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The primary objective of every business organization is to stay in business so as to be
able to promote the stability of the community, generate product s or services that are
useful to customers and provide the setting for satisfaction including growth for its
members. In this regard employees in the service organisation and particularly those who
have frequent contacts with customers usually serve as representatives of both the
organisation and their products or services to the customers at the point of contact. The
quality of the service rendered and the satisfaction that customers may derive will be an
assessment of the entire service experience. Employees who are empowered and
motivated in an organisation can either portray a positive or negative image to the
customers. Therefore, a satisfied customer and employee are of important value to the
organisation. It is the duty of the management to formulate a system that would
ultimately generate satisfaction for the customers and employees. The employees have a
major role to play in determining whether a customer would enjoy the experience or
contact their competitors for better solutions. However, this study focused mainly on the
impact of employee motivation and empowerment towards the delivering of quality
service in order to enhance customer satisfaction among the employees of an
Employee empowerment, motivation and delivery of service quality are some of the
major factors encountered by most organizations in their daily business practice. It is
then of the highest priority for senior executives of these business organizations to
consider means through which their employees can be well motivated in order to create
zeal and strengthen their working desires so as to be able to exploit their talent and hard
work to the maximum.


This study examines the impact of employees’ motivation and its impact on organisation.
Employee motivation and empowerment were examined to determine their significance
for the organization under review. A variety of factors normally influence these types of
research which the study intends to explore. Some of these factors include employees’
reward and recognition, career development opportunity, quality of the working
condition, the level of pay and benefits, work security, interpersonal relationship and the
perceived fairness of the promotion system within the organization.
“Problem statement is a statement in which focusing on some variable. It provides
opportunity to establish why these variables are important”. There is the more need to
research on motivation, goal is that what employees is to perform at their best and
achieve the objects or not in a specific time. In this the problem is that many of the
employers who don’t work for everyone have struggled for different incentive programs
to motivate their employee. This is the problem which is faced by the many employees of
that company. In problem statement, currently problem must be existing in that
organization and the manager should need to be improved in that organization.
Motivating is the major component of management. Many of the mangers of that company
do different things for example: production, sales prices, performance and etc. the
problem statement of the research is: Why the incentives not for everyone why only for
employees? Why work of the human resources department is not performing well in that
organization? Why the bank not introducing the new products, bank boost the
development of product and increase the range of facilities so that the rate of interest
increases on various product? How motivational incentives impact to the employee at
their best optimal business result?
Acknowledging the importance of employees’ motivation in everyday work, the research
is carried out with the aims to:
 Study the definition of employee motivation, its concepts and methods, and the link
of it to organizational effectiveness
 Find out what factors motivating employees the most
 Provide suggestions for companies and managers in order to increase employees’
 Explore why employees should be motivated.
 Investigate the commonly used motivation theories and approaches.
 Examine the impact of different approaches of motivation on employees’ performance
in the workplace and the effect of performance on business productivity.
 Investigate the influence of current practices to motivate staff in the oil and gas
company on their employee’s performance.


Significance of the Study There are four important ways in which this study will be of
importance and add to collective research literature. First of all, it will provide much
insight into the work lives of mine workers with regard to employees’ level of motivation
and performance because a good motivational procedure is essential to achieve
organizations’ goal. Effective motivational programmes of employees can achieve
efficiency to develop a good organizational culture. Secondly, it may assist mining
industries in retaining, satisfying, and attracting qualified employees since motivation
has variety of effects which may be seen in the context of an individual’s physical and
mental health, productivity, absenteeism and turnover. Employee delight has to be
managed in more than one way. This helps in retaining and nurturing the true believers
who can deliver value to the organization. Thirdly, it will also reveal interesting insight
into the importance of employee motivation and impact on work performance for the
other mining companies and they may use this as a guide when motivating their
employees. Fourthly, it will generate data that may be used to develop a model to prompt
further research regarding strategic guidance for mining companies that are both
providing and using reward and recognition programs.


According to needs theories of motivation, motivation is 'the willingness to exert high
levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy
some individual need'.
A need in this context is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within the individual. These
drives then generate a search behaviour to find particular goals that, if attained, will
satisfy the need and lead to the reduction of the tension.
Needs are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behaviour. These vary
over time and place, as they can be strong or weak and influenced by environmental
Few other factors are:
 To study the level of employee motivation
 To study level of financial motivation non-financial motivation
 To study how supervisor can influence motivation
 To know what are the de-motivation factors.

Secondary data collection methods will be used in order to acquire data for this research.
Secondary data will be gathered through such sources as books, articles, and from online
platforms to get a thorough understanding about the research. Theoretical framework of
this study is built based on the knowledge gaining from this step.

Based on the discussions presented in the literature review, the study proposed the
following hypotheses:
H1: Employee Motivation has significant impact on organizational commitment.
H1-1: Employee Motivation has significant impact on affective organizational
H1-2: Employee Motivation has significant impact on continuance organizational
H1-3: Employee Motivation has significant impact on normative organizational

The main purpose is to study the important factors which are needed to motivate and
empower the employees in their service delivery towards the enhancement of customer
satisfaction. Furthermore, the study examines the extent to which the organization under
review practises employee motivation and empowerment hence improvement in service
delivery so as to generate more revenue for the operation of the business. It then becomes
essential for the study to further research in the effect of monetary and non-monetary
benefits provided by the organization for its employees. Finally, research in the various
programs used by the organization on employees’ development and to provide a practical
suggestion for the improvement of productivity in the organization.


Conducting such a study cannot be undertaken without encountering some challenges.
Firstly, the choice of conducting the research only from Top management ignoring other
branches will not give a true reflection of the entire problem. This is mainly due to the
fact that top management will see as a problem might not be so to the other employees
in the other departments since they all operate from different environments though with
the same objective. This then could bring some bias
Finally, the research was short of resources for its completion including lack of
technology in the chosen time limit hence hindering the accessibility of additional
information to enhance the research might have not been fulfilled.

