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Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays from Memphis

Chapter · January 2015


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2425.7368

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AND THE EARTH IS JOYOUS...
И ЗЕМ ЛЯ В  Л ИКОВ А НИИ.. .

Essays in Honour of Galina A. Belova


Сборник статей в честь Г. А. Беловой

ЦЕИ РАН
Москва — 2015
УДК 94(32)(082)
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к.и.н. Е. Г. Толмачёва

Рецензенты
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И 20
And the Earth is Joyous... Studies in Honour of Galina A. Belova =
И земля в ликовании... Сборник статей в честь Г. А. Беловой /
Под ред. С. В. Иванова и Е. Г. Толмачёвой. — M.: ЦЕИ РАН, 2015. —
400 С., илл.
ISBN 978-5-904488-06-2
Сборник статей в честь основателя Центра египтологических
исследований РАН Г. А. Беловой, под руководством которой
проводятся российские археологические исследования в Египте.
В книгу вошли работы отечественных и зарубежных ученых,
посвященные истории, aрхеологии и культуре Египта и античного
мира.

УДК 94(32)(082)
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© Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки


Центр египтологических исследований Российской академии
наук, 2015
© Коллектив авторов, 2015
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

List of main publications by Galina Belova /


Список основных публикаций Г. А. Беловой  10

В. К. Егоров, Е. Г. Толмачёва / Valery K. Egorov, Helen G. Tolmacheva


Ренессанс российской египтологии / 14
The CES RAS activities in Egypt 30

Ladislav Bareš / Ладислав Бареш


Architecture of the Late Period shaft tombs at Abusir / 37
Архитектура шахтовых гробниц Позднего периода в Абусире 44

Alexander A. Belov  / А. А. Белов


Navigation within the Great Harbor of Greco-Roman Alexandria / 45
Судоходство в Большой гавани Александрии в греко-римский период 72

Marilina Betrò / Марилина Бетро


The Neglected Queen: Meryetamun of the “Royal Cache” / 73
Забытая царица: Меритамон из «Тайника царских мумий» 84

А. Б. Давыдова / Alla B. Davydova


Появление культа Сараписа на острове Делос / 85
Appearance of Sarapis’ cult on Delos 93

А. М. Фридманн / Apollinaria M. Frydmann


К вопросу о предварительном изучении погребальных масок,
найденных на некрополе Дейр аль-Банат (Фаюмский оазис) / 94
Preliminary study of the masks, found in the necropolis of Deir al-Banat 114

Sergey V. Ivanov / С. В. Иванов


Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays from Memphis / 115
Приношения и крокодилы на керамических жертвенных блюдах
из Мемфиса 128

Dmitry Karelin / Д. А. Карелин


Stylistics of architectural decoration of Roman fortresses in Egypt / 129
Cтилистика архитектурного убранства римских крепостей в Египте 143
8

Alexei A. Krol / А. А. Крол


The “disappearing” Copts of Fayyūm / 144
«Исчезнувшие» копты Файйӯма 164

Sabine Laemmel / Сабин Леммель


Clay canopic jars: an example from TT 23
and its typological and historical context / 165
Глиняные канопы из гробницы ТТ 23
и их типологический и исторический контекст 184

Edward Loring / Эдвард Лоринг


The leather funerary shrine of Istemkheb B / 189
Погребальный балдахин Исетемхеб Б 195

Bernard Mathieu / Бернар Матьё


Le conte du Pâtre qui vit une déesse (P. Berlin 3024, verso).
Nouvelles lectures / 196
Сказка о пастухе и богине (P. Berlin 3024, verso). Новое прочтение 205

И. Ю. Мирошников / Ivan Yu. Miroshnikov


Евангелие от Фомы: λόγοι σοφῶν,
евангелие изречений или гномология? / 206
The Gospel of Thomas: λόγοι σοφῶν, a sayings Gospel, or a gnomologium? 212

Maya Müller / Майя Мюллер


Joseph’s temptation. Three new scenes on a Coptic textile
at the Museum of Cultures in Basel / 213
Искушение Иосифа. Три новые сцены на коптских тканях
из Базельского музея культур 255

Vladimir O. Nikishin / В. О. Никишин


Some blind spots in Spartacus’s biography / 256
Некоторые неизвестные места из биографии Спартака 264

