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Concept of computer system as ised in design-is the process if

defining the architecture modules interfaces and data for a system

to satisfy specified requirements system design could be seen as
the application of systems theory to product
development.distinguish computer architecture and comp design-
computer design is conserned with the hardware design of the
computer.computer architecture is concerned with structure and
behavior of the computer as seen by the userincluding information
formatsstate 3 main principals of computer-o/s-this is what bridges
the gap btwn hardware and user.input devicesthey vary depending
on type of computing devicestypically prvded thrgh mouse and
keyboard.output-typicaly include visual and auditory
elements.main output tends to be monitor whchshows displays to
the user.block diagram of comp system

Generations of computer

The First Generation • The first computers used vacuum tubes for
circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often
enormous, taking up entire rooms The Second Generation •
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second
generation of computers. • One transistor replaced the equivalent
of 40 vacuum tubes. The Third Generation • Transistors were
miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors,
which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
The Fourth Generation • The microprocessor brought the fourth
generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were
built onto a single silicon chip. • As these small computers became
more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks,
which eventually led to the development of the Internet.The Fifth
Generation Based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). • Still in
development. • The use of parallel processing and
superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.
• The goal is to develop devices that respond to natural language
input and are capable of learning and self-organization.why is a
computer memory combination of memory type..this is because
the random access memory is connected directly to the cpu via the
memory bus.the cpu cn access data stored in ram very quickly for
this reason ram is used to store data loaded by active program and
an algorithm does not exhibit a good localitywill still run
relativelyslowly on a relativefast processor.explain.an algorithm
must be analysedto determine its resorce usage and the efficiency
of an algorithm can be measuredbased on usage of different
resources.for maximum efficiencywe wish to minimize
resources.however different resourcessuch as time and
spacecomplexity cannot be compared directly.eg.timsort and
bubble sort sorts the lis in time proportional t the number of
elements squared but onlyrequires a small amount of extra
memorywhich is contantwith respect to the length of the
list.timsort sortsthis list in time but has a space requirementslinear
in the length of the list.explAIN-Bandwidth-is the maximum rate of
data transfer across a given path.messge latency-amount of time a
message takes to traverse a system.its sometime measured as the
time required for a packet to be returnd ti its sender. State and
explain the principle of “locality of reference”this is the tendency of
a processor to access the same set of memory location repeatively
over short period of time. formula for the maximum number of
different logic-2(2^n) 2 combinaions-2(2^n) Explain- CISC-complex
instructions set computer processors have a larger set of
instructions with many addressing nodesRISC-reduced instrctn set
cmptr processors have smaller set of instructions with few
addresing nodes. ISA instruction set architctr-provides commands
to processor to tell it what it needs to do.consists od addresiing
nodes,instructionsDEFINE –HIT-state in hich data requested for
processing by component or application is found in cache
memory.miss-state where data requsted for processing by a
component or application is not found in cache memory Hit rate-
percentage of all acceses that are satisfied by the datain the cache.
Miss rate-freqencyof cache misses Hit-time-time to deliver a word
in the cache to the processor core- Miss penalty-time required to
fetch a block into a level of the memory hierarchy from the lwer
Von Neumann architecture diagram

i. Give the Boolean expression that corresponds to this logic circuit:

Z= (A. B⊕ B )+(A+C)

ii. Develop a truth table for the circuit above,

the following four-variable function

Implement the above function using the 8-to-1 multiplexer. Give

the modified truth table and the relevant diagram

Describe a model of a
multithreaded processMultithreading is mainly found in
multitasking operating systems. Multithreading is a widespread
programming and execution model that allows multiple threads to
exist within the context of one process. These threads share the
process's resources, but are able to execute independently.Briefly
describe Flynn’s taxonomyFlynn's taxonomy is a classification of
computing systems proposed by Michael Flynn. The basic idea of
the classification is that computer programs are composed of two
streams: data stream and task (or instructional) stream.Vector
processora vector processor or array processor is a
central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set
containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of
data called vectorsSuperscalar In a superscalar computer, the
central processing unit (CPU) manages multiple instruction
pipelines to execute several instructions concurrently during a
clock cycle
how Error-Detection and Error-Correction can be achieved in Digital
systemsError detection and correction has great practical
importance in maintaining data integrity across noisy
Communication Networks channels and less than- reliable storage
media. In Error Correction it Send additional information so
incorrect data can be corrected and accepted. Error correction is
the additional ability to reconstruct the original, error-free data. In
Error Detection it Send additional information so incorrect data
can be detected and rejected. Error detection is the ability to
detect the presence of errors caused by noise or other
impairments during transmission from the transmitter to the
receiver. In telecommunication, a redundancy check is extra data
added to a message for the purposes of error detection. Several
schemes exist to achieve error detection, and are generally quite
simple. All error detection codes transmit more bits than were in
the original data. Most codes are "systematic": the transmitter
sends a fixed number of original data bits, followed by fixed
number of check bits usually referred to as redundancy which are
derived from the data bits by some deterministic algorithm. The
receiver applies the same algorithm to the received data bits and
compares its output to the received check bits; if the values do not
match, an error has occurred at some point during the
transmission. In a system that uses a "non-systematic" code, such
as some raptor codes, data bits are transformed into at least as
many code bits, and the transmitter sends only the code
bits. Explain the following as used in digital systemsCombinational
logic circuits (Half Adder and Full Adder) An adder is a digital circuit
that performs addition of numbers. The half adder adds two binary
digits called as augend and addend and produces two outputs as
sum and carry; XOR is applied to both inputs to produce sum and
AND gate is applied to both inputs to produce carry. The full adder
adds 3 one bit numbers, where two can be referred to as operands
and one can be referred to as bit carried in. And produces 2-bit
output, and these can be referred to as output carry and sum.
Sequential Circuits (Finite State machines)A Sequential Logic
function has a “memory” feature and takes into account past
inputs in order to decide on the output. The Finite State Machine is
an abstract mathematical model of a sequential logic function. It
hasfinite inputs, outputs and number of states.There are various
things that need to be done when an interrupt is received.1. Finish
executing the current instruction. 2. "Recognize" the interrupt. Ie,
determine which service routine is needed. 3. Save all the CPU
register contents (PC, Registers, and Status Word) in memory. The
Stack memory is used for this. 4. Jump to the routine, execute it,
and return. 5. Restore the PC, registers and status word from the
stack. 6. Continue with original program sequence, as if nothing
had happened. busA group of electrical lines/wires that carry
computer signals. Bus Structure and Topologies Lines are grouped
as follows 1. Power line provide electrical power to attached
components 2. Data lines carrying the data or instructions
between system modules 3. Address lines specify the recipient of
data on the bus 4. Control lines provide control for the
synchronization and operation of the bus and of the modules that
are connected to the bus