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Clinics and Practice 2014; volume 4:599

An experience with blunt death under 45 years of age.1 World over injury
is the 7th cause of mortality and abdomen is the Correspondence: Nikhil Mehta, Mehta Studio, 24-
abdominal trauma: evaluation, third most common injured organ. Abdominal Gole Bazaar, Sriganganagar- 335001, Rajasthan
management and outcome injuries require surgery in about 25% of cases. India.
85% of abdominal traumas are of blunt charac- Tel.: +919757391070.
E-mail: drnikhilmehta@yahoo.co.in
Nikhil Mehta, Sudarshan Babu, ter.2 The spleen and liver are the most com-
Kumar Venugopal monly injured organs as a result of blunt trau- Key words: blunt abdominal trauma, trauma,
Department of General Surgery, ma. Clinical examination alone is inadequate spleen, computed tomographic scan, early diag-
because patients may have altered mental sta- nosis, resuscitation.
Kempegowda Institute of Medical
tus and distracting injuries. Initial resuscita-
Sciences, Bangalore, India Acknowledgements: the authors would like to
tion along with focused assessment with
sonography in trauma (FAST) and computed thank Department of General Surgery and Head
of the Department Surgery for providing support
tomography (CT) abdomen are very beneficial
in preparing the manuscript.
to detect those patients with minimal and clin-
Abstract ically undetectable signs of abdominal injury Contributions: all authors contributed to the
and are the part of recent management guide- study conception and design of the study and
Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a frequent lines. Approach to trauma should be systemic approved the final version of the manuscript. NM
emergency and is associated with significant and prioritized. About 10% of patients have analyzed and interpreted data; NM, VK, SB draft-
morbidity and mortality in spite of improved persistent hypovolemic shock as a result of ed the article and reference search; SB did the
recognition, diagnosis and management. continuous blood loss in spite of aggressive manuscript reviewing.
Trauma is the second largest cause of disease fluid resuscitation and require an urgent
Conflict of interests: the authors declare no

accounting for 16% of global burden. The World laparotomy. Damage control laparotomy is a potential conflict of interests.

Health Organization estimates that, by 2020, life saving procedure for such patients with

trauma will be the first or second leading life-threatening injuries and to control hemor- Funding: funds were provided by Kempegowda
cause of years of productive life lost for the rhage and sepsis. On the other spectrum, there Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India.
entire world population. This study endeavors has been increasing trend towards non opera-

to evaluate 71 cases of BAT with stress on early tive management (NOM) of blunt trauma Conference presentation: the paper was present-
diagnosis and management, increase use of
non operative management, and time of pres-
entation of patients. A retrospective analysis of
amounting to 80% of the cases with failure
rates of 2-3%.3 NOM is a standard protocol for
hemodynamically stable solid organ injuries.
ed in ASICON 2009 December in Coimbatore,

Received for publication: 29 April 2013.

71 patients of BAT who were admitted in Pre-hospital transportation, initial assess- Revision received: 24 May 2014.
Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences ment, thorough resuscitative measures and Accepted for publication: 27 May 2014.

hospital (KIMS, Bangalore, India) within a correct diagnosis are of utmost importance in
span of 18 months was done. Demographic This work is licensed under a Creative Commons

trauma management.
data, mechanism of trauma, management and Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 License (CC BY-
outcomes were studied. Most of the patients in NC 3.0).

our study were in the age group of 21-30 years

©Copyright N. Mehta et al., 2014

with an M:F ratio of 3.7:1. Motor vehicle acci- Materials and Methods Licensee PAGEPress, Italy
dent (53%) was the most common mechanism Clinics and Practice 2014; 4:599

of injury. Spleen (53%) was the commonest A retrospective study of 71 cases of blunt doi:10.4081/cp.2014.599
organ injured and the most common surgery abdominal trauma patients presenting to
performed was splenectomy (30%). Most com-

Kempegowda Institute of medical sciences,


mon extra abdominal injury was rib fracture in Bangalore from May 2009 to November 2010
20%. Mortality rate was 4%. Wound sepsis was done. After initial resuscitation, detailed Results
(13%) was the commonest complication. clinical history, physical examination, labora-