Р. А. Орехов / Roman A. Orekhov


К пространственной ориентации Великого сфинкса,
или Куда смотрит «Отец ужаса» / 265
Some observations concerning the alignment of the Great Sphinx,
or what the “Father of Horror” is looking at 285

О. В. Орфинская / Olga V. Orfinskaya


Классификация текстиля для памятника Дейр аль-Банат / 286
Classification of textiles found at Deir al-Banat (Fayoum) 310

Jerome C. Rose, Barry Kemp, Melissa Zabecki /


Джером Роуз, Барри Кемп, Мелисса Забеки
Presumed opulence and actual deprivation at Tell el-Amarna / 311
9

Предполагаемое изобилие и действительная скудность


в Телль эль-Амарне 318

Т. А. Шеркова / Tatiana A. Sherkova


Церемониальная палетка фараона Нармера в историко-культурном
и психологическом аспектах: солярный культ и архетип самости / 319
Historic, cultural, and psychological aspects of pharaoh Narmer’s
ceremonial palette: solar cult and the archetype of selfhood 331

Е. Г. Толмачёва / Elena G. Tolmacheva


Египетский Вавилон: страницы истории в контексте эпох / 332
Egyptian Babylon: pages of history in the context of ages 352

А. Л. Вассоевич / Andrey L. Vassoevich


Арабская версия египетских царских списков Манефона / 353
Arab version of Egyptian royal list of Manetho 359

Н. И. Винокуров / Nikolay I. Vinokurov


Первые итоги раскопок некрополя городища Артезиан
в Крымском Приазовье / 360
Excavations on the Artezian necropolis in Crimea’s Azov region:
the first results 376

А. А. Войтенко / Anton A. Voytenko


Глава «О святых отшельниках» и некоторые проблемы
раннемонашеской письменности / 377
“The Chapter on Holy Anchorites” and some controversial topics
of early monastic literature 388

Victoria I. Yarmolovich / В. И. Ярмолович


Dating the Bes vessels from the CES RAS excavations at Kom Tuman  / 389
Датировка сосудов в виде Беса, найденных в ходе раскопок ЦЕИ РАН
на памятнике Ком Туман 394

List of abbreviations / Список сокращений 398


Sergej V. Ivanov *

OFFERINGS AND CROCODILES


AT POTTERY OFFERING TRAYS FROM MEMPHIS

The article presents three fragments of pottery offering trays found by


the Russian Archaeological Mission at Memphis. The trays were of horse-
shoe shape, open at front and covered with a small vault at back side;
the vault extended into a spout to channel water. Some of such trays were
topped with model offerings placed in the central part of tray and flanked
by two crocodiles, or with figure of a stretched out man, facing down, put
amidst offerings. These objects can be provisionally dated to the Late
or the Ptolemaic Period.
These objects resemble the Middle Kingdom offering platters and “soul
houses” and could be similarly used in mortuary cult. They could also be
used for the benefit of the living in the rites of apotropaic magic, or as vo-
tive objects.

Keywords: Kom Tuman, Memphis, UCL Petrie Museum of Egyptian Ar-


chaeology, domestic religious practice, offering tray, “soul house”, croco-
dile, mortuary cult, apotropaic magic, votive object.

In course of excavations we find quite a number of fragmented objects,


and their identification is one of our routine games. Usually it is initiated by our
director Galina Belova, who loves to puzzle over indistinctive pieces and makes
a lot of fun of it. This paper is a reminiscence of good time we have in the field,
and is an offering of gratitude to Galina.

In 2001 the Centre for Egyptological Studies of the RAS started archaeo-
logical project in Memphis 1. The Russian concession includes the northern part
of modern archeological area — the sites of Kom Tuman, Kom Dafbabi and
Azizia. The landmark of Kom Tuman is a massive palace of Apries, that marks

