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M .A. Болоньи

ПОДГОТОВКА К ЕГЭ
Задания В 11-В 16
Раздел «ГРАММАТИКА и ЛЕКСИКА»

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ЛЕГИОН УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЙ КОМПЛЕКС


«АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ПОДГОТОВКА К ЕГЭ»
Учебные пособия издательства «Легион» допущены к использованию
в образовательном процессе приказом Минобрнауки России № 729 от 14.12.2009

Учебно-методический комплекс «Английский язык. Подготовка к ЕГЭ»

М. А. Бодоньи

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ПОДГОТОВКА К ЕГЭ
СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ
ЗАДАНИЯ В11-В16
Раздел «Грамматика и лексика»
Учебно-методическое пособие

ЛЕГИОН
Ростов-на-Дону
2013
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие ориентировано на подго­
товку к выполнению заданий В11—В 16 на ЕГЭ по английскому языку —
заданий на словообразование. Содержание книги базируется на авторской
методике развития лексических умений ш кольников с опорой на К одифи­
катор Ф И П И .
Пособие состоит из четырёх глав: подготовительные упражнения, уп­
ражнения на употребление словообразовательных элементов (суффиксов
и префиксов), задания в формате ЕГЭ, основанные на текстах, проверяю ­
щие уровень владения механизмом словообразования.
Издание адресовано обучающимся 10—11 -х классов, которые готовятся
к ЕГЭ и повышают уровень владения английским языком, а также учите­
лям и методистам.
К нига дополняет учебно-методический комплекс «Английский язык.
Подготовка к ЕГЭ» и рекомендуется к использованию как самостоятель­
но, так и вместе с пособиями «Английский язык. Подготовка к ЕГЭ-2014.
Пособие с аудированием», «Английский язык. Подготовка к ГЙА-9 и ЕГЭ.
Задания с развёрнутым ответом: личное письмо, эссе (C l, С2)» и др.
Введение | 5

PREFACE Пособие состоит из четырех глав. В первой главе «Word Formation:


G eneral Terms» представлены общие сведения, важные для осознания
механизмов словообразования, а именно строгий порядок слов в англий­
ском языке, части речи, типы аффиксов (суффикс и префикс).
Во второй и третьей главах «Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix» и «Word
Formation: Prefix after Prefix» конкретизируется употребление словообра­
Уважаемые выпускники и учителя английского языка!
зовательных элементов (суффиксов или префиксов), входящих в число
Данное учебно-методическое пособие направлено на подготовку к вы­
элементов содержания, проверяемых на едином государственном эк за­
полнению заданий В 11 —В 16 единого государственного экзамена по анг­
мене по английскому языку и указанных в Кодификаторе. Структура ра­
лийскому языку. Эти задания позволят систематизировать аффиксы анг­
боты с каждым аффиксом идентична: описание значения аффикса, моде­
лийского языка, представленные в Кодификаторе элементов содержания
ли образования слов, выполнение упражнений на восприятие механизма
и требований к уровню подготовки выпускников общеобразовательных
словообразования, осознание значения, передаваемого словообразова­
учреждений для проведения единого государственного экзамена по анг­
тельным элементом, освоение особенностей написания, самостоятельное
лийскому языку, а также расширить лексический запас старшеклассников.
употребление в микро- и макроконтексте. Особую роль в ходе освоения
К элементам содержания, проверяемым на едином государственном
механизмов словообразования приобретают предлагаемые в каждом бло­
экзамене по английскому языку, относятся аффиксы глаголов, существи­
ке задания на построение словообразовательных цепочек. Мы обращаем
тельных, прилагательных и наречий как элементы словообразования. Зна­
внимание на необходимость постоянной работы со словарем, это важно
ние этих аффиксов характеризует владение выпускниками лексической
для того, чтобы учащиеся не просто механически выполняли предлагае­
стороной речи. Контроль сформированности употребления указанных
мые задания, а осознавали значения изучаемых слов. В некоторых случаях
элементов проходит в ходе выполнения задании В11—В16. Их выполне­
мы сопровождаем упражнения сносками, в которых представлен перевод
ние связано с возможными трудностями, которые определяются недоста­
на русский язык.
точным уровнем осознания механизмов словообразования в английском
В четвертой главе учебного пособия «Word Formation Practice» пред­
языке. Кроме того, ош ибки при выполнении данного задания могут быть
ставлены задания в формате ЕГЭ, основанные на аутентичных текстах,
связаны с неправильным определением части речи, образование которой
выполнение которых направлено на оценку уровня владения лексической
необходимо в контексте предлагаемого предложения, затруднениями
стороной речи на основе владения механизмами словообразования.
в правописании того или иного суффикса или префикса, а также с некор­
Таким образом, выполнение упражнений, представленных в учебно­
ректным определением значения аффиксов. Очевидно, что для правиль­
методическом пособии, обеспечивает эффективную подготовку и успеш­
ного выполнения указанных заданий требуются специальные средства
ное выполнение заданий В11—В16 раздела «Грамматика и лексика» в ходе
обучения, ориентированные на достижение поставленных целей.
ЕГЭ по английскому языку.
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие — авторская методика
развития лексических умений ш кольников на основе осознания механиз­ Желаем успешной сдачи экзаменов!
мов словообразования в английском языке. В ее основе лежит система
упражнений, применение которых расширяет лексический запас ш коль­
ников на основе осознания процессов словообразования в английском С Замечания и предложения, касающиеся данной книги, можно ирисы -;
языке, обогащает лексическую сторону речи, а также предупреждает воз­ лать по почте или на электронный адрес: legionrus@legionms.com.
можные ош ибки, связанные с некорректным употреблением аффиксов. Обсудить пособия, оставить свои замечания и предложения, задать во­
При разработке содержания особое внимание было уделено элементам прос можно на официальном форуме издательства http://forum.legionr.ru.
V ..........................................................- .... J
словообразования, представленным в Кодификаторе, владение которыми
становится объектом контроля в ходе ЕГЭ по английскому языку.
Word Formation: General Terms | 7

WORD FORMATION: B14 ever since scientists discovered S E R IO U S


GENERAL TERMS the hole in the ozone layer. In 1997 the U K sub­
scribed to the Kyoto Protocol binding developed
co u n trie s to red u ce em issions o f th e six m ain
g reen h o u se gases. T he P rotocol declares en v i­
B15 ro n m e n ta l _______________ . N ow adays B ritish P R O T E C T
______________ are taking part in one o f the larg- S C IE N C E
B16
1. A. Read the task1, analyze it and answer the questions below2. est in tern atio n a l projects th a t is u n d ertak en to
П рочит айт е приведённый ниж е т екст . Образуйте от слов, напе­ protect endangered species.
чатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 1. What should you do in the task?
В11—В16, однокоренные слова т ак, чтобы они грам м ат ически и л е к ­ 2. How should you transform the words?
сически соот вет ст вовали содерж анию т екст а. Заполнит е пропуски 3. Should you transform the words grammatically?
полученны ми словами. Каж дый пропуск соот вет ст вует от дельному 4. Should you make any word formation changes?
заданию из группы В11—В16. 5. What does the word formation mean?
6. Choose the variant which shows the process of word formation:
UK: Conservation and Environment
a. work — w orked b. n ature — natural c. nice — nicer d. child
G o in g for a walk is the m ost p o p u lar leisure ac ­ children
B11 tivity in B ritain. D esp ite its h i g h ________PO PU L A T E
density an d w idespread, th e U K has m an y u n ­ В. Choose the words below to complete the task.
spoilt rural a n d coastal areas. Twelve N atio n al
B l l a. population b. populated c. popular d. popularization
Parks are freely accessible to th e public an d were
B12 a. naturally b. natural c. naturalize d. unnatural
B12 c re a te d to conserve t h e _____________ beauty, N A T U R E
B13 a. visits b. visitors c. visiting d. visited
w ildlife an d cultural heritage they co n tain . M ost
B14 a. serious b. m ore serious c. seriously d. the most serious
o f the land in N ational Parks is privately ow ned,
B15 a. protected b. protection c. protects d. protecting
b u t ad m in istered by an in d e p e n d e n t N a tio n a l
B16 a. science b. scientist c. scientists d. sciences
Park A u th o rity w hich w orks to balan ce th e ex­
B13 p e ctatio n s o f _______________w ith th e need to V ISIT Useful Information
conserve th ese o p en spaces for fu tu re g e n e ra ­ Задани е н а сл о во о б р азован и е к ак объект контроля в ходе ЕГЭ по ан гл и й ­
tions. T h e U K also works to im prove th e global ском у язы ку н аправлено на вы явлен ие уровня сф о рм и рован н ое™ н авы ков
e n v iro n m e n t a n d has ta k e n g lobal w arm ing о п ер и р о ван и я л екси ч ески м и еди н и ц ам и на осн ове предлож ен н ы х текстов.
П ри вы п о л н ен и и зад ани й особую трудность для учащ ихся представляет:
1 Д ем о н стр ац и о н н ы й вариан т к о н тр о л ьн ы х и зм ер и тел ьн ы х м атериалов 1. О со зн ан и е строгого п оряд ка слов в ан гли йском я зы к е и ум ение оп реде­
еди н ого государственного экзам ен а 2013 года п о ан гл и й ск о м у языку. Реж им лять место части речи в п редлож ении,
доступа: http://w w w .fipi.ru /v iew /sectio n s/2 2 6 /d o cs/6 2 7 .h tm l 2. З н ан и е правил словообразовани я, п они м ан ие зн ачен и я суф ф иксов и п ре­
2 П ри выполнении данного задания не целесообразно образовывать слова на ф и к со в ан гли йского я зы к а,
основе словообразовательных моделей. Учащиеся просматриваю т текст, анали­ 3. С оотнесен и е суф ф и ксов с частям и речи,
зируют требования к заданию и вы полняю т упраж нения, представленные ниже. 4. Зн ани е особен н остей н ап и сан и я слов ан гли йского язы ка.
8 | Word Formation: General Terms Word Formation: General Terms | 9

2. Read the following information. Answer the questions. The word has The word has The word has The word has
a suffix a prefix a suffix neither a suffix
Я зы к п о сто я н н о п о п о л н яется но во й л е к с и к о й , новы м и словам и.
a nd a prefix nor a prefix
Э то определяется р азвитием науки, тех н и к и , п о явл ен и ем новы х м е­
х ан и зм о в, п р и б о р о в и т. п. К ром е того, п р о и сх о ди т п о сто я н н о е с о ­
трудничество с представи телям и разны х я зы к о в и культур, что такж е
вл и яет н а п о я в л е н и е новы х слов. В а н гл и й ск о м я зы к е сущ ествует
н еск ольк о способов о б р азо ван и я новы х слов:
1) а ф ф и к с а ц и я , т. е. о б р азо ван и я нового слова на осн ове а ф ф и к ­
сов (су ф ф и ксо в и пр еф и ксо в)
2) о б р азо в ан и е сл о ж н ы х сл о в путем с о е д и н е н и я просты х слов:
week + en d -> w eekend Parts o f speech
3) за и м с т в о в а н и е слов и з д руги х я зы к о в : g u ard, army, victory —
Noun is a type o f word th at is usually the nam e o f som ething such as a person,
ф р ан ц у зск и е заи м ство ван и я.
a place, a thing, a quality o r an idea: mouse, table, information, peace.
П ри в ы п о л н ен и и зад ан и я н а сл о во о бр азо ван и е важ н о пон им ать, Verb is a type o f word th a t usually tells about an action o r a state and is the m ain
из каки х к о м п о н ен то в со сто и т слово. part o f a sentence: to play, to suppose, to inform.
Корень (word root) — о сн о в н о й эл ем ен т слова, которы й содерж ит Adjective is a 'describing' word; the m ain role o f w hich is to give m ore inform ation
о сн овн о е знач ен и е слова, и он не м ож ет б ы ть разделен н а м еньш ие about the object: nice, wonderful, amazing.
частиц ы без потери передаваем ого см ы сла. Adverb is a word th at changes o r qualifies the m eaning o f a verb, an adjective, o th er
Суффикс д обавляется к слову после к о р н я и п р и в н о си т д о п о л н и ­ adverb, a clause, a sentence o r any o th er w ord o r phrase: early, quickly, happily.
тельную и н ф о р м ац и ю к о сн о вн о м у значению .
Преф икс добавл яется к слову в начале перед корн ем и п р и вн о си т 4. Complete the table. Define which part of speech each word from
д ополнительную и н ф о р м ац и ю к о сн о вн о м у значению . the table refers to. Check in the dictionary if you have doubts.
1. What does the process of word formation mean? verb adjective adverb
noun
2. What is the difference between suffixes and prefixes?
work
3. D o you know any English suffixes? Name them.
4. Do you know any English prefixes? Name them. early
\
5. Why is it important to understand the mechanisms of word formation characteristic
for learners of English?
play

3. A. Read the following words. Divide them into 4 groups and com­ will
plete the table. export
m agnificent -
work, num erous, m isleading, m isunderstanding, jo b , teacher, bed, piano,
m isfortune, careless, overheat, disapproval, in tern atio n al, governm ent, stone
unlike, possibility, bag, unfortunately, overload, disappoint
record
10 I Word Formation: General Terms Word Formation: General Terms | 11 |

noun verb adjective adverb 7. Circle the nouns. Underline their suffixes. Check in the dictionary if
fortunately you are unsure.
public

previously

report

nam e
w ater

5. Define which part of speech the words in bold refer to. Translate
the sentences. 8 . Circle the adverbs. Underline their suffixes. Check in the diction­
1. I saw a saw th a t could saw any o th e r saw I ever saw. ary if you are unsure.
2. I thought a thought o f thinking o f than k in g you.
3. If you notice this notice, you will notice th at this notice is not noticing.
4. T here was a fisher nam ed Fisher, w ho fished for a fish in a fissure.
5. Can you can a can as a canner can can a can?

6 . Circle the adjectives. Underline their suffixes. Check in the diction­


ary if you are unsure.

9. Complete the table. Can you name any other words based on the
same root? What part of speech do the words refer to?
m is c a lc u la tio n , m isbeliever, m is p ro n u n c ia tio n , m ism a n a g e m e n t,
d iso rg an iz e, re c o lle c tio n , re c o n s tru c tio n , in e d u c a b le , im m ovable,
im m igration ____________________

Prefix Word root Suffix Translation Other words


Ab norm al н енорм альн ы й norm al,
norm alize,
normality,
abnorm ity
12 | Word Formation: General Terms Word Formation: General Terms | 13

Prefix Word root Suffix Translation Other words N oun


M em orial Day is an A m erican holiday observed ... (2) on the Adjective
last M onday o f May. Adverb
- Verb
N oun
A person who receives a r j... (3) to a costum e party has the per­ Adjective
fect ... (4) to find an outfit that will be the hit o f the occasion. Adverb
Verb
N oun
Adjective
The beginning o f spring is a ... (5) tim e to start a new year.
Adverb
Verb
N oun
M ost o f E ngland, S cotland and Wales are on the island o f
Adjective
G reat Britain, as are their ... (6) capital cities: L ondon, Edin­
Adverb
burgh and Cardiff.
Verb
N oun
___________________________________________ Useful Information
Adjective
В ан гл и й ск ом предлож ен и и обязател ен строгий п о р яд о к слов. Э то св я за ­ The U nited States o f Am erica is a fe d e ra l... (7) republic.
Adverb
но с тем , что ан гл и й ск и й о тн осится к ан ал и ти чески м язы к ам , кром е того,
Verb
больш ое количество ан гл и й ски х слов имею т зн ачен и я разны х частей речи
(work — работа, работать), и поэтом у кон кр етн о е зн ачен и е такого слова за­ N oun
частую определяется зан им аем ы м им местом в п редлож ении. M any people visit cem eteries and m em orials ... (8) to honor Adjective
О со зн ан и е п оряд ка слов сп особствует п р ави л ьн о м у о п р едел ен и ю частей those who died in military service. Adverb
речи, которы е необходим о образовать при вы п о л н ен и и задани й В 11 — В16. Verb
Noun
10. А. Read the sentences. Guess which part of speech you should Adjective
C hristm as is a sacred ... (9) holiday.
use. Choose the right word to complete each sentence. Adverb
Verb
N oun
G reat Britain lies to the northw est o f ... (I) E urope, with Ire­ N oun
Adjective
land to the west, and makes up the larger part o f the territory o f O ther people prefer to dress up as som eone or som ething ... Adjective
Adverb
the U nited Kingdom. (10) strange and unexpected. Adverb
Verb
Verb
14 | Word Formation: General Terms

N oun WORD FORMATION:


The agency is led by its... (11). Adjective
Adverb
SUFFIX AFTER SUFFIX
Verb

B. Choose the right variant for each m issing word.


1. A. continental B. co n tin en t C. continentally И зучение сл овообразован и я в ан гл и й ск ом я зы к е п ри подготовке
2. A. annual" B. annuary C. annually к ЕГЭ о р и ен ти р о ван о , преж де всего, н а изучение о собен н остей п р о ­
3. A. invitation B. invite C. inviting цессов аф ф и к са ц и и , которы е осн ован ы на и сп ользован и и аф ф и к со в
4. A. o pportunistic B. o p portunity C. opportune при о б р азо ван и и новы х слов. В К од и ф и каторе эл ем ен тов содерж а­
5. A. logically B. logic C. logical н и я и тр еб о ван и й к уровн ю п од готовк и вы п у ск н и к о в о б щ е о б р а зо ­
6. A. respectability B. respective C. respect вательн ы х у ч р еж д ен и й д ля п р о в ед ен и я ед и н о го го су дарствен н ого
7. A. constitution B. constitutional C. constitute эк зам ен а по ан гл и й ск ом у я зы ку указан ы следую щ ие эл ем ен ты сл о ­
8. A. particularity B. particularly C. particular в о о б р азо в ан и я 1:
9. A. religion B. religious C. religiously Суффиксы как элементы словообразования
10. A. com pletely B. com plete C. com pletion С уф ф и ксы глаголов:
11. A. adm inistration B. adm inistrate C. adm inistrative -ize/ise.
С уф ф и ксы сущ ествительны х:
-e r/o r, -ness, -ist, -ship, -ing, -sio n /tio n ,-a n c e /e n c e , -m en t, -ity.
С уф ф и ксы прилагательны х:
-у, -ic, -ful, -al, -ly, -ia n /a n , -ing, -ous, -ib le/able, -less, -ive.
С уф ф и кс наречий:
-ly-__________________________________________
В настоящ ей части пособ и я мы предлагаем изучени е аф ф и к со в,
зн а н и е которы х проверяется в ходе эк зам ен а. Работа над н и м и н а ­
п р ав л е н а н а о с о зн а н и е зн а ч е н и я , о б р азо в ан и я и п р и н ад л еж н о сти
к той или и н о й части речи . К ром е того, п ред лагаем ы е зад ан и я я в ­
ляю тся п о л езн ы м и с точки зрен и я р асш и р ен и я л екси ч еского запаса.
И м ен н о п оэтом у освоен и е правил сл о во о б р азо в ан и я д олж н о о б я за ­
тельн о вклю чать и работу со словарем , п о и ск зн ач ен и й слов.

1 К о ди ф и като р элем ентов содерж ан ия и требован ий к уровню подготов­


ки вы п у скн и ко в общ еобразовательны х учреж дений для проведени я еди н ого
государственного экзам ен а по ан гл и й ск ом у языку. Реж им доступа: U R L : www.
fipi.ru /v iew /sectio n s/2 2 7 /do cs/628.htm l
16 | Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Verbs 1 17

VERBS Useful Information


П рим ен ен и е су ф ф и к са -ise и ли -ize, к ак п равило, определяется ам ер и к ан ­
______________ _______________________________________ Suffixes ize/ise ским или бри тан ски м вариантам и ан гли йского язы ка (-ize — ам ери кан ски й
— использую тся д ля о б р азо ван и я глаголов на основе прилагатель­ вариант ан гли йского язы ка, -ise — б ри тан ски й вариант ан гл и й ского язы ка):
ны х и сущ ествительны х organize, organise; recognize, recognise.
1 модель: N O U N + IZ E /IS E Но сущ ествую т глаголы , которы е им ею т закреп лен н ое н ап и сан и е су ф ф и к ­
2 модель: A D JE C T IV E + IZ E /IS E сов, и м ен ять их нельзя: advertise, form alize, sum m arize.

— об означаю т д ей стви я и процессы


fo rm a l + ize -> form alize (оформлять) 13. А. Make the verbs from the following nouns using the suffixes
_______ scandal + ize -> scandalize (возмущать, шокировать) -ise/ -ize. Translate them.

British English American English


11. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes. character

1. m em ory a. industrialize apology


2. special b. dram atise
symbol
3. industry^ c. m em orize
4. sym pathy1 d. scandalize nation
5. ideal e. critisize
sym pathy
6. d ram a f. specialize
7. criticism g. idealize crystal
8. scandal h. sym pathize

12. Divide the words into groups according to their word formation 14. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
model. zle and complete the table below.

em phasis2 -> em phasize, neutral -> neutralise, sym pathy -> sym pa­ С T M 0 К F P P R Y

thize, m odern m odernise, symbol -> sym bolize, special -» specialize D R E A L I T Y 0 T

S Y M В 0 L R F A Z
Noun -» Verb Adjective —> Verb A P 0 L 0 G I Z E F

G С R I T I С I S E

P R I V A T I Z E U

S A Z A S D F G T T

S U E Q U A L I Z E

1 sym pathy — сочувствие; сострадание


2 em phasis — вы разительность, сила.
18 | Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Verbs | 19

Related words Verbs ( -ize) 16. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the
m em ory table below.
realize Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
symbolize apology apologetic
apology idealize ideal
criticize legality legally
eq u a l1 harm onious harm oniously
private symbolize sym bolically

15. A. Name the verbs which are explained. Underline related words apologize, sym bol, harm ony, ideal, harm onize, apologetically, sym bolic,
in the definitions. ideally, legalize, legal
1. to express o r m ake an apology____________ ______________________
B . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
2. to distinguish2 o r m ark as a characteristic ______________________
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
3. to represent by a symbol o r symbols_______ _____________________
4. to consider o r represent sm th as ideal ______________________ 1. N o u n
5. to m ake m o d ern in appearance o r style ______________________ 2. Verb
1. It is easier to dem and an ... th an to deliver one.
6. to becom e n eu tral______________________________________________ 3. Adjective
4. Adverb
B. Complete the word formation chains below using the words a. apology b. apologize c. apologetic d. apologetically
from the definitions.
1. N oun
adjective -» verb noun -» verb 2. M uch free television can already be w atched ... on c o m ­ 2. Verb
puters and m obile phones. 3. Adjective
4. Adverb
a. legality b. legalize c. legal d. legally
1. N o u n
2. Verb
3. T he cat and the dog live in ... in the Jo n e s’ household.
3. Adjective
4. Adverb
1 equal — равн ы й , оди н аковы й ; и ден ти ч н ы й , р авн о си л ьн ы й
2 distinguish — различить; разглядеть, рассм отреть
20 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Verbs | 21

a. h arm o n y b. h arm onize c. h arm onious d. harm oniously a. ideal b. idealize c. ideally
1. N oun 1. N o u n
4. T h e w aiter ... to o k th e d ish b ack to th e k itc h en and 2. Verb 2. Verb
10. W hat 1 did was perfectly ... .
quickly brought Mr. A pple a n o th e r one. 3. Adjective 3. Adjective
4. Adverb 4. Adverb
a. apology b. apologize c. apologetic d. apologetically a. legality b. legalize c. legal d. legally

1. N oun 1. N oun
2. Verb 11. Scientists d o n 't know w hat all these an cien t drawings, 2. Verb
5. We are happy to clarify this an d ... for th e m istake.
3. Adjective called p e tro g ly p h s,.... 3. Adjective
4. Adverb 4. Adverb

a. apology b. apologize c. apologetic d. apologetically a. symbol b. sym bolize c. sym bolic d. sym bolically

1. N oun
2. Verb
17. Make new sentences using verbs (-ize , -ise) so they mean the
6. T h ey ten d to ... th e situation an d to hope for the best. same as the first ones.
3. Adjective
4. Adverb Model: The realization that a catastrophe could occur] at a n y tim e so­
bered2 them up. — They realized that a catastrophe could occur at any time
a. ideal b. idealize c. ideally
and it sobered them up.
1. N oun
7. Even if th e referendum itself does little, th e vote will be 2. Verb 1. T he m ain characteristic o f her writings is an excellent taste.
o f huge ... im portance. 3. Adjective
4. Adverb 2 . 1 gave my old friend a smile o f recognition.
a. sym bol b. sym bolize c. sym bolic d. sym bolically
3. H e spoke with special emphasis on the subject o f civil rights.
1. N oun
8. T h e p ain tin g s reflect th e h u m a n effort to c reate a ... 2. Verb
blend o f nature an d art. 3. Adjective 4. T he owl is the sym bol o f w isdom and learning.
4. Adverb
a. h arm o n y b. h arm onize c. harm o n io u s d. harm oniously 5. T he specialization o f a lot o f Portuguese restaurants is seafood.

