm the invisible area is determined
around the tractor. The furrow points of the tractor should be visible to
operator from normal sitting position ie within 100mm
 AIR CLEANER OIL PULL OVER TEST

PAGE 16
the air cleaner is filled to 5 % in excess over the specified volume of oil. The
engine then operated at full governed speed for 15 minutes. This shall be
followed by sudden acceleration and deceleration made every 30 sec for 15
minutes the loss in mass of oil is determined. The test are conducted in
following two positions
 Level
 15 tilt on force/sideways
 FIELD AND HAULAGE PERFORMANCE TEST
 35 hours filed test with plough and Rotavator under dry land conditions
 15 hours filed tests under wetland conditions
 40 km haulage test with loaded trailer

 WATER PROOF TEST


 The tractor is parked on the rollers
 Then the tractor is dipped into water up to half the diameter of the front
wheel
 Set speed of the tractor at 6km/hr
 The tractor is run for 5 hours
 Then it is sent to the partial disassembling sectors for checking

 COMPONENTS / ASSEMBELY INSPECTION

PAGE 17
The engine ,transmission brakes front axle etc are dismantled to assess the
wear against initial and discard limits specified by the manufacturer. The
electrical components are checked against casual defects
 TILLAGE AND PLOUGHING OPERATION
Mechanical manipulation of soil carried out for the purpose of nutriting
crops
 OBJECTIVES OF TILLAGE
 To obtain deep seed bed for suitable crop types
 To add humus and fertility to soil by covering the vegetation
 To destroy and prevent weeds
 To increase water absorbing capacity
 To aerate the soil for germination of seeds
 TYPES OF TILLAGE
 Primary tillage
 Secondary tillage
 TYPES OF TILLAGE ON SOIL BASIS
 Minimum tillage
 Strip tillage
 Rotary tillage
 Mulch tillage
 Combined tillage
 PRIMARY TILLAGE EQUIPMENTS

PAGE 18
 Mould board plough (dry land)
 Disk plough
 Chisel plough
 Subsoiler
 SECONDARY TILLAGE EQUIPMENTS
 Disk harrows
 Cultivators
 Rotavator or rotary tiller

SI NO TYPE OF IMPLEMENT SPEED OF TRAVEL

1 Cultivator 3-7 k mph

2 Harrow 2-4 kmph

3 Rotavator 2-4 kmph

4 Disc plough 2-5 kmph

5 Mould board 4- 6 kmph

PAGE 19
 MOULD BOARD PLOUGH PRATICAL
It cuts and inverts the soil
during operation
 PARTS OF PLOUGH
 Landslide
 Share
 Share point
 Frog
 Mould board
 ADJUSTMENTS OF MOULD BOARD PLOGH
 HORIZONTAL SUCTION
It is the maximum clearance between
the land side and a horizontal plant
touching point of share at its gunnel side
and heal of land side (Fig. 4).
This suction helps the plough to cut the
proper width of furrow slice

 VERTICAL SUCTION

It is the maximum clearance under the land side and the horizontal
surface when the plough is resting on a horizontal surface in the working
position. It helps the plough to penetrate into the soil to a proper depth

PAGE 20
 DISC PLOUGH
The disc plough is designed to
work in all types of soil for
basic functions such as soil
breaking, soil raising, soil
turning and soil mixing.
it is used open the new fields
and to process the stony
areas.
 TILT ANGLE
Tilt angle - It is the angle at which the plane of the cutting edge of the disc
is inclined to a vertical line. The tilt angle varies from 15° to 25° for a good
plough.

 DISC ANGLE
It is the angle at which the plane of the cutting edge of the disc is inclined
to the direction of travel. Usually the disc angle of good plough varies
between 42° to 45°

PAGE 21
 NOTES
 SELECTION OF MATCHING PLOUGH
DRAFT = Size of plough *depth of plough *soil resistance
Dbhp= draft * speed / 270
 SOIL RESISTANCE
 Sandy loam - 0.3
 Sandy soil - 0.2
 Silt loam - 0.35- 0.5
 Clay soil - 0.4-0.6
 SOWING
Crop planting refers to placing of seeds in soil with respect of under
optimum soil temperature and moisture condition
 Broadcasting
 Dippling
 Seed dropping behind the plough
 Drilling
 Hill dropping
 Check rowing
 Transplanting

