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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

By:

Nishant Kumar

Supervisor:

Dr. Vinod Narayanan

Gandhinagar

Contents

• About

• Background

– Navier Stokes Equations

– Orr Sommerfeld Equations (OSE)

• Solution of Orr-Sommerfeld equation in cylindrical equations

• Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) for Fluid Flow

– Development

– Usage

– 2D-PSE for Incompressible Flow

– PSE Concept in Natural Variables

– Closure and Norm

– Solution Procedure

• Conclusion

• References

2

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About

• The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are a new approach to analyse the

streamwise evolution of single or interacting Fourier modes in weakly

nonparallel flows such as boundary layers.

• The concept rests on the decomposition of every mode into a slowly varying

amplitude function and a wave function with slowly varying wave number.

• The neglect of the small second derivatives of the slowly varying functions

with respect to the streamwise variable leads to an initial boundary-value

problem that is solved by numerical marching procedures.

• The PSE approach is valid in convectively unstable flows.

• The PSE codes have developed into a convenient tool to analyse basic

mechanisms in boundary-layer flow.

Here, the emphasis has been laid on the analysis of PSE concept in natural

variables, along with the underlying background and concepts. The

implementation of the equations using FORTRAN codes was done to analyse

the solutions of the equations.

3

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Background

of hydrodynamic stability and analysis of fluid flows.

4

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• Navier Stokes Equations

• the continuity equation and

• well formulated boundary conditions,

is used to determine the flow field. The NSE is basically a statement of conservation of

momentum. For incompressible flow of Newtonian fluids, the NSE in vector form may

be represented as

The work deals basically with the axisymmetric flows and hence it is beneficial to represent

the N-S equation in cylindrical coordinates systems in non-dimensional form. A change in

variables of the cartesian form of the equation will yield the desired form in cylindrical

coordinates (r,θ,z).

5

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N-S equations in cylindrical co-ordinates

6

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• Orr Sommerfeld Equation (OSE)

• Amplification of disturbances: The flow may consist of disturbances caused due to free

stream condition or surface roughness. Disturbances of a certain band of frequencies

get damped by the fluid viscosity and some frequencies get amplified, which may cause

turbulence downstream of the flow.

modes of disturbance on a viscous parallel flow. The perturbed velocity field is

7

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In non-dimensional form, OSE can be obtained from the linearized version of NSE. The

final form of OSE can be represented as

Solution of OSE: For the OSE to give non-trivial solution, we must have

It is assumed that the disturbances are temporally growing. Thus, depending on the value

of c, the α-Re plane can be divided into following domains

• c < 0, flow is stable (i.e., disturbances decay),

• c = 0, flow is neutrally stable, and

• c > 0, flow is unstable (i.e., disturbances grow).

8

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Fig General shape of the neutral stability curve (locus of ci =0 in α-Re space) for a Blasius

boundary layer and for layers with adverse pressure gradients.

9

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Solution of Orr-Sommerfeld equation in

cylindrical co-ordinates

For axisymmetric flows, to investigate the stability of the basic flow, we study the

evolutions of the perturbations u, v and p requiring that

• total flow parameters satisfy the equations of motion and

• they are constrained by the same flow-forcing boundary conditions as the basic flow.

Here, we consider the perturbed flow to be given as the combination of the unperturbed

mean flow V,P and the perturbations v,p

The disturbances are also assumed to be parallel flows. Then the most general form for

the 1-D disturbance q is that of a travelling wave

• whose amplitude varies with r, and

• which moves along the boundary at an angle θ with respect to the z axis.

In complex notation, the disturbances may be represented as

All disturbances have wave number α and frequency β. They are referred to as Tollmein-

Schlichting waves which are indications of laminar-flow instability.