*
Centre for Egyptological Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences.
1
Belova, 2012; Белова, 2009.
116 Sergej V. Ivanov

one the highest points of the city’s natural landscape 2. Starting from at least
the Late Period, Kom Tuman was a place for administrative and military head-
quarters of Memphis 3.
During the 2003–2015 seasons the main works were done in the central part
of Kom Tuman, where an area of c. 3000 m2 was excavated. In course of field-
work a number of buildings and workshop installations, as well as elements of
city’s infrastructure were uncovered. The latest stratum (almost on modern sur-
face level or just below turab) dates to the Ptolemaic Period. The earliest strata
reached by excavations so far are dated to the Saito-Persian time.
The material coming from excavations is represented by kitchen and stor-
age pottery, household utensils and remains of diverse production activities.
A significant number of finds is connected with “popular religion” and domes-
tic religious practice — this group comprises various libation basins, fragments
of stelae, plaques of pottery generally representing nude females, anthropomor-
phic figurines (mainly of megalophallic youths and naked women) 4, and images
of gods. These objects are usual finds in settlement context and are normally
considered as connected to domestic worship, to be votive offerings or means
of popular charms for fertility, prosperity, safety and well-being.
There is a significant corpus of evidence related to official cults. But what
did the ordinary Egyptians worship at homes and how did they practice it? These
are rather complex questions, taking into consideration dramatically sparse evi-
dence and the nature of the subject itself. Its study implies solving certain dif-
ficulties 5 caused by the lack of written sources and the fact that people normally
do not leave important or useful staff when move to another dwelling. However
recent case studies of Tell el-Amarna 6 and Deir el-Medina 7 and summarizing
data from all over Egypt 8 bring us closer to understanding domestic religion and
its archaeological evidence.
Being one of the largest cities of Egypt, Memphis is supposed to provide
immense material for such a study. Unfortunately the entire city was never sys-
tematically excavated: the biggest digs were done by the team of W. M. Flinders
Petrie in 1907–1913 at different locations but his documentation is insufficient for
clarification of many essential details. Later excavations carried out by the Penn-
sylvania University, the Egyptian Antiquities Organization and the Egypt Ex-
ploration Society were focused on limited areas and do not provide the range
of evidence comparable to Deir el-Medina or Tell el-Amarna. Current research
of the Russian mission is also not very informative in this respect — the major-
2
Jeffreys, 1985. P. 41, fig. 6.
3
Belova, 2012. P. 32. Cf. Jeffreys, 1999. P. 590.
4
Ivanov, 2006.
5
Stevens, 2003. P. 166–168; Weiss, 2009. P. 193–195; etc.
6
Stevens, 2006.
7
Weiss, 2015.
8
Stevens, 2003; Stevens, 2009.
Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays 117

ity of unearthed buildings at Kom Tuman were badly damaged by subsequent


ancient construction works or modern illicit activities. There are just a few rear
examples of objects found in situ, though all of them come either from layers
of re-deposited soil (leveling layers, filling of foundation trenches, etc.) or from
a mess of robbers’ pits.
This article presents three fragments of offering trays made of clay. De-
spite their fragmentary condition and lack of context they do provide more evi-
dence to our scant knowledge of religious practices performed by the Memphites
in the Late and Ptolemaic Periods.
14bis/S/0005 (fig. 1)
Sq. VII.A9, surface find
Coarse Nile silt, uncoated
H. 8 cm; w. 12,5 cm; l. 16 cm
Offering tray of horseshoe shape, walled on three sides, the walls arch in
a vault that covers the back side of the tray. The vault extends into a spout,
end of which is missing. The front edge of the tray is marked with a low
kerb. Wheel made, remodeled by hand. The front and rear sides of the tray
are left unsmoothed.
Parallel: UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74851.

Figure 1. KT 14bis/S/0005
118 Sergej V. Ivanov

Figure 2. UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74851. © 2015 UCL. CC BY–NC–SA license

A better preserved example at the UCL Petrie Museum 9 (fig. 2) has a simi-
lar scoop shape, but instead of a kerb it has a small rising in the center of the front
edge. It is longer and looks better manufactured comparing to the piece from
Kom Tuman.
This object also seems to be made by remodeling a wheel-made jug (its
spout ends with a rim of a vessel) by cutting away the base and half of the body,
and flattering the remaining part. At Kom Tuman piece this process is traced
by different surface treatment of the vault (which is smooth and has rilling marks)
and the tray itself (which is rough and exhibits deep fingerprints on both sides).
These scoop-like trays are simple objects, the purpose of which is not obvi-
ous. More elaborate pieces clarify their function:
04–05/0104 (fig. 3)
Sq. VII.A9, turab
Nile B2/C, uncoated 10
L. 8,7 cm; w. 8 cm; th. 2,5 cm

9
This and other objects from the UCL Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London are un-
published. Online catalogue is available at: http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/ (accessed on Sep-
tember 1, 2015).
10
Definitions of clay are by Dr. Sabine Lammel.
Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays 119

Figure 3. KT 04-05/0104

Figure 4. KT 07/0061/004
120 Sergej V. Ivanov

Fragment of an offering tray with representation of a crocodile facing


a raised edge of the tray. Hand moulded; upper side is corroded; bottom
side is uneven, roughly smoothed.
Parallels: UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74852, UC 74854, UC 74855,
UC 74856, UC 74858.