PAGE 22
 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINE
 TYPES OF ENGINE

PAGE 23
 ENGINE - AND ITS COMPONENTS
ENGINE is a device which converts
chemical energy into mechanical
energy by the use of fuel

 CYLINDER BLOCK
The cylinder block, is generally a single unit
made from cast iron. In a liquid-cooled diesel,
the block also provides the structure and rigid
frame for the engine's cylinders, water coolant
and oil passages, and support for the crankshaft
and camshaft bearings

 FOUR STROKE
 Suction
 Compression
 Power
 Exhaust

PAGE 24
 BORE AND STROKE

 CRANK SHAFT
A crankshaft is a shaft driven by a
crank mechanism, consisting of a
series of cranks and crank pins to
which the connecting rods of an
engine are attached. It is a
mechanical part able to perform a
conversion between reciprocating
motion and rotational motion

 CAM SHAFT
A camshaft is the element of an internal
combustion engine the purpose of which is
to open and close the valves. Working in
conjunction with the crankshaft, the
camshaft rotates at half the speed of the
crankshaft in a 4-stroke engine cycle and at
the same speed in a 2-stroke engine.

PAGE 25
 PISTON
The engine consists of a fixed cylinder and a
moving piston. The expanding combustion
gases push the piston, which in turn rotates
the crankshaft. After the piston compresses
the fuel-air mixture, the spark ignites it,
causing combustion. The expansion of the
combustion gases pushes the piston during
the power stroke.

 PISTON RINGS
A piston ring is an expandable split ring used
to provide a seal between the piston an the
cylinder wall. Piston rings are commonly
made from cast iron. Cast iron retains the
integrity of its original shape under heat,
load, and other dynamic forces

 CONNECTING ROD
A connecting rod, also called a con rod, is a rigid
member which connects a piston to a crank or
crankshaft in a reciprocating engine. Together
with the crank, it forms a simple mechanism that
converts reciprocating motion into rotating
motion.

PAGE 26
 INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES
The inlet valves seal the intake port , through which
the air flows into the combustion chamber and
exhaust valve control the flow of combustion gases
and let them stream out after the combustion cycle.

 ROCKER ARM & PUSH ROD


A rocking lever in an engine, especially one in an internal
combustion engine which serves to work a valve and is
operated by a pushrod from the camshaft.

 CYLINDER COVER

 VALVE TIMING DIGRAM

PAGE 27
A valve timing diagram is a graphical representation of the opening and
closing of the intake and exhaust valve of the engine, The opening and
closing of the valves of the engine depend upon the movement of piston
from TDC to BDC.

 SUCTION STROKE - 2200 (5+180+35)


 COMPRESION STROKE - 118 (180 -35-27)
 POWER STROKE - 172 (27+180-35)
 EXHAUST STROKE - 220 (35+180+5)
 TOTAL = 730 - 720 = 10 OVERLAPPING

PAGE 28
 ENGINE HANDELLED

KIRLOSKAR - WATER COOLED FOUR


STROKE CI ENGINE.

DISMANTLE STEPS
 Rocker arm box
 Air intake and and exhaust system
 Fuel tank
 Cylinder head
 Fuel injector
 Head gasket
 Cylinder block & cylinder liner
 Timing gear
 Governing system
 Connecting rod
 Crankshaft
 Oil pump lubrication system
 All these parts where dismantled and studied

PAGE 29
 TYPES OF CLEARANCE
 Bumping clearance
Bumping clearance is the space between the top of
the piston and the cylinder head of an air
compressor. This clearance is an important aspect of
the compressors and should be as less as practically
possible to improve the volumetric efficiency of the compressor
 Tappet clearance
It is the space between top of the valve
stem and rocker arm.It's purpose is to
allow for some mechanical expansion and
lengthening of the valve stem and engine
push rods as the engine warms up
 Fuel time setting
The fuel timing of inlet is set by the setting process of timing gears
 Oil clearance
The oil clearance is the gap between the inside
diameter of an installed bearing and the
outside diameter of the crankshaft or camshaft
journal. The clearance is measured 90 degrees
to the bearing parting line, which is the thickest
part of the bearing

PAGE 30
 SIDE CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKCASE AND CONNECTING ROD

 RING END CLEARANCE


Ring manufacturers recommend a minimum
end gap of .004 inches times the bore
diameter for the top piston compression
ring.