1. N oun
9. It w ould be ... if stu d en ts could draw th e ir diagram s on 2. Verb
large pieces o f constru ctio n paper. 3. Adjective
4. Adverb 1 o ccu r — происходить, случаться
2 sober — отрезвлять
22 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Verbs | 23

Useful Information W hen th e G u g g e n h e im M u seu m B ilbao


П ри в ы п о л н е н и и за д а н и й B l l — B16 н е о б х о д и м о бы ть в н и м а те л ь н ы м opened to the public in 1997, it was im m edi­
не т о л ь к о к п р а в и л ь н о м у о п р е д е л е н и ю с л о в о о б р а зо в а т е л ь н ы х ф о р м , ately hailed as one o f the world's m ost spectac­
но и к в озм ож ны м грам м ати чески м и орф о гр аф и чески м ош и бкам . ular buildings in the style o f D econstructivism .
Т ак, при уп отребл ен и и глаголов н еобходим о оп редели ть п равильную вр е­ 3. Last year The New Yorker has characterized it C H A R A C T E R IS T IC
менную форму, соответствую щ ую предлагаем ом у контексту. as "a fa n ta stic d rea m sh ip o f u n d u la tin g 1
form in a cloak o f titanium ."
18. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in 4. T he m useum was op en ed as a p art o f a revi- R EV ITA LIZE
the text. Pay attention to the grammar tenses you should use. talizasion effort for the city o f Bilbao. In its
first three years, alm ost 4 m illion tourists vis­
1. O ur re sta u ra n t___________ in one type o f m eat, SPE C IA L ited th e m useum , helping to g enerate about
so look for pictures o f the anim al you wish to eat €500 m illion in econom ic activity. T he term ,
before entering. 5. however, has also been em ployed by crvtics C R IT IC IZ E
2. Yesterday h e ___________ to his wife an d ch il- A PO L O G Y 6. w ho have d en o u n ced th e m useum as a svm - SY M B O L IZ E
dren for losing his tem per. bolic o f cultural im perialism .
3. We ju s t____________for th e m istake A PO L O G Y
an d we prom ise th a t it w on’t h ap p en again. B . Correct the mistakes made in the test above.

4. H e ___________his com pany 50 years ago. O R G A N IZ A T IO N


5. W e ___________in th e last m eeting th at th e situ- R E C O G N IT IO N
atio n was hopeless.
6. I'm c ertain in th e future e v e ry o n e ____________ C R IT IC IS M
his actions.

19. A. Analyze the test a pupil did. Determine types of mistakes in it:
word formation mistakes (WF); grammar mistakes (G); spelling
mistake (S).
T h e G u g g en h eim M u seu m Bilbao is a m u ­
seum o f m o d e rn an d co n te m p o ra ry a rt, lo ­
cated in Bilbao, Spain.
T h e Basque govern m en t agreed to cover th e
1. $100 m illion co n stru c tio n cost an d to subsi- SU B SID Y
dized th e m u seum 's U S $12 m illion an n u a l
»
budget. In exchange, th e F o u n d atio n agreed
2. to m anage th e in stitu tio n an d orgarnize tern - O R G A N IZ A T IO N
porary exhibitions. 1 undulating — волнисты й.
24 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix
Nouns | 25

NOUNS 2 0 . Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
Suffixes - er/ -or
1. teach a. tra in er
М одель образован ия: 2. drive b. sender
V E R B /N O U N + E R /O R ,
3. build c. inventor
о б о зн ач ает л и ц о , н азы в аем о е по роду за н я т и й , или п редм ет (устройство)
4. tra in d. tea ch e r
со сп ец и ал ьн ой ф ункц ией .
5. w rite e. w riter
Будьте внимательны! У потребление суф ф и ксов -ег или -or необходимо
6. send f. con tain er
проверять по словарю .
7. sing g. d eco rato r
8. invent h. builder
Useful Information
9. co n tain i. driver
Суффикс -ег 10. decorate j. singer
1) образует существительные от глаголов или существительных, обозначающие
лицо, называемое по роду занятий, профессии, привычкам, привычным за­ 21. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their
нятиям; по взглядам и убеждениям; по происхождению и месту проживания meaning.
plum ber — водопроводчик
financier — финансист inventor, com puter, cooker, winner, reactor, refrigerator, writer, recorder,
rider — наездник manager, runner, printer, sailor, escalator, creato r
leader — лидер, вождь
beginner — начинающий, новичок Anim ate objects Inanim ate objects
winner — победитель
2) образует существительные со значением предмета или устройства со спе­
циальной функцией
eraser — ласт ик, резинка
conditioner — кондиционер
container — контейнер
Суффикс -or
1) встречается в существительных латинского и французского происхожде­
ния, обозначающих название действующего лица
inheritor — наследник
visitor — посетитель, гость
inventor — изобретатель B. Find their related words from the table.
decorator — декоратор
com pute, prin t, sail, m anage, run, cook, w in, escalate, refrigerate, w rite,
2) образует названия приспособлений или предметов со специальной функцией
record, react, invent, create
tractor — трактор; тягач
transistor — транзистор W hich o f these words require -e r to form nouns?
ventilator — вентилятор W hich of them require -o r to form nouns?
m onitor — монитор
26 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 27

2 2 . Make nouns from the following words using the suffixes -o r/-e r. Related words N ouns ( -er/-or)

-or -er to invent

sail — to w rite

sing — to create

extinguish1 — to draw

work — to teach

possess — to mix

n arrate2 — to sm oke

lead —
co n tain — 24. А. Name the words which are explained. Underline related
words in the definitions.
calculate —
1. A person w ho writes books is a(n)__________________ ________________
react —
2. A person w ho composes m usic is a(n ) ________________
erase3 — 3. A person w ho edits w ritten m aterial is a(n ) ________________
ride — 4. A person w ho plays a gam e is a(n ) ________________
wait — 5. A person w ho trains athletes in a sport is a(n ) ________________
6. A person w ho translates texts is a(n) ________________
23. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­ 7. A person w ho acts in a play o r a film is a(n ) ________________
zle and complete the table below. 8. A person w ho speaks at a form al occasion is a(n) ________________
9. A person w ho fights is a(n) ________________
S F G С 0 к К L T N
10. A person w ho works in a m ine1 is a(n ) ________________
M S T R D R A W E R
I N V E N T 0 R A N B. Explain the following words using related words.
X D D A U G N I С N 1. A driver is a person w ho

E U U T A S D T H В 2. A buyer
3. A co m p etito r_____________________ ________________________________
R S M 0 К E R E E s
4. A collector
i--------------------------------- -------------------- — ------------------------- ----
W P Q R Q W U R R и
5. A l e c t u r e r ________________________________
6. A n inspector_____________________ _______________________________
1 extinguish — гасить, ли к ви д и р о вать (п ож ар), туш ить 7. A farm er
2 narrate — повествовать, рассказы вать
3 erase — стирать, соскабли вать 1 m ine — р удн и к; шахта
28 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 29

8. A directo r________________________ _______________ _________________ believer, offender, observer, m ixture, helper, founder, doubter, offensive,
9. A p ro d u cer_______________________ ________________________________ doubt, em ploym ent, employ, help, founded, m ixed, observe, consum er,
10. A co n d u c to r .________________________________ d irectio n , c o m p etitio n , a n n o u n c e m e n t, d irect, co m p ete, consum able,
announcing, believe
C. Complete the word formation chains with examples from the
definitions. B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
Relative word -» + or Relative word -» + er lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
1. N o u n
1. W heat based food norm ally contains a ... o f ingredients. 2. Verb
3. Adjective
a. m ixer b. m ixture c. m ix d. m ixed

2. W hen you break a legal rule o r a social n o rm , this is an 1. N o u n


25. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the exam ple o f an .... 2. Verb
table below. 3. Adjective
a. offender b. offensive c. offend d. offence
Noun N oun Adjective
Verb
(occupation) (act, process) 3. Being nice and ... may get you good friends and a happy 1. N o u n
announce1 life. 2. Verb
a n n o u n cer
3. Adjective
belief - believable
a. helper b. help c. helpful
co m p etito r com petitive
1. N o u n
co n su m p tio n 2 4. T he com pany's ... tried to develop his business. 2. Verb
director direct 3. Adjective
doubt doubtful a. founder b. foundation c. founded d. found
em ployer em ployable 1. N o u n
found 5. An ... can use jo b offer letters to confirm the details. 2. Verb
fo u n d atio n
helpful 3. Adjective
help
a. em ployer b. em ploym ent c. em ploy d. em ployable
m ixer m ix
observation3 observant 1. N o u n
6. T he researchers a p p e a r ... about th e ir results. 2. Verb
offence offend
3. Adjective
1 announce — объявлять; сообщ ать a. d o ubter b. d o ubt c. doubtful
2 consum ption — потребление
3 observation — наблю дение
30 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 31

1. N oun drive —> run -У


7. G enerally, a film ... controls a film 's artistic an d dram atic believe -у
2. Verb rob -y
aspects and visualizes th e script.
3. Adjective
a. d irecto r b. direct c. direction Useful Information
11ри вы полнении заданий В 11 — В 16 необходимо быть вним ательны м не толь­
1. N o u n
8. T his report focuses o n how ... can be m ade m ore sustain­ ко к правильном у определению словообразовательны х ф орм , но и к возм ож ­
2. Verb ным грам м атическим и орф ограф и ческим ош ибкам.
able.
3. Adjective
1ак, при образовании им ен сущ ествительных важ но обратить вним ание н а их
a. co n su m p tio n b. co n su m er c. consum e d. consum able возмож ное употребление в ф орм е м нож ествен ного числа: на это указы вает
1. N o u n общ ий смы сл п редлож ения, глаголы, с которы м и согласуется им я сущ естви­
9. A ... exam ination is an exam ination w here candidates are тельное, косвен н ы м указателем этого такж е м ож ет бы ть отсутствие артикля.
2. Verb
ranked according to th e ir grades.
3. Adjective
27. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that fits in the
a. co m p etitio n b. co m p etito r c. com pete d. com petitive
space in the text. Pay attention to the grammar changes you
1. N o u n should make.
10. T he link betw een issues o f h ealth an d religious ... is not
2. Verb
a new subject at all. Wc are here to bring parents into co n tact w ith caring and
3. Adjective BABYSIT (1)
c a p a b le ___________ (1) in th e ir area.
a. believer b. belief c. believe d. believable
Welcome to the virtual harbour o f the Superyacht A sso­
1. N o u n
ciation w hich unites and represents th e w orld’s leading B U IL D (2)
11. M icrosoft m ay ... next g eneration o f Xbox o n M ay 21. 2. Verb
_________ (2) o f large yachts.
3. Adjective
Since I becam e a ___________ (3), m y to p p rio rity has
a. a n n o u n c e r b. an n o u n c e m e n t c. an n o u n ce d. announcing G O V E R N (3)
been creating good-paying jobs for o u r citizens.
1. N o u n
Police forces in E urope are h u n tin g fo r a $50 m illion
12. H e's hardly a n e u tr a l... m aking a point. 2. Verb ROB (4)
stash o f diam onds' stolen by eight a rm e d ___________ (4).
3. Adjective
M o st___________(5) will n o t use the website if they have
a. observer b. observation c. observe d. observant U SE (5)
to register because registration takes tim e.
I he Penn Libraries w e lc o m e ____________(6) w hose re ­
26. Read the following spelling rules. Complete the word chains below. V IS IT (6)
search requires use o f our collections.
Е сл и слово о к а н ч и в ае т с я н а -е, п р и д о б а в л е н и и с у ф ф и к са -ег
гласн ая -е- не удваивается: т аке — m aker
В однослож ны х словах с закр ы ты м гласн ы м слогом п р и д об авл е­
н и и су ф ф и ксо в -e rf-o r удваивается согласн ая: rob — robber
explore - у _________________ begin -у s_____________
exam ine - > _________________ babysit - y ______________
1 stash o f diam onds — т а й н и к с бри лл и ан там и .
32 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 33

28. A. Analyze the test the pupil did. Determine types of mistakes in 8. weak h. illness
them: grammar mistakes (G); spelling mistakes (S). 9. good i. happiness
10. aware . j. foolishness
1. D enise van O u ten is an English actress an d singers. S IN G
2. H er m ost notable roles to date are a p resen ter on T he PRESEN T 30. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their
Big Breakfast an d Roxie H art in th e m usical Chicago. meaning.
3. Van O uten was voted R ear o f th e Year in a 2007 poll
REA D happiness, sadness, ugliness, friendliness, weakness, ripeness, foolishness,
o f reader o f G razia m agazine.
m adness, illness, seriousness, rudeness, sharpness
4. She first played Roxie H a rt o n th e stage in th e hit
5. m usical C hicago in A pril 2001. H er ru n proved a hit
w ith theatre-goers. Qualities States
6. F o r S trictly's te n th series in S ep tem b er 2012, van
O uten was p artn ered bv professional d a rn c er Jam es DANCE .
7. Jo rd a n . Som e view er co u ld n o t accep t h e r fu rth er V IEW
progressing in th e co m p etitio n , w ith h e r 'advantage'
o f stage and dance experience over o th e r celebrities.
8. However, O u ten an d Jo rd a n did finish as ru n n e r- RUNUP
up b eh in d th e w iner L ouis S m ith an d professional W IN
o a rtn o r Flavia C acace. PART

B. Correct the mistakes made in the test above. B. Find their related words from the table.
aide, friendly, m ad, ill, serious, foolish, ugly, weak, ripe, happy, sharp
Suffix -ness
М одель образования:
A D JE C T IV E + N ESS
31. Make nouns from the following words using the suffix -ness. Pay
используется д л я образо ван и я сущ ествительны х, о бо значаю щ и х со сто ян и я
attention to the spelling rule.
или качества, оп исы ваем ы е соответствую щ им прилагательны м . Если слово заканчивается на согласную + у, то добавлении суффикса
ness -у переходит в -/: lonely —» loneliness
29. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related +• ness without spelling changes with spelling changes
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes. friendly
1. friendly a. rudeness
foolish
2. happy b. sadness
3. m ad c. m adness happy
4. ill d. weakness
ugly
5. rude e. friendliness
6. sad f. goodness rude
7. foolish g. awareness
34 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 35

+ ness without spelling changes with spelling changes Related words Nouns ( -ness)
weak rude

stuffy1 careless
great
ill
bald
lazy \
quiet
bald2
sad
helpful
3 2 . Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix
-ness?
34. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the
1. a. h appi- b. bald- с. w eak- d. im press- table below.
2. a. rough- b. ap p o in t- с. serious- d. kind-
3. a. ugli- b. rude- с. b rillian t- d. good- Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
4. a. readi- b. en rich - с. rip e- d. sick- brightness bright
5. a. sharp- b. th ic k - с. rival- d. tidi-
dark darkly
33. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz deafness deaf1
zle and complete the table below. quicken quickly

s G roughness2 roughly
B S D R 0 Q F T A S
N u P U в и К L L G T О quickness, roughen, quick, darkness, rough, darken, brighten, deafen,
F s V D A I E D T R к P brightly, deafly
С A R E L E S S N E s S
F В . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the following
X D 0 N D T 0 A L A T
sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
С N 0 E N N M E S T X и
D E T S E E N В J N I L 1. N o u n
1. T he first th ing we need to do before we ... any edges is 2. Verb
A S E S S S u В N E D M
create a copy o f o u r photo. 3. Adjective
E S V u S s R S E S D E 4. Adverb
H E L p F и L N E S S G a. darken b. darkly c. dark d. darkness

1 stu ffy — душ ны й 1 d e af — глухой


2 bald — лы сы й 2 roughness — ш ероховатость, резкость
36 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 37

1. N o u n strengths." For people w ho suffer f r o m (8), IL L (8)


2. People w ith m oderate ... have difficulty following speech 2. Verb _________ (9) is th e first step in d ealin g w ith th ese AWARE (9)
w ithout a hearing aid. 3. Adjective problem s. T he m ovem ents start to change th e energy
4. Adverb and m ake you feel b etter and lift t h a t (10). SA D (10)
a. d e a f b. deafen c. deafly d. deafness
Suffix -ist
1. N oun
3. Stress invokes sym ptom s such as a rise in blood pressure, 2. Verb М одель образован ия:
... o f breath o r increased cardiac activity. 3. Adjective A D JE C T IV E /N O U N + IST
используется для образован ия сущ ествительны х, указы ваю щ их род деятель­
4. Adverb
ности, убеж дения, верован ия лю дей.
a. quicken b. quickly c. quick d. quickness
1. N o u n 36. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
4. Providing h ealth insurance to th e ... 50 m illion A m eri­ 2. Verb words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
cans will cost about $ 120 billion a year. 3. Adjective 1. biology a. violinist
4. Adverb 2. guitar b. scientist
a. roughen b. rough c. roughly d. roughness 3. psychology c. ecologist
1. N oun 4. reception d. hum orist
5. If you tu rn dow n th e ... o n your phone, how m uch longer 2. Verb 5. econom y e. econom ist
will your battery last? 3. Adjective 6. jo u rn al f. psychologist
4. Adverb 7. science g. guitarist
8. ecology h. journalist
a. bright b. brighten c. brightly d. brightness
9. violin i. biologist
10. h u m o u r j. receptionist
35. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
fits in the space in the text. 37. A. Divide the following words into three groups according to
"To practice (1) w ithin yourself gives you a Q U IE T (1) their meaning.
trem en d o u s b enefit," says Tai C hi instru cto r, N a th a n
dentist, pianist, scientist, realist, biologist, guitarist, optim ist, pessim ist,
Spivey. M ost people know Tai C hi as a health exercise.
econom ist, pacifist, pharm acist, cellist, racist, harpist, violinist
N ath a n em phasizes th at.th ere is one im p o rtan t aspect
o f Tai C hi th a t is re q u ire d ;__________ (2) o f m ind. N a ­ CA LM (2)
People o f certain beliefs People o f certain People playing
th a n says: "Tai C hi creates a sense o f balance, so it helps NERVOUS (3)
and religion occupation musical instruments
m e to a v o id __________ (3) a n d ___________(4)._"H e b e­ IM P U L S IV E (4)
lieves th a t being able to learn y o g a ,_________ (5) and M IN D F U L (5)
__________(6) are im p o rta n t in h elp in g th e body to S E R IO U S (6)
offset negative effects o f stress. "You get to know your
body better and you get to know y o u r__________ (7) and W EA K (7)
38 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns j 39

People o f certain beliefs People o f certain People playing Related words Nouns ( -ist)
a nd religion occupation musical instruments jo u rn al
linguistics
nature
physics
B. Find their related words from the table.
psychology
pacifism , violin, optim ism , d ental, cello, science, piano, economy, real­ reception
ism, biology, race, pharm acy, pessim ism , guitar, harp
science

38. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix
-ist? B. Choose the right form of the words for each sentence.
1. a. jo u rn a l- b. pian - c. celebr- d. activ- 1. H er sense o f ... (a) m ade her a favourite o f the company. hum ourist
2. a. co m petit- b. novel- c. te rro r- d. lingu- H e is know n to be a great ...(b ). hu m o u r
3. a. p erfection- b. autom obil- с. d efen d - d. m eteorolog- 2. Red H ot C hilli Peppers has found a new ... (a). 1 haven’t guitar
4. a. ch em - b. pacif- с. financ- d. dram at- got enough m oney to buy a new ...(b ), it’s too expensive! guitarist
5. a. ecolog- b. eco n o m - c. global- d. im igr-
3. If you w ant to becom e a great ... (a), you should study
biologist
39. A. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the natural sciences. If you w ant to know ... (b), you should
biology
puzzle and complete the table below. read a lot.
4. A well-know n ... (a) is looking for new employees. A well- jo urnal
R D 0 J 0 P L M H N I T E
know n ... (b) has recently published a new book. journalist
E S u 0 F T Y U M N A S R
5. I t’s very im portant to be a ... (a) nowadays. It’s very im ­ real
С A F и D F T Y u I 0 S A portant to have a ... (b) way o f looking at things nowadays. realist
E V S R P 0 I U Y T R D S
P L I N G U I s T A S D F
40. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the
table below.
T W N A T U R A L I s T 0
I A К L A S D F G В V Noun Noun
Z L Verb Adjective
(occupation) (act, process)
0 S С I E N T I S T D X К
dram a dram atis(z)e
N D О S A D G J Z С 0 С J
econom ist econom ic
1 T p T M В С Z A D J О H
terror terrible
S I p H Y S I С I S T К N
— scientific
T P s Y С H 0 L О G I s T
40 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 41

Noun Noun 1. N oun


Verb Adjective (). T he exact work o f an ... depends on the purpose o f the
(occupation) (act, process) 2. Verb
work.
3. Adjective
globalist globalis(z)e
a. ecologist b. ecology c. ecological
hu m o u r —

1. N o u n
ecologist — 7. The article includes a few m athem atically ... sayings th at
2. Verb
any m athem atician can appreciate!
dram atist, terrify, ecology, hum orist, economy, scientist, global, dram atic, 3. Adjective
hum orous, globalization, terrorist, econom is (z)e, ecological, science a. hum orist b. h u m o u r c. hum orous

B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­ 41. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A. fits in the space in the text.
1. N o u n A _______ (1), in a broad sense, is one engaged in S C IE N C E (1)
1. Pierre B euam archais was a F ren ch ... an d librettist. 2. Verb a system atic activity to acq u ire know ledge. In
3. Adjective 1834 W hewell w rote: "As we ca n n o t use physi­
a. dram atist b. dram a c. dram atise d. dram atic cian for a cultivator o f physics, I have called him
a ________ (2). We need very m uch a nam e to d e­ PH Y SICS (2)
1. N oun
2. T his book gives a com prehensive overview o f ... p rin c i­ scribe a cultivator o f science in general. I should in­
2. Verb
ples. cline to call him a scientist". Thus we might say, that
3. Adjective
as a n ________ (3) is a musician, a painter or a poet, A R T (3)
a. econom ist b .econom y c. econom ise d. econom ic C H E M IS T R Y (4)
a scientist is a (4), m athem atician, physi-
1. N oun cist o r a (5). T here are different types N A T U R E (5)
3. A lthough anyone can have a night o f ..., th ey are m uch
2. Verb o f scientists according to the fields o f science they
m ore co m m o n in young children.
3. Adjective work in. For e x a m p le ,________ (6) study m an's A R C H A E O L O G Y (6)
a. terrorist b. te rro r c. terrify d. terrible past by scientific analysis o f the m aterial rem ains
• ■ n o o f his c u ltu r e s .____________ (7) study living o r­ B IO LO G Y (7)
1. N oun
4. Becom ing a ... requires years o f study an d a lot o f dedica­ ganism s, in clu d in g th e ir stru ctu re , fu n c tio n in g
2. Verb
tion. and evolution. _ _ _______(8) analyze c o m p o ­ C H E M IS T R Y (8)
3. Adjective
sitio n , p ro p ertie s an d rea ctio n s o f substances.
a. scientist b. science c. scientific . (9) study the origin, history, stru ctu re G E O L O G Y (9)
1. N o u n and com position o f the e a r th . (10) ex­ PSY CO LO G Y (10)
5. In sociology ... is understood as global mass culture d o m ­
2. Verb am ine functioning o f o rg an ism s.___________ (11) E C O N O M IC S (11)
inated by mass m edia.
3. Adjective exam ine p ro d u c tio n and co n su m p tio n o f goods
a. globalist b. globalization c. globalise d. global and services.
42 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 43

8. reader h. com panionship


____________________________________ Suffix -ship
9. relation i. friendship
М одель образования:
10. com panion j. captainship
N O U N + S H IP
используется для образо ван и я сущ ествительны х, им ею щ их собирательное
или абстрактн ое зн ачен и е. 43. A. Read the following words. Pay attention to their meaning.
Answer the questions below.