07/0061/004 (fig. 4)
Sq. VI.Q12, turab
Nile B2, white slip
L. 13,7 cm; w. 10,6 cm; th. 1,6 cm
Fragment of an offering tray with remains of sculptured offering (horn of
a bovine?) or crocodile (curved tail with notches?). Figure was modeled
by hand and attached to the tray; bottom side is uneven, roughly smoothed.
Parallels: UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74852, UC 74853, UC 74854,
UC 74855, UC 74856, UC 74858.

These fragments were parts of scoop-shaped trays exhibiting a variety


of offerings. Complete examples from the UCL Petrie Museum display models
of food offerings (fishes and (or) loaves of bread) located in the central part of

Figure 5. UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74856. © 2015 UCL. CC BY–NC–SA license
Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays 121

Figure 6. UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74852. © 2015 UCL. CC BY–NC–SA license

the tray (fig. 5). The offerings on five of six preserved trays are flanked with fig-
ures of crocodiles faced outside, towards the performer of ritual.
The spouts of the trays are marked with a figure of a naked sitting (fig. 5) or
lying man (fig. 6) with his arms spread upon the spout 11. At UC 74853 the figure
is located in the tray itself amidst offerings; the man lays stretched facing down,
his arms extend forward with fish offerings (fig. 7).
These trays have little vaults and shorter spouts, and could be done by hand
without using wheel-made vessels as an initial shape (it is certainly the case of
UC 74854, UC 74855, UC 74856). It is likely that some trays had a (removable)
cover, as suggested by four slots on the upper surface of UC 74852 (fig. 6).
Some of the trays are white slipped (KT 07/0061/004), or bear traces
of white coating (UC 74853, UC 74856). Thick white coating 12 that was applied
as a base layer for coloring is usually considered as typical for Greco-Roman ter-
racotta figurines. Material from Kom Tuman, Naukratis 13 and other sites shows
that it was widespread in the Late Period as well.

11
See also UCL Petrie Museum: UC 74860.
12
Bailey, 2008. P. 6.
13
Thomas, 2015.
122 Sergej V. Ivanov

Figure 7. UCL Petrie Museum, London: UC 74853. © 2015 UCL. CC BY–NC–SA license

Due to fragmentary state and lack of context, precise dating of the pieces
from Kom Tuman is a difficulty. The only parallels of them that the author is
aware of, are kept in the UCL Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.
Unfortunately their provenance and details of acquisition are not known; these
objects were provisionally dated by S. Quirke to the Ptolemaic Period 14.
The majority of surface finds recorded in 2001–2015 at Kom Tuman dates
back mainly to the Late and the Ptolemaic Periods. Therefore our objects can be
also ascribed to the same time range.
Despite temporal disparity that should be kept in mind, these objects resem-
ble offering platters, which were in use from the First Intermediate Period untill
the end of the Second Intermediate Period 15. These are pottery trays of different
shape topped with offerings and other objects. More complex platters also referred
to as “soul houses” 16, are models of houses 17 with offerings laid out in court-
yard 18. Most of such trays have pronounced spouts or canals to channel water.

14
The author is grateful to Dr. Alice Stevenson for the information.
15
Kilian, 2012. P. 110.
16
Petrie, 1907; Niwiński, 1975; Leclère, 2001.
17
Spence, 2011. P. 909–910.
18
Kilian, 2012. P. 106–107; Müller, Forstner-Müller, 2015. P. 198–199.
Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays 123