 RING SIDE CLERANCE

PAGE 31
 HORSE POWER
Unit of power , rate of doing work .
 LOW IDLE SPEED
Minimum speed required to operate the engine
 THERMAL EFFICIENCY
The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is the percentage of heat energy
that is transformed into work.
 BRAKE HORSE POWER
Brake horsepower is the horsepower of an engine measured by the degree
of resistance offered by a brake, that represents the useful power that the
machine can develop. For an electric motor, brake horsepower is the
mechanical horsepower available at the shaft at specified rpm and full load
current.
 HORSE POWER
The power an engine produces is called horsepower.
 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY
The volumetric efficiency ηv [-] is defined as the ratio between the actual
(measured) volume of intake air Va [m3] drawn into the cylinder/engine
and the theoretical volume of the engine/cylinder Vd [m3], during the
intake engine cycle

PAGE 32
 MECHANICAL EFFIECIENCY
Mechanical efficiency, is the parameter that gives the effectiveness of an
engine in transforming it's input energy to output energy
 FIRING ORDER
The firing order is the sequence of power delivery of each cylinder in a
multi-cylinder reciprocating engine.

 EQUIPMENTS USED FOR MEASUREMENT


1. Tacheometer
2. Speedometer
3. Micrometer
4. Vernier caliper
5. Least count

PAGE 33
 TRACTOR SYSTEM & COMPONENTS
1. Power generating system
 Fuel
 Lubrication
 Coolant
 Air intake and exhaust
 Governing
2. Power transmission system
 Clutch
 Gear
 Differential
3. Power control system
 Brake
 Steering
4. Electrical system
5. Hydraulic system

PAGE 34
 POWER GENERATING- FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel in the fuel tank is allowed to flow
through the pipeline to water separator
where the water is separated, water enters
into the fuel tank due to condensation
process happens inside the fuel tank due to
empty spaces. Then the fuel is allowed to
flow through the sediment bowl where the
dust particles are sediment ed in the bowl.
Then fuel passes to the primary filter (5-7 microns) dust particles are
removed which is made up of (cloth) and to secondary filter (3-5 microns)
dust particles are removed made up of (paper). Then the fuel pump is
pumped by FIP pump to the injector where it gets pressurized up to
211kg/cm2 . The overflowed fuel is passed to the fuel tank
 FUEL INJECTION PUMP AND INJECTOR

 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF GOVERNOR

PAGE 35
The fundamental principle is as the engine speed increases the flyweighs
flung outwards as soon as the centrifugal force exceeds the force of the
spring. As the engine speed decreases the force diminishes until the force
extended by the governor spring finally exceeds it and flyweighs swings
inward again. The governor maintains all speeds steadily including idle and
maximum speed.

 AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

PAGE 36
Air from the atmosphere is passed through the
precleaner of the air filter where the dust
particles of large micron is removed and thus air
passes through the inlet manifold and to inlet
port and to inlet valve where the air and fuel is
mixed in the proper ratio. After the completion
of suction, compression , power exhaust strokes
the air passed through the exhaust valve and
then to muffler and to the atmosphere , the muffler reduces the noise level
of the smoke.
 INTAKE SYSTEM
1. Air cleaner
2. Inlet manifold
3. Intake port
4. Inlet valve
 AIR CLEANER IS OF TWO
TYPES DRY TYPE AIR CLEANER

1. Wet type
2. Dry type
 TYPES OF CHARGER USED IN
TRACTOR
1. Super charger
2. Turbo charger

 LUBRICATION SYTEM

PAGE 37
1. Splash lubrication system
A hole is drilled through the connecting rod
cap through which the oil passes to the
bearing surface. Oil pockets are provided to
catch the splashed oil over all the main
bearings and also the cam shaft bearings.
From these pockets oil passes to the
bearings through drilled hole. The surplus
oil dripping from the cylinder flows back to
the oil sump in the crank case.
2. Combination of both splash and forced
Splash and pressure lubrication system
is combination of splash and pressure
system as shown in below figure. In this
system, the lubricating oil is supplied by
a pump under pressure to main and
cam shaft bearings. the oil is also
directed in the form of spray from
nozzle or splashed by a scoop or dipper
on the big end to lubricate bearings at the big end of the connecting rod,
crank pin, gudgeon pin, piston rings and cylinder.