_______________________________________ Useful Information com panionship, citizenship, ch a n cello rsh ip 1, professorship, clerkship2,
am bassadorship3, chairm anship, fellowship, ow nership4, apprenticeship5,
— указы вает на полож ение человека в общ естве; звани е, долж ность
captainship — капитанство c o u rtsh ip 6, c raftsm an sh ip , frien d sh ip , sta te sm a n sh ip 7, stew ard sh ip 8,
chairmanship — председательство horsem anship
— указы вает на ум ение, мастерство, искусство 1. Which o f these nouns mean status?
airmanship — лёт ное мастерство
2. Which o f these nouns mean skills?
draftsmanship — черчение, искусство черчения
3. Which o f these nouns characterize different kinds o f relations?
horsemanship — искусство верховой езды
— указы вает на отн о ш ен и я 4. Which o f these nouns show different positions in an office or a company ?
comradeship/ fellowship — товарищество, содружество 5. Which o f these nouns are connected with the process o f administration ?
friendship — дружба, товарищество
— указы вает на абстрактны е п онятия B. Find their related words from the table.
authorship — авторство
com panion, chairm an, steward, citizen, chancellor, court, craftsm an,
Censorship — цензура
citizenship — гражданство
fellow, owner, apprentice, professor, clerk, am bassador, friend,
— указы вает на круг лю дей, объединённы х к ако й -л . деятельностью statesm an, horsem an
readership — круг читателей, читательская аудитория
listenership — круг слушателей, слуш ательская аудитория 44. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix
______________ membership — круг членов (какой-л. организации) -ship?
1. a. citizen- b. c h am p io n - c. celebrity- d. au th o r-
42. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
2. a. censor- b. leader- c. m em ber- d. com fort-
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
3. a. horsem an- b. co m p an io n - c. help- d. fellow-
1. c h a irm a n 1 a. directorship
2. citizen b. chairm anship
3. d irector c. partnership 1 chancellorship — канц лер
4. professor d. citizenship 2 clerkship — долж ность секретаря, к лерка, оф и сн ого служ ащ его
5. friend 3 am bassadorship — долж ность, п олн ом оч и я посла
e. professorship2
4 ow nership — собственность; владение
6. partn er f. readership
5 apprenticeship — обучение, учение, ученичество (рем еслу); ср о к учен и я,
7. captain g. relationship период обучения
6 courtship — ухаж ивание
1 chairm an — председатель 7 statesm anship — искусное уп равлен ие государственны м и делам и
2 professorship — п роф ессорство 8 stew ardship — уп равление, заведован и е, руководство
44 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns 1 45

4. a. defence- b. ow ner- c. p artn er- d. relation- 46. Examine the following models. Complete the word chains below.
5. a. sponsor- b. h o n o u r1- c. scholar2- d. sportsm an- Pay attention to the meaning of related words.
Model 1: read -> reader —>readership
45. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
zle and complete the table below. own -»

А S Р D F G Н J К L N н L listen
А D А и F Т О S Е Т Р О Е -» —>
lead
Е S R F и I W D Е Т и А А
Model 2: chair —> chairman —> chairmanship
С 1 Т 1 Z Е N S Н 1 р F D
air -»
и 1 N 1 N О Е Р К L Y Т Е
X м Е М В Е R S Н 1 Р и R d rafts1 —>
и N R L м N S в Y С О G S
horse ->
в Е S М J Е Н 1 Н N м В Н
I I states ->
N М н и О К 1 N S Н Р
N М I и L О Р А G Т V D Р m arks2 -» —>
1 О р С L Е R К S н I Р Z
pen —»
Related words Nouns (-ship)
47. A. Name the verbs which are explained. Underline related
citizen words in the definitions.
ow ner
1. the state o f being a friend_________________________ ________________
p artn er
2. the state o r fact o f being an ow ner_________________ ________________
m em ber
3. the state o f being vested3 with the rights, privileges
kin3 and duties o f a citizen ________________
I
clerk 4. the state o f being a mem ber, as o f a society or a club ________________
leader 5. people w ho read o r are th ought to read a particular
book, newspaper, m agazine, etc___________________ _______________
6. the ability, qualifications o r practice o f a statesm an;
wisdom and skill in the m anagem ent o f public affairs ________________
1 drafts — чер н о ви ки , проекты
1 hon o u r — слава, почёт, честь
2 m arks — м и ш ен и, цели
2 scholar — учёны й
3 kin — родня, ро дствен ни ки; родство 3 vest — наделять (правом )
46 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 47

B. Complete the word formation chains below using the words from Useful Information
the definitions. Суффикс -ing
образует с у щ еств и тел ь н ы е от глаголов (и реж е от сущ еств и тел ьн ы х )
friend -» friendship со зн ачен и ем п роцесса, дей стви я, состояни я
absorbing — всасывание; поглощение
-» carrying — транспортирование, транспортировка
law -m aking — издание законов
образует с у щ еств и тел ь н ы е о т глаголов (и реж е от сущ еств и тел ьн ы х )
со зн ачен и ем ко н кр етн ого объекта, предмета, материала
camping — кемпинг, лагерь для автотуристдв
deafening — звукоизолирую щ ий мат ериал
образует су щ еств и тел ь н ы е от глагол ов (и реж е от сущ еств и тел ьн ы х)
со зн ачен и ем абстрактного понятия со зн ачен и ем «область зн ан и й , каче­
ство, характеристи ка, деятельность, род занятий»
landscape-gardening — декорат ивное садоводство
48. Choose the right of the words form for each sentence. daring — смелость, храбрость
leading — лидерство, лидирование
... (1) m akes prosperity m ore shining and lessens adversity friendship
by dividing and sharing it. (Cicero) friend
49. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
T he best effect o f any book is th at it excites the ... (2) to reader
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
self-activity. (Thom as Carlyle) readership
1. babysit a. upbringing
All the arts we p ractice are ... (3). T he big art is o u r life. apprenticeship
2. engineer b. bleeding
( М. C. Richards) apprentice
3. farm c. babysitting
W atch out for the ... (4) w ho talks about putting things in 4. bring up' d. driving
fellow
order! Putting things in o rd er always m eans getting o ther 5. build e. engineering
fellowship
people u n d er your control. (Denis Diderot) 6. clim b f. beginning
A sense o f h u m o r is a p art o f th e art o f ... (5), o f g e t­ 7. drive g. clim bing
leadership
ting along w ith peo p le, o f getting things d o n e. (Dwight 8. begin h. building
leader
D. Eisenhower) 9. bleed2 i. fishing
10. fish j. farm ing
Suffix -ing
М одели образования:
N O U N + IN G
V ER B + IN G
O T H E R PART O F S P E E C H + IN G
служат для образован ия сущ ествительны х от глаголов и других частей речи
со зн ачен и ем п роцесса, со сто я н и я, действия. 1 bring up — воспи тани е
2 bleed — кровоточить; истекать кровью
48 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 49

50. A. Read the following words. Pay attention to their meaning. N O U N + ing VERB + ing Other parts o f speech + ing
Answer the questions below.
greetin g 1, sw im m ing, collecting, painting, lining2, farm ing, opening,
flooring3, cam ping, m o untaineering, nursing, gardening
1. Which o f these nouns mean process?
2. Which o f these nouns mean objects?
3. Which o f these nouns mean material?
4. Which o f these nouns mean occupation ?
53. Read the words in the table below. Find related words
in the puzzle and complete the table below.
5. Which o f these nouns mean activity?
M E E T I N G H и H T
B. Find their related words from the table.
К F H R 0 F N В p A T
greet, cam p, swim , open, nurse, line, m ou n tain, farm , collect, floor,
В I F A F D 0 G в D U
garden, paint
D F A l R U F Y R R T
51. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix -ing? К L M N Y E A T 1 N G
1. a. travel- b. ta le n t- c. p aten t- d. teacli- s D A 1 R 1 D I N G G
2. a. scandal- b. read- c. p ain t- d. stor(e)- T U
p I Y N R W A H G
3. a. d an c(e)- b. sing- c. upbring- d. nervous-
D A F G T s 1 Z 1 N G
4. a. sco r(e)- b. d ust- c. guilt4- d. m eet-
5. a. lan d - b. essenc(e)5- c. carry- d. talk- F R A G 0 и T 1 N G В
D G J T E A D В G Z О
52. Divide the words into three groups according to their word forma­
tion model.
Related words Nouns (-ing)
nurse -» nursing6, beat -» beating, short -» shorting, face7 -» facing, m eet
eat -» eating, fat -» fatting8, flu te-» fluting, speak -» speaking,
bring up
out -» outing9, heat -» heating, farm -» farm ing, w hite -» w hiting
eat
' greeting — приветствие train
2 lining — подкладка; внутрен няя оби вка
out
3 flooring — настил, пол
4 guilt — вина ride
5 essence — сущ ество, сущ ность size
6 nursing — уход за больны м
7 face — сталкиваться
s fatting — обезж и риван ие
9 outing — прогулка; экскурси я; п и к н и к
50 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns 1 51

54. Examine the following models. Complete the word chains below. Useful Information
Model: babysit —» babysitting -» babysitter Суффикс -ion
указы вает на дей ствие, п роцесс, состояни е
begin -» -»
comprehension — понимание, осмысление
transformation — изменение, превращение, преобразование
build
указы вает на абстрактн ое понятие; свойство, качество
swim accommodation — помещение; жилье

teach
56. А. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the re-
w rite -a
lated words in the second column. Underline their suffixes,
1. adm ire a. calculation
55. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that 2. an tic ip a te 1 b. confirm ation
fits in the space in the text. 3. apply2 c. adm iration
4. celebrate d. celebration
P u b lic -s p e a k in g ____________ (1) has a n u m b e r o f realistic T R A IN 5. calculate e. anticipation
objectives. M any people fear p u b lic ___________ (2), b u t this SPEA K 6. confirm 3 f. fascination
relu c ta n c e 1can be overcom e w ith p ro p e r___________ (3). Im ­ LEA RN 7. devote4 g. devotion
proving your com m unicative skills is th e m ain aim o f public­ 8. direct h. im agination
speaking program s. A n o th er objective w ould be to prepare for 9. fascinate5 i. application
co n feren ces, ru n n in g a ____________ (4) o r o th e r leadership M EET 10. im agine j. direction
roles. A no th er objective i s ___________ (5) how to influence an TEA C H
audience to agree and persuade2 listeners to take action. в.
1. im press a. expansion
Suffix -ion 2. include b. apprehension
М одель образования: 3. decide c. expression
VERB + ION 4. conclude d. suspension
служ ит для о б р азо ван и я сущ ествительн ы х от глаголов со зн ач ен и ем д е й ­ 5 . expand e. im pression
стви я, п роцесса, со сто я н и я, абстрактного п о н я ти я , свойства, качества. 6. express f. possession
Н аиболее р асп ростр ан ен н ы м явл яется н ап и сан и е слов с су ф ф и ксам и 7. discuss g. inclusion
-atio n , -itio n , -sion, -tio n , -xion. h. discussion
8 . a p p re h e n d 6

1 anticipate — предвосхищ ать, предугады вать


2 apply — обращ аться с п росьбой, (п и сьм ен н ы м ) заявлением
3 confirm — подтверждать, п одкреплять
1 reluctance — неохота, неж елан ие
4 devote — посвящ ать (себя чем у-то возвы ш ен ном у)
2 persuade — убеж дать (в ч ё м -л .); ск л о н и т ь (к ч ем у -л .), уго во р и ть (н а
5 fascinate — восхищ ать, приводи ть в восторг, очаровы вать, плен ять
что-л.)
6 apprehend — пони м ать, постигать, разгады вать, схватывать
52 1 Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 53

9. possess1 i. decision 59. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
10. suspend2 j. conclusion zle and complete the table below.
57. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their Л D G J 0 P 1 D V Н О А D С
meaning.
С 0 R R E С т I о N к J С А
tran sfo rm atio n , calculation, acco m m o d atio n 3, tradition, in terruption4,
R P E X P A N S I О N А С и
intu itio n , investigation, inform ation, isolation, excursion, liberation,
profession E Z С F E S В с D О К V J О
Л С G U В M J и X В N и М М
State or act Abstract noun
T T G В P 0 s S Е S S I О N
1 С V В N 0 О S G в N М L Р
() D 1 R E с т 1 О N и Е R D
N A D U I N О о J О Р Е Т Е
/. S F A S С 1 N А т I О N N

Related words Nouns (-ion)


correct
B. Find their related words from the table. Pay attention to the
part of speech they represent. create

transform , in terru p t, investigate, isolate, liberate, accom m odate, discuss


intuit, inform , excursionist, profess5, trad itional, calculate direct
expand
58. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix
possess
-ion?
1. a. an ticip at(e)- b. depress- c. p o llu t(e)- d. paint- fascinate
2. a. possess- b. p ercen t- c. subtract6- d. invent-
3. a. refresh- b. m ultip licat(e)- c. classificat(e)- d. conservat(e)- 60. A. Analyze the following models. Translate the given examples.
4. a. express- b. discuss- c. tru st- d. transform -
Verb ending -> suffix Example
5. a. im press- b. co rresp o n d - c. co n v ersant(e)- d. anticip at(e)-
-ss -> ion possess — possession
1 possess — обладать -nt -> ion invent — invention
2 suspend — врем енн о отстран ять, и склю чать
-de -> sion conclude — conclusion
3 accom m odation — п ом ещ ен ие; ж ильё; прию т, убеж ищ е
4 interruption — переры в; пауза; зам и н ка -it -> sion perm it — perm ission
5 profess — заним аться какой -л. деятельностью , избрать своей п роф ессией
-nd -> sion expand — expansion
6 subtract — вы читать
54 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 55

Verb ending -> suffix Example Verb ending -> suffix Examples
-se - » ation accuse — accusation -de -> sion
-rm ation form — form ation -it -» sion

-ify -> ication classify — classification -n d -> sion


-ish - » ition abolish — abolition -se -> ation
-ose -> ition expose — exposition -rm -> ation

Translate the following words. Use the examples from the table. -ify - » ication
-ish -> ition
обладать _____________ ф о р м и р о ван и е ______
-ose -> ition
изобретать _____________ вы ставка ______
разреш ать _____________ делать вы вод ______
61. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the
растягиваться, table below.
о б ви н ен и е
р асш и р яться ____________
анн ули ровать, Noun
Verb Adjective Adverb
вы вод (act, process)
о тм ен ять
к л асси ф и ц и р о в ать р азр еш ен и е express expressive

ф о р м и р овать h u m iliation1 hum iliatingly


обладание
р асш и р ен и е im press impressively
об ви н ять
классиф икация persuasion persuasive
отм ена
показы вать, resolute resolutely
и зобретен ие
выставлять н а показ satisfy satisfactory

В. Form nouns using the words from the table. Complete the table adm iration Г' adm iringly
with your examples. confuse confusedly

exclude1, oppose, prevent, converse, adm it, inform , discuss, dem olish2, continuation continual
extend, identify cooperate cooperatively

Verb ending -> suffix Examples expressively, coo p eratio n , confusion, resolution, adm ire, confused, sa-
lisfaction, persuade, im pression, im pressive, continually, expression,
-ss - » ion
adm irable, cooperative, h u m iliating, hum iliate, resolve, satisfactorily,
-n t - » ion persuasively, continue
1 exclude — исклю чать
2 dem olish — разруш ать, уничтож ать 1 h u m ilia tio n — у н и ж е н и е
56 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 57

B . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the following 1. N o u n


sentences. Complete them using words from part A. 2. Verb
7. After the to rn ad o , the tow n was in a state o f t o t a l ... .
3. Adjective
1. N oun
4. Adverb
2. Verb
1. M y te a r s a re a n ... o f m y g rie f. 3. Adjective a. confusion b. confuse c. confused d. confusedly
4. Adverb 1. N o u n
a. expression b. express c. expressive d. expressively K. If som eone is co n stantly m aking noise and barely ever 2. Verb
laking a break, this is an exam ple o f ... noise. 3. Adjective
1. N oun
4. Adverb
2. Verb
2. H e suffered th e ... o f getting th e lowest score on the test 3. Adjective a. con tin u atio n b. continue c. co n tinual d. continually
4. Adverb 1. N o u n
a. hum iliation b. hum iliate c. hum iliating d. hum iliatingly 9. The idea o f in ternational ... betw een peoples m ust suc­ 2. Verb
ceed. 3. Adjective
1. N oun
4. Adverb
3. T here cam e an ... m om ent in all this confusion, a point 2. Verb
3. Adjective a. cooperation b. cooperate c. cooperative d. cooperatively
o f August solemnity.
4. Adverb
62. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
a. im pression b. im press c. impressive d. impressively fits in the space in the text.
1. N oun
In psychology_______ (1) is the term for subjective ex­ E M O T E (1)
4. W hen som eone lists all th e reasons w hy you should do 2. Verb
perience th at is characterized by pe rso n a l_________(2), E X PR E SS (2)
som ething, this is an exam ple o f . . . .. 3. Adjective
biological (3) and m ental states. E m otion is R EA C T (3)
4. Adverb
often the driving force b e h in d _________ (4), positive or M O TIV A TE (4)
a. persuasion b. persuade c. persuasive d. persuasively negative.
1. N oun Some people m ake a (5) betw een em otions and D IS T IN C T (5)
2. Verb feelings saying th a t a feeling is th e response p art o f
5. T he com m ittee expressed g e n e ra l... w ith th e progress. 3. Adjective the em o tio n and th at an em o tio n in c lu d e s (6) SITU A TE (6)
4. Adverb o r ex p erien ce, ________ (7), _________ (8). N e g a ­ IN T E R P R E T (7)
tive em o tio n s such as fear, anxiety, (9) and P E R C E P T (8)
a. satisfaction b. satisfy c. satisfactory d. satisfactorily
(10) cause c h e m ic a l____ (11) in your FR U S T R A T E (9)
1. N oun
body that are very different from the chem icals released D E P R E S S (10)
2. Verb
6. H e glanced ... at th e design. when you feel positive em otions. E m otions are reliable R EA C T (11)
3. Adjective
(12) o f w hat is really going o n inside o f us. ID E N T IF Y (12)
4. Adverb
I here are m any ways to identify em otions an d you will
a. adm iration b. adm ire c. adm irable d. adm iringly have to choose the m anner th at is m ost suitable to your
personality.
Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 59 |

Suffixes -ance/-ence Quality Action


М одель образован ия: M ad m an pondo
V ER B + A N C E /E N C E
— обозначает действие, дви ж ен и е, со сто ян и е, передаваемое соответствую ­
щ им глаголом B. Find their related words from the table.
A D JE C T IV E + A N C E /E N C E
— передаёт качество или состояни е, вы раж енн ое прилагательны м_________ co n tin u e, m aintain, ignore, annoy, disturb, endure, clear,
appear, dom inate, elegant, attend, im portant, pursue, discord
63. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes. 65. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suf­
1. appear a. dependence fixes -ance/-ence??
2. insure b. insistence 1. a. m ist- b. resist- с. observ- d. perform -
3. perform c. entrance 2. a. sever- b. relev- c. toler- d. loud-
4. guide d. occurrence 3. a. resem bl- b. suffer- c. dist- d. like-
5. depend e. existence 4. a. enlarg- b. extravag- c. guid- d. disson-
6. exist f. guidance 5. a. co nson- b. discord- c. intens- d. insur-
7. insist g. appearance 6. a. hostil- b. coincid- c. confer- d. exist -
8. persist h. persistence 7. a. m agnific- b. fellow - с. insist- d. depend-
9. o ccu r i. perform ance
10. en ter j. insurance 6 6 . Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
zle and complete the table below.
64. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their
meaning.
F G P 0 U P A A T N S С U V
1) H E T R A P V N J Q 0 T s
co n tin u an ce, elegance, m ain ten an ce, ignorance, im portance,
dom in an ce, ap pearance, disturbance, en d u rance, annoyance,
С 0 R R E S P 0 N D E N С E
clearance, atten d an ce, pursuance, discordance G T S A F T E I P L В F N W
В В I F E G A D О J G I Y D
Quality Action
N N S T R В R A u G R D U V
1 M T N E E A N Y F W E О R
0 0 A 0 N D N С R A S N D G
F u N T С V С E E S С С R N
R L С A E A E N A F A E T I
T S E M A I N T E N A N С E
60 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 61

Related words Nouns ( -ence)


persist
confident
70. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the
refer table below.
correspond
Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
appear
depend dependently
avoid
difference different
m aintain
correspond correspondingly
6 8 . There is no rule that governs whether a word ends with -ance or confident confidently
-ence. Use a dictionary whenever you are not sure which spell­ assurance assuredly
ing is correct. Complete the following words with -e - or -a -. excel excellent
Im p o rt...n ee, entr...nce, d iffe re n c e, in d e p e n d e n c e , insur...nce, c o n ­
ignore ignorantly
fer...nee, am buL .nce, abs...nce, inst...nce, audi...nce, allow...nee, intelligence,
insistence insistent
assur...nce, appear...nee, obedi...nce, pres...nee.
obey obediently
69. A. Name the nouns which are explained. Underline related
words in the definitions. correspondence, obedience, insist, ignorance, excellently,'assure,
excellence, insistently, ignorant, confidence, dependence, assured,
1. th e act o r state o f attending_______________ _____________________ corresponding, obedient, confide, dep en d en t, differ, differently
2. th e act o f annoying _____________________
3. th e act o r an instance o f appearing __________________ __ B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
4. th e act o f preferring _________________ ___
5. th e act o r an instance o f obeying _____________________ 1. N o u n
I. But E dith was never m ore charm ing th a n in this new ..., 2. Verb
6. th e state o r fact o f being present _____________________
and all his love and loyalty were evoked in caring for her. 3. Adjective
B. Complete the word formation chains below using the words 4. Adverb
from the definitions. a. dependence b. depend c. d ep en d en t d. dep en d en cy

attending attendance 1. N o u n
2. Since the day w hen Louis had tried to change his deci­ 2. Verb
sion, life had been a ... thing for him . 3. Adjective
4. Adverb
a. difference b. differ c. different d. differently
62 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 63

1. N oun 1. N o u n
2. Verb In his epic, Paradise Lost, Jo h n M ilton explores the 2. Verb
3. T he audience responded ... 3. Adjective concept o f labor and its c o n n ectio n w ith .... 3. Adjective
4. Adverb 1 4. Adverb
a. correspondence b. correspond c. corresponding d. correspondingly a. obedience b. obey c. obedient d. obediently
1. N o u n
4. D irect com m u n icatio n s betw een the parties could help 2. Verb / 1. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
to build .... 3. Adjective fits in the space in the text.
4. Adverb
Several c o m m o n w ork situ atio n s m ay test your C O N F ID E N T (1)
a. confidence b. confide c. co n fid en t d. confidently (1). T h e ___________ (2) o f how to IM P O R T A N T (2)
1. N o u n manage it in m eetings an d during p resentations is
2. Verb evident. You can develop s o m e (3) as C O M P E T E N T (3)
5. T his ... also seem ed to h er an enigm a. 3. Adjective 11ic y are often called in business. But how can you

4. Adverb Ice I Ih e ir ____________(4)? Y o u r____________(5) is P R E S E N T (4)


llie key to success. T his will take you forw ard into IN S IS T (5)
a. assurance b. assure c. assured d. assuredly
e m w th , ra th e r th a n sh rin k in g b ac k w ard in to
1. N oun
(6). You should accept th a t th e m ore AVOID (6)
6. Between him and his ... principle th ere was war, w ithout 2. Verb
natural you ca n be in th e m eeting situ a tio n the
th e slightest division. 3. Adjective
m o r e ___________ (7) you will achieve. You tra in B A LA N C EA B LE (7)
4. Adverb
a lew things an d th e n adapt th em into a situation.
a. excellence b. excel c. excellent d. excellently I verything you do in training becom es a m etap h o r
1. N o u n Ini life, w hether it be a tta c k ,____________(8), work D E F E N D (8)
2. Verb •a many oth er things. Your personal developm ent is
7. T hey ... anyone w ho doesn 't w ear th e latest fashion. being stretched as you are le a rn in g ___________ (9), T O L E R A N T (9)
3. Adjective
4. Adverb discipline, etc.

a. ignorance b. ignore c. ignorant d. ignorantly


1. N oun ____________________________________ Suffix -
2. Verb Модель образования:
8. H e now regrets th a t he was not m ore .... 3. Adjective V ER B + -M E N T
4. Adverb обозначает д ей стви е, п р о ц есс, их результат, а такж е средство и ли и н стр у ­
мент
a. insistence b. insist c. insistent d. insistently
64 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 65

72. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related 4. a. am aze- b. im prove- c. arrange- d. em erge-
5. a. distribute- b. agree- c.involve- d. treat-
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
a. m ovem ent
1. am use /*>. A. Name the nouns which are explained. Underline related
2. agree b. en tertain m en t words in the definitions.
3. discourage c. excitem ent
4. disappoint d. governm ent I I lie act o f entertaining o r state o f being enter-
5. achieve e. em ploym ent lnined --------------------------------
6. excite f. discouragem ent 1 Ihe act o f engaging o r condition o f being
7. entertain g. d isappointm ent engaged-------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------
8. em ploy h. agreem ent
I l lie act o f refreshing o r th e state o f being
9. govern i. am usem ent
refreshed-------------------------------------------------------— ------------------------- _
10. move j. achievem ent
I Hie act o f agreeing
73. A. Divide the following words into three groups according to ' l lie act o f im proving o r the state o f being
their meaning. improved • — -------------------- -------
c o n te n tm e n t, disap p o in tm en t, governm ent, m ovem ent, ap p ointm ent, fi l lie act o f punishing o r state o f being punished
excitem ent, a m e n d m e n t1, achievem ent, em ploym ent
B. Complete the word formation chains below using the words
State, condition or Result or product o f an Process or action from the definitions.
quality action
en tertain -* en tertain m en t

B. Find their related words from the table.


co n ten t, ap p o in t, govern, move, d isappoint, am end, excite, achieve,
em ploy
/(). Read the words in the table. Find related words in the puzzle and
74. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix complete the table.
-ment? Related words Nouns ( -ment)
1. a. am use- b. m anage- c. p ro d uce- d. pay-
state
• 2. a. equip- b. achieve- c. p u n ish- d. falsificate-
3. a. environ- b. m ove- c. ex pectate- d. develop- disappoint
em ploy
1 am endm ent — п оправка (к р езолю ци и, закон опроекту)
66 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 67