1. Better productivity
2. Lower levels of absenteeism as the employees are content with their working lives
3. Lower levels of staff turnover
4. Improved industrial relations with trade unions
5. Contented workers give the firm a good reputation as an employer so making it easier
to recruit the best workers
6. Motivated employees are likely to improve product quality or the customer service
associated with a product

1. Motivational rewards may become expected, so when employees achieve them it does
not motivate them, and if they don't achieve them it can be de-motivating
2. May be de-motivating for other employees if they are not motivated as much as other
3. Financial motivation such as piece rate quality may suffer as they are trying to rush.
4. Non-financial motivation such as job rotation lacks specialisation and is time-
consuming to change between roles.

1. Let them know you trust them
2. Set smaller weekly goals
3. Give your employees purpose
4. Radiate positivity
5. Motivate individuals rather than the team

1. Abundant Choices
2. Fear of Failure
3. Fear of Success
4. Lack of Clarity

An issue which usually generates a great deal of attention from Human Resources
Management is the issue of how to successfully motivate employee. Employee Motivation
is generally considered a core element in running a successful business.
An employee is an individual who was hired by an employer to do a specific job. Each
employee has a specific job to accomplish that is often defined by a job description. Every
individual at the workplace shares a certain relationship with his fellow workers. Human
beings are not machines who can start working just at the push of a mere button. They
need people to talk to, discuss ideas with each other and share their happiness and
sorrows. An individual cannot work on his own, he needs people around. If the
organization is all empty, you will not feel like sitting there and working. An isolated
environment demotivates an individual and spreads negativity around. It is essential that
people are comfortable with each other and work together as a single unit towards a
common goal. Therefore, this leads to the term called “motivation”
The term motivation has its origin in the Latin word ―mover which means ―to move.
Thus, the word motivation stands for movement.
“Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they
want to do it”. If we have to put it in a lay man terms, you can do the work of two people,
but you can’t be two people. Instead, you have to inspire the next guy down the line and
get him to inspire his people.
Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees
know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more
effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know what motivates
their employees so that they can get them to work harder.
Thus, employee motivation is a reflection of the level of energy, commitment, and
creativity that a company’s workers bring to their jobs.
Motivation is defined by Rudolf and Kleiner (1989, 1) as “the development of a desire
within an employee to perform a task to his/her greatest ability based on that individual’s
own initiative”.
Harris on the other hand defined motivation as “an educational program which channels
the employee’s efforts towards organizational activities and thus increasing the
performance of the said boundary spanning roles”.
In the 20th century a change in theory occurred away from motivation by dictation and
discipline, which was exemplified by Frederick Winslow Taylor's scientific management,
through the creation of an appropriate corporate atmosphere and addressing the needs
of individual employees.
According to Taylor et al although this concept is widely agreed to be one of the key
management tasks, it has frequently been suggested that no single individual person can
motivate others but can only create conditions for others to be self-motivated.
Various motivational theorists such as Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs which
provided insight into personal behaviour patterns, have been extensively researched.
Other influential research has been conducted by Frederick Herzberg who looked at work
satisfaction, and Douglas McGregor whose theory x and y suggests management styles
that motivate and demotivate employees.
In order to understand what motivates employees and how employees should be
motivated, content and process theories were chosen as the most appropriate to be
researched for the topic under review.


All organizations, regardless of size, market, and technology, want to be successful and
maintain a constant progress even in a current highly competitive business environment.
In order to achieve those goals and objectives, strategies must be developed and well-
implemented with the effective utilization of all capable resources. A few companies
believe that their employees are an important asset that can lead them to overcome
difficulties, exceed their limits and reach prosperity. In contrast, companies that put their
personnel in the centre of the business, maintaining a positive and strong relationship
with its employees, persuading them towards task fulfilment are proved to result in
higher effectivity and productivity.
However, today, companies are also facing challenges in employee retention.
Acknowledging the important role of employees and the huge influence they bring
towards organizational effectiveness, companies are trying to retain employees by
creating motivation and a healthier workplace. This is very important because if the
personnel are not focused well, it associates with a decline in business productivity and
effectiveness. Unless and until the employees are motivated and satisfied, an organization
cannot foster to success.
Many researches have shown that motivated employees perform work better than
demotivated ones. Motivated employees are more innovative as they are always looking
for better ways to complete a task. They are self-direct and goal-oriented. They can
produce high-quality work with more or maximized efficiency and productivity which
also leads to maximization of profits.
Employee motivation has a strong influence on the effectiveness of an organization.
Organizational effectiveness is a broad term but this study follows the concept as
“locating targets and attaining them proficiently in spirited and energetic surroundings”.
“An effective organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense
of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence”. There are no fixed
parameters to compute the effectiveness of an organization since it varies from company
to company and from case to case. However, it can be used to measure anything within
an organization, from leadership, communication, accountability, metric, human
performance, to the delivery systems. In this research, the focus is mainly on human
performance, specifically on the aspect of employees’ motivation. The aim is to prove the
connection and made concrete the idea of employee motivation resulting in
organizational effectiveness.
In summary, motivation is important to both an individual and the organization. For an
individual, motivation is an essential factor that encourages a person to achieve his/her
personal goals. Within an organization, motivation is said to be a factor that leads to
employee satisfaction. Also, motivation inspires a person to widen his/her knowledge, to
explore and unleash his/her full capabilities and potential. Correspondingly, from the
organizational aspects, motivation leads to a positive attitude in the workplace, easy
adaptation to changes and more creativity. The more motivated the employees are, the
more contribution they bring, thus the more profitable and successful is the business.