These platters are considered to appear as a cheap substitute for traditional


stone offering tables and develop into complex objects per se 19. They are record-
ed mostly in funeral but also in domestic and temple context 20 and most likely
were used in cult of the dead 21.
The offering trays from Memphis, the ones kept in the UCL Petrie Mu-
seum and the “soul houses” have several common features: 1) concealed space at
the back of the platter formed either by its arching walls or sculptured architec-
tural elements; 2) presence of model offerings; 3) spout or canal(s) for channeling
water (there are trays without model offerings but provided with an outlet). Some
“soul houses” also display a figure of a squatting man facing offerings 22, but this
element does not seem common.
Offerings were an essential part of Egyptian religion, the act of offering
was central in all rituals of interaction between humans and divine realm 23. Of-
ferings were brought to the gods in state-run temples by priests; they were also
made by ordinary people at local shrines or at home. Bringing gifts — real or
their non-perishable equivalents — was supposed to ensure prosperity and fulfill-
ment of wishes of the living, and to guarantee well-being of the dead.
Libations were an important part of offerings. Pouring water was con-
nected to rituals of purification, while liquids could be an offering by themselves.
The number of “lustration slabs” and containers for liquid offerings found in
the houses of Tell el-Amarna clearly show the immense role that libations played
in domestic religious practice 24.
The fact that both “soul houses” and trays from Memphis were equipped
with outlets, points to the main function of these objects. They were used for liba-
tions, during which the model offerings would become real in realm of the gods
and would be passed to the dead relatives, and (or) the liquid would be charged
with magical energy of the performed ritual.
However there is a difference in direction of water flow: spouts of the “soul
houses” are located on the front part of the platter, channeling water away from
the house. Pieces from Memphis have spouts on back sides that let water out
through the vaulted space of the tray. This distinction can be explained by two
factors — the context and the ritual use of the platters.
The classical offering platters and the “soul houses” were mainly connect-
ed with the mortuary cult. According to K. Spence they “provided both an of-
fering place, as the functional equivalent of the tomb chapel and a shelter and

19
Petrie, 1907. P. 113; Niwiński, 1975. P. 97; etc.
20
Leclère, 2001. P. 103–104; Kilian, 2012. P. 115–116; Müller, Forstner-Müller, 2015.
P. 193–195.
21
Kilian, 2012. P. 111. She also provides other opinions on function of the “soul houses”.
22
For example, Musée du Louvre, Paris: E 26927 (Leclère, 2001. P. 108, fig. 2).
23
Englund, 1987.
24
Stevens, 2006. P. 271–273.
124 Sergej V. Ivanov

dwelling place for the deceased in the afterlife” 25. With such an attitude, canals
of water would not be directed through the house.
One cannot exclude that the pieces from Kom Tuman and from the collec-
tion of the UCL Petrie Museum could also be used in the mortuary cult. The main
ceremonies were held at the place of actual burial, but due to the fact that some of
the “soul houses” were found in a domestic context 26 and there is evidence of an-
cestors’ worship at homes 27 we may suggest that these trays were used to ensure
well-being of deceased relatives. The vaulted back side of the tray was not con-
sidered as a dwelling any more, as can be seen by representation of a naked man
squatting or lying atop of it. The arched walls seem to get a functional use — to re-
ceive libation and to forward the liquid to the spout. The human figure may refer to
an actual recipient of the offerings, thus channeling liquid towards him is logical.
The crocodiles, whose figures are put at sides of the trays, were associated
with the creator god Sobek and a number of other deities 28. The images of croco-
diles could be connected with ideas of regeneration 29. Crocodiles could also play
a protective role as guards of the offerings and the deceased 30.
Crocodile images may also indicate the use of the trays in rituals of other
kind. Being dangerous and threatening beasts crocodiles were also symbols of
cosmic disorder. Amulets in form of crocodiles 31, texts and representations on
cippi of Horus 32 and “healing” statues 33 refer to these beasts as symbols of de-
feated and tamed evil, and show their popularity in apotropaic magic.
Therefore the trays from Memphis and the ones kept in London could be
used in rituals related to protection, prevention and healing. They could be less
expensive equivalents of healing statues or similar objects that after a certain
ritual charged a liquid with magical power.
If we accept this point of view, we should change concept of the trays:
representation of a squatting or lying person still refers to the recipient of ritual,
while the model foodstuff on the tray is his votive offering brought to a deity in
order to fulfill his prayers.
The remains of white coating on some of the trays indicate that they were
painted, and this may point to the third way of their use. As far as painting would
not be resistant to libation procedures, the trays could be manufactured as votive
objects. They could be used only once during offering ceremony, or not used at
all. However one cannot exclude the possibility that washing paint away was
25
Spence, 2011. P. 909.
26
See above, ref. 18, and also argumentation of K. Spence in Spence, 2011. P. 908–909.
27
Weiss, 2015. P. 125–126, but cf. Keith, 2011. P. 24–25.
28
Kàkosy, 1980b. Kol. 802–803.
29
Brunner-Traut, 1980. Kol. 796.
30
Kàkosy, 1980b. Kol. 804.
31
Andrews, 1994. P. 36.
32
Kàkosy, 1980a; Berlev, Hodjash, 1982. P. 245–246.
33
Берлев, Ходжаш, 2004. С. 346.
Offerings and Crocodiles at Pottery Offering Trays 125