Initial resuscitation measures, thorough clini- tory tests and x-rays, ultrasonography (FAST)
cal examination and correct diagnosis forms Demographic profile
was done to arrive at the diagnosis. CT scan
the most vital part of management. 70% of We included 71 blunt trauma patients; 56
was done in most of the cases. Patients were
splenic, liver and renal injuries can be man- (79%) were males and 15 (21%) females;
categorized to stable vs unstable. The progress
aged conservatively where as hollow organs mean age was 25 years. The predominant age
of patients was closely monitored and decision
need laparotomy in most of the cases. The time group was 21-30 years constituting 40% of
was taken to either continue with conservative
of presentation of patients has a lot to do with patients (Figure 1).
management or to undertake laparotomy.
outcome. Early diagnosis and prompt treat- Patients who did not respond to conservative
ment can save many lives. management and were hemodynamically Epidemiological factors
unstable and continued to deteriorate despite Road traffic accidents involving both pedes-
adequate resuscitation or who had evidence of trians and vehicular accidents accounted for
bowel involvement were taken for immediate 53% majority of injuries (Table1).
Introduction laparotomy. Inferences were made for various
variables like age, sex, cause of blunt abdomi- Clinical features
Trauma has been called the neglected dis- nal trauma, time of presentation of patient, Majority of patients presented with pain
ease of modern society, despite its close com- signs and symptoms, operative findings, vari- abdomen (66) followed by vomiting in 52
panionship with man. Trauma is the leading ous procedures employed, associated extra- patients. Dyspnea was present in 16 patients
cause of death and disability in developing abdominal injuries, post operative complica- and hematuria in 8 patients. Among physical
countries and the most common cause of tions and mortality. signs generalized abdominal tenderness and

[page 34] [Clinics and Practice 2014; 4:599]

Brief Report

guarding were present in 50 (70%) patients Morbidity and mortality laceration and small bowel perforation
where as 24 (34%) were in hypovolemic shock Mortality rate in our study was seen in 3 accounted for the above. Post-operative com-
(Figure 2). (4%) cases in our study out of which 1 was plications most frequently observed in our
intra-operative. Commonest cause was irre- study were wound infection in 8 (12%) and
Extra-abdominal injuries versible shock in 2 (3%) followed by cardiopul- wound dehiscence in 5 (7%) (Figure 4).
Commonly associated extra-abdominal monary arrest 1 (1%). Hepatic injury, splenic
injuries were soft tissue injury including
retroperitoneal hematoma 14 (20%), head
injury 10 (14%), and hemothorax 10 (14%).
Associated orthopedics injuries in our study Table 1. Causes of trauma.
were mainly rib fractures in 14 (20%) (Table Sn. Causes of blunt trauma Number of patients Percentage of patients (%)
2). Most of the associated injuries were treat-
ed conservatively where as hemothorax and 1. Motor vehicle accident 38 53
pneumothorax required intercostal drainage. 2. Fall from height 30 43
3. Assault 3 4
Time of presentation Sn., serial number.
More than half of the (38) patients present-
ed within 4 h of the incident to us (Figure 3).
Table 2. Associated injuries.
Abdominal injuries
X-ray abdomen, ultrasound abdomen and CT Sn. Associated injury Number of patients Percentage (%)

scan abdomen and pelvis were done and multi-

1. Head injury 10 14

ple injuries were revealed. Splenic injury was
observed in 42 (53%) cases, liver trauma in 25 2. Hemothorax 10 14
(35%) and small bowel in 12 (17%) cases. 3. Pneumothorax 4 6

Among genitourinary trauma; renal injuries 4. Rib fracture 14 20
were commonest in 12 (17%) followed by blad-
der rupture in 2 cases (Table 3). Retrograde
cystogram was done in 2 patients of bladder
Femur fracture
Spine fracture
Pelvis fracture
trauma. Some patients had multiple injuries.
Sn., serial number.
Commonest surgery performed was splenecto-

my in 22 patients followed by perforation clo-

sure (Table 4).

Table 3. Distribution of cases.

Sn. Organ involved Number of patients Percentage (%)

1. Spleen 42 53

2. Liver 25 35
3. Small intestine 12 17

4. Stomach 1 1
5. Mesenteric tear 8 11

6. Retroperitoneum hematoma 14 20
7. Kidney 12 17

8. Bladder 2 3
Figure 1. Age distribution of patients.
Sn., serial number.

Table 4. Various procedures performed.

Sn. Operative procedures Number of patients Percentage (%)
1. Splenectomy 22 30
2. Splenorraphy 3 4
3. Hepatectomy 1 1
4. Resection anastomosis 3 4
5. Mesenteric repair 7 10
6. Primary bowel repair 10 14
7. Gastric rupture repair 1 1
8. Nephrectomy 1 1
9. Bladder repair 1 1
Figure 2. Clinical features of patients. Sn., serial number.

[Clinics and Practice 2014; 4:599] [page 35]