There are many different theories that try and help explain motivation. Scientists have
been studying the topic of motivation for over a century and have made tremendous
progress for explaining motivation which can be interpreted into the workplace. The
following are some theories that have been proven and accepted by society. These include
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, different types of motivation,
such as intrinsic and extrinsic, and the PERMA model


The Two-Factor Theory of motivation (otherwise known as dual-factor theory or
motivation-hygiene theory) was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the
Analysing the responses of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked about their
positive and negative feelings about their work, Herzberg found 2 factors that influence
employee motivation and satisfaction.
Simply put, these are factors that lead to satisfaction and motivate employees to work
harder. Examples might include enjoying your work, feeling recognised and career
These factors can lead to dissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are absent.
Examples include salary, company policies, benefits, relationships with managers and
According to Herzberg’s findings, while motivator and hygiene factors both influenced
motivations, they appeared to work completely independently of each other…
While motivator factors increased employee satisfaction and motivation, the absence of
these factors didn’t necessarily cause dissatisfaction. Likewise, the presence of hygiene
factors didn’t appear to increase satisfaction and motivation but their absence caused an
increase in dissatisfaction.
This theory implies that for the happiest and most productive workforce, you need to
work on improving both motivator and hygiene factors.
To help motivate your employees, make sure they feel appreciated and supported. Give
plenty of feedback and make sure your employees understand how they can grow and
progress through the company.
To prevent job dissatisfaction, make sure that your employees feel that they are treated
right by offering them the best possible working conditions and fair pay. Make sure you
pay attention to your team and form supportive relationships with them.
Don’t forget that all of your employees are different and what motivates one person might
not motivate another. Paul Hebert of Symbolist believes that benefits packages should
not be one-size-fits all…
“For true engagement to occur in a company you must first remove the issues that cause
dissatisfaction – the baseline benefits offered by the company that satisfy the hygiene
needs of the employee. Then you must focus on the individual and what they want out of
their association with your enterprise.”


The Hierarchy of Needs theory was coined by psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943
paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”.
The crux of the theory is that individuals’ most basic needs must be met before they
become motivated to achieve higher level needs.
There are some needs that are fundamental to human beings, and without their existence
nothing else matters. We – living persons – consider needs as a motivator. We always
start with the lowest level of needs and strive for satisfaction fulfilment; once achieved,
we are then looking to satisfy higher needs. In other words, “a person cannot move to the
next level of needs without satisfying the previous level”. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is
often described in a pyramid shape with the largest and most elementary levels of need
at the bottom, and the need for self actualization at the top. “Maslow used the terms
‘physiological’, ‘safety’, ‘belongings’ and ‘love’, ‘esteem’, and ‘self-actualization’ to
describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. The goal of
Maslow’s theory is to attain the highest level of stage: self-actualization needs.
According to Maslow, the needs from the basic to the most complex are listed as follow:
Physiological needs according to Chandler consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a
relatively constant body temperature. They are the strongest needs because if an
employee of an organization were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would be
first in the employees’ search for satisfaction.
When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and
behaviours, the needs for security can become active. Higher executives of organizations
have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of
disorganization in the organizational structure such as widespread rioting. Employees
often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. (Forsyth 2006,19)
When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of
needs love, affection and belongingness emerge. Maslow states that employees seek to
overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving
love, affection and the sense of belonging accorded them by senior executives of them
When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the need for esteem becomes
This involves needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem an employee receives from
others. Employees have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and
respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the employee feels self-confident
and valuable as an employee within the organization. When these needs are frustrated,
the employee feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, the needs for self-actualization activated.
Maslow describes self-actualization as an employees’ need to be and do that which the
employee was employed to accomplish. A musician must make music, an artist must
paint, and a poet must write. These needs according to Keegan & McDonald make
themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The employee feels tense, lacking something, in
short, restless. If an employee is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking self-
esteem, it is easy to know what the employee is restless about. It is not always clear what
an employee wants when there is a need for self-actualization. These five needs according
to Brian were later separated into higher and lower orders. Physiological and safety
needs were described as lower-order needs, whereas social, esteem and self-
actualization needs were described as higher-order needs.
This differentiation, according to Beeler was made based on the premise that higher-
order needs are satisfied internally i.e. within the employee, whereas lower-order needs
are predominantly satisfied externally by such as salaries, union contracts. In fact,
according to Chandler the natural conclusion to be drawn from these classifications by
Maslow is that during times of economic plenty, almost all permanently employed
workers have their lower-order needs substantially met. The hierarchic theory is often
represented as a pyramid, with the larger, lower levels representing the lower needs, and
the upper point representing the need for self-actualization as depicted in the diagram





The hierarchy is made up of 5 levels:
These needs must be met in order for a person to survive, such as food, water and
Including personal and financial security and health and wellbeing.
The need for friendships, relationships and family.
The need to feel confident and be respected by others.
The desire to achieve everything you possibly can and become the most that you can be.
According to the hierarchy of needs, you must be in good health, safe and secure with
meaningful relationships and confidence before you are able to be the most that you can
Chip Conley, founder of the Joie de Vivre hotel chain and Head of Hospitality at Airbnb,
used the Hierarchy of Needs pyramid to transform his business. According to Chip, many
managers struggle with the abstract concept of self-actualization and so focus on lower
levels of the pyramid instead.
Conley found one way of helping with higher levels was to help his employees understand
the meaning of their roles during a staff retreat…
“In one exercise, we got groups of eight housekeepers at a table and asked an abstract
question: if someone from Mars came down and saw what you were doing as a
housekeeper in a hotel, what name would they call you? They came up with “The Serenity
Sisters,” “The Clutter Busters,” and “The Peace of Mind Police.” There was a sense that
people were doing more than just cleaning a room. They were creating a space for a
traveller who was far away from home to feel safe and protected.”
Conley’s team were able to realise the importance of their job to the company and to the
people they were helping. By showing them the value of their roles, the team were able
to feel respected and motivated to work harder.
In order to get the most out of your team, you should also make sure you support them
in other aspects of their lives outside work. Perhaps you could offer flexible working
hours to give employees time to focus on their families and make sure they are paid fairly
to help them feel financially stable.
To sum up, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be briefly described up as follow:
1. Humans are influenced and motivated by their personal’s desires, wants and goals.
Only unsatisfied needs motivate, satisfied ones don’t.
2. The needs are organized in hierarchic order based on the priority order in human’s
life, starting from the most basic to the most complex.
3. A person can move to the higher levels of needs only when the previous lower ones
are successfully achieved.
4. The higher level of needs a person reaches, the more individuality, humankind, and
well-being a person becomes.