Related words N ouns (-m ent)' Noun Verb Adjective


engage im provem ent improve
improve refresh
govern resen t1
judge
accom plished, refreshm ent, resen tm en t, en te rta in m e n t, developm ent,
refreshing, e n te rta in , im proved, achievem ent, discourage, developed,
A s D T Y U I 0 P J G E F Y accom plishm ent, accom pany, agreeable, agreem ent, resentful
F A D G T T E F Y U I N F U
T F H U T E M A В S D G U I B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
J F Y U N A P A D T 0 A E R
U A D F T A L T U A N G G F 1. N oun
1. Even if you aren't am ong the first 100 people to finish the 2. Verb
D I S A P P 0 I N T M E N T
m arathon, being able to run 26 miles is still a big ... . 3. Adjective
G L К A s F Y D G E В M В G 4. Adverb
E P F H и 1 M F S M T E T F a. accom plishm ent b. accom plish c. accom plished
M 0 A S D F E A D E A N E T 1. N oun
E G 0 V E R N M E N T T A Y 2. H er husband w asn't able to ... her to the awards banquet, 2. Verb
T R T T s D S U so she took h er bro th er instead. 3. Adjective
N G A D G U
4. Adverb
T E 1 M P R 0 V E M E N T I
a. accom panim ent b. accom pany c. accom panying
77. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the 1. N o u n
table below. 3. So th e qu estio n in m y m in d is w h e th e r w ork-life b a l­ 2. Verb
ance is really a m yth o r an ... goal. 3. Adjective
Noun Verb Adjective 4. Adverb
accom plish a. achievem ent b. achieve c. achievable
accom p an im en t accom panying 1. N o u n
achieve achievable 4. B oth, he says, were co n te n t to reach ... o n the basis o f 2. Verb
agree w hat they knew. 3. Adjective
4. Adverb
discouragem ent discouraged
a. agreem ent b. agree c. agreeable
develop
entertaining q______________
1 resent — негодовать, возм ущ аться
68 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 69

1. N o u n / 8 . Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
2. Verb fits in the space in the text.
5. We should ... this practice am ong o u r youth. 3. Adjective
If lim e (hat paren ts jo in e d th e ir ch ild ren in go-
4. Adverb
liif, buck to school. It sh o u ld be a tim e o f year
a. discouragem ent b. discourage c. discouraged when parents stren g th en t h e i r ____________ (1) to C O M M IT (1)
1. N o u n ilu n children's education. Statistics show th at pa-
2. Verb ii M i n i __________(2) lessens as th e ir c h ild re n INVOLVE (2)
6. T he new area is still u n d er .... 3. Adjective i" i older. T eachers regularly spend hours prepar-
4. Adverb 11if lor (he classroom o p en house. Im agine th e ir
(3) w hen paren ts fail to a tte n d . How D IS A P P O IN T (3)
a. developm ent b. develop c. developed
i ап schoolchildren strive1 for s e lf ____________ (4) IM PR O V E (4)
1. N o u n "i I lie classroom if they do not see adults striving
7. He published, som e years ago, a little volume giving an ac­ 2. Verb
I'M th e ir ____________(5) at hom e? As a result, the A C H IE V E (5)
count o f a trip through th e G reat West, and it was a very 3. Adjective
(6) o f academ ic standards is declining. D E V E L O P (6)
...b o o k . 4. Adverb I' .ichors have to give less hom ew ork because fewer
a. en tertain m en t b. en tertain c. en tertaining uid lower students com plete th e s e ___________ (7). A S S IG N (7)
1. N o u n
2. Verb Suffix -ity
8. We value positive attitude an d w elcom e change to ... all
3. Adjective M "Поль образования:
th a t we do.
4. Adverb A D JE C T IV E + ITY
in пользуется дл я о бр азован ия сущ ествительны х, обозначает состоян и е или
a. im provem ent b. im prove c. im proved о нише, описы ваем ое исходны м п рилагательны м
1. N oun
2. Verb /<). Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
9. T he website did n o t ... im m ediately. 3. Adjective words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
4. Adverb
1. equal a. nobility
a. refreshm ent b. refresh c. refreshing 2. form al b. fragility
1. N o u n 3. generous c. sensitivity
10. ... can w aste tim e an d energy; ju st forgive th e m and Verb
2. 4. tim id d. reliability
3. Adjective 5. curious e. intensity
move on.
4. Adverb 6. noble f. equality
7. sensitive g. generosity
a. resen tm en t b. resent c. resentful
8. intensive h. curiosity

si rive — стрем иться, п рилагать усилия


70 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 71

9. fragile i. form ality 82. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
10. reliable j. tim idity zle and complete the table below.

80. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their A D G J L R T F N S P P S
meaning. Z С F G О 0 К G D В R 0 U
density, flexibility, hospitality, curiosity, intensity, hostility, fragility, D В N I 0 D N P D в 0 I 0
obesity, sincerity, necessity, generosity, diversity, divisibility, musicality, M О С Z H F S О A D S T 0
legality, visibility, tim idity, nobility, m entality, severity
u 1 N M J A S S F I P 0 К
Abstract meaning Personal qualities G G H В N J I s 0 К E M s
С О M p L E X 1 T Y R T Y
В J D и S T A в I L 1 T Y
1 G Y N 0 D F I 1 A T G N
V H A С R E A L I T Y G I
D F G z X С 0 I D G J N E
S T U p I D 1 T Y G I N 0
• A D G z D N 0 Y P E L A N

Related words Nouns ( -ity)


possible
prosperous
real
B . Find their related words from the table.
stable
dense, curious, visible, tim id, intensive, generous, diverse, hostile,
flexible, hospitable, divisible, m usical, legal, noble, fragile, obese, stupid
m ental, sincere, necessary, severe com plex

81. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix -ity? 83. Examine the following models. Complete word chains below.
1. a. obscure- b. secur- c. refresh- d. h u m an - Model: prosperous —>prosperity
2. a. generos- b. solem n- с. plastic- d. m o n o to n -
d. sensibil- prosperous —>
3. a. hostil- b. disturb- с. passiv-
4. a. reliabil- b. ill- c. liabil- d. productiv-
generous —»
5. a. observ- b. fragil- c. o dd- d. individual-
72 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Nouns | 73

audacious -» Noun Adjective Adverb

curious -» reliability reliably


sensible
com m odious —>
generally
Model: accessible -» accessibility particular
accessible -» confidentiality confidentially

capable possibility, particularity, originality, possibly, generous, reliable, dense,


individuality, general, sensibility, individually, originally, sensibly,
possible -> generality, particularly, confidential

stable -»
B . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
sensible lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.

Model: sensitive -» sensitivity 1. N o u n


1. T here is only a s lig h t... th at I will provide an acceptable
2. Adjective
intensive -» answer to this question.
3. Adverb
sensitive a. possibility b. possible c. possibly

-» 1. N oun
creative 2. Few people are as kind and helpful and ..., and he was a
2. Adjective
m ajor inspiration in my life and career.
negative —> 3. Adverb
a. generosity b. generous c. generously
radioactive —>
1. N o u n
3. T here is no one co rrec t answ er h ere, as ... we are all
2. Adjective
84. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the unique w ith differences in personal taste.
3. Adverb
table below.
a. individuality b. individual c. individually
Noun Adjective Adverb 1. N oun
possible 4. The m eat m ust be cut with filler or the lo af will be ... . 2. Adjective
generosity generously 3. Adverb

individual a. density b. dense c. densely

density densely 1. N oun


3. He showed incredible ... by w earing those kind o f shoes. 2. Adjective
original
3. Adverb
74 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 75

a. originality b. original c. originally knowledge so t h e i r ____________ (5) will provide CA PA BLE (5)
efficient organization o f the m aterial, econom ic,
1. N oun
social and political life. T he m ain motives will not
6. T h eir ... is in doubt. 2. Adjective
be power and w ealth; it will be the higher values
3. Adverb
and aim s o f life like tru th , h arm o n y ,_________ (6), G E N E R O U S (6)
a. reliability b. reliable c. reliably freed o m ,___________(7), etc. EQUAL (7)
1. N oun
7. T h ey did th e ir best to be ... w hen it cam e to spending
2. Adjective
money.
3. Adverb ADJECTIVES
a. sensibility b. sensible c. sensibly
1. N oun Suffix - y
8. ... speaking, m ost kids like spaghetti and cheese. 2. Adjective М одель образован ия:
3. Adverb N O U N /V E R B + -Y
- образует п рилагател ьн ы е от сущ ествительн ы х и глаголов со зн ач ен и ем
a. generality b. general c. generally
обладания чем -то, сходства с чем -л.; ск л он н ости к чем у-л.
1. N oun healthy — здоровый, ж изнеспособный, процветающий
9. In ..., I like to do this. 2. Adjective dirty — грязный, нечистый; испачканный
3. Adverb witty — остроумный
образует прилагательны е от п рилагательны х со зн ачен и ем осл аблен ной
a. particularity b. particu lar c. particularly
и нтен сивн ости качества
1. N o u n yellowy — ж елтоватый
10. T hey are required by law to keep all case details ... . 2. Adjective
3. Adverb 8 6 . Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
a. confidentiality b. confidential c. confidentially words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
1. art a. brainy
85. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that 2. brain b. arty
3. fun c. chilly
fits in the space in the text.
4. ice d. funny
People are focused m ore o n ___________ (1) th an Q U A N TITA TIV E (1) 5. qu irk 1 e. quirky
quality o f life, so speed is very allu rin g 1 to them . 6. chill f. toasty
T hey forget th e ir goals w hich help the individual 7. toast g. icy
and t h e ___________ (2) to find the dynam ism in C O M M O N (2) 8. luck h. m isty
th e life. T h ese are th e m otiv es w h ich b rin g 9. nut i. lucky
___________ (3) a n d _____________ (4) to th e in ­ VITA L (3) 10. m ist j. nutty
dividual an d th e society. People need p ragm atic P R O SPE R O U S (4)

1 alluring — п ри влекательн ы й , притягательны й 1 quirk — капри з, причуда


76 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 77

87. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to the B. Divide the following words into three groups.
word formation models below. Pay attention to their meaning. edge, sand, chew, fun, silk, ice, n ut, chill, shine, air, run, laze, sun,
misty, runny, shiny, jum py, sunny, quirky, sleepy, funny, icy, chatty____ sm oke, fog

N O U N + Y -> characterized by; consisting o f;fd led with; relating to;


- e —» -y double consonant + -y word + -y
VERB + tending to; acting or existing as specified

NOUN + Y VERB + Y

90. Read the words in the table. Find related words in the puzzle and
complete the table. \
B. Find their related words from the table.
A D F T Y u V F L
m ist, run, shine, ju m p , sun, quirk, sleep, fun, ice, chat
D Y U I 0 N P 1 N
8 8 . Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix -y? A D G J L 0 M L О
1. a. w ind- b. dirt- с. o rd e r- d. mess- D G Y R W I T T Y
2. a. ch att- b. trick- с. wax- d. offic- W F U 0 G s N H N
3. a. thirst - b. m ist- с. h elp- d. bush-
S T I С К Y 0 Y U
4. a. dust- b. bead- с. chees- d. m otivat-
5. a. insist- b. snow - c. rain- d. w ind- С V J U I С Y N H
A S Y R E P H 1 G
89. A. Read the following spelling rules. R S I L D - s F D D
M ost words add —y: Y R T Y U Y A A S
snow — snowy
Words that en d w ith - e , take off th e - e before adding - y :
bone — bony Related words Adjectives (-y)
Words th a t end w ith a short vowel an d a co n so n an t, double th e final stick
co n so n an t before adding - y (except w ords w hich end with -x):
curie
f a t — fa tty
scare
noise
78 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 79

Related words Adjectives (-y) 1. N oun


3. O ne ... m orning early in D ecem ber Stephen arrived late
wit 2. Verb
at the office to find Richter.
3. Adjective
juice
a. sm oker b. sm oke c. smoky
filth
1. N o u n
4. At night, trying to ..., she had heard the ghostly fo o t­
2. Verb
91. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the steps in the hall.
3. Adjective
table below.
a. sleeper b. sleep c. sleepy
Noun Verb Adjective
1. N o u n
5. It was a small room , c a rp e tle ss,..., with a round table and
sticker sticky 2. Verb
two cheap w ooden chairs for furniture.
ju m p 3. Adjective
sm oke smoky a. duster b. dust c. dusty

sleeper sleepy 1. N oun


6. In the U nited K ingdom , a ... is often used by children at
2. Verb
dust bonfire and fireworks displayed on G uy Fawkes N ight.
3. Adjective
sparkler sparkly
a. sparkler b. sparkle c. sparkly
run
1. N oun
7. Spring is in the air, but for millions o f people, th at m eans
runny, sleep, dusty, jum per, sm oker, duster, stick, runner, jum py, sparkle 2. Verb
a ... nose and cough brought on by allergies.
3. Adjective
B . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­ a. ru nner b. run c. runny
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
92. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
1. N o u n
fits in the space in the text.
1. If th e dough becom es ..., add m ore flour. 2. Verb
\
3. Adjective W elcome to the daily w eather forecast! San Francisco
will b e ___________ (1) and hot. T hough the day should SUN (1)
a. sticker b. stick c. sticky
s ta r t (2), according to the N ational W eath- FOG (2)
1. N oun
2. M ichael N eum ayer is a G erm an s k i... w ho has com peted er Service. C hicago will b e ____________ (3). T he area W IN D (3)
2. Verb
since 2001. can e x p e c t____________ (4) skies and p eriods o f rain. CLOUD (4)
3. Adjective
You’ll n o tic e ___________ (5) conditions start to pick up BREEZE (5)
a. ju m p e r b. ju m p c. ju m p y throughout the day. Tom orrow will b e (6) RA IN (6)
but the rest o f the weekend has m ore prom ise o f sun and
cooler tem peratures.
80 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 81

Suffix -fu l 95. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix
-ful?
М одель образован ия:
N O U N + -ful a. delight- b.use- с. fashion- d. sham e-
— образует прилагательны е со значением «обладаю щ ий дан н ы м качеством» п. m eaning- b. color- с. stress- d. exhaust-
blushful — застенчивый, стыдливый a. w atch- b. dream - с. d ep en d - d. grace-
beautiful — ж ивописный, красивый, прекрасный _________ п. success- b. pow er- с. c are- d. danger-
п. create- b . tru th - с. doubt- d. grate-
93. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes. 96. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
zle and complete the table below.
1. cheer a. careful
2. use b. cheerful s P U R P 0 S E F и L
3. harm c. beautiful
1 P S R T U N С D А Р
4. peace d. peaceful
e. harm ful 1 С H E E R F U L Н I
5. color
6. joy f. colorful Г L A V О U R F U L Р
7. care g. thankful 0 G M D P L G A V М J
8. beauty h. useful
К J E P 0 U T A С G N
9 . truth i. joyful
1 0 .th an k j. truthful (i M F F I В A Y с О Р
1 V U S E F U L н Р Р
94. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to the
1 Y L A D G J L в N М
word formation models below. Pay attention to their meaning.
1 E A R F U L F т и О
painful, helpful, restful, useful, boastful, spiteful1 |
II A D G J L P 1 Y R Е

fu ll o f or characterized by able or tending to L L J G В U О A D и 1

Related words Adjective ( -ful)


flavour
purpose

B. Find their related words from the table. cheer


forget •
pain, rest, help, use, boast, spite
sham e
fear
use
1 spiteful — злобн ы й, злой , злорадны й
82 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 83

97. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from the a. doubt b. doubtful
table below. 1. N oun
5. Nevertheless we will continue to express our burning ... o f
Noun Verb Adjective 2. Verb
unlawful im prisonm ent.
3. Adjective
beauty
a. resentm ent b. resent c. resentful
hate
1. N o u n
help helpful (). This needs som e c a re fu l... about the gaps, o r you will not
2. Verb
doubt be able to tu rn the strands smoothly.
3. Adjective
resentm ent resentful a. thoughts b. th ink c. thoughtful
thought thin k
. ----------------
98. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that
thoughtful, d oubt, hatred, help, hateful, resent, beautify, beautiful,
fits in the space in the text.
doubtful
Since the publication o f Scouting for Boys in 1908, all
B . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­ Scouts and G uides around the world have taken a Scout
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A. I’romise. A sc o u t’s h o n o u r is to be tru ste d . A sc o u t’s USE (1)
duty is to b e ___________(1) and help others. A Scout is HELP (2)
1. N oun _________(2) and friendly. A Scout i s ____________ (3) CHEER
1. Let him m ed itate w hat this vision o f ... will be like in (3)
2. Verb and considerate. A Scout is _________ (4). Besides, he RESPECT
tw enty years. (4)
3. Adjective should b e ___________(5) and optim istic. A Scout makes THOUGHT (5)
a. beauty b. beautify c. beautiful good use o f tim e and is (6) o f possessions CARE (6)
1. N oun and property. He is _____ . (7) a n d ___________ (8). FAITH (7)
2. T h e sta te m e n ts here o n th is site so u n d v itrio lic 1 and I Ic rejoices in all th at is (9) and gives jo y to THANK (8)
2. Verb
seem ingly ... so be it. 3. Adjective others. BEAUTY (9)

a. h atred b. hate c. hateful Suffix -less


1. N oun М одель образования:
3. T he ... little girl carried som e groceries for h er dad, so he
2. Verb N O U N + -less
w ouldn't have to carry all o f them . 3. Adjective образует от сущ ествительны х прилагательны е со зн ачен и ем «лиш ённ ы й
чего-л.», «не им ею щ ий чего-л.»
a. help b. helpful
healthless — нездоровый, болезненный
1. N o u n successless — безуспешный, неудачный
4. We w ent slow ly,... o f all th a t was in front. 2. Verb образует от глагольных осн ов п рилагательны е со значением «н епри м ен и ­
3. Adjective мость, бесп олезн ость соответствую щ его действия»
changeless — неизменный, постоянный, уст ойчивый
1 vitriolic — едки й , резкий countless — бессчетный, неисчислимый, несчетный
Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 85
84

99. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related 101. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suf­
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes. fix -less?
1. age a. powerless 1. a. tire- b. shape- с. fam e- d. w ord-
2. breath b. harm less 2. a. heart- b. faith- с. h a rm - d. foggi-
3. fault c. tasteless 3. a. pow er- b. pain- с. easi- d. effort-
4. harm d. breathless 4. a. th o u g h t- b. th an k - с. so u n d - d. fat-
5. pow er e. ageless 5. a. evident- b. guilt- с. bottom - d. m otion-
6. sleep f. spotless
g. faultless 1 0 2 . Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the
7. taste
h. hom eless puzzle and complete the table below.
8. pain
9. spot i. sleepless
F H D E E К L 0 A M N G E
10. hom e j. painless
К p О S N A M E L E S S T
100. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their S 0 U N D L E S S I В V S
meaning. T 1 В 1 L U H J К L A s D
m atchless, jobless, tireless, speechless, childless, sleepless, dauntless, A N T W E 1 G H T L E s S
resistless, countless, peerless
---------------- —--- ------------------- I T L M S N В V F T U I A
T h e suffix -less m eans "not able to N L E N s Z С в M L G Y U
T he suffix -less m eans "without" do som ething" o r "not able to be L E S С Y u О к G F A Y N
d o n e, perform ed, etc."
E S s С V в A D G J К E U

S s F н К 0 A P D G J N u
S A X F Y N 1 M 0 P H E A

Related words Adjectives (-less)


sound
B. Find their related words from the table. nam e

d a u n t1, speech, resist, m atch , tire, sleep, co u n t, peer2, child, job doubt
stain
weight
end
1 d aunt — обузды вать, укрощ ать; п одчин ять
point
2 peer — р ов н я, равны й
86 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 87

103. A. Analyze the table. Pay attention to the adjectives which can’t 4. The sea, he thought, had treasured its m em ories deeper
be formed with the suffixes -ful and -less. than the ... (A) land. 1. faithless
He was obedient, loyal, a ... (B) officer o f a great state. 2. faithful
(-ful) positive meaning (-less) negative meaning

help helpful helpless


5. Laptop com puters get smaller, lighter and m ore ... (A)
hope hopeful hopeless each year. 1. powerless
beauty beautiful — W ithout oxygen, th eir energy is d e p le te d 1 and they are 2. powerful
... (B) to remove it.
care careful careless

end — endless 6. G o three days w ithout reading and your speech will b e­
fa ith faithful faithless com e ... (A). 1. tasteless
peaceful — The houses would be built on a m odest and ... (B) scale, 2. tasteful
peace
with an eye to com m unity as m uch as com fort.
power powerful powerless

taste tasteful tasteless 7. Each o f these resources is ... (A) o r fun, and som e are
use useful useless both. 1. useful
The chair was now ... (B) because it was unstable to sit 2. useless
on.
B . Determine which adjective it is necessary to use in the following
sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
1. Billson was not used to em ergencies; he sat in a ... (A) Suffix - ic
collapse. 1. helpless М одель образования:
T he ...(B ) sentence aided th e student in understanding 2. helpful PART O F S P E E C H + -ic
the definition. образует прилагательны е от разны х частей речи со следую щ ими значениям и:
им ею щ ий характеристи ки чего-ли бо
2. I'm so ... (A) w hen it com es to logic b u t n o t w hen it atom — atomic атомный
com es to intuition. 1. hopeful о тн о сящ и й ся к определен ном у стилю , в стиле чего-ли бо
I sat dow n an d w rote a letter, in a fever o f ... (B) a n tici­ 2. hopeless Homeric — гомеровский, гомерический;
pation. Byronic — байронический
используется для о бр азован ия н ац и он альн остей и язы к ов
3. Som e p h o to g ra p h s are h a p p y a c c id e n ts, o th e rs th e Finnic — финский
painstaking result o f ... (A) p lanning an d even years o f Turkic — т ю ркский
1. careful
practice. 2. careless
T h e new spaper exam ined his application m aterials and
found n um erous inconsistencies an d ...(B ) errors.

1 deplete — истощ ать, исчерпы вать


Adjectives | 89
88 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix

1. W hich o f these adjectives can you use to describe th e stru ctu re o f


substance?
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes
1. history a. historic 2. W hich o f th em do you use to characterize the structure o f society?
2. energy b. scientific
3. science c. optim istic 3. W hich o f th em can you use to describe personality?
4. dem ocracy d. sym bolic
5. optim ism e. sym pathetic 4. W hich o f th em do you use to speak about linguistics and literature?
6. analysis f. heroic
7. symbol g. clim atic 5. W hich o f th em do you use to speak about science?
8. clim ate h. analytic
9. sym pathy i. dem ocratic
10. hero j. energetic 107. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suffix -ic?
1. a. d ram at- b. electr- c. legend- d. nostalg-
105. A. Divide the following words into five groups according to their
2. a. econom - b. optim ist- с. d em o crat- d. local-
3. a. ro m ant- b. strateg- с. elem en t- d. histor-
pan o ram ic, sceptical, arom atic, N ap o leo n ic, sym bolic, alcoholic, 4. a. artist- b. scientif- с. a u to m at- d. salt-
analgesic, enthusiastic, Byronic, econom ic 5. a. tru th - b. m ajest- с. m agnet- d. fantast-
------------- --------------------------------------------
having the in the tending
108. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the
related to containing puzzle and complete the table below.
character or m anner o f to produce
form o f
H D S Е и О О А G Z С в G
F J О В р с N Т S т N О G
D В Н I м Е D Н Y в К S А
B . Find their related words from the table. В и О G G А N L О L N Y .N

p an o ram a, alcohol, analgesia, N ap o leo n , sym bol, arom a, Byron, С В О L Y N N Е А X С М О


enthusiast, skeptic, econom y _ О Р Т I М I S Т I С м В м
T I О S N С Р I В F О О N
106. Read and translate the following adjectives. Answer the ques­ В V р W А N н С О Т I L F
tions below. ____
I О Y А S Т R А т Е G I С
a to m ic , m a g n e tic , m ajestic, e le c tro n ic , o rg a n ic , sc ie n tific, h e ro ic ,
N Р А L т R и I S Т I С В
dem ocratic, linguistic, apologetic, analytic, optim istic, politic, historic,
classic, iro n ic , jo u rn a listic , p e rio d ic , p u b lic , realistic, sy m p a th etic, М С R Z I и F D р R н G Е
th em atic, tragic, artistic, academ ic, characteristic, clim atic, sym bolic А Y А X с Т Т О G Е т G Т
90 1 Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives

Related words Adjectives (-ic) a. au tom ation b. autom ate c. autom atic
optim ist 1. N oun
athlete 3. You are at liberty to ... both, if you choose. 2. Verb
gym nast 3. Adjective
a. puDiicity о. puDlish c. public
strategy
altruist
4. Do you see a phonetic ... betw een the square brackets?
ocean
symbol a. sym bol b. sym bolize c. symbolic

109. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from 5. Science is the ... study o f things using theories and th en
the table below. tests.

