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A review on methods of synthesizing nanostructures TiO 2

A review on methods of synthesizing nanostructures TiO 2 Cite as: AIP Conference Proceedings 1963 ,

Cite as: AIP Conference Proceedings 1963, 020067 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5036913 Published Online: 09 May 2018

Sh. Nadzirah , Z. Khusaimi , H. Fazlena , and M. Rusop ARTICLES YOU MAY BE

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AIP Conference Proceedings 1963, 020068 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5036914

AIP Conference Proceedings 1963, 020062 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5036908

1963 , 020062 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5036908 AIP Conference Proceedings 1963 , 020067 (2018);

AIP Conference Proceedings 1963, 020067 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5036913

© 2018 Author(s).

1963, 020067

A Review on Methods of Synthesizing Nanostructures TiO 2

S. Munirah 1, 2, a) , Sh. Nadzirah 1 , Z. Khusaimi 1, 2 , H. Fazlena 3 , M. Rusop 1, 4, b)

1 NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. 2 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. 3 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. 4 NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET),Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

a)munirahsafiay@gmail.com

b)nanouitm@gmail.com

Abstract. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known materials and being extensively investigated due to the stability of the chemical structure, optical, physical, and electrical properties, also its biocompatibility. There are a lot of efforts have been done to synthesis TiO2 since the previous years by using different kind of methods. In this review paper, we summarize the methods of synthesizing nanostructured TiO2.

INTRODUCTION

TiO 2 is a widely used nanomaterials because of its unique textural and structural characteristics [1]. TiO 2 can be deposited on many substrates such as glass slides [2], metal panels [3], silica glass [2], porcelain bricks, stainless steel plates, quartz plates and many more [2]. TiO 2 have been used in many applications such as photocatalytic systems [4], solar cells [1], lithium batteries, protective anti-reflection coatings and wastewater treatment [5]. TiO2 exists in three mineral forms which are anatase (tetragonal), rutile (tetragonal) and brookite (orthorhombic). Anatase phase mainly used as photocatalyst [6], rutile phase used as white pigment in paint [1], while brookite phase are not much known [7]. Hence, TiO 2 are very versatile and can be used for so many other applications including solar cells, capacitors and food colouring agent. Generally, TiO 2 obtained in anatase phase at temperatures below 600°C and rutile phase starts to occur at temperatures above 800°C. TiO 2 mostly preferred in anatase phase because of high photocatalytic activity, non-toxic, high specific area and photochemically stable [1].

high specific area and photochemically stable [1]. FIGURE 1. Different phase of TiO 2 8th International

FIGURE 1. Different phase of TiO2

8th International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2017 (NANO-SciTech 2017) AIP Conf. Proc. 1963, 020067-1–020067-5; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5036913 Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1668-0/$30.00

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TiO 2 nanostructures are included nanorods, nanotubes, nanowires and mesoporous structures. In preparation of TiO 2 nanostructures, there are various different methods have been done such as hydrothermal method [1], chemical vapor deposition [4], sputtering [2], spray pyrolysis [6], sol-gel method [8], anodization method [1], electron beam evaporation [7], solvothermal method [1], electrodeposition [4] and sonochemical method [1]. This review will focus on the different method of synthesizing TiO 2 nanostructures.

SYNTHESIZING METHODS FOR TIO2 NANOSTRUCTURES

1)

Sol-gel Method

Sol-gel method is a simple and widely used method in synthesizing TiO 2 nanostructures. This method has some advantages for deposition of thin film such as homogeneity, purity and ease of operation [8]. In sol-gel process, a sol is formed from the hydrolysis and condensation of precursor molecules, which are usually metal alkoxides. The most familiar and being used precursors are the tetra-ethoxide, iso-propoxide and n-butoxide of Ti [7]. The transition from the liquid sol into the solid gel are due to the complete polymerization and loss of solvents [1]. In TiO 2 sol-gel process,

Ti [OCH (CH 3 ) 2 ] n + H2O

sol-gel process, Ti [OCH (CH 3 ) 2 ] n + H2O Ti [OCH (CH 3

Ti [OCH (CH 3 ) 2 ] n-1 (OH) + CH (CH 3 ) 2 (OH)

-------------------- (1)

Hydrolysis in (1) are to remove the remaining alkyl group from the precursor. Then, oxygen bridge was formed via condensation within titanium metal through either route (2) or route (3). Equation (4) shows the formation of TiO 2 .