3.Pressurized lubrication system:

PAGE 38
In pressurized lubrication system, the
lubricating oil is supplied by a pump
under pressure to all parts requiring
lubrication as shown in below figure.
The oil under the pressure is supplied to
main bearings of the crank shaft and
camshaft. Holes drilled through the
main crank shaft bearings journals,
communicate oil to big end bearing and
small end bearings through the hole drilled in the connecting rod. a
pressure gauge is provided to confirm the circulation of oil to various parts.
 COOLANT SYTEM
1. Air cooled
2. Water cooled
 TYPES OF OPERATION
1. Direct
2. Direct or non return
3. Hopper feed system
4. Thermosyphon
5. Forced circulation system

PAGE 39
 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
POWER TRAIN
flywheel - POWER STORE
Transmission is a speed reducing
mechanism, equipped with
several gears. It may be called a
sequence of gears and shafts,
through which the engine power
is transmitted to the tractor
wheels. The system consists of various devices that cause forward and
backward movement of tractor to suit different field condition. The
complete path of power from the engine to the wheels is called power train.
 CLUTCH - is a device used to connect and disconnect the engine power
to the transmission part. Clutch transmit the power by means of friction
between driving member and the driver member.
 TYPES OF CLUTCH

Postive clutch Frictional clutch


1. dog clutch (POWER TILLER) 1. single plate clutch
2.Multi plate clutch
3.Cone clutch (CAR)
4.Cenrtifugal clutch (SCOOTY)
5.Overunning clutch (CYCLE)
 CLUTCH ASSEMBELY

PAGE 40
 IMPORTANT PARTS OF CLUTCH
 Pressure plate
 Clutch plate
 Springs
 Release fingers

 TYPES OF CLUTCH SYSTEM IN TRACTOR


1. Single plate clutch
Only one pressure plate and
clutch plate is used.
2. Dual clutch
Two pressure plate and clutch
plate is used which is operated by
single bearings
3. Double clutch
In this type two bearings are used control the clutch and pressure
plate.Based on tractor and application suitable clutch system is used

 SLIDING MESH GEAR BOX

PAGE 41
Sliding gear transmissions contain simple arrangements spur gears and
shafts. Usually contain input shaft and output shaft held parallel to each
other in housing or case. Third shaft called idler shaft reverses power to
output shaft. Idler shaft held parallel to input shaft.
Sliding spur gears arranged to mesh to provide changes in speed or
direction. One pair gears provides each forward speed. In each gear pair,
one gear on input shaft, the other on output shaft. They transmit the power
by sliding.
 CONSTANT MESH GEAR BOX
These gears are always in mesh. Usually the gears are helical in shape. The
transmission is put into operation by engagement of shifting couplings,
which slide along the splines on the counter-shaft and the output shaft of
the gear box
 SYNCHRONIZE GEAR BOX
In the system, the gearbox is of constant mesh
type, in which all gears are always in mesh but only
one of these meshed pairs of gears is locked to the
shaft on which it is mounted at any one time, the
others being allowed to rotate freely; thus greatly reducing the skill
required to shift gears. These systems that will automatically "mesh" while
changing gears.

 DIFFERENTIAL UNIT AND FINAL DRIVE

PAGE 42
Differential: Differential unit is a special arrangement of gears to permit
one of the rear wheels of the
tractor to rotate slower or faster
than the other. While turning the
tractor on a curved path, the inner
wheel has to travel lesser the
tractor to move faster than the
other at the turning point. The
output shaft coming from the gear
box is provided with a bevel pinion
at the end of the shaft. The bevel pinion is in mesh with a large bevel wheel
known as crown wheel.
The main functions of crown wheel assembly are:
(i) to transmit power through right angle drive to suit the tractor wheels.
(ii) to reduce the speed of rotation.
The differential unit consists of:
 differential casing
 differential pinion
 crown wheel
 half shaft and
 bevel gear.
Differential lock: Differential lock is a device to join both half axles of the
tractor so that even if one wheel is under less resistance, the tractor comes
out from the mud etc as both wheels move with the same speed and apply
equal traction.
 FINAL DRIVE