Noun Verb Adjective a. system b. system atize c. system atic


apology apologize
autom atic 6. A ... look always m akes m e feel sorry for myself.
autom ation
publish
a. sym pathy b. sym pathize c. sym pathetic
symbol sym bolize
system atic
110. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals form a word that
sym pathize fits in the space in the text.

sy ste m , p u b lic ity , sy m p ath y , sy s te m a tiz e , a u to m a te , sy m b o lic , H ealth is a co m b in a tio n o f physical, m ental and
apologetic, sym pathetic, public social w ell-being. A person w ith healthy p ersonal­
ity will always k e e p _________ (1) a n d _________ (2) R EA LISM (1)
B . Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­ goals, know ing w hat he can o r ca n n o t achieve. O f PR A G M A T ISM (2)
course, it is necessary to b e ___________ (3) and
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A. E N T H U S IA S M (3)
___________ (4). I f you w ant to develop a healthy O P T IM IS M (4)
1. N oun lifestyle you should keep a ___________ (5) exercise SYSTEM (5)
1. His new tone was ... but firm. 2. Verb program . M ake a _______ (6) plan w hich in ­ S P E C IF Y (6)
3. Adjective eludes good eating and exercise habits. Besides, you
a. apology b. apologize c. apologetic should rem em ber th at keeping the heart healthy is
_________ (7) to life. BASE (7)
1. N oun
2. All the em ployees expect an ... increase in pay every year. 2. Verb
3. Adjective
92 | Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 93

Suffixes -ia n /-a n A ustria


М одель образован ия:
Belgium ->
N O U N + -IA N /A N
— используется для образования прилагательны х со зн ачен и ем прин адлеж ­
Brazil —>
ности к н ародности; идеологическом у течен и ю , научной ш коле
Arabian — аравиец; аравийка; арабский
C anada
Georgian — грузин; грузинка; грузинский
— и спользуется для о бр азо ван и я сущ ествительн ы х, обо знач аю щ и х л и ц о ,
H ungary -»
н азы ваем ое по роду зан яти й , проф есси и
musician — музыкант
India —>

111. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related Italy
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
M ongolia
1. m usic a. Bulgarian
2. Bulgary b. Russian Russia -»
3. A rabia c. librarian
4. Africa d. A m erican U kraine ->
5. Brazilia e. m usician Model: Germany —> German
6. beauty f. G erm an
7. G erm an y g. academ ician G erm any
8. Russia h. A rabian
Jam aica ->
9. Italy i. Italian
10. library j. vegetarian M exico ->
11. Europe h. A frican
12. A ustralia i. b eautician M orocco -»
13. vegetal j. Brazilian
14. academ y k. A ustralian N icaragua ->
15. A m erica 1. E uropean
Africa —>
112. Examine the following models. Complete word chains below.
Venezuela -»
Model: Albania -> Albanian

A lbania -»

A rm enia —»

A ustralia ->
94 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 95

113. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to their 115. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
meaning. zle and complete the table below.
historian, M exican, te c h n ic ia n , G e rm a n , A frican, electrician, In d ian , D H 0 P В H E A В E G U P
librarian, Jam aican , C an ad ian , com edian, H ungarian, A ustrian, politi­
0 P F N В A S J F U F D H
cian, A ustralian, veterinarian, guardian, m athem atician
G u A R A В I A N R U F F
The adjectives mean «pertaining to» The adjectives mean «native of» I R P H N M A L 0 О N 0 A
В U L G A R I A N P A P С
U s I О J V D G P E D В U
■ M s N E G Y P T I A N A M
F I T Y N К S T A N Y S N
N A M E R I С A N F A u D
M N A A U S T R A L I A N

Related words Adjectives ( -an, -ian)


Bulgaria
Russia
A m erica
B. Find their related words from the table.
Arabia
history, H ungary, In d ia, tech n iq u es, M exico, electricity, library, c o m ­
edy, politics, veterinary, A ustralia, C a n a d a , G erm any, A ustria, guard, Egypt
m athem atics, Jam aica, Africa Europe
A ustralia
114. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suf­
fixes -an, -ian? 116. Read the text below. Use the words given in capitals below the
1. a. Jam aic- b. M exic- c. Ja p a n - d. A lban- text to form a word that fits in the space in the text.
2. a. N icaragu- b. M ongol- с. H ungar- d. Span-
d. A rm en- M ost E u ro p ean languages b elong to th re e b road GERM ANY (1)
3. a. Ital- b. A ustral- c. C h in -
d. Turk- groups: G erm anic, R om ance and Slavic. ITALY (2)
4. a. In d - b. Egypt - с. Bulgar-
d. Belg- T he G erm anic fam ily o f languages includes D anish, R O M A N IA (3)
5. a. Fren - b. C anad- c. Brazil-
Norwegian, Swedish, Ice la n d ic , (1), D u tch , Eng- R U SSIA (4)
lish and Y iddish, am ong others. U KRAINLA (5)
96 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 97

T he R om an ce languages in c lu d e (2), F re n c h , BELA R U SIA (6) 118. А. Divide the following words into two groups according to their
Spanish, Portuguese a n d '(3 ), am ong others. T he SLO V EN IA (7) meaning.
Slavic languages in c lu d e (4 ), (5 ), (6), Po­ SER B IA (8)
am azing, upsetting, am using, threatening, entertaining, tiring,
lish, C zech, S lo v a k , ( 7 ) , __ ( 8 ) , ___( 9 ) ,___ (10), CROATIA (9)
challenging, puzzling, irritating, exciting, charm ing, shocking,
(11) and others. M A C E D O N IA (10)
convincing, disturbing, encouraging, confusing, fascinating, annoying
M ost E u ro p ean languages use th e Latin alphabet. B U L G A R IA (11)
Som e Slavic languages use th e C yrillic alp h ab et. A R M E N IA (12)
Positive meaning Negative meaning
G re e k , ( 1 2 ) ,___(13) and Yiddish have th e ir own G E O R G IA (13)
alphabet.

Suffix -in g
М одель образован ия:
N O U N + -IN G
образует отглагольны е прилагательны е
caring — внимательный, заботливый
interesting — интересный
young-looking — молож авый

117. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes. Define the
part of speech of the words in the second column. B. Find the related words from the table.
*---------------------------
1. am aze a. am azing am aze, disturb, confuse, fascinate, th reate n , charm , shock, challenge,
2. interest b. interesting irritate, upset, am use, excite, en tertain , encourage, puzzle, tire,
3. relax c. fascinating convince, annoy
4. excite d. relaxing
5. fascinate e. charm ing 119. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suf­
6. disappoint f. am using fix -ing?
7. disgust1 g. exciting
1.a. alarm - b. disgust- c. distance- d. thrill-
8. frustrate2 h. disappointing
2. a. frighten- b. shock- c. terrify- d. danger-
9. am use i. disgusting
3. a. am b itio n - b. e n tertain - c. depress- d. th reaten -
1 0 .charm j. frustrating
4. a. em barrass- b. lead- c. develop- d. absence-
5. a. annoy- b. disturb- c. deafen- d. thirst-

120. A. Analyze the following models. Find the differences.


1 disgust — отвращ ени е, ом ерзение Model 1: You surprise me! —> How surprising it is!—> W hat a surprise!
2 frustrate — разочаровы вать, обм аны вать (надеж ды , о ж ид ани я)
I

98 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 99

M odel 2: You depress m e! - * How depressing it is!-* W hat a depression! to satisfy -» ->
M odel 3: You entertain m e! ^ How entertaining it is! - » W hat an enter­
tainm ent! to frustrate -> ->

B. Complete the word chains below. M odel 3: to entertain —» entertaining —> entertainment

M odel 1: to surprise -» surprising -> surprise to encourage -> ->

to charm -> -> to disappoint —>

to interest -> -» to discourage —> ->

to relieve -» —> —>


to em barrass1 ->

to thrill -> -> to excite -» ->

to alarm —>
121. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the puz­
to disgust -> -y zle and complete the table below.
В G О p A D H P В D A X Y U N
to frighten -> ->
V N A X 0 I p D В I X A T s A
to shock —> -> D С G и I 0 p D Z s G J О p A

to terrify -» —>
D В N A X V N I V с N 1 0 1 С
E G С 0 R R E S P 0 N D I N G
to horrify —> -> A Z X с В N M A u и 1 О P T F

M odel 2: to depress —» depressing -» depression S E D с R F G P T R T G U E G


D A a' E D С V P V A В Y. J R N
to cap tiv ate1 -»
F S T В U 0 A 0 Y G G U M E J
to convince2 -> E N T E R T A I N I N G I S I
r
to exhaust -> -> С 0 N F U s I N G N R I К T 0
Q E T G N I 0 T U G D К L I Y
to fascinate T> -> A F A E E X С I T I N G О N U

-» —> Z V Z D Y 1 P N I P V E P G 0
to relax
С В В U 0 X V G 0 N U D I N P

1 captivate — очаровы вать, п лен ять, п око р ять, увлекать


2 convince — убеждать 1 em barrass — сбивать с толку, приводи ть в зам еш ательство
100 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 101

Related words Adjectives ( -ing) B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
correspond
en tertain 1. E -m ail is a quick and easy way to ... w ith friends across 1. N o u n
the country. 2. Verb
discourage
3. Adjective
disappoint
a. correspondence b. correspond c. corresponding
interest
1. N o u n
excite 2 .... argum ent in favor o f any opinion is a personal example. 2. Verb
confuse 3. Adjective
a. conviction b. convince c. convincing
122. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from 1. N o u n
the table below. 3 .... circum stances have caused m any w riters to em igrate
2. Verb
to o th er countries.
3. Adjective
Noun Verb Adjective
a. discouragem ent b. discourage c. discouraging
correspond
1. N oun
conviction convince
4 .... applause greeted the band back on stage for the en c o re 1. 2. Verb
discouragem ent discouraging 3. Adjective
deafen a. deafness b. deafen c. deafening
depression depressing 1. N o u n
develop 5. A fter his wife died, he went through a long period o f... . 2. Verb
d isappointm ent disappointing 3. Adjective

em barrass a. depression b. depress c. depressing

entertain 1. N o u n
6. T he novel starts off a little slow, but as the plot continues
2. Verb
hum iliating to ... it becom es exciting.
3. Adjective
leadership lead
a. developm ent b. develop c. developing
th reat threatening
1. N o u n
corresponding, hum iliation, deafness, e n tertain m en t, disappoint, devel­ 7. H e knew a n o th e r ... m ight kill him . 2. Verb
o p m e n t, en tertain in g , depress, co rresp o n d en ce, th re a te n , discourage, 3. Adjective
em barrassm ent, convincing, leading, hum iliate, em barrassing, develop­ a. disappointm ent b. disappoint c. disappointing
ing,1deafening

1 encore — вызов на бис, крики «бис»


102 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 103

1. N o u n T he question o f w h eth er a co m p u ter can th in k is


8. O ne o f my m o s t... m om ents was the tim e w hen I spilled no m ore (5) th an the question o f w hether IN T E R E S T (5)
2. Verb
coffee on o u r school head. a subm arine can swim. (Edsger Dijkstra)
3. Adjective
a. em barrassm ent b. em barrass c. em barrassing
Suffix -ous
1. N oun
9. He guessed well; th e book has been a great source o f in­ М одель образован ия:
2. Verb
struction a n d ... for me. N O U N + -O U S
3. Adjective
образует п рилагател ьн ы е со зн ачен и ем «обладаю щ ий д ан н ы м свой ством ,
a. en tertain m en t b. en tertain c. entertaining п р и зн ак о м , характеристи кой в зн ачи тельной степени»
1. N oun dangerous — опасный
10. T hey said nobody would com e to h ear m e, an d I woul spacious — просторный
2. Verb
m ake a ... failure o f it.
3. Adjective
a. hum iliation b. hum iliate c. hum iliating
124. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
1. N oun
1. poison a. gracious
11. Strategic ... sets th e vision an d goals for th e company. 2. Verb
2. grace b .th u n d e ro u s
3. Adjective
3. glam our c. poisonous
a. lead b. leadership c. leading 4. m urder d. capricious
1. N o u n 5. suspicion e. glam orous
12. It had a dark, angry and ... aspect. 2. Verb 6. fame f. fam ous
3. Adjective 7. nerve g. m urderous
a. th reat b. th reaten c. threatening 8. th u n d er h. anxious
9. caprice i. suspicious
10. anxiety j. nervous
123. Read the following quotes. Use the words given in capitals
to form a word that fits in the space in the sentences. 125. A. Read the following adjectives. Answer the questions below
Several excuses are always less _________ (1) th a n C O N V IN C E (1) using adjectives from the table.
one. (Aldous Huxley) curious, courageous, virtuous, prosperous, generous, nervous,
W ith every civil right there has to be a _________ (2) C O R R E S P O N D (2) prestigious, m iraculous, conscious, scandalous, sim ultaneous, religious,
civil obligation. (Edison Haines) envious, industrious, various, harm onious, conscious, advantageous,
W hen 1 work I relax; doing nothing o r _________ (3) E N T E R T A IN (3) furious, courteous, erroneous, superstitious, jealous, m urderous,
visitors m akes me tired. (Pablo Picasso) m ysterious, spacious, dangerous
Let us be grateful to people who m ake us happy, they
are t h e ________ (4) gardeners w ho m ake o u r souls CHARM (4)
blossom . (M arcel Proust)
104 [ Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 105

1. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe positive traits o f 127. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the
character? puzzle and complete the table below.

Z С и О R D Р А S D V В N 1 т Е
2. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe negative traits o f
D А N G Е R О и S С В и I р А S
character?
С F А М В 1 Т 1 О и S J О F Н S
S F Н Р Е Н О Р с А X В 1 М и S
3. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe a situation?
Z С V Н L и X и R I О и S V М в
Z D А Е L F Y и О Р S А т Y О G
4. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe people’s life? А R I О и S G Н R F
D Y и Н I L
С и Р О О Z С В М L J F В N О D
5. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe peo p le’s actions? X F и S и Р Е R S Т 1 Т 1 О и S
F и Р о S D G Н О Р А X S В S А
6. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe scenery?
Related words Adjectives (-ous)
danger
B. Find the related words from the table. reb el1
curiosity, scandal, sim ultaneity, courage, generosity, conscience, variety, superstition
error, prestige, m iracle, superstition, jealousy, m urder, religion, envy,
hilarity2
industry, virtuosity, prosperity, mystery, harm ony, advantage, space,
nerve, danger luxury
h um or
126. Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suf­ am bition -
fix -ous?
1. a. scandal- b. jeal- c. th o u g h t- d. m urder- 128. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from
2. a. furi- b .sp a c e - с. superstiti- d. skill- the table below.
3. a. prosper- b. gener- c. scient- d. m iracul-
4. a. caprici- b. poison- с. g ra d - d. reason- Noun Adjective Adverb
5. a. persist - b. glam o r- с. m u rder- d. th u n d e r- caution cautiously
anxious

1 rebel — п одним ать восстание, мятеж ; бунтовать


2 hilarity — весёлость, веселье
106 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 107

Noun Adjective Adverb a. consciousness b. conscious c. consciously

am bition 1. N o u n
5. T he soldier show ed ... w hen he held off the enemy. 2. Adjective
conscious
3. Adverb
courage courageously
a. courage b. courageous c. courageously
danger dangerously
1. N oun
generous 6. Pierre was severely but n o t ... w ounded in the neck. 2. Adjective
jealousy jealously 3. Adverb
luxurious a. danger b. dangerous c. dangerously
m iracle m iraculously 7. T h eir consequent ... w ent dow n on record and revealed 1. N oun
how eager th ey were to be involved in such a historic 2. Adjective
consciousness, anxiety, generosity, m iraculous, dangerous, luxury, project. 3. Adverb
am bitiously, generously, courageous, cautious, anxiously, consciously,
a. generosity b. generous c. generously
am bitious, jealous, luxuriously
8. Sarah finally broke up w ith M ichael because he was too 1. N oun
... and would get upset w henever she w ent out w ithout 2. Adjective
B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­
him . 3. Adverb
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
a. jealousy b. jealous c. jealously
1. N oun
1. T he m ost recen t d ata from th e Bank o f E ngland show 1. N oun
2. Adjective
consum ers are becom ing m ore ... . 9. T he new factory building is ... . 2. Adjective
3. Adverb
3. Adverb
a. caution b. cautious c. cautiously t
a. luxury b. luxurious c. luxuriously
1. N oun
2. At last he threw the book aside an d w atched ... for the 1. N oun
2. Adjective 10. He is dreadfully upset and slips into ch u rch to pray for
m orning. 2. Adjective
3. Adverb a ... and forgiveness.
3. Adverb
a. anxiety b. anxious c. anxiously
a. m iracle b. m iraculous c. m iraculously
1. N oun
3. Caesar's ... led him to rule Rom e but also created m any
2. Adjective
enem ies in the Senate. 129. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word
3. Adverb
that fits in the space in the text.
a. am bition b. am bitious c. am bitiously
A ries natives are en te rp risin g , active and
1. N oun
_________ (1). T hey know w hat it's like to be first IN D U S T R Y 1 (1)
4. She becam e ... th at everyone was staring at her. 2. Adjective
and this usually com es off as selfish to oth ers
3. Adverb
1 in d u stry — п р и л е ж а н и е , с т а р а н и е
108 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 109

w hen it isn't th e ir in ten tio n at all. Taurus have 130. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
(2) enduran ce and are incredibly p e r­ T R E M E N D O U S N E S S (2) words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
sistent. T hey are com p o sed , self-relian t, c o n ­ 1. value a. valuable
structive, p ra c tic a l,________ (3) and kind. C a n ­ H U M O U R (3) 2. break b. reasonable
cers a r e _________ (4), devoted and sym pathetic. C O N S C IE N C E (4) 3. convert c. breakable
Leos are to le r a n t,________ (5) and inspiration­ G E N E R O U S IT Y (5) 4. reason d. favorable
al. T hey can also be overly p ro u d and extrava­ 5. forget e. fashionable
gant. Virgos a r e _________ (6), perfectionist and S E R IO U S N E S S (6) 6. avail f. agreeable
prudent. Virgos can be hypercritical. If there is a 7. wash g. available
needle in a haystack, a Virgo will find it! Libras 8. fashion h. washable
are thoughtful, j u s t , _________ (7) and balanced. G R A C E (7) 9. agree i. convertible
They do not care for any type o f injustice. S cor­ 10. favor j. forgettable
pios are (8), optim istic, pleasant, elo ­ T E N A C IT Y 1 (8)
q u e n t2 an d p a tie n t. S a g itta ria n s are sin c e re , 131. Match the adjectives with their definitions.
h o n e s t ,__________(9) an d hopeful. C ap rico rn s G E N E R O S IT Y (9)
1. credible a. can be believed
are d is c ip lin e d ,________ (10) an d achieving. C O N S C IE N C E (10)
A quarians can b e _________ (11), eccen tric and R E B E L L IO N (11) 2. audible b. suitable
overly-extroverted. Pisces are intuitive, inspira­ 3. legible c. can be seen
tional and idealistic.
4. terrible d. can be digested

__________________________________________________ Suffixes -ible/-able 5. visible e. easy to read

— образует п рилагательны е со зн ачен и ем возм ож ности осущ ествления д е й ­ 6. sensible f. easily bent
ствия 7. possible g. allowable
acceptable — допустимый
8. digestible h. causing terror
credible — заслуж ивающий доверия
— образует прилагательны е со зн ачен и ем обладани я некоторы м качеством 9. flexible i. reasonable
comfortable — удобный 10. perm issible j. liable to happen
Будьте внимательны! У потребление су ф ф и ксо в -able или -ible н еобходим о 11. com patible k. can be heard
проверять по словарю .

132. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to


their meaning.
enjoyable, com fortable, readable, reasonable, digestible, variable,
washable, adm issible, drinkable, com patible
1 tenacity — упорство, стой кость
2 eloquent — я рки й , убедительны й, вы разительны й
110 | Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | Ш

Adjectives mean « su ita b lefo r... » Adjectives mean «able to...» knowledge -» __

change -> __

Модель 2: forget —» forgettable

regret -> __

transm it -» __

B. Find their related words from the table. control -> __


enjoy, wash, read, reason, drink, com fort, vary, digest, adm it,
stop -» __
com patibility
forget -» __
133. Which of the following words cannot be used with the suffix
-able/-ible? 135. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the
1. a. sens- b. wash- c. p erio d - d. fashion- puzzle and complete the table below.
2. a. break- b. favor- с. laugh- d .n um ber-
A с U 0 A P К N F A D T N U
3. a. respons- b. allow- с. m u rd er- d. adapt -
4. a. regret- b. con tro l- с. avail- d. hum our- G 0 A D D R I N К A В L E N
5. a. disgrace - b. m anage- с. notice- d. excite- S F U В О M 0 К S V U I M U
С 0 M P R E H E N S I В L E
134. Read the following spelling rules. Form adjectives according to
the models below. H u N V A L и A В L E J Y A

Модель I: Обратите внимание! Гласная -e сохраняется, если перед


D N G J В О L M С G В J Y U

гласной в корне стоит -g- или -с- -> change + able —> changeable В T В J L D U 1 A D В J I 1

->
J A F 0 E G A R Y 1 N F D Y
irreplace
N В E L I E V A В L E В D U
peace —> D G J w R T U 0 E J H
S L A
notice -» T E R R I В L E 0 X С D H N

replace -> Nouns ( -able/-ible)


Related words
service -> drink
count
m anage
believe
\ «

112 | Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 113

Related words N ouns ( -able/-ible) 1. N o u n


2. H er honesty in all th at she does is truly ... . 2. Verb
adore
3. Adjective
com p reh en d
a. adm iration b. adm ire c. adm irable
value
1. N o u n
te rro r • 2. Verb
3. Do you ... you could bear th at patiently?
3. Adjective
136. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from
a. belief b. believe c. believable
the table below.
1. N oun
4. In a week the student can learn to w rite it with some little
Noun Verb Adjective 2. Verb
facility and to read it w ith ... ease.
achievem ent 3. Adjective

adm ire a. consideration b. consider c. considerable

belief believable 1. N oun


5. In reality, the stu d en t spent over an h o u r in my office
2. Verb
consider begging me for ... .
3. Adjective
forgive
a. forgiveness b. forgive c. forgivable
responsibility respond
1. N oun
com parable 6. Did she think that circum stances and not her own choice
2. Verb
were ... for h er state o f feeling?
excitem ent excite 3. Adjective
adaptable a. responsibility b. respond c. responsible
com prehension co m prehend 1. N oun
7. 1 know nothing to ... with it, for he is a m an o f w arm th. 2. Verb
consideration, com parison, ad m iratio n , forgiveness, believe, 3.. Adjective
responsible, com prehensible, excitable, achieve, achievable, adapt,
a. com parison b. com pare c. com parable
ad ap tatio n , forgivable, com pare, considerable, adm irable
1. N oun
8. But all th is series o f nervous d istu rb a n ce s left h er in
2. Verb
B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the fol­ a very impressible and ... condition.
3. Adjective
lowing sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
a. excitem ent b. excite c. excitable
1. N o u n
I. M any people strive for an ... in business.
9. Jane was n o t ... to changes in her work contract. 2. Verb
3. Adjective
a. achievem ent b. achieve c. achievable
a. adaptation b. adapt c. adaptable
114 Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 115

l. N oun 8. create h. decorative


10. A lthough som e o f the earliest art rem ains ... to us now, 9. appreciate i. creative
2. Verb
there is m uch w hich rem ains obscure. 10. product j. initiative
3. Adjective
a. com prehension b. com p reh en d c. com prehensible 139. A. Read the following words. Pay attention to their meaning.
Answer the questions below.
137. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word decisive, active, aggressive, attentive, possessive, interrogative, affirm a­
that fits in the space in the text. tive, sensitive, respective, passive, creative, legislative, persuasive, co nser­
O ne o f th e m ost im p o rta n t things a stu d en t should vative, adm inistrative, talkative, cooperative, elective, narrative, intensive,
do is to take p art in scientific projects. He can m ake exclusive, executive
him self m o r e _________ (1) by participating in co n fer­ V ISIO N (1)
l . W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe people’s behavior?
ences and w orkshops and publishing papers on h is/h e r
work. A ttending conferences is __________ (2). Students VALUE (2)
should know so m e __________ (3) recom m endations for N O TA B ILITY (3) 2. W hich o f these adjectives are linguistic term s?
preparing th e talk. T hey should m ake this im pression
as positive a s __________ (4). It i s __________ (5) to use PO SSIB IL IT Y (4)
ap p ro p riate exam ples an d pictu res and to m ake sure REA SO N (5) 3. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe traits o f character?
th at the slides a r e __________ (6). Besides, it is im p o r­ REA D (6)
ta n t to g iv e __________ (7) exam ples. S U IT (7)
4. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe political systems?
Suffix -ive
М одель образования: 5. W hich o f these adjectives can be used to describe a personal speech?
V E R B /N O U N + -IV E
п озволяет образовать отн осительн ы е прилагательны е
creative — творческий B. Find their related words from the table.
native — родной
aggression, decisio n , ac t, a tte n tio n , passivity, possess, in terro g a tio n ,
affirm , sense, resp ect, c re a te , legislate, c o o p e ra te , talk, p e rsu ad e ,
138. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
conserve, adm inistrate, elect, narrate, execute, intense, exclusion
words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
1. destruct a. generative 140, Which of the following word roots cannot be used with the suf-
2. act b. destructive fix -ive?
3. correct c. active
1. a. inact- b. interact- c. guilt- d. expens-
4. addict d. productive
2. a. apprehens- b. support- с. decept- d. insist-
5. decorate e. appreciative
3. a. creat- b. appreciat- c. parent- d. initiat-
6. initiate f. corrective d. resent -
4. a. addict- b. detect- c. object-
7. generate g. addictive
5. a. talen t- b. relat- с. correct- d. exhaust-
116 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adjectives | 117

141. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the Noun Verb Adjective
puzzle and complete the table below.
conclude
Related words Adjective ( -ive) destruction
select indicate
legislate inclusion inclusive
progress offence offensive
com pare persuade
com m u n icate com m unication
relate
persuasion, offend, destruct, conclusion, destructive, com m unicative,
generate
com pete, indicative, indication, persuasive, co m m unicate, include,
1 V Е F selection, appreciate, com petitive, conclusive
D G Р R О G R Е S S
1 P К Н Y D 1 А Е S и О Р G
B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the
D О Р L Е G I S L А т I V Е following sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
В N О Р Y А В 1 Е I S О V N
1. N oun
E С О М М и N I С А т I V Е 1. People told me over and over how m uch m ore ... they
2. Verb
were o f life, how they w anted to learn.
V и F О D N М т Т X и F и R 3. Adjective
С О М Р А R А т I V Е Y О А a. appreciation b. appreciate c. appreciative
S О С Т N М О р V V Т N М Т 1. N oun
2. We offer a large ... o f over 20 tennis skirts, tennis dresses,
R R Е L А т 1 V Е X Y М О I 2. Verb
tennis shirts.
А S V 3. Adjective
D О I S В N I О D О Р
a. selection b. select c. selective
В О I Р D Т N О А D N Y м Е
3. T hey faced tough ... but in the end they knew it was for
142. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from a good cause.
the table below.
a. com petition b. com pete c. com petitive
Noun Verb Adjective
1. N oun
appreciation appreciative 4. T he blood tests m ade a ... diagnosis. 2. Verb
select selective 3. Adjective
com petition a. conclusion b. conclude c. conclusive
118 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adverbs | 119

1. N oun are c o n sid e re d __________ (4). T hey tend to be calm , PASSIVITY (4)
5. T he ... from th e w ar was massive an d was hard to repair. 2. Verb __________ (5) and even p ro v o k e __________ (6) be- S E N S E (5)
3. Adjective havior. A G G R E S S IO N (6)
a. d estruction b. destruct c. destructive
1. N oun
6. W hen a traffic light tu rn s red, it ... th e m o to rist m ust
2. Verb ADVERBS
stop.
3. Adjective
a. indication b. indicates c. indicative ___________________________________________________________ Suffix -ly
1. N oun М одель образования:
7. T he shy child s o u g h t... in play activities but d id n 't know A D JE C T IV E /N O U N + -LY
2. Verb
how to jo in th e group. образует н аречия от осн ов прилагательны х и (реже) от осн ов сущ ествитель­
3. Adjective
ных
a. inclusion b. include c. inclusive patiently — терпеливо, happily — счастливо
1. N oun О братите в н и м ан и е на то, что суф ф и к с -1у используется для обр азо ван и я
8. T here was som ething ... in th e ir proposale. 2. Verb п р и лагательны х со зн ачен и ем характерн ой черты или качества того, что
обо зн ач ен о основой
3. Adjective
friendly — друж еский; дружественный
a. offence b. offend c. offensive m anly — муж ественный, отважный
1. N oun fatherly — отцовский, отеческий
9. It is n o t im possible to w rite a brillian t ... essay on so­ — служ ит для о бр азован ия прилагательны х и наречий со зн ачен и ем п ер и о ­
2. Verb
cial injustice. ди ческой повторяем ости
3. Adjective
hourly — ежечасный, ежечасно, каж дый час
a. persuasion b. persuade c. persuasive weekly — еженедельный
1. N oun Будьте внимательны! Сущ ествую т слова, о к ан ч и ваю щ и еся на -1у, которы е
10. T he language course is based o n a highly ... m ethod in могут бы ть н аречиям и или прилагательны м и.
2. Verb
sm all groups. early — рано, ранний
3. Adjective
friendly — дружелюбный, дружелюбно
a. co m m u n icatio n b. com m u n icate c. com m unicative
144. Read the words in the first column. Match them with the related
143. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word words in the second column. Underline their suffixes.
that fits in the space in the text.
1. saint a. gladly
B right colors are co nsidered (1). If you A CT (1) 2. coward b. gradually
exam ine th e co rrelatio n betw een co lo r an d m o o d , 3. quick c. secondly
y o u ’ll discover th a t b rig h t colors te n d to be m ore 4. glad ' d. saintly
energetic a n d __________ (2). In fact, bright colors E F F E C T (2) 5. hour e. cowardly
p ro v id e __________ (3) atm o sp h ere. N e u tra l colors C R E A T E (3) 6. day f. sm oothly
7. slow g. quickly
120 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adverbs | 121

8. second h. hourly B . Divide the words into three groups according to their defini­
9. sm ooth i. daily tions.
10. gradual 'j . slowly
loudly, ghostly, proudly, cowardly, kingly, patiently, homely, daily,
nightly, m inutely, weekly, friendly, softly, bravely, m onthly
145. A. Divide the following words into two groups according to
their word formation models.
in а ... m anner once а ... like а ...
gentlem anly, silently, kingly, happily, manly, widely, masterly, cruelly,
m inutely, cheerfully, scholarly, rapidly, saintly, badly, cowardly, quickly,
yearly, loudly, secondly, naturally, daily, briefly

Noun + -1у Adjective + -1у

4
C. Define what part of speech the words refer to.

147. Define what parts of speech the words in bold belong to.
1. a) She gave him a friendly look,
b) H e p a tte re d 1 him friendly.
2. a) H e woke up early this m orning.
b) Early breakfast is good for your digestion.
3. a) M ike always reads daily press,
b) Sam takes m eds daily.
4. a) I feel so lonely.
b) Lonely birch tree was standing o n the hill.
B. Define what part of speech the words from the table refer to. 5. a) H e brotherly saved m e from death.
b) Jensen has brotherly feelings for O rsen.
146. A. Complete the definitions below.
loudly = in a ... m an n er 148. A. S p ellin g rules! Pay attention to the following spelling rules
weekly = once a ... when you form adverbs.
cow ardiy = like a ...
1. Е сл и п р и л а гате л ь н о е о к а н ч и в ае т с я н а -у, то п р и д о б а в л е н и и
суф ф и кса -1у, -у переходит в -i
-у -i

1 p a tte r— похлопы вать; поглаж ивать.


| 122 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adverbs j 123

2. Е сл и п р и л а г а т е л ь н о е о к а н ч и в а е т с я н а -1е, то к о н е ч н о е -е 149. Read the words in the table below. Find related words in the
зам ен яется на -у puzzle and complete the table below.
-1е —» -1у
D I P L H D T Y О P E A V U D
3. Е сли п р и лагатель н о е о к а н ч и в ае тс я н а -ic, то при о б р азо в ан и и
н ареч и я д обавляется суф ф и кс -ically: G О S P R A С T I С A L L Y 0
-ic -» -ically M H F U 0 A s F H I P R U 0 u
4. Е сли п р и лагатель н о е о к а н ч и в ае тс я н а -и е, то при д о б авл ен и и S u D D E N L Y A T U К В A в
суф ф и к са -1у ко н ечн ая буква -е опускается U
R N T В G S G О В A С О P T
-ue -» -uly .
N G T 0 G R A С E F U L L Y F
5. Е сли прилагательное оканчивается на -И, то добавляется только
гласная -у: U R S О G I L J G D A Z С В U

-11 ^ -Ну, P I P F I L I Y R Q A D F T L
но если слово о к ан чи вается на -1, то при д о б авл ен и и суф ф и к са F L F A U Y M В F I 0 P A С L
-1у, сохраняется д во й н о е н ап и сан и е 1: N Y Y T H A N К F U L L Y X Y
-1 + -1у -» -Ну
Related words Adverbs (-ly)
В. Read the following words. Match them with the spelling rules
sudden
above.
angry
full — fully, true — truly, sim ple — simply, easy — easily, noisy — noisily,
autom atic — autom atically, beautiful — beautifully graceful
hungry
C. Complete the table with adverbs. Follow the spelling rules. doubtful

sim ple -» easy -» _____________ practical

true —» noisy -» ______________ thankful

autom atic -» angry -» _____________


150. A. Complete the following word chains using the words from
fu ll- » c ra z y -» _____________
the table below.
due -» guilty -» _____________
Noun Noun
acrobatic —» _ gloom y -» ____________
(concrete (abstract Verb Adjective Adverb
ironic -» exotic meaning) meaning)
dull -» _____________ doubtful -» believe believably
successful -» _____________ p o w erfu l,-» beautician beautify
creation creatively
124 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix Adverbs | 125

Noun Noun 1. N o u n
(concrete (abstract Verb Adjective Adverb 4. But he w ondered if she knew the extent o f his ... o f her 2. Verb
meaning) meaning) father. 3. Adjective
critic criticize critically 4. Adverb

doubt doubtful a. critic b. criticism c. criticize d. critical e. critically

equal equal 1. N o u n
finance financially 2. Verb
financier 5. I am aware th a t m uch rem ains ....
3. Adjective
creator, beautifully, finance, doubter, believer, equalize, criticism , 4. Adverb
doubtfully, believable, critical, equality, creative, create, financial, a. doubter b. doubt c. doubtful d. doubtfully
doubt, equally, belief, beauty, beautiful
1. N o u n
6. O n reaching R atisbon they were obliged to go to bed, and 2. Verb
B. Determine what part of speech it is necessary to use in the
a terrible night was followed by an ... bad m orning. 3. Adjective
following sentences. Complete them using words from part A.
4. Adverb
1. N oun a. equal b. equality c. equalize d. equally
2. Verb
1. We felt his story was ... 1. N o u n
3. Adjective
2. Verb
4. Adverb 7. H is ... problem s were solved successfully last year.
3. Adjective
a. believer b. belief c. believe d. believable e. believably 4. Adverb
1. N oun a. financier b. finance c. financial d. financially
2. Verb
2. How ... an d aptly he could speak o f h er own art!
3. Adjective 151. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word
4. Adverb that fits in the space in the text.
a. beautician b. beauty c. beautify d. beautiful e. beautifully T he bottle was dropped overboard on a w arm su m ­
1. N oun m er evening. But w hen s e a le d __________(1) and P R O P E R (1)
3. T hin k ... and rearrange the o rd er o f the w ords in a sen­ 2. Verb sent to sea, as this one was, it becam e one o f the
tence. 3. Adjective m ost seaw orthy objects know n to m an. It could
4. Adverb flo a t_________ (2) through hurricanes. Like th a t o f SA FE (2)
all bottles left to the w h im 1 o f the oceans, its course
a. creato r b. creation c. create d. creative e. creatively

1 w him — прихоть, каприз


126 I Word Formation: Suffix after Suffix

w a s __________ (3)_unpredictable. W inds an d c u r­ A B SO L U T E (3) WORD FORMATION:


rents p la y _________ (4) large roles in any b o ttle’s EQUAL (4)
d ir e c tio n .___________(5) a fishing n et will sn a g 1 O C C A SIO N (5) PREFIX AFTER PREFIX
a bottle an d carry it a d o zen miles in the opposite
direction in w hich it was headed. T h e result is that
two bottles d r o p p e d (6) into th e o cean SIMULTANEOUS (6)
m ight en d up a c o n tin e n t ap art. _______ (7), E V ID E N T (7)
В ко д и ф и к ато р е эл ем ен тов со держ ан и я и тр еб о ван и й к уровню
th ere is no way to p r e d i c t __________ (8) w here EXACT (8)
подготовки вы пускников общ еобразовательны х учреж дений д ля п р о ­
a bottle m ight travel, an d th a t is part o f its mystery. ведения ЕГЭ по ан гл и й ск ом у я зы к у 1 представлены аф ф и ксы :
а ф ф и к сы глаголов: re-, dis-, m is-
аф ф иксы прилагательны х: inter-.
отри ц ател ьн ы е п реф иксы : un-, in -/im -.
Рассм отри м каж ды й из у казан н ы х элем ентов подробн о.

Prefix ге-
— передаёт зн ачен и е «снова», «ещё раз»
re-cover — снова покрывать
— передаёт зн ачен и е «обратно», «назад»
re-enter — вернуться
— передаёт зн ачен и е «заново», «по-новому»
regroup —перегруппировать
О братите вни м ан ие н а то, что п риставка ге- м ож ет писаться к ак слитн о, так
и через деф и с. Э то зави си т от зн ач ен и я, которое передает приставка:
— если ге- употребляется с целью и зм ен ен и я или улучш ения этого действия,
то ставится деф ис:
to re-elect — переизбирать',
— если ге- п ередает зн ачен и е восстановления- п ервон ачальн ого результата
или со сто ян и я, то пиш ется слитно:
to recapture — взять обратно.

1 К оди ф и катор элементов содерж ания и требований к уровню подготовки


в ы п у скн и ко в общ ео бр азовател ьн ы х учреж ден и й для п ровед ен и я ед и ­
ного государственного экзам ен а по ан гл и й ск ом у языку. Реж им доступа:
1 snag — зац еплять U R L : w ww .fip i.ru /v iew /sections/226/docs/627.htm l
128 I Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix | 129

152. Read the following examples, divide them into 2 groups accord­ Prefix dis-
ing to the meaning of the prefix re-.
— используется для образо ван и я слов со зн ачен и ем л и ш ен и я чего-л.
(о б е з-/о б е с -)
rebuild, reeopy, regain, renew, remarry, recolor, retrace, reunite, resell,
to disarm — обезоруживать
reread
to disinherit — лиш ат ь наследства
— образует слова со зн ачен и ем и склю чен ия из какой -л. орган и зац и и
Prefix re- indicates return to disbar — исключать барристера из корпорации
Prefix re- indicates repetition
to a previous condition
o f an action — обозначает разделение на составны е части, отделение
(restoration, withdrawal) to distribute — распределять
r — усиливает отри ц ател ьн ы й к ом п он ен т зн ачен и я слова
to disannul — полностью аннулировать

155. Read the following verbs. Answer the questions.


1. W hich o f these words indicate reversal?
2. W hich o f these words indicate negation, lack o r deprivation?
3. W hich o f these words indicate removal o r release?
153. Read the following definitions, form a verb using the prefix re-. 4. W hich o f these words express intensive force?
M odel: to jo in again — to rejoin. distrust, disarm , disinfect, disuse, disconnect, disem bark, disobey,
1. To discover again -> ____ _____________________________ display, discolour, discontinue, discover, dislike, disagree, displease,
disapprove, displace, disorder, disarrange
2. To build again —> _____________________________
v 3. To w rite again -» ____ _____________________________
156. Read the following definitions, form a verb using the prefix dis-.
4. To appear again -> _____________________________ The words in the table can help you.
5. To assem ble again -» _____________________________
to disbelieve, to discolour, to disobey, to distrust, to disapprove, to dislike,
6. To heat again -» _____________________________ to disconnect
7. To apply again —> _____________________________
l . To break th e co n n ectio n o f sm th
8. To type again -»
2. To c o n sid e r u n p le a sa n t o r d is­

agreeable
154. Answer the following questions.
3. To change o r cause to change in
1. Would you like to reread your favourite novel? W hy? —>
colour
2. W hat do you usually retell to your friends?
4. To w ithhold approval from —>
3. W hy do people som etim es w ant to rebuild th e ir house?
4. Have you ever rediscovered anything for you? 5. To neglect or refuse to obey —>
5. Have you ever recopied an im portant file? W hy did you have to do it? 6. To regard as dishonest
130 I Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix | 131

7. To reject as false o r lying; refuse to 4. To lead o r guide in the w rong d i­


accept as true o r truthful ------------------------------ rection ___________________
5. To fail to hear correctly -» ___________________
157. Answer the following questions. 6. To behave badly -» _____________________
1. W hat do you dislike? 7. To give incorrect inform ation to -» ___________________
2. Have you ever disbelieved people aro u n d you? W hen was it?
3. Has the w eather ever disarranged your plans? W hen was it?
4. Have you ever disobeyed your p aren ts’ decision? How did you solve
160. Answer the following questions.
th at problem ? 1. Som etim es friends m isunderstand each other. W hat about you?
2. Do you often m iscalculate in M aths? W hy does it happen?
Prefix mis- 3. Have you ever been lost in a city? W ho m isled you?
образует слова со зн ачен и ем «неправильно, неудачно», «с противополож ным 4. Have you ever m isapprehended the task? W hen was it?
результатом» 5. Have you ever m isinterpreted a novel o r a story? W hy did it happen?
to misunderstand — неправильно понимать
to misdial — ошибаться при наборе номера телефона Prefix inter-
to misinform — дезинформировать; вводить в заблуж дение О бразует слова со зн ачен и ям и
используется для о б о зн ач ен и я слов с п р о тивополож ны м результатом — м еж -, меж ду-, среди, внутри (в пространственном и врем енном значен и и)
to mistrust — не доверять —> international — международный
— взаим о— > interchangeable — взаимозаменяемый
158. Read the following verbs. Answer the questions.
1. W hich o f these words indicate w rong, bad o r erroneous actions? 161. Read the following examples, divide them into 2 groups accord­
2. W hich o f these words indicate lack o f som ething? ing to the meaning of the prefix inter-.
m isunderstand, misspell, m ism atch, m isuse, m isbehave, m iscalculate,
international, interracial, intervocalic, intercontinental, interchangeable,
m isconduct, mishear, m isdial, m isrule, m istreat, m islead, m istrust,
intergalactic, interdependent, interactive
m isfire

Prefix inter- means "between or Prefix inter- means "together, m utu­


159. Read the following definitions, form a verb using the prefix mis-. among" ally or reciprocally1"
The words in the table can help you.
to misuse, to m ism atch, to m isunderstand, to mislead, to mishear, to m is­
behave, to m isinform

1. To use w rongly -»
2. To m atch badly -»
3. To fail to u n derstand properly —»
1 reciprocally — взаим но; обою дно
132 I Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix | 133

162. Read the following definitions, form a verb using the prefix in­ 164. Read the following examples, divide them into 4 groups.
ter-. The words in the table can help you.
unhappiness, unexpectedly, unpack, undrinkable, unvoice, unbelievable,
intergalactic, intern atio n al, in terco n tin en tal, interpersonal, interracial, undo, unwillingly, unsteadiness, unreliable, unwater, unrestrictedly, u n ­
interatom ic symmetry, unsuccessfully, unsafety, unkind, unreliability, unforgettable,
unpark, unnaturally
1. Involving two o r m ore nations or n atio n ­
alities______________________________________ ___________________ NOUN A D JE C T IV E VERB AD VERB
2. Involving o r existing betw een different
races o r ethnic groups ------------------------------
3. Existing o r o ccurring betw een o r am ong
atom s ------------------------------
4. O ccu rin g b etw een p erso n s; involving
personal relationships ___________________
5. R elating to o r existing betw een two o r
m ore galaxies ' ' _________
165. Read the following definitions, form a verb using the prefix un-.
The words in the table can help you.
6. R elating to travel, com m erce, relations,
etc., betw een co n tin en ts ___________________ unm usical, unknow n, unlocked, un fo rtu n ate, unkind, unlucky,
unfriendly, unlike, unkind, unlim ited, unfair
163. Answer the following questions.
1. N o t m usical o r harm onious -»
1. Is it im p o rtan t to use interactive exercises w hen you learn a foreign
2. C h a ra c te riz e d by m isfo rtu n e o r
language? ->
failure
2. Are people interdependent? W ho do you d ep end on?
3. Is it im p o rtan t to develop intern atio n al co operation? W hy? 3. N o t locked —»
4. W ithout lim its or bounds -»
P r e f ix u n - —»
5. N o t alike; different
М одель образования:
6. N o t know n, understood o r recog­
u n - + VERB -» do — undo -»
nized
u n - + A D JE C T IV E —» clear — unclear
u n - + ADVERB —» likely — unlikely 7. N o t friendly; hostile -»
u n - + N O U N —» happiness — unhappiness 8. Lacking kindness; unsym pathetic
—»
П ридаёт п ротивополож ное зн ачен и е (н е-) o r cruel
to undo — уничтож ать, отменять сделанное;
9. C ausing o r attended by m isfortune —»
unable — неспособный;
unappreciation — неблагодарность 10. C haracterized by inequality
->
o r injustice
J_______________________

134 I Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix Word Formation: Prefix after Prefix | 135

166. Answer the following questions. 3. False; w rong


1. C an you give any exam ples o f unacceptable behavior? 4. Incapable o f being accused; guilt­
2. Have you ever got unexpected gifts? W hen was it? -»
less
3. W hat do you do if th e inform ation you learn is unclear for you?
5. N o t decisive o r conclusive
4. W hat m akes you unhappy?
6. T he state o r quality o f being in d e­

_________________ ___________________________________ Prefixes im - /i n - pendent
П ридаёт п ротивополож ное зн ачен и е (н е -, без-) 7. W ithout distinctive qualities -»
incalculable — неисчислимый ->
8. N o t prudent; indiscreet
indifferent — безразличный
immature — незрелый, неспелый 9. N o t precise; inexact o r inaccurate —>

Spelling rules! 10. Incapable o f occu rrin g o r hap-


—>
П риставка im - п ри соед ин яется к словам , н ачи н аю щ и м ся с «ш», «Ь» и «р». pening
immaterial — нематериальный, невещественный
impolite — невеж ливый 169. Answer the following questions.
П риставка in- п ри соед и н яется ко всем словам , кром е слов, н ачинаю щ ихся 1. Have you ever been im patient? W hen was it?
на « т » , «Ь», «р», «1», «г».
2. D o you like inform al clothes?
3. W hat knowledge do you find im practical?
167. Make these words opposite by adding in- or im-.

expensive form al m ature


possible pure patient
sane attentive perfect
com plete p roper m ortal
secure definite practical
possible capable precise
accuracy polite considerable

168. Read the following definitions, form words using im -/in-.

1. L ack in g in th o u g h t fo r o th e rs;
thoughtless ___________________
2. Lack o f coord in atio n o r organiza­
tio n
Word Formation Practice | 137

P O L IT IC S
WORD FORMATION PRACTICE B14 w om en's e co n o m ic, and social
achievem ents. In som e regions, the day lost its
B15 ________ flavor and b e c a m e _________ O R IG IN
B16 an occasion for m en to express th e ir love for S IM P L E
wom en.
Прочит айт е приведённые ниж е тексты. Образуйте от слов, напе­ №3
чатанных заглавны ми буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами IN V IT E
1 A person w ho receives a n ___________ to a c o s -
В11—В16, однокоренные слова т ак, чтобы они грам м ат ически и л е к ­ O PPO RTU N E
g -|2 tum e party has the p e rfe c t_________ to find
сически соот вет ст вовали содерж анию т екст а. Заполнит е пропуски
an outfit th at will be th e hit o f th e occasion.
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соот вет ст вует отдельному
Som e people cho o se co stu m es th a t reflect
заданию из группы B 1 I —B16. PE R SO N A L
B13 t h e i r ___________ • For exam ple, a m an w ho's
a n ___________ type may peruse' the selection ADVENTURE
№1
o f p irate costum es. O th e r people p refer to
G r e a t B rita in lies to th e n o rth w e s t o f
dress up as som eone or som ething that is com ­
В11 ___________ E u ro p e. W ith a p o p u la tio n o f C O N T IN E N T
pletely unexpected. R egardless o f a person s
about 60.0 m illion people, it is th e third m ost PREFER
B15 c o stu m e _______ , you can choose w hatev­
В12 ___________island in the w orld, after Java and PO PU L A T E
er you want. A teen is sure to find a costum e in
H onshu. Politically, G reat B ritain also refers A T T E N T IV E
B16 that catches t h e ___________ o f fellow partiers.
to the island itself to g eth er w ith a n u m b er o f
В13 ___________ islands w hich co n stitu te th e te r­ SU R R O U N D №4
ritory o f E ngland, S cotland and Wales. M ost She supposed th a t it had so m e th in g to do
o f England, Scotland and Wales are on the is­ w ith the fact th at w hen the divorce papers fi­
В14 land o f G reat Britain, as are t h e i r ___________ RESPECT nally arrived, she felt as if a little part o f her
cap ital cities: L on d o n , E d inburgh and C a r­ B11 had died. T h at in itia l. she felt had ANGRY
diff. T he K ingdom o f G re a t B ritain resulted B12 turned t o __________and now it had becom e SAD
В15 from t h e ___________union o f the kingdom s o f P O L IT IC S som ething else, alm ost a ___________ o f sorts. DULL
England and Scotland w ith the Ac{s o f U nion B13 C O N ST A N T
Even though she w a s ___________ in m otion,
1707. T he relatively lim ited variety o f fauna B14 it seem ed as if nothing special ever happened
and flora on th e island is due to its size and the ~ to her anym ore. Each day se e m e d ----------------- EXACT
fact th at wildlife has had little tim e to develop J like the last, and she had trouble differentiat­
В16 since th e la s t___________ period. G L A C IE R ing am ong them . O ne tim e, about a year ago,
№2 she sat at her desk for fifteen m inutes trying
B16 to rem em ber the la s t thing sh e’d SPO N T A N E IT Y
В11 _____________W om en's D ay is m a rk e d o n N A T IO N
done. She c o u ld n ’t think o f anything.
В12 M arch , 8 every year. I n ____________ regions D IF F E R
the focus o f the ranges from par- CELEBRATE
1 peruse — вним ательно рассм атривать
В13 tie s to m ass d e m o n s tra tio n s in su p p o rt o f
138 I Word Formation Practice Word Formation Practice | 139