a part of a magical rite, and that the trays could be repainted as in the case of
the “soul houses” and ritual pottery 34.

The objects found by the Russian archaeological mission at Kom Tuman


were parts of pottery offering trays of horseshoe shape, open at front and covered
with a small vault at their back sides; the vault extended into a spout to channel
water. These trays could be open, or — as can be seen at UC 74852 — sheltered
with a (removable) cover.
The trays were manufactured either of remodeled vessels 35 (in this case they
have more regular shape and longer spouts), or completely modeled by hand 36.
Some trays have no decoration 37, while others are topped with model of-
ferings. In the last case two types of composition can be defined:
1. Model offerings (loaves of bread or fishes) placed in the central part of
the tray and flanked by two crocodiles. Spouts of such trays are amplified with
a figure of a squatting or a lying man 38.
2. Figure of a stretched out man, facing down, put amidst offerings 39.
Provisional dating of these objects — Late or Ptolemaic Period.
Morphologically these trays resemble the Middle Kingdom offering plat-
ters and “soul houses” and could be similarly used in mortuary cult. They could
also be used for benefit of the living, in the rites that required charging water with
magical power, or as votive objects.
The shape of the offering platters that were used between the First and
the Second Intermediate Periods, reappeared a thousand years later. Did it hap-
pen due to curiosity to the past and the tendency to return to ancient traditions?
Or did the practice of using the offering platters change and continue centuries
away (but it has not been yet traced in archaeological record)? Or was it a simple
coincidence, as a similar functional use would produce similar physical shapes?
At present, having very limited evidence we can only pose questions. Fur-
ther study of excavation reports, museum collections and ongoing archaeological
research will certainly provide more information on this subject.

34
Kilian, 2012. P. 111.
35
KT 14bis/0005, UCL Petrie Museum: UC 74860, UC 74853.
36
UCL Petrie Museum: UC 74854, UC 74855, UC 74856.
37
KT 14bis/0005, UCL Petrie Museum: UC 74860, UC 74853.
38
KT 04–05/0104, UCL Petrie Museum: UC 74852, UC 74854, UC 74855, UC 74856, UC 74858,
UC 74860.
39
UCL Petrie Museum: UC 74853.
126 Sergej V. Ivanov

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128

С. В. Иванов

ПРИНОШЕНИЯ И КРОКОДИЛЫ
НА КЕРАМИЧЕСКИХ ЖЕРТВЕННЫХ БЛЮДАХ ИЗ МЕМФИСА

Статья посвящена анализу трех фрагментов керамических жертвенных


блюд, найденных археологической экспедицией ЦЕИ РАН в Мемфисе.
Жертвенные блюда имели подковообразную форму, их закругленная
часть была перекрыта сводом, переходившим в носик для стока жид-
кости. Некоторые из блюд были украшены лепными изображениями
приношений, которые охраняют с двух сторон крокодилы или посре-
ди которых лежит лицом вниз человек. Предварительная датировка
памятников — Поздний или эллинистический периоды.
По форме эти предметы сходны с жертвенными блюдами и «домами
души» эпохи Среднего царства. Аналогично могло быть и их назна-
чение — они могли использоваться при отправлении заупокойного
культа. Их также могли применять в обрядах защитной магии или
приносить в дар богам.

Ключевые слова: Ком Туман, Мемфис, Музей египетской археологии


В. М. Флиндерса Питри, повседневная религиозная практика, жерт-
венное блюдо, «дом души», крокодил, заупокойный культ, защитная
магия, посвятительный предмет.

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