10

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Now, we substitute the perturbed velocity components given into the N-S equation and

subtract out the basic flow equalities and neglect higher powers and product of p. The

linearized disturbance equations may then be written as

We eliminate the terms containing P from the r-z andθ-z equations to obtain two equations

with u,v,w as the unknowns. We eliminate the axial velocity term from the above equations

by using the continuity equation, and by incorporating the exponential disturbance

equation, we get

11

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Considering the flow to be invariable along θ, the above substitution leaves us with a linear

equation and its boundary conditions which are both homogeneous, it follows that the

resulting equation is an eigenvalue problem. The problem can be represented in matrix

form as

The values of the elements of the matrix are given as (here D represents differentiation

wrt r)

12

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Analysis of PSE for Perturbed

13

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Analysis of PSE for Perturbed

14

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Analysis of PSE for Perturbed

15

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• The equation has three parameters: α, c and ν.

• For a given profile, only a certain continuous but limited sequence of these parameters

the eigenvalues will satisfy the relation.

• The mathematical problem is to find this sequence, which has a different functional

form for spatial versus temporal growth of disturbances.

A FORTRAN program that takes the velocity profile as input and evaluates the

corresponding eigenvalues from the relation given by above eqn. was used to analyse the

flow for stability.

16

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Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE)

for Fluid Flow

• Development

The laminar-turbulent transition of boundary layer flows led to the linear stability theory,

assuming parallel flow. The resulting eigenvalue problem, expressed as Orr-Sommerfeld

(OSE) and Squire equations, when used for boundary layer transition, showed deviations

from the experimental results for the neutral curve. These discrepancies were attributed to

• the local assumption of parallel flow and

• the consideration of no upstream development of boundary layer.

Consequently, this led to a more general analysis that takes into account both

• the streamwise development and

• upstream data of the instability.

This analysis further led to the PSEs, applicable to 2D-flows (2D-PSE). These equations

are valid for convective instabilities and relax the assumption of parallel flow.

17

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• Usage

The PSEs are used to analyse the streamwise evolution of Fourier modes in weakly non-

parallel flows.

• It relies on the decomposition of each mode into a slowly varying amplitude function

and a wave function with slowly varying wave number.

• Analogous to the OSE, several stability analyses generalise the flow assumptions in 2D

plane. This concept is inadequate in prediction of breakdown as it neglects the axial

gradients that may influence the vortex.

• This necessitates an analysis technique that can account for velocity and pressure

gradients.

Thus, the 3D-PSE concept originated which has an advantage of being able to solve for

arbitrarily complicated basic states in the x,y plane.

18

Flows

• 2D-PSE for Incompressible Flow

The continuity equation and non-linear momentum equation for an incompressible fluid

with constant density and viscosity are given by

• the mean flow, and

• derivatives in the spanwise z direction.

For stability analysis, we decompose the total flow field into the steady laminar basic flow

V,P and the disturbance v,p.

19

Flows

Under boundary-layer approximation, the basic flow is governed by

For a given basic flow, this system is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equations and hence

of elliptic type.

20

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• PSE Concept in Natural Variables

We maintain the decomposition of the disturbance q into an amplitude function q’ and a

wave function and write the disturbance in the form

obtain in nondimensional form

where the operators L,M and N act only in y and are given as follows (In these equations,

D represents differentiation wrt y)

21

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Analysis of PSE for Perturbed

22

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Analysis of PSE for Perturbed

23

Flows

The derivation of above equation involves the following steps:

• The elimination of the pressure by taking the curl of the momentum equations which

provides the vorticity transport equations.

• The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is obtained by subtracting the z derivative of the x-

vorticity equation from the x derivative of the z-vorticity equation and eliminating w,

via continuity equation.

• the streamwise variation of q’ is governed by the wave function and

• the derivatives qx and αx are small.

The PSE approximation assumes the variation of q and α as sufficiently small to neglect

qxx, αxx, αxqx and their higher derivatives with respect to x. The final equation derived

above is obtained after application of this approximation.

24

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• Closure and Norm

Solving the PSE as an initial boundary value problem is difficult due to the appearance of

dα/dx which affects the operators. In absence of any information regarding the

streamwise changes, we can impose the restriction αx=0 and absorb all streamwise changes

into the amplitude function.