№5 B16 ___________ predicted this process, he began ACCURATE


B11 ...B ut th e re are a lot o f ____________ w ith to w o n d er w h at th e m o tio n o f th e planets
C O M P L IC A T E
m oney and w ith the house th at you w o u ld n ’t would look like if the earth moved.
u n d e rsta n d . You were b orn in E ngland an d №7
B12 you have started y o u r ___________ th ere and EDUCATE Ju p iter’s M oons was a discovery m ade possible
he w ants you to c o n titu e going to English B11 by a n ___________ — a telescope. G alileo saw IN V E N T
schools.
his first telescope in late 1608 and instantly
"Oh, G randm am m a!" I cried. "You d o n ’t want B12 recognized th at a m o r e ____________ telescope PO W ER
B13 to go an d live in o u r ____________ hou se, 1 ITALY could be the answ er to the prayers o f every as­
know you d o n ’t!"
tronom er.
"O f co u rse, I d o n ’t," she said. "But I am
In 1609 G a lile o ’s te le sc o p e w as th e first
B14 afraid I must.. It i s ____________to repect the S IG N IF Y B13 ___________telescope for scientific use. G ali­ P R A C T IC E
wishes o f the parents."
leo first tu rn e d his telescope on th e m oon.
T h ere was no way o u t o f it. We had to go CLEAR
В 14 T here h e ___________saw m ountains and val­
to Italy, and my g ran d m o th er started m aking leys. T he m oon th a t G alileo saw was radically
B15 _____ _____ at once. ARRANGE d ifferen t from th e perfectly sm o o th sphere
O n th e evening before we left for Italy, my th a t A ristotle and Ptolem y said it was. G alileo
B16 g ra n d m o th e r got on to h e r ____________ su b ­ PREFEREN CE next aim ed his telescope at Jupiter, the biggest
ject once again. CARE
B15 planet, planning t o ___________ chart m otion
№6 over several m onths. To h i s ___________ , he AM AZE
B16
C opernicus m easured and observed th e plan- found m oons circling the giant planet.
ets and stars. He gathered an d com p ared the №8
B 11 o f o th e r astronom ers. In so doing O BSERV E T he fo u r young faces on w hich the firelight
C o p ern icu s challenged a 2 ,0 0 0 -y ear-o ld be- B11 shone brig h ten ed at t h e ___________ w ords, CHEER
B12 lief th a t th e earth s a t ___________ at the c e n ­ M O T IO N SAD
but darkened again as Jo sa id ___________, ‘We
te r o f the universe an d th a t planets, sun an d B12
haven’t got Father and shall not have him for
stars ro tated aro u n d it. He was also th e first a long tim e .’ She d id n ’t say ‘perh ap s never,’
to use scientific exam ination as th e basis for S IL E N T
B13 but e a c h _________added it, thinking o f Father
B J3 t h e ___________ o f a fundam ental theory. C o ­ D EV ELO P faraway, w here th e fighting was. T h e n M eg
pern icu s hoped to use "m odern" (six teen th - said in an altered to n e, ‘You know the reason
century) technology to improve on Ptolem y’s M other proposed not having any presents this
B14
, Over.the years, C opernicus began M E A SU R E C hristm as was because it is going to be a hard
B15 to w onder what t h e ___________ o f the planets MOVE w inter for everyone; and she th in k s we ought
would look like from a n o th e r m oving planet. PLEA SE
B14 n o t to spend m o n ey f o r ___________ , w hen
W hen his calculation based on this idea m ore
o u r m en are suffering so in the army. We c a n ’t
140 [ Word Formation Practice Word Formation Practice | 141

do m uch, but we can m ake o u r little sacrific- sold enough crum m y second-hand cars. There
B15 es an d oug h t to do i t ___________ . But I am GLAD B14 are m any things th at make a m a n ___________ IR R ITA TE
afraid 1 d o n ’t . ’ A nd Meg shook h e r head, as w hen he arrives hom e from work in the eve-
B16 she th o u g h t____________ o f all the pretty things REGRET B15 ning and a ____________wife will usually n o ­ SENSE
she w anted. tice the storm -signals and will leave him alone
№9 until he sim m ers dow n. W hen M r W ormwood
arrived back from the garage th a t evening his
B11 As y o u n g ___________ like to know ‘how REA D face was as dark as a th undercloud and som e­
p eople lo o k ’, we will tak e th is m o m e n t to
body was clearly fo r th e h ig h -ju m p pretty
give th em a little sketch o f th e fo u r sisters,
B16 soon. His w ife ___________the signs im m edi­ R E C O G N IT IO N
w ho sat k n ittin g away in th e tw ilight, w hile ately and m ade herself scarce.
B12 th e D ec e m b e r snow fell ____________ w ith ­ Q U IE T
№11
o u t, an d th e fire crackled cheerfully w ithin.
B13 It was a _____________ro o m , th o u g h th e c a r­ COM FO RT B 11 "I hope you will know all t h e ___________ ta- M ULTI PL IC A T E
pet was faded an d th e fu rn itu re very plain , bles up to twelve. It will help y o u ___________ if ENORM OUS
B12
for a good p ictu re o r two hung on th e walls, you do. N ow th e n , do any o f you happen to
books filled the recesses, chrysanthem um s and have le arn t th e tw o -tim e s tab le already?"
C hristm as roses bloom ed in the windows, and M atilda p u t up her hand. She was th e only
В 14 a atm osphere o f hom e peace p e r­ PLEA SE B13 one. M iss H oney lo o k e d ____________ at the CARE
vaded it. M argaret, th e eldest o f th e four, was tiny girl w ith dark h air an d a ro u n d serious
sixteen and very pretty, being plum p and fair, B14 face sitting in the second row. "___________ ," W ONDER
w ith large eyes. F ifteen- year-old Jo was very she said. "Please stand up and recite as m uch
tall and th in . She had sharp, grey eyes, w hich o f it as you can." M atilda stood up and began
appeared to see everything and were by tu rn s to say the tw o-tim es table. W hen she got to
515 fierce, fu n n y o r ___________ . E lizab eth , o r THOUGHT twice twelve is tw enty-four she d id n ’t stop. She
B eth, as everyone called her, was a rosy girl went right on with twice th irteen is twenty-six,
o f th irteen , w ith a shy m an n er and a peaceful twice fourteen is tw enty-eight, tw ice fifteen is
B16 w hich was seldom disturbed. EX PR ESS thirty, tw ice sixteen is..." "Stop!" Miss H o n -
B15 ey said. She had been lis te n in g ___________ S L IG H T
№10
spellbound to this sm o o th recital, an d now
B11 There w as____________calm in the W ormwood C O M PA R E she said, "H ow far can you go?" "H ow far?"
household for about a week after the Superglue
M atilda said. "Well, I d o n 't really know, Miss
episode. T he experience had clearly chastened
Honey. F or quite a long way, I th in k ." Miss
B12 M r W orm wood and he s e e m e d ___________ to T E M PO R A R Y H oney to o k a few m om ents to let this curi-
have lost his taste for b oasting an d bullying. STATE
B16 o u s ___________ sink in. "You m ean", she said,
B13 T h en _________ he struck again. Perhaps he SU D D EN "that you could tell me w hat two tim es tw enty-
had had a bad day at th e garage an d had not eight is?" "Yes, Miss Honey." "W hat is it?"
142 | Word Formation Practice Word Formation Practice | 143 J

"Fifty-six, Miss Honey." "W hat about so m e­ № 13


thin g m uch harder, like two tim es four h u n ­ Just as G alile o used his telesco p e to open
d re d an d eighty-seven? C o u ld you tell me the h u m an h o rizon to the planets and stars
that?" "I think so, yes," M atilda said. "Are you o f space, so van L eeuw enhoek used his m i-
sure?" "Yes, Miss Honey, I'm fairly sure." B11 croscope to open h u m a n ___________ to the AWARE
№ 12 m icro sco p ic w orld th a t was invisibly sm all
and th a t no one had even d ream ed existed.
In the interval, Miss H oney left the classroom
A nton van Leeuw enhoek was born in 1632 in
an d h ead ed straig h t for th e H ead m istress's
D elft, H olland. C o m p letely self-ta u g h t, he
B 11 study. She f e l t ___________ excited. She had W IL D
lea rn e d en o u g h m ath s to m o o n lig h t as a
ju st m et a sm all girl w ho possessed, o r so it
B12 and read w hat he could about the SU RV EY
seem ed to her, q u ite ex trao rd in ary qualities
B12 natural world aro u n d him . He never learned
o f ___________ . T h ere had not been tim e yet B R IL L IA N T
any language other th an D utch, so he was nev-
B13 to find o u t ___________ how brilliant th e child EXACT
B13 er able to read any o f t h e ____________papers S C IE N C E
was.
and research. By 1673 van Leeuw enhoek had
B14 ___________ M iss H oney was terrified o f the NORM AL
built a 270-pow er m icroscope th at was able to
H eadm istress and kept well away from her, but
see objects only o n e -o n e -m illio n th o f a m e­
at this m om ent she felt ready to take on an y ­
ter in length. Van Leeuwenhoek rem ained very
body. She knocked on the d o o r o f the dreaded
B14 ___________about his work and never allowed SE C R E T
private study. "Enter!" b oom ed th e deep and
others to see his m icroscopes o r setup. Van
B15 ___________ voice o f Miss T runchbull. Miss DANGER
Leeuw enhoek expanded his search for these
H oney w ent in. N ow m ost head teachers are
B15 unseeably s m a ll___________and found them C R EA TE
chosen because they possess a nu m b er o f fine
every where: on hum an eyelashes, on fleas, in
qualities. T hey und erstan d children and they
dust and on skin. He drew and described them
have th e children's best interests at heart. They
B16 w ith ___________ , precise drawings. EXCELLENCE
B16 a r e ___________ . T h ey are fair a n d they are SYM PA THY
deeply interested in education.

ч
144 | Word Formation Practice

№14 ANSWER KEYS


P rie stle y ’s discovery o f oxygen sp ark ed a
B11 __ revolution. He was the first person C H E M IS T R Y
B12 to isolate a single____________ elem ent in the GAS
m ixture o f gasses we call “air.” Before Priest­
ley’s discovery, scientific study had focused i. в.
B13 on m etals. B ecause oxygen is a___________ CENTER B11 — a. population; В 12 — b. natural; B13 — b. visitors; B14 — c. seri­
elem ent o f co m b u stio n , Priestley’s discovery ously; B15 — b. protection; В 16 — с. scientists.
also led to an understanding o f w hat it m eans
3.
to burn som ething and to an understanding o f
B14 The word has The word has
t h e ___________ o f m a tte r into energy during C O N V E R SE
The word has The word has
B15 d iffe re n t___________. Finally, Priestley estab ­ REACT a suffix and neither a suffix nor
a suffix a prefix
a prefix a prefix
lished a sim ple but elegant a n d ___________ EFFECT
B16
process for conducting analysis o f new gases. num erous m isfortune misleading work

№15 teacher unlike m isunderstanding job

careless overload disapproval bed


We now know t h a t ____________ work, e le c ­ M E C H A N IC
B11 tricity, m o m e n tu m , h e a t, m ag n etic fo rce, governm ent disappoint international piano
B12 etc., can be converted from one to another. possibility overheat unfortunately bag
T here is always a loss in the process but it can
be done. T hat knowledge has been a trem en - 4.
B13 dous help for t h e , o f o u r industries D EV ELO P
noun verb adjective adverb
a n d tech n o lo g ies. O nly 200 years ago, th e
work * *
th o u g h t had not o ccu rred to anyone. Jam es
Jo u le discovered th a t every form o f energy - * *
early
B14
could be converted into an equivalent am ount characteristic * *
B15 o f heat. Jo u le ’s discovery was a n ___________ ESSENCE * *
play
fo u n d a tio n for th e discovery o f th e law o f
B16 will * *
co nservation o f energy. Jam es Jo u le studied
___________ energy circuits. O ften he experi­ E L E C T R IC IT Y export * * *
m ented with little regard f o r — his SAFE * *
m agnificent
o r o thers. His results were inconclusive until
stone * * *
Joule sw itched from w ater to liquid mercury.
* *
W ith this denser fluid, h e ___________ proved EASY record
th a t the m ech an ical effort was converted to *
fortunately
heat at a fixed rate. • * *
public

145
146 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 147

noun verb adjective adverb 12.


previously * N o u n -» Verb Adjective -> Verb
report * * em phasis —>em phasize neutral —> neutralize/se
* * sym pathy -» sym pathize/se m odern -> m odernize/se
nam e
symbol —> sym bolize/se special -» specialize/se
w ater * * *

14.
6.
M
d elicio u s, b eau tifu l, d y n a m ic , co lo u rfu l, invisible, h e ro ic , disable
R E A L I T Y
7.
S Y M В О L
d ecisio n , p ro p o sal, press, s tu d e n t, d e p a rtu re , m ag ic ia n , ta c tic , equality, re ­
latio n sh ip A P 0 L 0 G I Z E

С R 1 T I С 1 S M
8.
P R I V A T I Z E
im m ediately, rarely, kindly, orally, tragically, sim ply, originally, w eekly
Z
9.
E Q U A L I / z E
A b -n o rm -a l, m is -c a lc u la t-tio n , m is-b e lie v -e r, m is -p r o n u n c ia t-io n , m is-
m a n a g e -m e n t, d is -o rg a n -iz e , re -c o lle c t-io n , in -e d u c -a b le , im -m o v -a b le , im - Verbs (-ise/-ize)
Related words
m ig ra t-io n
m em ory m em orize
10. A. reality realize
1. A djective 2. A dverb 3. N o u n 4. N o u n 5. A djective 6. A djective 7. A djective
symbol symbolize
8. A dverb 9. A djective 10. A dverb 10. N o u n
apology apologize
10. B.
criticism criticize
1. A. c o n tin e n ta l 2. C . a n n u a lly 3. A. in v ita tio n 4. B. o p p o rtu n ity 5. B. logic
private privatize
6. B. respective 7. B. co n stitu tio n a l 8. B. p articu larly 9. B. religious 10. A. c o m ­
p letely 11. A. a d m in istra tio n equal equalize

11. 15. A.
m e m o ry — m e m o riz e , special — sp ecialize, in d u stry — in d u strialize, sy m ­ 1. apo lo g ize, 2. c h a ra c te riz e , 3. sym bolize, 4. idealize, 5. m o d e rn iz e , 6. n e u ­
p a th y — sy m p ath ize, ideal — id ealize, d ra m a — d ra m a tise , c riticism — c riticize, tralize
scan d al — scandalize.
15. B.
A d je c tiv e s Verb Noun -> Verb

ideal -> idealize apology -> apologize


148 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 149

Adjective -» Verb Noun —> Verb 23.

m odern -> m odernize characteristic —> characterize с T


neutral -v neutralize symbol —> symbolize M R D R A W E R
1 N V E N T 0 R A
16. A.
X A I С
Noun Verb Adjective Adverb E T T H
apology apologiz(s)e apologetic apologetically R S M 0 E R
К E E
ideal idealize ideal ideally R R R
legality legaliz(s)e legal legally
harm ony harm onize harm onious harm oniously Related words Nouns ( -er/-or)

symbol sym boliz(s)e symbolic sym bolically to invent inventor


to write w riter
16. B. to create creator
1. A pology, 2. Legally, 3. H a rm o n iz e , 4. A pologetically, 5. A pologise, 6. Id e ­
to draw draw er
alize, 7. S y m b o lic, 8. H a rm o n io u s, 9. Id eal, 10. Legal, 11. S ym bolize.
to teach teacher
17. \ to mix mixer
1. A lot o f Portuguese resta u ra n ts specialize in seafood. 2. H e e m p h asized th e
subject o f civil rights in his sp eech . 3. T h e ow l sym bolizes w isd o m a n d learn in g .
25. A.
4. T h a t ex cellen t taste c h a ra c te riz e s h e r w ritings. 5. I re c o g n ized m y old friend
a n d sm iled a t him . Noun (occupation) Noun (process) Verb Adjective
an n o u n cer an n o uncem ent announce announced
18.
believer belief believe believable
1. specializes, 2. ap o lo g ize d , 3. have ... a p o lo g ized , 4. o rg a n iz e d , 5. re c o g ­
n ized , 6. will criticize. com petitor com petition com pete com petitive
consum er consum ption consum e consum able
19.
d irector direction direct direct
The form written in the
Type o f the mistake Correct variant doubter doubt doubt doubtful
p u p il’s test
1. subsidized gram m ar mistake subsidize em ployer em ploym ent em ploy em ployed

2. orgarnize spelling mistake organize founder foundation found founded

3. has characterized gram m ar mistake helper help help helpful


characterized
4. revitalizasion spelling mistake revitalization mixer mixture mix mixed

5. crytics spelling mistake critics observer observation observe observant

6. sym bolic word form ation mistake symbol offender offence offend offensive
150 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 151

25. B. 32.
1 .— b, 2. — d, 3 ,— c, 4. — a, 5, — a, 6, — c, 7, — a, 8 , — a, 9. — d , 1 0 ,— b, 1. d. im p re ss-, 2. b. a p p o in t-, 3. b. a p p o in t-, 4. b. e n ric h -, 5. c. rival-.
11.- c , 12. — a.
33.
26.
R Q
explore explorer begin beginner U В и G
exam ine exam iner babysit babysitter s D A 1 R
drive driver run ru n n er С A R E L E S S N E S S
believe believer rob robber D N D T A
N E N N T
27.
E S E E N
1. b a b y -sitters, 2. b u ild ers, 3. governor, 4. ro b b ers, 5. users, 6. visitors.
S S S S E
28. S S S E
The form written in the S
Type o f the mistake Correct variant
p u p il’s test
H E L P F U L N E S S
1. singers gram m ar mistake singer
2. presentor spelling mistake presenter Related words Nouns ( -ness)

3. reader gram m ar mistake readers rude rudeness

4. d am cer spelling mistake dan cer careless carelessness

5. viewer gram m ar mistake viewers great greatness

6. runner-up gram m ar mistake ru nners-up bald baldness

7. w iner spelling mistake w inner quiet quietness

8. p artnor spelling mistake partn er sad sadness


helpful helpfulness
30.
Qualities States 34. A.

friendliness happiness Noun (act, process) Verb Adjective Adverb

foolishness weakness brightness brighten bright brighly

ugliness m adness darkness darken dark darkly

rudeness illness deafness deafen d eaf deafly

seriousness sadness quickness quicken quick quickly

sharpness ripeness roughness roughen rough roughly


152 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 153

34. B.
Related words Nouns ( -ist)
1. verb, a. 2. n o u n , d. 3. n o u n , d. 4. adverb, c. 5. n o u n , d.
jo u rn al journalist
35. linguistics linguist
1. q u ietn ess, 2. c alm n e ss, 3. n erv o u sn ess, 4. im pulsiveness, 5. m in d fu ln ess,
nature naturalist
6. seriousness, 7. w eaknesses, 8. illness, 9. aw areness, 10. sadness.
physics physicist
37.
psychology psychologist
People o f certain beliefs People o f certain People playing reception receptionist
and religion occupation musical instruments
science scientist
racist dentist pianist
pacifist scientist guitarist 39. B.
realist econom ist harpist 1. a — h u m o u r, b — h u m o u rist, 2. a — g u itarist, b — guitar, 3. a — b io lo g ist,
b — biology, 4. a — jo u rn a l, b — jo u rn a list, 5. a — realist, b — real.
optim ist biologist violinist
pessimist pharm acist cellist 40. A.
Noun (occupation) Noun (act, process) Verb Adjective
38.
dram atist dram a dram atise dram atic
1. c. c ele b r- 2. a. c o m p e tit- 3. c. d e fe n d - 4. c. fin a n c e - 5. d. im ig ra t-
econom ist econom y econom ise econom ic
39. A.
terrorist terro r terrify terrible
R J scientist science — scientific
E 0 /
globalist globalization globalise global
С и hum orist h um our — hum orous
E R ecologist ecology — ecological
P L 1 N G U I s T
T N A T U R A L I s T 4 0 .B.
1. n o u n , -a; 2. adjective, -d ; 3. n o u n , -b; 4. n o u n , -a; 5. n o u n , -b; 6. n o u n , -a;
I L
7. ad jective, -c.
0 S С 1 E N T I S T
N S 41.
1. scien tist, 2. physicist, 3. a rtist, 4. c h e m ist, 5. n atu ra list, 6. arch aeo lo g ists,
I T
7. biologists, 8. c h e m ists, 9. geologists, 10. psychologists, 11. eco n o m ists.
S P H Y S I С I s T
44.
T P s Y С H 0 L 0 G 1 s T
1. c. cele b rity - 2. d. c o m fo rt- 3. c. h e lp - 4. a. d e fe n c e - 5. b. h o n o u r-
154 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 155

45. 52.

p L N O U N + ing V ER B + ing O ther parts o f speech + ing


A О E nurse -> nursing beat —>beating short —> shorting
R W A farm -> farm ing face -> facing fat —>fatting
С I T 1 z E N S H 1 p D flute —> fluting eat —> eating out -> outing
N E / E heat —>heating speak —>speaking w hite —> w hiting
M E M в E R s H I p R
53.
R S S
M E E T I N G и
S H H
R p
H К I N s H I p 1
A в
I p p
I R
p с L E R К . s H I p
N E A T I N G
Related words Nouns ( -ship)
I R I D I N G
citizen citizenship
N G
ow ner ow nership
G S I z I N G
partner partnership
0 U T I N G
m em ber m em bership
G
kin kinship
clerk clerkship Related words Nouns ( -ing)

leader leadership m eet m eeting


upbring upbringing
46. eat eating
M odel 1: ow n —» o w n er —> ow n ersh ip , listen —> listener - » listenership, lead ->
train training
—» le a d e r -> leadership
M o d el 2: a ir - » a irm a n -> a irm a n sh ip , d ra fts - » d ra ftsm a n - » d ra fts m a n ­ out outing
ship, horse —» h o rse m a n —» h o rsem a n sh ip , states -> sta te sm a n —» sta te sm an sh ip , ride riding
m a rk - » m ark sm a n —> m a rk sm a n sh ip , p en —> p e n m a n —» p e n m a n s h ip
size sizing
48.
1. frien d sh ip 2. re a d e r 3. a p p re n tic e sh ip 4. fellow 5. lead e rsh ip 54.
B egin h > b eg in n in g - » b eginner, b u ild —> b u ild in g -> builder, sw im - » sw im ­
51. m in g - » sw im m er, te a c h -> te a c h in g - » te a c h e r, w rite - » w ritin g - y w riter
1. b. ta le n t- 2. a. sc a n d a l- 3. d. n erv o u s- 4. c. g u ilt- 5. b. essen c-
156 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 157

55.
Related words Nouns (-ion)
1. tra in in g 2. speakin g 3. learn in g 4. m e e tin g 5. te a c h in g
possess possession
57.
fascinate fascination
State or act Abstract noun
transform ation accom m odation 61. A.

interruption intuition Noun (act, process) Verb Adjective Adverb

investigation inform ation expression express expressive expressively

isolation excursion hum iliation hum iliate hum iliating hum iliatingly

liberation profession im pression im press impressive impressively

calculation tradition persuasion persuade persuasive persuasively


resolution resolve resolute resolutely
58. satisfaction satisfy satisfactory satisfactorily
1. d. p a in t- 2. b. p e rc e n t- 3. a. refresh - 4. c. tru st- 5. b. c o rre sp o n -
adm iration adm ire adm irable adm iringly
59. confusion confuse confused confusedly
D co n tin u atio n continue continual continually
С 0 R R E С т I 0 N
61. B.
R E X P A N s I 0 N
1. n o u n , -a , 2. n o u n , -a , 3. adjective, -c , 4. n o u n , -a, 5. n o u n , -a 6. adverb, -d ,
E с 7. n o u n , -a , 8. ad jectiv e, -c , 9. n o u n , -a.
A и
62.
T P 0 s s E s S I 0 N
1. e m o tio n 2. ex p ressions 3. re a c tio n s 4. m o tiv a tio n 5. d istin c tio n 6. s itu a ­
1 s tio n 7. in te rp re ta tio n 8. p e rc e p tio n . 9. fru stra tio n 10. d e p re ssio n 11. re a c tio n s
0 D I R E С т 1 0 N 12. id en tifica tio n

N 0 64.
F A S с 1 N A T 1 0 N
Quality Action

Related words Nouns ( -ion) discordance continuance

correct correction annoyance clearance

create creation appearance disturbance

discuss discussion endurance dom inance

direct direction elegance attendance

expand expansion
158 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 159

Quality Action 68.


im p o rta n c e , e n tra n c e , d iffe re n c e , in d e p e n d e n c e , in s u ra n c e , c o n fe re n c e ,
im portance m aintenance
a m b u la n c e , ab se n c e , in sta n c e , a u d ie n c e , allow ance, in tellig en ce, assu ran ce, a p ­
ignorance pursuance p e a ra n c e , o b e d ie n c e , p resen ce

65. 69.
1. a. m ist- 2. d. lo u d - 3. d. like- 4. a. en larg - 5. c. in te n s- 6. a. h o stil- 7. b. fel- 1. a tte n d a n c e 2. a n n o y an ce 3. a p p earan ce 4. p reference 5. o b ed ien c e 6. p re s­
low - e n ce.