Brief Report

The patients who had sustained blunt One patient of grade V hepatic injury was
Discussion abdominal trauma may have sustained injury taken for damage control surgery but the
simultaneously to other systems and it is par- patient was in cardiogenic shock and suc-
Blunt abdominal trauma is an arduous task ticularly important to examine for injuries of cumbed to death intra-operatively due to car-
even to the best of traumatologists. Injuries head, thorax and extremities. Vigilance and diorespiratory arrest in spite of prompt resusci-
ranging from single organ to mutilating multi care of injuries in any of these systems may tative measures. The other 2 deaths occurred in
organ trauma may be produced by blunt take precedence over abdominal trauma. postoperative course due to disseminated
abdominal trauma. Abdominal findings may be Out of 71 cases in our study 40% of patients intravascular coagulation and shock belonged to
absent in 40% of patients with hemoperi- were in 21-30 years of age group. This goes in grade V splenic injury and small bowel trauma.
toneum. Sometimes, clinical evaluation of accord with studies of Davis et al.6 and Lowe et We accounted for 1 rare case of posterior
blunt abdominal injuries may be masked by al.7 79% cases were males and 21% were gastric rupture which was closed in 2 layers
other more obvious external injuries.4 Non females with an M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The male (Figure 5). The patient had meal 2 h prior and
therapeutic laparotomies have significantly preponderance in our study reflects that the mechanism of injury was assault.
reduced with proper and timely applications of greater mobility of males for either work, such Surgeon should cautiously look for other
imaging methods in BAT patients along with as drivers and mechanics for automobiles or sites of trauma to rule out extra-abdominal
physical examination. Unrecognized abdomi- recreational activities may be resulting in a injuries. Abdominal injuries were associated
nal injury is a frequent cause of preventable higher exposure to the risk of traffic injuries. with various extra-abdominal injuries amongst
death after trauma.5 Automobile accidents accounted for 53% of which most common were rib fractures (20%)
cases. This was equivocal with other studies and soft tissue injury (20%). Incidence of rib
conducted by Perry8 and Morton et al.9 Thus fracture was consistent with study conducted
prevention of accidents can decrease fatality. by Fazili10 et al. but we accounted for higher

Commonest intra-abdominal injury was amount of hemothorax and retroperitoneal

splenic injury in 53% followed by liver injury. hematomas. The higher amount of rib frac-

Commonest hollow organ injury was small tures were probably due to increase number of
bowel perforation. Most common bowel injured upper abdominal trauma. These injuries in any
was ileum. These results were consistent with of the systems may take precedence over

other studies of Davis6 and Morton et al.9 abdominal trauma. Non-recognition of an

In blunt trauma surgeon’s main concern is
control of hemorrhage, but how it can be best
Figure 3. Time of presentation of patients done with safety and less morbidity, depends
extra abdominal injury may contribute to the
patients’ death when a relatively simple proce-
dure might otherwise have saved the patient’s
(hours). on grade, severity and site of injury. life.
Procedures done for splenic trauma in our Mortality rate in our study was 4% i.e. 3

study were splenectomy in 22 (30.4%) and patients. The major cause of mortality was

splenorraphy in 3 (4%) cases. Splenectomy delayed presentation of patients and poor gen-
was done for most of grade 4 and 5 trauma and eral condition of patient. This was in contrast

hemodynamically unstable patients of lesser to studies conducted by Karamercan,2

grades. In 3 cases of grade 3 unstable patients Ghulam11 and Alli et al.12 The reason for this

of splenic trauma splenorraphy using prolene was early presentation of patients in our study,
mesh was performed. Hemodynamically stable early diagnosis and prompt surgical interven-

patients were followed with series physical tion. The earliest presentation was at 30 min
examinations; ultrasonography or CT scans with one case presenting as late as 15 days

thus avoiding unnecessary laparotomy. after the injury. The early presentation of our

Kidney and urinary bladder injuries were patients helped us to start appropriate resusci-
frequently associated with pelvic fractures. tation at time and save many lives.
Nephrectomy through transperitoneal approach Commonest post operative complication in

was done in 1 case of extensive renal lacerated our study was wound infection (12%) which in
Figure 4. Post operative complications. Grade 5 injury and the patient recovered most cases were minor infections and were
ARDS, acute respiratory distress syn- uneventfully, otherwise renal injuries were managed conservatively. This was consistent
drome; UTI, urinary tract infections; DIC,
disseminated intravascular coagulation. treated conservatively. All patients of renal with studies conducted by Beall et al.13 The
trauma who were managed conservatively cause of sepsis/infection in these patients
were followed with regular CT scans and all were necrotic tissue, mutilating injuries and
performed well in their course. Most grade I-IV late presentation in some patients.
renal injuries can be managed non-operatively. To conclude initial resuscitation measures
The absolute indications for surgery include and correct diagnosis forms the most vital part
renal pedicle injury, shattered kidney, expand- of blunt abdominal trauma management.
ing hematoma, and hemodynamic instability. Prompt evaluation of abdomen is mandatory to
In patients with intraperitoneal urinary blad- minimize preventable morbidity and mortality.
der injury, laparotomy followed by repair of the Early diagnosis can decrease mortality by
bladder was carried out in 2 layers and the 50%.14 Mortality is related to delayed presenta-
patients recovered uneventfully. tion and diagnosis, associated injuries and
Perforation closure was done in 17% cases of delayed surgical intervention. Clinical abdomi-
bowel injury. Resection and anastomosis was nal assessment is inaccurate of the BAT
Figure 5. Posterior gastric rupture with done in 3 cases. Bowel injuries form the major patients since there are often distracting
chunk of failure of non-operative management. injuries, altered levels of consciousness, non-

[page 36] [Clinics and Practice 2014; 4:599]

Brief Report

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