PAGE 43
Final drive: Final drive is a gear reduction unit in the power trains between
the differential and the drive wheels. Final drive transmits the power finally
to the rear axle and the wheels. The tractor rear wheels are not directly
attached to the half shafts but the drive is taken through a pair of spur gears.
Each half shaft terminates in a small gear, which meshes with a large gear
called bull gear. The bull gear is mounted on the shaft, carrying the tractor
rear wheel. The device for final speed reduction, suitable for tractor rear
wheels is known as final drive mechanism.
 TYPES OF REDUCTION
 Bevel and pinion
 Inboard reduction
 Hub reduction
 Epicyclic reduction

 STEERING SYSTEM AND BRAKE SYSTEM

PAGE 44
The system, governing the angular
movement of front wheels of a tractor is
called steering system. This system steering
wheel minimizes the efforts of the operator
in turning the front wheel with the
application of leverages. The different
components of the system are
 steering wheel
 steering shaft
 steering gear
 pitman arm (drop arm)
 drag link
 steering arm
 tie rod and
 king pin.

 TYPES OF STEERING MECHANISM


 Single drop arm
 Double drop arm
 Power steering

 STEERING GEOMETRY

PAGE 45
 FRONT WHEEL ALIGNMENT
The front wheels must be in correct alignment in
order to ensure easy steering, to give directional
stability of the vehicle and to minimize Tyre wear.
Front wheel alignment is obtained through
accurately setting of the following factors:
 Caster
 Camber
 Kingpin inclination
 Toe-in
 Toe-out

 BRAKE

PAGE 46
Brake is used to stop or slow down the motion of a tractor. It is mounted
on the driving axle and operated by two independent pedals. Each pedal
can be operated independently to assist the turning of tractor during the
fieldwork or locked together by means of a lock.Brake can be classified as:
 Mechanical brake
 Internal expanding shoe type
 External contracting shoe type
 Disc type
 Hydraulic brake.

 Internal expanding shoe type:


Two brake shoes made of frictional material fitted on the inside of the brake
drum are held away from the drum by means of springs. One end of each
shoe is fulcrumed whereas the other is free to move by the action of a cam,
which in turn applies force on the shoes. The movement of the cam is
caused by the brake pedal through the linkage. The drum is mounted on the
rear axle whereas the shoe assembly is stationary and mounted on the back
plate.
 External contracting shoe type
This type of brake system is normally available
on crawler tractors. The drum mounted on the
drive axle is directly surrounded by the brake
band. When the pedal is depressed, the band
tightens the drum

 Disc brake:

PAGE 47
Two actuating discs have holes drilled in each disc in which steel balls are
placed. When the brake pedal is depressed, the links help to move the two
discs in opposite directions. This brings the steel balls to shallow part of the
holes drilled in the disc. As a result, the two discs are expanded and braking
discs are pressed inbetween the discs and the stationary housing. The
braking discs are directly mounted on the differential shaft which ultimately
transfers the travelling effect to the differential shaft.

 Hydraulic brake:
Hydraulic brake system is based on
the principle of Pascal's law. The
brake fluid which is usually a
mixture of glycerine and alcohol is
filled in the master cylinder (Fig. 9).
When the pedal is depressed, the
piston of the master cylinder is
forced into the cylinder and the
entire system turns to a pressure
system. Immediately, the piston of the wheel cylinder slides outward which
moves the brake shoes to stop the rotating drum. When the pedal is
released, the return spring of the master cylinder moves the piston back to
its original position, causing a sudden pressure drop in the line. The
retracting springs of the brake shoe bring them back to their original
position. Thus the piston of the wheel cylinder returns back.

 HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM

PAGE 48
It is a mechanism in a
tractor to raise, hold or
lower the mounted or
semi-mounted equipment
by hydraulic means.
 Working principle:
The working principle of
hydraulic system is based on Pascal's law. This law states that the pressure
applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally in all directions.
 BASIC COMPONENTS OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
The basic components are:
 Hydraulic pump
 Hydraulic cylinder and piston
 Hydraulic tank
 Control valve
 Safety valve
 Hose pipe and fittings and
 Lifting arms.
 Relief valve