The Hawthorne Effect was first described by Henry A. Lands Berger in 1950 who noticed
a tendency for some people to work harder and perform better when they were being
observed by researchers.
The Hawthorne Effect is named after a series of social experiments on the influence of
physical conditions on productivity at Western Electric’s factory at Hawthorne, Chicago
in the 1920s and 30s.
The researchers changed a number of physical conditions over the course of the
experiments including lighting, working hours and breaks. In all cases, employee
productivity increased when a change was made. The researchers concluded that
employees became motivated to work harder as a response to the attention being paid to
them, rather than the actual physical changes themselves.
The Hawthorne Effect studies suggest that employees will work harder if they know
they’re being observed. While I don’t recommend hovering over your employees
watching them all day, you could try providing regular feedback, letting your team know
that you know what they’re up to and how they’re doing.
Showing your employees that you care about them and their working conditions may also
motivate them to work harder. Encourage your team to give you feedback and
suggestions about their workspace and development.

Expectancy Theory proposes that people will choose how to behave depending on the
outcomes they expect as a result of their behaviour. In other words, we decide what to do
based on what we expect the outcome to be. At work, it might be that we work longer
hours because we expect a pay rise.
However, Expectancy Theory also suggests that the process by which we decide our
behaviours is also influenced by how likely we perceive those rewards to be. In this
instance, workers may be more likely to work harder if they had been promised a pay rise
(and thus perceived that outcome as very likely) than if they had only assumed, they
might get one (and perceived the outcome as possible but not likely)
Expectancy Theory is based on three elements:
1. Expectancy – the belief that your effort will result in your desired goal. This is based
on your past experience, your self-confidence and how difficult you think the goal is to
2. Instrumentality – the belief that you will receive a reward if you meet performance
3. Valence – the value you place on the reward.
Therefore, according to Expectancy Theory, people are most motivated if they believe
that they will receive a desired reward if they hit an achievable target. They are least
motivated if they don’t want the reward or they don’t believe that their efforts will result
in the reward.
The key here is to set achievable goals for your employees and provide rewards that they
actually want.
Rewards don’t have to come in the form of pay rises, bonuses or all-expenses paid nights
out (although I find these are usually welcomed!) Praise, opportunities for progression
and “employee of the month” style rewards can all go a long way in motivating your
Need some inspiration? Check out these 51 inexpensive ways to reward employees from
author of The Toilet Paper Entrepreneur, Mike Michalowicz.


Attribution Theory explains how we attach meaning to our own, and other people’s,
behaviour. There are a number of theories about attribution.
Bernard Weiner’s Three-Dimensional theory of attribution assumes that people try to
determine why we do what we do. According to Weiner, the reasons we attribute to our
behaviour can influence how we behave in the future.
For example, a student who fails an exam could attribute their failure to a number of
factors and it’s this attribution that will affect their motivation in the future.
Weiner theorised that specific attributions (e.g. bad luck, not studying hard enough) were
less important than the characteristics of that attribution. According to Weiner, there are
three main characteristics of attributions that can affect future motivation.
1. Stability – how stable is the attribution? For example, if the student believes they failed
the exam because they weren’t smart enough, this is a stable factor. An unstable factor is
less permanent, such as being ill.
According to Weiner, stable attributions for successful achievements, such as passing
exams, can lead to positive expectations, and thus higher motivation, for success in the
However, in negative situations, such as failing the exam, stable attributions can lead to
lower expectations in the future.
2. Locus of control – was the event caused by an internal or an external factor?
For example, if the student believes it’s their own fault, they failed the exam, because they
are innately not smart enough (an internal cause), they may be less motivated in the
future. If they believed an external factor was to blame, such as poor teaching, they may
not experience such a drop-in motivation.
3. Controllability – how controllable was the situation? If an individual believes they
could have performed better, they may be less motivated to try again in the future than
someone who believes they failed because of factors outside of their control.
Weiner’s Three-Dimensional theory of attribution has implications for employee
Make sure you give your employees specific feedback, letting them know that you know
they can improve and how they can about it. This, in theory, will help prevent them from
attributing their failure to an innate lack of skill and see that success is controllable if they
work harder or use different strategies.
You could also praise your employees for showing an improvement, even if the outcome
was still not correct. For example, you might praise someone for using the correct
methodology even though the results weren’t what you wanted. This way, you are
encouraging employees to attribute the failure to controllable factors, which again, can
be improved upon in the future.
Adams’ Equity Theory Adams’s equity theory emphasised that employees have a need for
fairness at work and value placed on their contribution at work. The willingness of the
employees’ to be part of the Motivational factors -Achievement -Recognition -The Work
itself -Responsibility -Advancement and growth Hygienic factors -Supervision -Working
condition -Interpersonal relationship -Pay and Job security -Company policies 16 success
of the organization depends on the evaluation of the fairness, or impartiality, of the
rewards they will receive. In a reasonable situation, an employee receives rewards
relative to the contribution he or she makes to the organization. Employees are motivated
to preserve a balance between what they observe as their inputs or assistance and their
rewards as compared to others. According to Adam’s inputs such as skill, tolerance,
determination and enthusiasm, assistance given to other employees, experience,
sacrifices made can be defined in many ways other than the number of hours spent at
work. Meanwhile, output is not the remuneration received for the task done, rather it
comprises the various types of financial and non-financial rewards such as recognition
for the work, appreciation from co-workers, promotions received. Thus, for an employee
to feel secured, there needs to be a cohesive balance between inputs and outputs.
Decision-makers within the organization should endeavour to prevent problems of
equity by ensuring that rewards are fairly distributed on the basis of performance and
that employees clearly understand the basis for their pay inclusive of benefits.