Ti (OH) + Ti (OH)

(4) shows the formation of TiO 2 . Ti (OH) + Ti (OH) Ti-O-Ti + H

Ti-O-Ti + H 2 O

--------------------- (2)

Ti [OCH (CH 3 ) 2 ] + Ti(OH)

Ti-O-Ti + CH (CH 3 ) 2 (OH) 3 ) 2 (OH)

---------------------- (3)

Ti [OCH (CH3) 2 ] 4 + 2H 2 O

TiO 2 + 4CH (CH 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 + 4CH (CH 3 ) 2 (OH)

----------------------- (4)

Thin films can be deposited on substrates by dip-coating or spin-coating [9]. The limitations of sol-gel process is the need to calcine the films at temperatures between 400°C-600°C to achieve good crystallinity and good bonding of the sol-gel films with the substrates [7].

good bonding of the sol-gel films with the substrates [7]. FIGURE 2. The SEM images of

FIGURE 2. The SEM images of TiO2 nanostructures prepared by sol-gel method.

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2)

Hydrothermal Method

Hydrothermal method is conducted in steel pressure vessels called autoclaves with or without Teflon liners. The synthesis are done in controlled pressure or temperature with the reaction is in aqueous solutions. The internal pressure produced was determined by the temperature and the amount of the solution that added to the autoclave. Besides TiO 2 nanoparticles, TiO 2 nanowires, TiO 2 nanorods and TiO 2 nanotubes also can be produced by hydrothermal method.

2 nanotubes also can be produced by hydrothermal method. FIGURE 3. TEM images of TiO 2

FIGURE 3. TEM images of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method [10].

TiO 2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method [10]. FIGURE 5. TEM images of TiO 2 nanorods

FIGURE 5. TEM images of TiO2 nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method [1].

of TiO 2 nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method [1]. FIGURE 4. SEM images of TiO 2

FIGURE 4. SEM images of TiO2 nanowires prepared by hydrothermal method [1].

of TiO 2 nanowires prepared by hydrothermal method [1]. FIGURE 6. TEM images of TiO2 nanotubes

FIGURE 6. TEM images of TiO2 nanotubes prepared by hydrothermal method [1].

3)

Electrodeposition

Electrodeposition is one of the most common technique in synthesizing TiO 2 . Electrodeposition is generally used to produce a coating on a surface by the action of reduction at the cathode. The substrate to be coated is used as cathode and immersed into a solution which contains a salt of the metal to be deposited. Salt solution of Ti-compound used in electrodeposition are TiCl 4 , TiCl 3 and Ti(SO 4 ) 2 [7]. Extra careful step needed to be taken in order to prevent the chosen salt does not dissolved in the solvent and caused precipitation. Hence, hydrogen peroxide is added as an oxidant and

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surfactants also added to promote the growth and structure of TiO 2 thin films [7]. TiO 2 nanowires can be produced by electrodeposition with the use an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) as template [1].

the use an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) as template [1]. FIGURE 7. SEM image of TiO

FIGURE 7. SEM image of TiO2 nanowires electrodeposited in AAM pores [1].

Another related technique is anodization of Ti metal which thin film is deposited on the surface of the anode. Anodization of Ti metal produced TiO 2 nanotubes and all anodization are regularly conducted at an ambient temperatures [1].

are regularly conducted at an ambient temperatures [1]. FIGURE 8. SEM images of surface and cross-sectional

FIGURE 8. SEM images of surface and cross-sectional morphologies of TiO2 nanotubes prepared by anodization method [1].

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CONCLUSION

In this review, we summarize a few methods of synthesizing TiO 2 nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes. TiO 2 can be synthesis by variety of techniques such electrodeposition, sol-gel method, anodization and hydrothermal method. A lot of effort have been done in synthesizing and investigating TiO 2 nanoparticles and the progresses in modifications of TiO 2 nanostructures have brought many new applications and improve the performances.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank NANO-Scitech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and Faculty of Applied Sciences UiTM and Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM).

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