 TYPES OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


A. Open centred system

PAGE 49
B. Closed centre system
 Operation: The hydraulic pump draws up oil from the oil reservoir and
sends it to the control valve under high pressure. From the control valve,
the oil goes to the hydraulic cylinder to operate the piston, which in turn,
raises the lifting arms. The lifting arms are attached with implements. The
hydraulic pump is operated by suitable gears, connected with engine. There
are two types of arrangements for storing hydraulic oil in the system :
 There is a common oil reservoir for hydraulic system and the
transmission system in some tractors
 There is a special tank for hydraulic oil. It is separate from' the
transmission chamber.
TYPES OF PUMPS USED IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Fixed placement pump Variable displacement pump


GEAR TYPE PISTON PUMP
A. External pump a. axial piston pump
B. Internal pump b. radial piston pump
VANE TYPE
A. Balanced vane pump
B. Unbalanced vane pump

 ELECTRIC SYSTEM

PAGE 50
The electric system in a tractor is used to provide a electric power to start,
horn , lights etc

 COMPONENTS OF BATTERY
1. Battery
 primary battery (non rechargable)
 secondary battery (rechareable)
 Battery container- polypropelene
 Positive plate- lead peroxide( brown)
 Negative plate - lead (grey)
 Plate seperator - acid proof rubber
 Plate connector - lead
 Cell connector - lead
 Electrolyte - H2So4+ distilled water =40+60
 Battery cover - polypropelene
 Vent plug - ventilation
 GENERATOR

PAGE 51
The basic principle at work here is that
electricity produces magnetism.
Conversely, magnetism produces
electricity. If a current-carrying coil of
wire is placed around a bar of steel, the
bar will become magnetized. The more
turns of wire and the stronger the
current, the more powerful the
magnet.

 ALTERANATOR
Generators produce Direct Current. Alternator
produces an A.C. that in turn must be rectified or
converted into D.C. and then stored in a battery.

 SOLENOID SWITCH
An idle starter solenoid can
receive a large electric current
from the car battery and a
small electric current from the
ignition switch. ... This causes
the starter solenoid to close a
pair of heavy contacts, thus relaying a large electric current through
the starter motor, which in turn sets the engine in motion.

 TRACTOR HITCH

PAGE 52
Implements are needed to be hitched properly for efficient and safe
operation of the tractor. Implements can be;
 Trailed
 Semi mounted and
 Mounted.
Implements can be hitched in two ways:
 DRAWBAR HITCH: Drawbar is a device by which the pulling power of the
tractor is transmitted to the trailing implements. It consists of a crossbar
with suitable holes, attached to the lower hitch links. It is fitted at the
rear part of the tractor.
 THREE POINT LINKAGE It is a combination of three links, one is upper
link and two are lower links, the links articulated to the tractor and the
implements at their ends in order to connect the implement to the
tractor.
 PTO (POWER TAKE OFF)
PTO is used transmit the engine power to agricultural operation
 Dependent PTO (single clutch )
 Independent PTO (Double clutch)
 Semi in dependent PTO(Dual clutch)
 ACCORDING TO WORK
 Economic PTO
 Standard PTO
 Multispeed PTO
 IRRIGATION

PAGE 53
Types of irrigation

Surface irrigation Sub surface irrigation Sprinkler

Flooding Furrow method Contour method

Uncontrolled flooding controlled flooding

Border strip zig zag flooding basin flooding

 TYPES OF PUMP USED ;


1. Turbine pump
2. Single acting pump
3. Double acting pump
4. Centrifugal pump
5. Diffuser pump
6. Submersible pump

 PLANT PROTECTION

PAGE 54
The equipment used to protect the plant from pest, insects are called as
plant protection equipment.
Methods of plant protection
 Agro technical method
 Biological method
 Chemical method
 Mechanical method

 EQUIMENTS USED

SPRAYER (in liquid form) DUSTER (in powder form)


Hand compression sprayer Plunger duster
Bucket sprayer Bellow duster
Rocking sprayer Rotary sprayer
Foot sprayer Power duster
Knapsack sprayer
Power sprayer

 COMBINE HARVESTOR

PAGE 55
The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine
designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives
from its combining three separate harvesting operations—reaping,
threshing, and winnowing—into a single process.
 PARTS OF COMBINE

The driving of combine and its operation has performed by each students
during training period

 CONCULSION

PAGE 56
The training on farm tractor and its units at CFMTTI , provided a practical
knowledge on the operation , maintainence , testing procedures of tractor
and its farm implements

PAGE 57

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