A motivational theorist by name David McClelland was noted for describing three types
of motivational need, which he identified in his book entitled “The Achieving Society”. All
these needs can be classified as achievement, affiliation or power. These motivational
concepts lay emphasis on two concepts which are motive and the force of motive on
employee behaviours within an organization. Motive is a characteristic of personality
which tends to develop as personality emerges. The personal motives are frequently
influenced by the hierarchy or higher position the employee intends to occupy within the
organization and that motive will have a greater effect on the employee’s behaviour.
Basically, employees with high need for power are easily manipulated and controlled.
Employees with such desires are demanding in nature, forceful in manners, ambitious
and can be motivated to perform when assigned vital positions or power positions within
the organization.
Affiliation is a need for human companionship. Employees with high need for affiliation
tend to differ from those with lower need. Individual employees with high needs tend to
desire for encouragement and appreciation from others.
These employees with high affiliation are motivated by being recognized for their effort.
This they accomplish by trying to be as a friendly as possible to everyone.
Furthermore, McClelland stated that employees with achievement motives are motivated
by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. These employees tend to be very
analytical in nature and are prepared to take certain risks beyond their capabilities for
the success of their organization. Such employees are usually motivated when they are
able to identify a scanty vacuum of success within the organization. Through very careful


The last motivation theory chosen as a basement for this study is Vroom’s expectancy
theory. The theory, which was established by Victor H. Vroom in 1964, cited the
connection between a person’s effort and motivation with the expected desired
outcomes. It explains the procedure of how a person selects to perform a set of
behaviours over another one, and how the decision made is related to the goals.
According to Vroom, an individual’s motivation to reach a desired outcome is determined
by the three important components, which are expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
The first component in the equation is expectancy, which is defined as a person’s belief
that their effort will resulted in desired outcomes, such as performance or success. It is
also a person’s evaluation of what kind and how much effort should be put in order to
achieve better results or higher performance. For example, an employee working in the
customer services department believes that if he/she tries harder, the work performance
will lead to customer satisfaction. When the employee has a strong feeling of it and is
aware that he/she is able to accomplish the goal, then he/she will be likely to put more
effort to work. In this way, we say he/she has high expectancy. The second component –
instrumentality – refers to a person’s belief that his/her performance is linked to later
results, such as reward or punishment. For instance, if a person believes that his/her
hard-work will be recognized and resulted in rewards, he/she is likely to put more effort
to work. Finally, valence component demonstrates a person’s perception about the
amount of reward or punishment received as a result of performance. If a person feels
that the reward or punishment is well-earned with his/her effort and performance,
he/she will put more effort to achieving it.
Force, which indicates a person’s motivation to perform a set of activities, is the result of
the three components. “In general, people will work hard when they think that it is likely
to lead to desired organizational rewards”. “Vroom thought that people are motivated to
work toward a goal if they believe the goal is worthwhile and if they perceived that their
efforts will contribute to the achievement of that goal”.
In short, the theory implies that when a person reaches a high level of all components in
the equation, he/she will be highly motivated and put more effort into attaining the
desired outcomes.
Summary of theories
In conclusion, motivational theories, especially employees’ motivation theories, might be
broad in quantum, vary in nature and differ in meaning. However, all of them share some
common traits, which are for example, that motivation can arise from intrinsic (internal)
factors or extrinsic (external) factors and the theories so far have proved the outweighed
value of intrinsic motivators from an individual’s perspective rather than the extrinsic
ones (e.g. money) as we have normally assumed.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory, and Vroom’s Expectancy
theory were chosen as the basis for this study because they demonstrate a strong
connection with each other and are supportive with the research topic. The three theories
share a similar and concrete outcome that attitudes do have a huge influence on the
administration of activities and results. According to Maslow, it is necessary for every
individual to fulfil the basic levels of needs before moving to higher ones; and the ideal is
to achieve and satisfy the highest level of self-actualization in the hierarchy. In parallel,
Herzberg’s theory shows that people are not satisfied by the lower needs at work but only
by achieving the psychological needs of achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth,
advancement, and the nature of work itself. Besides, Vroom’s theory also supports the
conclusion by pointing out the dependence of an individual’s work outcomes on intrinsic
motivation, which is mentioned in the form of effort. At last, the theories as well suggest
that the most effective way to motivate a person is through intrinsic motivation, of which,
if done correctly and successfully, leads to the state of organizational effectiveness.