Alternatively, a streamwise independent norm can be imposed on q. Such a

norm can be applied at a fixed position given by the maximum streamwise rms fluctuation

of the function |u|. The deformation of this function may lead to jumps in value of

location. We, thus, prefer an integral norm. For defining α in the domain Θ, we use

to normalize q.

25

Flows

The stability equation derived above along with one of the conditions given above, or any

suitable norm are the closed system of parabolized stability equations (PSE). This system

permits the simultaneous calculation of α(x) and q(x,y) in a streamwise marching

procedure.

Different norms lead to different partitions of the solution q’. The physical

solution q’, however, is the same to within small effects of the norm on the PSE

approximation.

26

Flows

• Solution Procedure

Before solving the PSE, we need to specify initial and boundary conditions as follows:

• specify Re, β, Ω and V,

• provide the same estimates α0 for the eigenvalue and q0 for the eigenfunction as initial

conditions at xs, and

• apply the homogeneous boundary conditions.

To solve the PSE, the differential operators and boundary conditions are

converted into algebraic form by any method suitable for the Orr-Sommerfeld problem.

We use a spectral collocation method with Chebyshev polynomials, together with a domain

transformation.

Since α appears in the differential operators, the system is nonlinear, and a

predictor-corrector approach is employed to find the solution at α j+1 (j is the step-index).

27

Flows

We exploit the following equation to obtain an updated wavenumber

• the norm is satisfied within a given error limit, and

• the solution has converged to αj+1, qj+1(y).

We then proceed to the next step in x where a better estimate for α and αx is known.

The marching procedure terminates if the convergence criterion is not satisfied

within a given number of iterations.

28

Flows

• PSE as compared to DNS

• The Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) method analyses the transition process for

idealized problems of linear stability theory.

• The DNS solution is not yet feasible as an engineering method due to the enormous

computational costs.

• Thus, this constrains the transition simulations in boundary layers to a few runs.

• However, PSE takes advantage of more efficient methods available for solving

differential equations with marching procedures.

The efficiency of this approach and the good agreement of PSE and DNS solutions

encourage its further development as a tool for transition analysis and prediction.

29

Flows

From the figure, we find perfect agreement between the PSE and DNS.

30

Flows

Work Ahead

• The code for evaluating the most unstable mode of disturbance is being developed to

obtain the coefficient matrices for the PSE equations.

• The axisymmetric flow over a cylinder is to be analysed.

• The growth curve for different modes of disturbances and their streamwise evolution

is to be evaluated for laminar to turbulent transition.

31

Flows

Conclusion

• The parabolized stability equations have developed into a mature

approach to analyse the receptivity, linear, and nonlinear stability of

convectively unstable flows into the late stages of transition.

• The applications of the PSE approach for transition analysis in

aerodynamic flows aim towards disturbance environment and location

of the transition point based on the nonlinear changes in skin friction.

• The methods discussed here in the report will be useful in better

documentation of the disturbance environment.

32

Flows

References

[1] Michael S. Broadhurst and Spencer J. Sherwin. The parabolised stability equations for 3d-

flows: Implementation and numerical stability. Applied Numerical Mathematics, 58:1017-1029,

2008.

[2] Thorwald Herbert. Parabolized stability equations. Special Course on Progress in

Transition Modelling, AGARD REPORT 793:4/1-34, 1994.

[3] Thorwald Herbert. Parabolized stability equations. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics,

29:245-283, 1997.

[4] Fei Li and Mujeeb R. Malik. Spectral analysis of parabolized stability equations. Computers &

Fluids, Vol. 26:pp. 279-297, 1997.

[5] S.S. Motsa and P. Sibanda. On the Chebyshev Spectral Collocation method in channel and jet

flows. Journal of Pure Applied Mathematics, 1(1):36-47, 2001.

[6] Helen L. Reed. Parabolized stability equations: 2-d flows. NATO, RTO-EN-AVT-151:4/1-

26.

[7] Vassilios Theofilis. Advances in global linear instability analysis of nonparallel and three-

dimensional flows. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 39:249-315, 2003.

33

Flows

Analysis of PSE for Perturbed

34

Flows

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