66. 70. A.

P A A С Noun Verb Adjective Adverb

E R P V 0 dependence depend dependent dependently

С 0 R R E S P О N D E N С E difference differ different differently

S F E I - F correspondence correspond corresponding correspondingly

1 E A D I confidence confide confident confidently

s R R A D assurance assure assured assuredly

T E A N E excellence excel excellent excellently

A N N. С N ignorance ignore ignorant ignorantly

N С С E С insistence insist insistent insistently

С E E E obedience obey obedient obediently

E M A I N T E N A N С E cooperation cooperate cooperative cooperatively

Related words Nouns ( -ence/ance) 70. B.


1. n o u n , -a, 2. adjective, -c, 3. adverb, -d, 4. n o u n , -a, 5. n o u n , -a, 6. adjective, -c,
persist persistence
7. verb, -b , 8. ad jectiv e, -c , 9. n o u n , -a.
confident confidence
refer reference 71.
1. c o n fid e n c e , 2. im p o rta n c e , 3. c o m p e te n c ie s , 4. p re se n c e , 5. In siste n c e ,
correspond correspondence
6. av o id an c e , 7. b a la n c e , 8. d efe n c e , 9. to le ra n c e .
appear appearance
73.
avoid avoidance
m aintain m aintenance S ta te, c o n d itio n o r q u ality R esult o r p ro d u c t o f an a c tio n P ro cess o r a c tio n
c o n te n tm e n t am endm ent e m p lo y m e n t
d isa p p o in tm e n t a c h ie v em en t g o v ern m en t
e x c ite m e n t a p p o in tm e n t m o v em en t
160 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 161

74. 77. A.
1. c. p ro d u c e - 2. d. falsificate- 3. c. e x p e c ta te - 4. d. e m e rg e - 5. a. d istrib u te -
Noun Verb Adjective
75. accom plishm ent accom plish accom plished
1. e n te rta in m e n t 2. en g ag em en t 3. refresh m en t 4. ag reem en t 5. im provem ent accom panim ent accom pany accom panying
6. p u n ish m e n t
achievem ent achieve achievable
76. agreem ent agrep agreeable
E discouragem ent discourage discouraged
E N developm ent develop developed
1 S G en tertain m en t
M entertain entertaining
J P T A im provem ent improve improved
и L A G refreshm ent refresh refreshing
D I S A p P 0 I N T M E N T resentm ent resent resentful
G Y E M
77. B.
E M M E
1. n o u n , -a , 2. verb, -b , 3. adjective, -c , 4. n o u n , -a, 5. verb, -b , 6. n o u n , -a ,
M E E N 7. adjective, -c , 8. verb, -b , 9. verb, -b , 10. n o u n , -a.
E G 0 V E R N M E N T T
78.
N T T
1. c o m m itm e n t 2. involvem ent 3. d isap p o in tm en t 4. im provem ent 5. achieve­
T 1 M P R 0 V E M E N T m e n t 6. d e v elo p m en t 7. assignm ents

Related words Nouns (-m ent) 80.

state statem ent Abstract meaning Personal qualities


disappoint disappointm ent density curiosity
em ploy em ploym ent visibility tim idity
engage engagem ent intensity generosity
improve im provem ent diversity hostility
govern governm ent flexibility hospitality
judge judgem ent divisibility musicality
legality nobility
fragility obesity
m entality sincerity
necessity severity
162 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 163

84. A.
81.
1. c. refresh - 2. d. m o n o to n - 3. b. d istu rb - 4. b. ill- 5. a. observ- Noun Adjective Adverb
possibility possible possibly
82.
generosity generous generously
P
individuality individual individually
R
density dense densely
Р О
originality original originally
0 S
reliability reliable reliably
s P
sensibility sensible sensibly
s E
generality general generally
С 0 M p L E X 1 T Y R
particularity particular particularly
S T A в 1 L I T Y
confidentiality confidential confidentially
1 T
R E A L 1 T Y 84. B.
I 1. n o u n , -a, 2. adjective, -b, 3. adverb, -c, 4. adjective, -b, 5. n o u n , -a, 6. n o u n , -a,
s T и p 1 D I T Y 7. ad jective, -b , 8. adverb, -c , 9. adjective, -b , 10. adjective, -b.

Y 85.
1. q u a n tity 2. c o m m u n ity 3. vitality 4. p ro sp erity 5. cap a c ity 6. g en ero u sity
Related words Nouns (-ity) 7. eq u ality
possible possibility
87.
prosperous prosperity
NOUN+Y VERB+Y
real reality
quirky runny
stable stability
misty shiny
stupid stupidity
icy jum py
com plex com plexity
funny sleepy
83. sunny chatty
P ro s p e ro u s -> p rosperity , g e n e ro u s -> g en ero sity , a u d a c io u s - » au d acity ,
cu rio u s - » curiosity, c o m m o d io u s —> com m o d ity . 88.
A ccessib le -> accessib ility , c a p a b le - » cap ab ility , p o ssib le -> possibility, 1. c. o rd e r- 2. d. o ffic- 3. c. h elp - 4. d .m o tiv a t- 5. a. insist-
stable - y stability, sensible - » sensibility.
Sensitive - » sensitivity, intensive -> intensity, creative —> creativity, negative ->
—> negativity, radioactive —> radioactivity.
164 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 165

89. B. 91.
- e —> -y double consonant + -y word + -y Noun Verb Adjective
edgy funny chilly sticker stick sticky
icy nutty sandy ju m p e r jum p jum py
shiny runny silky sm oker sm oke sm oky
lazy sunny airy sleeper sleep sleepy
sm oky foggy chewy duster dust dusty

sparkler sparkle sparkly


90.
ru n n er run runny
F
N * I B.
1. ad je c tiv e , -c , 2. n o u n , -a , 3. ad jec tiv e, -c , 4. verb, -b , 5. ad jec tiv e, -c ,
О L
6. n o u n , -a , 7. ad jective, -c.
W I T T Y
s H 92.
1. su n n y 2. foggy 3. w indy 4. clo u d y 5. breezy 6. rainy
S T I С К Y Y
С J U I С Y 94.
A R fu ll o f or characterized by able or tending to
R L painful helpful
Y Y restful useful
spiteful boastful
Related words Nouns/Verbs ( -y)
stick sticky 95.
curie curly 1. c. fa sh io n - 2. d. e x h a u st- 3. c. d e p e n d - 4. d. d a n g e r- 5. a. c re a te -

scare scary
noise noisy
wit w itty
juice juicy
filth filthy
166 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 167

96. 97. B.
P U R P 0 S E F U L 1. n o u n , -a , 2. a d jec tiv e, -c , 3. ad jectiv e, -c , 4. ad jectiv e, -c , 5. n o u n , -a ,
6. n o u n , -a.
S
С H E E R F U L 98.
F L A V 0 U R F U L 1. u sefu l, 2. h e lp fu l, 3. c h e e rfu l, 4. re sp e c tfu l, 5. th o u g h tfu l, 6. c a re fu l,
7. faith fu l, 8. th a n k fu l, 9. b eautiful.
0 M
R E 100. A
G F The suffix -less means "not able to do
S E F U L The suffix -less means "without" something" or "not able to be done,
E U
performed, etc."
T L
childless resistless
F E A R F U L
peerless tireless
U
m atchless dauntless
L
speechless countless

Related words Adjective (-ful) jobless sleepless


flavour flavourful
101.
purpose purposeful
1. c. fa m e - 2. d. foggi- 3. c. easi- 4. d. fat- 5. a. e v id en t-
cheer cheerful
forget forgetful 102.

sham e sham eful D E

fear fearful P 0 N A M E L E S S

use useful S 0 U N D L E S S

T I В L
97. A. A N T w E I G H T L E S S
Noun Verb Adjective I T в S
beauty beautify beautiful N L E S
hatred hate hateful L E s
help help helpful E S s
doubt doubt doubtful S S
resentm ent resent resentful S
thought think thoughtful
168 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 169

108.
Related words Adjective (-less)
sound 0 A
soundless
nam e с T
nameless
, doubt E H S
doubtless
stain G A L Y
stainless
weight Y N E M
weightless
end 0 P T I M I S T I С В
endless
point N С I о
pointless
A С L
103. B. S T R A T E G I с
1. A. helpless B. help fu l 2. A. h o p e le ss B. h o p efu l 3. A. carefu l B. careless
A T R U I S T 1 С
4. A. faith less B. faith fu l 5. A. p o w erfu l B. p ow erless 6. A. ta steless B. ta ste fu l
7. A. useful B. useless I
С
105. A.

having the Related words Adjective (-ic)


in the m anner tending to
character or related to containing optim ist optim istic
of produce
form o f
athlete athletic
panoram ic symbolic Byronic analgesic alcoholic
gymnast gym nastic
enthusiastic econom ic N apoleonic sceptical arom atic
strategy strategic

107. altruist altruistic


1. c. leg en d - 2. d. lo ca l- 3. c. e le m e n t- 4. d. sa lt- 5. a. tru th - ocean oceanic
symbol sym bolic

109. A.
Noun Verb Adjective
apology apologize apologetic
autom ation autom ate autom atic
publicity publish public
symbol sym bolize sym bolic
system system atize system atic
sym pathy sym pathize sym pathetic
170 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 171

109. B.
114.
1. ad jectiv e, -c , 2. ad jec tiv e , -c , 3. verb, -b , 4. n o u n , -a , 5. a d jec tiv e, -c , 1. c. J a p a n - 2. d. S p a n - 3. c. C h in - 4. d. T u rk - 5. a. F re n -
6. adjective, -c.
115.
110.
1. realistic 2. p rag m atic 3. e n th u sia stic 4. o p tim istic 5. sy stem atic 6. specific E
7. basic U
A R A В I A N R
112.
R 0
M odel 1 M odel 2
В U L G A R I A N P
A lbania —» A lbanian G erm an y —> G erm an
A rm enia —> A rm enian Jam aica —» Jam aican s E
A ustralia —>A ustralian M exico —> M exican s E G Y P T I A N
A ustria —» Austrian M orocco —> M oroccan I N
Belgium -» Belgian N icaragua —> N icaraguan
Brazil -> Brazilian A M E R I С A N
Africa -> African
C anada —> C anadian Venezuela —» Venezuelan N A U S T R A L 1 A N
H u n g ary —» H ungarian
India —» Indian Related words Adjectives (-an, -ian)
Italy —» Italian
Bulgaria Bulgarian
M ongolia —> M ongolian
Russia Russian
Russia -» Russian
U kraine —» U krainian A m erica A m erican
Arabia Arabian
113.
Egypt Egyptian
Words mean "pertaining to " Words mean "native o f " Europe European
historian M exican Australia A ustralian
technician G erm an
electrician African 116.
1. G e rm a n , 2. Italian , 3. R o m an ian , 4. R ussian, 5. U k ra in ia n , 6. B elarusian,
librarian Indian
7. S lovenian, 8. S erb ian, 9. C ro a tia n , 10. M a c e d o n ia n , 11. B ulgarian, 12. A rm e ­
com edian Jam aican n ia n , 13. G e o rg ian .
r
politician C anadian
118.
veterinarian H ungarian
Positive meaning Negative meaning
guardian A ustrian
am azing upsetting
m athem atician A ustralian
am using threatening
172 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 173

Positive meaning Negative meaning satisfy satisfying satisfaction

entertaining tiring frustrate frustrating frustration

challenging puzzling M odel 3:


charm ing shocking
encourage encouraging encouragem ent
convincing disturbing
excite exciting excitem ent
encouraging confusing
disappoint disappointing disappointm ent
fascinating irritating
discourage discouraging discouragem ent
exciting annoying
em barrass em barrassing em barrassm ent
entertain entertaining entertainm ent
119.
1. c. d is ta n c e -, 2. d. d a n g e r-, 3. a. a m b itio n -, 4, d. a b se n c e -, 5. d. th irst-.
121 .
120. D
M ode! 1:
I
charm charm ing charm
D S
interest interesting interest 1 С I
relieve relieving relief С О R R Е S Р О N D 1 N G
thrill thrilling thrill
А и Т
alarm alarm ing alarm Р R Е
disgust disgusting disgust Р А R
frighten frightening fright
О G Е
shock shocking shock
E N т Е R Т А 1 N I N G S
terrify terrifying terror
С 0 N F и S I N G N Т
horrify horrifying h orror Т G I
M odel 2: Е X С 1 Т I N G N

captivate captivating captivation N G

convince convincing conviction G

e x h a u s t' exhausting exhaustion


Related words Adjectives ( -ing)
fascinate fascinating fascination
correspond corresponding
relax relaxing relaxation
entertain entertaining
Answer Keys | 175
174 1 Answer Keys

127.
Related words Adjectives ( -ing)
R
discourage discouraging
D A N G E R О U S'
disappoint disappointing
A M В 1 T I 0 U s H
interest interesting
E и
excite exciting
L U X U R 1 0 и s M
confuse confusing
L 0
122. A. H 1 L A R 1 0 и s R

Noun Verb Adjective 0 о


correspondence correspond corresponding s U P E R S T 1 T I 0 и s

conviction convince convincing s s

discouragem ent discourage discouraging


Related words Adjectives ( -ous)
deafness deafen deafening
danger dangerous
depression depress depressing
rebel i rebellious
developm ent develop developing
superstition superstitious
disappointm ent disappoint disappointing
hilarity hilarious
em barrassm ent em barrass em barrassing
luxury luxurious
entertainm ent entertain entertaining
hu m or hum orous
hum iliation hum iliate hum iliating
am bition am bitious
leadership lead leading
threat threaten threatening 128. A.

Noun Verb Adjective


122. B.
1. verb, -b , 2. ad jectiv e, -c , 3. a d jec tiv e, -c , 4. ad je c tiv e , -c , 5. n o u n , -a , caution cautious cautiously
6. verb, -b, 7. n o u n , -a, 8. adjective, -c , 9. n o u n , -a , 10. adjective, -c , 11. n o u n , -a, anxiety anxious anxiously
12. a d je c tiv e ,-c .
am bition am bitious am bitiously
123. consciousness conscious consciously
1.c o n v in cin g , 2. co rre sp o n d in g , 3. e n te rta in in g , 4. c h a rm in g , 5. in terestin g . courage courageous courageously

126. danger dangerous dangerously


1. c. th o u g h t- 2. d. skill- 3. c. sc ie n t- 4. d. re a so n - 5. a. p ersist - generosity generous generously
jealousy jealous jealously
176 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 177

Adjective М одель 2.
Noun Verb
luxury luxurious luxuriously regret —> regrettable

m iracle m iraculous m iraculously transm it —> transm ittable


control —> controllable
128. B. stop —> stoppable
1. ad jec tiv e, -b , 2. ad v e rb , -c , 3. n o u n , -a , 4. a d jec tiv e , -b , 5. n o u n , -a ,
forget —> forgettable
6. adverb, -c , 7. n o u n , -a , 8. adjective, -b , 9. adjective, -b , 10: n o u n , -a.

129. 135.
1. in d u strio u s, 2. tre m e n d o u s, 3. h u m o ro u s, 4. c o n sc ie n tio u s, 5. g en ero u s, «
A
6. serio u s, 7. g racio u s, 8. te n a c io u s, 9. g e n e ro u s, 10. c o n sc ie n tio u s, 11. re b e l­
D R 1 N К A В Л E
lious.
c. 0
132.
С о M P R E H E N S I B L E
Adjectives mean "suitable fo r" Adjectives mean "able to" V
и A L u A В L E
enjoyable com fortable
N В
readable reasonable
т L
digestible variable A E
washable admissible В E L 1 E V A В L E
drinkable com patible L
T E R R 1 В L E
133.
1. c. p erio d - 2. d .n u m b e r- 3. c. m u rd e r- 4. d. h u m o u r- 5. a. disg race-
Related words Nouns (-able/-ible)
134. drink drinkable
M odel I. count countable
irreplace —> irreplaceable believe believable
peace -> . peaceable adore I adorable
notice —» noticeable com prehend com prehensible
replace —> replaceable value valuable
service —> serviceable terror terrible
m anage —» manageable
knowledge —> knowledgeable
change —> changeable
178 I Answer Keys
Answer Keys | 179

136. 141.
Noun Verb Adjective
P R 0 G R E s s I V E
achievem ent achieve achievable
E G
adm iration adm ire adm irable
L E G 1 S L A T 1 V E
belief believe believable
E N
consideration consider considerable
С О M M U N I С A T 1 V E
forgiveness forgive forgivable
T R
responsibility respond responsible
С О M P A R A T I V E A
com parison com pare com parable
V T
excitem ent excite excitable
R E L A T 1 V E I
adaptation adapt adaptable
V
com prehension com prehend com prehensible
E

136. B. Related words Adjective (-ive)


1. n o u n , -a, 2. adjective, -c , 3. verb, -b , 4. adjective, -c , 5. n o u n , -a , 6. ad je c ­
select selective
tive, -c , 7. verb, -b , 8. ad jective, -c , 9. adjective, -c , 10. ad jective, -c.
legislate legislative
137. progress progressive
1. visible 2. valuable 3. n o ta b le 4. possible 5. reaso n ab le 6. read ab le 7. su it­
com pare com parative
able
com m unicate com m unicative
140.
relate relative
1. c. g u ilt- 2. d. in sist- 3. c. p a re n t- 4 . d. re se n t- 5. a. ta le n t-
generate generative

142.

Noun Verb Adjective


appreciation appreciate appreciative
selection select selective
com petition com pete com petitive
conclusion ■ conclude conclusive
destruction destruct destructive
indication indicate indicative
inclusion include inclusive
180 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 181

Verb Adjective 148. C.


Noun
offence offend offensive sim ple —> simply easy - y easily
persuasion persuade persuasive true - v truly noisy - y noisily

com m unication co m m unicate com m unicative autom atic - y autom atically angry - y angrily
full fully crazy -> crazily
142. B. due - y duly guilty —> guiltily
1. adjective, -c, 2. n o u n , -a , 3. n o u n , -a, 4. adjective, -c , 5. n o u n , -a, 6. verb, -b,
acrobatic -> acrobatically gloom y gloomily
7. n o u n , -a , 8. adjective, -c , 9. ad jective, -c , 10. ad jectiv e, -c.
ironic —> ironically exotic - » exotically
143.
dull -» dully doubtful - y doubtfully
1. active 2. effective 3. creative 4. passive 5. sensitive 6. aggressive
successful - y successfully powerful -> powerfully
145. A.
Adjective + -ly 149.
Noun + -ly
gentlem anly silently D

kingly happily P R A С T I С A L L Y 0
m anly widely H A U
m asterly cruelly S u D D E N L Y В
m inutely cheerfully N G T
scholarly rapidly G G R A С E F U L L Y F

saintly badly R 1 U
1 \
cowardly quickly L L
yearly loudly L Y L
secondly naturally Y T H A N К F U L L Y Y
daily briefly
Related words Adverbs ( -ly)
sudden suddenly
146. B.
angry angrily
in a ... m anner once a ... like a ...
cowardly graceful gracefully
patiently weekly
friendly hungry hungrily
loudly daily
ghostly doubtful doubtfully
proudly m onthly
hom ely practical practically
softly nightly
kingly thankful thankfully
bravely m inutely
182 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 183

150. A. 5. To assem ble again —» reassemble

Noun Noun 6. To heat again -» reheat


(concrete (abstract Verb Adjective Adverb 7. To apply again -> reapply
meaning) meaning)
8. To type again -» retype
believer b elief believe believable believably

beautician beauty beautify beautiful beautifully 156.


creator creation create creative creatively 1. To break the connection o f sm th -» To disconnect
critic criticism criticize critical critically 2. To consider unpleasant o r disagreeable —» To dislike
doubter doubt doubt doubtful doubtfully 3. To change o r cause to change in colour —> To discolour
equal equality equalize equal equally 4. To w ithhold approval from —» To disapprove
financier finance finance financial financially 5. To neglect o r refuse to obey —> To disobey
6. To regard as dishonest —> To distrust
150. B.
7. To reject as false or lying; refuse to accept as
1. ad jectiv e, -d , 2. ad v erb , -e , 3. ad v erb , -e , 4. n o u n , -b , 5. a d jec tiv e, -c , —r
true o r truthful To disbelieve
6. adverb, -d , 7. adjective, -d.

151. 159.
1. properly, 2. safely, 3. absolutely, 4. equally, 5. occasionally, 6. sim u lta n e ­ 1. To use wrongly —> To misuse
ously, 7. evidently, 8. exactly
2. To m atch badly —> To m ism atch
152. 3. To fail to understand properly —» To m isunderstand
Prejix re- indicates return to a previous Prefix re- indicates repetition o f an 4. To lead o r guide in the w rong direction —» To mislead
condition (restoration, withdrawal) action
5. To fail to h ear correctly —» To m ishear
recolour regain
6. To behave (oneself) badly —» To misbehave
rebuild recopy
7. To give incorrect inform ation to ' -» To m isinform
renew rem arry

retrace reread 161.


reunite resell Prefix inter- means Prefix inter- means
"between or am ong” "together, m utually or reciprocally"
153. intervocalic interdependent
1. To discover again -> rediscover interracial interchangeable
2. To build again —» ____________ rebuild intercontinental interactive
3. To w rite again -» ____________ rewrite intergalactic international
4. To appear again -> reappear
184 I Answer Keys Answer Keys | 185

162.
1. in te rn a tio n a l 2. in te rra c ial 3. in te ra to m ic 4. in te rp e rso n a l 5. in terg alactic
6. in te rc o n tin e n ta l B 11 com plications, B12 education, B13 Italian, В 14 significant, В 15 arrangem ents,
В 16 preferable
164. №6
Noun Adjective Verb Adverb B ll observations, В 12 m otionless, B13 developm ent, В 14 m easurem ents,
unhappiness unbelievable undo unexpectedly B15 m ovem ent, В 16 accurately

unsym m etry unkind unpack unwillingly №7

unsteadiness unreliable unw ater unsuccessfully B ll invention, B12 powerful, B13 practical, B14 clearly , В 15 carefully,
В 16 am azem ent
unsafety undrinkable unvoice unrestrictedly
№8
unreliability unforgettable unpark unnaturally
B 1 1 cheerful, B12 sadly, B13 silently, B14 pleasure, B15 gladly, B16 regretfully

165. r №9
1. u n m u s ic a l 2. u n lu c k y 3. u n lo c k e d 4. u n lim ite d 5. u n lik e 6. u n k n o w n B 1 1 readers, B12 quietly, B13 com fortable, В 14 pleasant, B15 thoughtful,
7. u n frien d ly 8. u n k in d 9. u n fo rtu n a te 10. u n fair В 16 expression
' № 10
168.
1. in c o n s id e ra te 2. in c o o rd in a tio n 3. in c o rre c t 4. in c u lp a b le 5. in d ecisiv e B ll com parative, B 12tem porarily, B13 suddenly, B14 irritable, B15 sensible,
6. in d e p e n d e n c e 7. in d istin ctiv e 8. im p ru d e n t 9. im p recise 10. im possible > B16recognized
№ 11_______________________________
B ll m u ltiplication, B12 enorm ously, B13 carefully, B14 w onderful, B15 slightly,
Word formation practice B16 statem ent
№ 12
№ 1 _____________________________
B ll wildly, B12 brilliance, B13 exactly, B14 normally, B15 dangerous,
B ll co n tin en tal, B12 populous, B13 surrounding, B14 respective, B15 political, В 16 sym pathetic
B16 glacial
_________________________________ № 13__________________________________
№2 _
B ll awareness, B12 surveyor, B13 scientific, B14 secretive, B15 creatures,
B ll international, B12 different, B13 celebrations, В 14 political, В 15 original, В 16 excellent '
B16 simply_____________________________ ___________________________
№ 14
_________________________________ № 3 __________________________________
B ll chem ical, B 12gaseous, B13 central, B 14conversion, B15 reactions,
B ll invitation, B12 opportunity, В 13 personality, В 14 adventurous, В 16 effective
B15 preferences, В 16 atten tio n __________________________________________ _
№ 15
№4
B 11 m echanical, B12 developm ent, B13 essential, B14 electrical, B15 safety,
B ll anger, B12 sadness, B13 dullness, В 1 4 constantly, B15 spontaneous, В 16 easily
В 16 exactly____________________________ ________________________________ ____