Motivated employees tend to play essential roles within an organization thereby making
them essential and beneficial. Motivating employees according to Bowen & Radhakrishna
is thus not an easy task. Employees’ are likely to be motivated in diverse ways taking into
consideration their various positions or ranks within the organization. For instance, an
employee may be motivated when entrusted with many responsibilities and being
allowed the freedom to take contingency decisions whilst another may prefer monetary
In order for employees to be efficient it is necessary for management to understand what
actually motivates their employees within the environment of the role’s employees
This is basically due to the fact that strategies involved in the process of employee
motivation are considered not to be static. Additionally, as employees draw closer to
retirement, the delight attained in work satisfaction becomes more of a de-motivator.
Employees want to earn reasonable salaries, as money represents the most important
incentive, when speaking of its influential value. Financial rewards have the capacity to
maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance, especially workers from
production companies, as individual may use the money to satisfy their needs. Therefore,
pay has a significant impact in establishing employees’ diligence and commitment, being
a key motivator for employees. Nevertheless, studies have shown that pay does not boost
productivity on the long term and money does not improve performance significantly.
Moreover, focusing only on this aspect might deteriorate employees’ attitude, as they
might pursue only financial gains. Fortunately, there are other non-financial factors that
have a positive influence on motivation, such as rewards, social recognition and
performance feedbacks.
Numerous researches have also pointed out that rewards lead to job satisfaction, which
in turn influence directive and positively the performance of the employees. Moreover,
rewards are one of the most efficient tools of management when trying to influence
individual or group behaviour, as to improve organization’s effectiveness. The vast
majority of companies use pay, promotion, bonuses and other types of rewards to
motivate employees and to increase their performance. In order to use salary as a
motivator, managers have to develop salary structures, according to the importance of
each job, individual performance and special allowances.
Employees can also be motivated through proper leadership, as leadership is all about
getting thing done the right way. In order to achieve these goals, the leader should gain
the employees’ trust and make them follow him. Nevertheless, in order to make them
trust him and complete their tasks properly for the organization, the employees should
be motivated. The leaders and the employees help one another to attain high levels of
morality and motivation.
Trust represents the perception of one individual about others and his willingness to act
based on a speech or to comply with a decision. Therefore, trust is an important factor for
an organization that wants to be successful, as it has the ability to enhance employees’
motivation and foster interpersonal communication.
Irrespective of the degree of technical automation, attaining high levels of productivity is
influenced by the level of motivation and effectiveness of the staff. Therefore, developing
and implementing employee training programs is a necessary strategy to motivate
workers. In addition, a good communication between the managers and the workforce
can instigate motivation, as the degree of ambiguity decreases.
Tella et al. stated, Strategies of Motivating Workers as follow.
Personnel managers must consider four major components of a salary structures
these are the job rate, which relates to the importance the organization attaches to
each job; payment, which encourages workers or groups by rewarding them
according to their performance; personal or special allowances, associated with
factors such as scarcity of particular skills or certain categories of information
professionals or librarians, or with long service; and fringe benefits such as holidays
with pay, pensions, and so on.
This is done through the process of rewarding employees for higher productivity by
instilling fear of loss of job (e.g., premature retirement due to poor performance). The
desire to be promoted and earn enhanced pay may also motivate workers.
Staff training is a substantial strategy for motivating employees.
Availability and Communication: Information availability brings to bear a strong peer
pressure, where two or more people running together will run faster than when running
alone or running without awareness of the pace of the other runners. By sharing
information, subordinates compete with one another.
Today organizations from all around the world struggle to motivate its employees in
order to survive and compete in dynamic corporate environment successfully as
motivation puts human resources into action, improves level of efficiency of employees,
enables the organizations to attain sustainable competitive advantage and ultimately
leads to attain organizational goals

There are various types of motivations that can influence an employee to act in a certain
manner to attain prescribed objectives. These include the following:
Achievement motivation has been described to be the aspiration of employees to excel
and succeed irrespective of the challenges they (i.e. employees’) encounter within the
organization. Employees’ with this type of motivation will set objectives that are difficult
but reasonable.
The objectives have to be challenging to enable the employee have a sense of
achievement. However, the objectives also have to be practical so that employees’ may
believe that when an objective is unrealistic, its attainment is dependent on probabilities
rather than personal expertise or involvement. Employees’ with such ambitions prefers
to work alone or with other high achievers. They do not require praise or recognition
since achievement of the task is their ultimate reward.
Affiliation motivation is the type of motivation that enables employees to relate to their
colleagues on a social basis. Employees’ with such type of motivation perform work better
when they are complimented for their encouraging attitudes towards work. High
affiliation employees prefer work that provides considerable personal relations. They
take delight in being part of groups and when not apprehensive make excellent team
members, though sometimes are distractible into social relations. They can perform well
in customer service and client interaction situations.
Competence motivation has been described as the ambition often pursued by employees’
in their quest to be brilliant at work performance hence high-quality work is
Competence motivated employees normally seek work mastery, take delight in
developing and using their problem-solving skills to be creative when confronted with
obstacles in order to be accorded more respect and recognition within the organization.
An employees’ ambition for power can be of two types namely personal and
organizational. Employees’ who desire for personal power prefers to direct or control
others thus performing leadership roles in their respective organizations and this desire
is often perceived as undesirable. Meanwhile employees’ who desire for institutional
power also prefer to organize the efforts of others to further the objectives of their
organization. Employees’ with a desire for institutional power tend to be more effective
than those with an increasing desire for personal power.
Attitude motivation simply refers to how employees’ think and feel. It is their self-
confidence, belief and attitude to life. Furthermore, it is how they feel about the possibility
and react to the past.
Incentive motivation refers to the situation in which employees tend to garner rewards
from the performance of an activity. These rewards or incentives are normally instituted
by management in order to improve quality of service and efficiency whilst enhancing
customer satisfaction
Despite the variety of number of theories have been studied by researchers, they have
come to increasingly emphasize on the importance of different motivation approaches
toward employee’s performance.
Motivation approaches have been defined as tools and techniques which can be used to
motivate employees. Some of the approaches are:
one of the effective methods is being used to motivate individuals. Saying thanks and
admire individuals is the most commonly ways of motivating employees. It is easy to use,
and it is said usually from the heart and naturally. Looking on the employee’s eyes in front
of others and say thanks, really means a lot. Employees appreciate being recognized for
doing a great job and the feeling of being valued as an individual. The praise tends to carry
even greater meaning and motivational effect. It stated that praise was the response of
the most of employees who surveyed about motivation. Also, attendees from different
seminars about motivation agreed that praise is the most important thing when
motivating employees. In addition to that, ID clarified that praise is the most powerful of
human needs. When it comes to get the best performance from employees, praise should
be on the top of the motivation approaches list.
When employees feel that their managers appreciate and praise them, they tend to
perform better which leads to higher business productivity. So, the more managers’
praise their employees, the easier the tasks will be and the more productive they will be.
Furthermore, when managers look around for a way to complement their employees on
their work, it is a large drive shot. It is served to let employees know that their work and
what have been accomplished by them so far is appreciated.
All these are temporary approaches used to motivate employees. Most of the researches
and studies have proved that money and payments are important to employees relative
to other motivators as earning a lot of money is an advantage for pushing toward
motivation. It clarifies that when employees are satisfied financially, they motivate at
work and work hard.
Financial aspects like payments, allowances, salaries and bounces increase and affect
employee’s productivity positively as a result of a study which has been done by Locke,
Ferne, McCauley, Shaw and Denny, they have concluded that introducing of individual
pay, increase productivity rate from 9% to 17%. So, it is obvious that when employees
are motivated and satisfied, their productivity increases which adds value to the whole
business. Also, Gusto, Jetta, and Katz ell, have done analysis on motivation programs and
productivity, they found that financial aspects and payments are the largest effect on
employee’s productivity.
Furthermore, Judies, stated that paying and salary increments for individuals from the
organizations, increases the productivity. Furthermore, for employees to feel safe in
terms of work, they prefer getting good salaries and allowances rather than receiving
appreciation. Yes, appreciation is important in order for employee’s motivation, but the
previous statement explains that good salaries are more important. On the other hand,
when employees get high performance rate and a very good appraisal, they appear to be
sensitive to whether their performance will be rewarded by money and pay increase or
not. So, money concerns are always there and it is important for employees to work and
give. Recognition- it is a useful positive tool where usually people get recognized by their
work and job done and based on that they receive recognition.
Pinar, stated that employees work harder when they are recognized and appreciated for
their effort toward the work and tasks have been given and this is a simple, easy and
powerful strengthen system. When employees get recognized and appreciated, they do
their best to prove the skill, talents and abilities they have. Furthermore, recognizing
employees is also considered a way of communication that strengths and rewards the
outcomes people create for your business. For that, leaders should develop recognition
system which is powerful for both employees and organization.
Employees who feel appreciated and recognized are more positive about themselves and
their abilities to contribute. It also guarantees positive, productive and innovative
organization environment. Saying thank you as recognition will make the business
Usually satisfied employees who are given higher roles and responsibilities work as
motivators toward unsatisfied employees.
In order for employees to successfully take the new role, they should be given specific
directions and expectations. They also are more open to the new responsibilities when
they feel supported and have all the resources to perform the job.
Employees who are given new role and high responsibilities are motivated to work
harder because they see that all their effort in work will accomplish positive results and
based on that they will receive recognition.
Most researchers agreed that in order to motivate employees and get the desired
outcome from them, we need leaderships, not managers. So, being a leader instead of a
manager is more important for motivation. A successful leader is aware of the value of
helping employees to be successful.
A successful leader is aware of the value of helping employees to be successful.
Helping employees to become more successful on their career and to be recognized and
appreciated is the key concern of leaders.
A basic role of leaders is that they have to understand their employee’s needs and rank
the importance of them and be aware of what their employees enjoy most about the work
in order to adopt motivation.
To be a motivator, it is important to be a leader in order to discover what really motivates
employees and it is necessary to discover the fundamental needs of the employees.
One of the reasons that motivators can successfully be motivators because they
understand that every employee should be motivated differently which are not the
characteristics of the managers and they need time to outline it.
True and real motivational leaders are those who are self-motivated to energize others.
Also, they demonstrate qualities that develop responses to success.
In order for a leader to be a successful motivational leader they have to have knowledge
and skills, always confident toward their abilities, have the commitment and energy and
very winning communicator.
Communication is an important aspect of motivation. It affects directly the employee
motivation and satisfaction and choosing the best communication style to apply on
employees when going for motivation is an important factor on motivation approach. For
example, when management communicates with their employees face to face is a
motivated approach to people than sending those emails.
Employees who know what is going on in the company as soon as they can and directly
from their boss and manager are very important. It builds a good relationship between
them which will help a lot with motivation. By this, they can take the important decisions
toward their job and work.
The other way of good communication style and motivation aspect is communicating
daily with every employee, hold one to one meeting and make sure that they aware about
the changes to the work are an effective way of motivation. As when managers/leaders
communicate openly, honestly and be transparent with their employees has an affective
on motivation of managers on employees.
Furthermore, implementing the “open door policy” for employees to share their ideas and
discuss issues will make the managers and leaders understand the main issues of their
employees will strength the relationship between the management and their employees
which will help a lot with the motivation process


The drive reduction approach is proposed by Clark C Hull, it searches for the relationship
between needs and the fulfilment of needs. This approach believes that every person has
certain drives that create a feeling of tension from people. To reduce such feeling, the
person behaves in a certain way that will stop the concerns. It is suggesting that a lack of
some basic biological requirement such as water produces the drive to obtain the water.
Furthermore, to clarify it, drive reduction theory is defined as the organisms are born
with psychological needs and when they need are not satisfied, they produce negative
states of tension. The drive is reduced when their needs are satisfied and achieve.
Incentive approach is the approach that motivation stem from the need to achieve
external goals. “The incentive can be a tangible reward like money, food, grades or in the
form of intangible compliments, love and recognition” (Jurgensen, 1978). It is a theory
which says that employees usually motivated to obtain the positive incentives and avoid
the negative ones.
Cognitive approach is concerned about individuals’ understandings, believes, thoughts,
perceptions and expectations and it mainly seeks the differences between Intrinsic
Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation. As Intrinsic motivation is the process where people
act for their own enjoyment. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is the process where
people participate in an activity for a tangible reward and outcomes.
“One cognitive approach to motivation, called expectancy-value theory, focuses that the
probability of occurrence of behaviour depends upon individuals' perception of the value
of a goal as well as their expectation of reaching it. Variations of the theory have been
used to study such motives as the need for achievement and the need for success”. The
relationship between individual characteristics and motivation has been discussed as a
cognitive motivational theory.
From the data analysis above, we find that, there are two parts to data analysis; the first
part provided the background data of the respondents and the second part represented
elaborated expression about their response are showed in the form of percentage under
each section which are Extrinsic motivation, Job enrichment and performance appraisal,
Relationships and security, Authority to make decisions and Growth opportunity.
From the study conducted above, it can be asserted with certainty that, extrinsic factors
are great motivator as majority of the respondents thinks. So, an effective scheme of
monetary and extrinsic rewards should be made. It is also to be kept in mind that, after a
certain amount of time, employees may feel the requirement for more monetary
Job enrichment and performance appraisal are also a decent motivation factor. The
effects of these factors are more on the psychological perspective. If the working
environment is good, the employee will perform with more convenience and ease.
Similarly, if the employee knows his/her good performance is being appraised by the top
management and subordinates, then surely better performance can be expected.
Nonetheless in some cases, the employees may feel pressurized by excessive workload
and responsibility which that case works as a de motivator.
Relationships with superiors and peers are also important as deducted from the survey
above. Similarly, job security has also a positive effect on employees’ performance as they
feel more secured doing their job knowing that they are secured with their job. That’s
why it is better to provide a legal agreement during joining.
If the employees are given authority to take decision under their territories of expertise,
then it may very well be used as an enormous motivation tool. They shouldn’t be allowed
to take decision outside their range of operation.
If the employees feel that they have a great future in their respective organization, they
will work with more efficiency and compatibility. So, this is also a great motivator. Such
motivating should be established by exemplifying others working in the same

This chapter concludes the research with a brief summary of the findings of the study.
Additionally, limitation of the research and further recommendations are also mentioned.

Employees are indeed a major contributed component to the business development and
success. It suggests that the motivation of employees can be achieved through the
empowerment of employees. It indicates the degree of which the employees are involved
in decision-making processes, the existence of mutual connection between the employees
and the company, and the authorization over the task they are working on. High employee
involvement shows higher level of employee motivation and satisfaction. Therefore,
engaging employees in meetings and discussions and letting them know that their ideas
and contributions are listened to and appreciated, giving them space and opportunities
to experience and be aligned with the corporate culture, delegating them a higher
responsibility level for the task they are in charge of, and the freedom in making choices
and decisions regarding their specific tasks are some ways to increase the motivation
Furthermore, having repetitive tasks every day is a reason for demotivation, boredom,
and a lack of enthusiasm. Thus, it is recommended for companies to implement job
rotation in order to keep the employees’ interest and satisfaction with work. Sufficient
training programs and feedback systems are necessary to be included not only to provide
employees adequate knowledge and skills to do the work but also to improve the working
environment, techniques, and quality. Proper recognition of well-done work and
opportunities to growth and become promoted are also prioritized as an effective method
for motivation fulfilment. Finally, a utilisation of appropriate management style and
effective communication within all levels of the organization are as well the elements that
contribute to higher motivation level of employees.
To sum up, the motivation of employees can be affected by many factors. However, a
combination of both physical incentive and spiritual stimulation is the most powerful way
to raise the motivation level.
The results obtained from this research can certainly be used very effectively to improve
the present scenario of motivation in different sectors of our country. It will help to
establish a firmer grip on not only organizational behaviour but also employee
psychology. Motivating your employees is a delicate and purposeful challenge that
requires more than an annual review or jotting a few notes in someone’s personnel file.
The following can be suggested based on the research and survey conducted above.
• Based on the result provided by the study, the organization can get an idea of the fact if
they require taking steps regarding motivation.
• The study can also be used to bring clarity concerning how to implicate different
theories of motivation into practical field of work.
• To inspect the extend up to which motivation has been able to meet employee prospect
• To inspire these sectors to enforce more motivational tools to achieve more successes.
• The results can be used to compare present scenario regarding level motivation and the
optimum rate of motivation should be applied to attain organizational goals most
It is recommended that further studies should take demographic factors into account. The
reason for this is because not everyone shares the same motive for motivation. People of
different gender, age, different education level, occupation, position, income, or even
religion and believes will have different expectations of a
job and are influenced by different motivation factors. The research was implemented on
a target group which was students at Vaasa University of Applied Sciences. The majority
of the respondents were mostly from 18 to 24 years old with a
higher number of females than males. The results acquired are valid for the chosen
sample group; however, the accuracy on a larger scale has not yet been examined.
Therefore, it would lead to a more solid and generalised conclusion if other researches
supporting the same outcomes.
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Accessed 3.9.2017. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED316767

People seek security and the underlying needs are fundamental to people’s existence.
After these needs are satisfied, people will focus more on job performance. People also
see social systems, so the sociability aspect of effective organizations cannot be neglected.
Last but not least, personal growth is also important to people, as self-actualization and
the need for achievement and growth are vet powerful needs that influence the
development of effective organizations.
Management should evaluate employee suggestion scheme and use the feedback from
the workforce to improve the organizational environment and fulfil their needs and skills.
People are different and they are motivated by diverse needs, such as physiological needs,
safety requirements and self-actualization needs.
Thus, focusing on employees at every level of the workforce and analysing each
department of the organization will provide detailed accurate information regarding the
needs of employees.
A motivated and qualified workforce is essential for any company that wants to increase
productivity and customer satisfaction. In this context, motivation means the willingness
of an individual to do efforts and take action towards organizational goals. The challenge
for any manager is to find the means to create and sustain employee motivation. On one
hand, managers should focus on reducing job dissatisfaction (working conditions, salary,
supervision, relationship with colleagues), while on the other hand should use motivating
factors such as achievement, recognition, responsibility and the work itself.
Employee participation and empowerment do not only enhance efficiency, growth and
innovation but they also increase employee motivation and trust in the organization. If
employees feel appreciated for their work and are involved in decision-making, their
enhanced enthusiasm and motivation will lead to better productivity and loyalty.