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Pardeep Mahajan Mrs. Reena Sharma
Pathankot (145001)

Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak




Especially, in a rapidly changing society,

training and development is not only an

activity that is

desirable but also one that an organization

must commit

its resources to if it is to maintain a viable and

knowledgeable workforce.

Training is a process of learning a sequence of

programmed behavior. It is application of knowledge. It

gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to

guide their behavior. It attempts to improve their

performance on the current job or prepare them for an

intended job. The purpose of training is to achieve a


change in the behavior of those trained and to enable them

to perform better. In order to achieve this objective, any

training programme should try to bring positive changes


Knowledge. It helps a trainee to know facts, policies,

procedures and rules pertaining to his job.

Skills. It helps him to increase his technical and

manual efficiency necessary to do the job.

Attitude. It moulds his behavior towards his co-workers

and supervisors and creates and sense of responsibility in

the trainee.


It equips the management to face pressure of changing


It usually results in the increase of quantity and quality of


It leads to job satisfaction and higher morale of the


Trained workers need lesser supervision.

Trained workers enable the enterprise to face competition

from rival organizations.

It enables employees to develop and rise within the

organization and increase their earning capacity.

It moulds the employees attitudes and helps them to


better co-operation with the organization.

Trained employees make better economic use of materials


and equipment resulting in reduction of wastage and


Training instructs the workers towards better job

and reduces the tare of labour turnover and absenteeism.

Benefits of Training: - Benefits are of two types

Benefits to Organization

Higher Productivity. Training can help employees to

increase their level of performance on their present
assignment. It enhances skills. Increased performance and
productivity are most evident on the part of new employees
who are not yet fully aware of the most efficient and
effective ways of performing their jobs.

Better Organizational Climate. An endless chain of

positive reactions results from a well planned training
programme. Increased morale, less supervisory pressures,
improved product quality, increased financial incentives,
internal promotions etc., result in better organizational

Less Supervision. Training does not eliminate the need

for supervision; it reduces the need for constant

Prevents Manpower Obsolescence. Manpower

obsolescence is prevented by training as it fosters the
initiative and creativity of employees. An employee is able
to adapt himself to technological changes.

Economical Operations. Trained personnel will make

economical use of materials and equipment. This reduces
wastage in materials and damage to machinery and

Prevents industrial Accidents. Proper tainting can

help to prevent industrial accidents.

Improves Quality. Trained employees are less likely to

make operational mistakes thereby increasing the quality of
the company’s products.

Greater Loyalty. A common objective of training

programme will mould employees attitudes to achieve
support for organizational activities and to obtain better co-
operation and greater loyalty. Thus, training helps in
building and efficient and loyal workforce.

To Fulfill Organization’s Future Personnel Needs.

When the need arises, organizational vacancies can
be staffed from internal sources, if an organization initiates
and maintains an adequate tainting programme.

Standardization Of Procedures. Trinied employees will

work intelligently and make fewer mistakes when they
possess the required know-how and understand their jobs.


Personal Growth. Employees on a personal basis gain

individually from training. They secure wider awareness,
enlarged skill and enhanced personal growth.

Development of New Skills. Training improves the

performance of the employees and makes them more useful
and productive. The skill developed through training serves
as a valuable personal assets to the employee. It remains
permanently with the employee.

Higher Earning Capacity. By imparting skills, training

facilitates higher remuneration and other monetary benefits
to the employee. Thus, training helps each employee to
utilize and develop his full potential.

Increased Safety. Proper training can help in preventing

industrial accidents. Trained workers handle the machines
safely. Thus, they are less prone to industrial accidents.

Types of Training Programmes

Induction or Orientation Training

It is a training programme used to induct a new employee

into the new social setting of his work. The new employee
is introduced to his job situation and to his co-employees.
He is also informed about the rules, working conditions,
privileges and activities of the company. The induction
training not only helps personal adjustment of the new
employee to his job but also promotes good morale in the


To build up the new employee’s confidence in the

To ensure that the new employee may not form false
impressions regarding their place of work.
To promote a feeling of belonging and loyalty.
To give information to the new employee about canteen,
leave rules and other facilities etc.

Job Training

The object of job training is to increase the

knowledge of workers about the job so that their efficiency

and performance are improved. In job training,
workers are enable to learn correct methods of handling

machines and equipment avoiding accidents, minimizing

wastes etc.

Under this technique an employee is placed in a new

job and is told how it may be performed. The employees

learn the job by personal observation and practice as well

as occasionally handling it. It is learning by doing, and it

is most useful for jobs. The actual training follows a four-

step process:

Preparation of the trainee for instruction.

Presentation of the instructions in a clear manner.

Having the trainee try out the job to show that he has
understood the instructions.

Encouraging the question and allowing the trainee to work

along and the trainer follow up regularly

Promotional Training

Many concerns follow a policy of filling some to the

vacancies at higher levels by promoting existing

employees. This policy increases the morale of

workers. When the existing employees are promoted

to superior position in the organization, they are

required to shoulder new responsibilities. For this

training has to be given.

Refresher Training

With the passage if time, employees may forger


some of the methods, which were taught to them, or

they may have become outdated because of

technological development and improved techniques

of management and production. Hence, refresher

training is arranged for existing employees in order

to provide them an opportunity of revive and also

improve their knowledge.

Employees require training to bring them up-to-date

with the knowledge and skills and to relearn what

they have forgotten.

Rapid technological changes make even the most

qualified workers obsolete in course of time.

Refresher training becomes necessary because many

new jobs are created and are to be manned by the

existing employees.

Apprenticeship Training

Apprenticeship training system is widely in vogue

today in many industries. It is the source of providing

the required personnel for the industry. The

apprenticeship programmes combine on-the-job

training and experience with classroom instructions

in particular subjects. Apprenticeship training is

desirable in industries, which require a constant flow

of new employees expected to become all-round


Internship Training

Internship training is usually meant for such

vocations where advance theoretical knowledge is to

be backed up by practical experience on the job. For

example, Engineering students are sent to industrial

enterprise and Medical students are sent to hospitals

for practical knowledge.


Vestibule Training.

In this method, actual work conditions are simulated

in a class room. In vestibule training. Theory can be

related to practice. This type of training is commonly

used for training employees for electrical and semi-

skilled jobs.

The lecture method, which focuses on theoretical

framework and the principles involved in the job

performance and

The practical exercises based on the theoretical

aspects in a workshop which is similar to the shop

floor in the production department.

Steps in Training Programme

Training Programme is a costly and time-consuming

process. The following steps are usually considered


Identifying Training needs.


Preparing the instruction or getting ready for the job.

Preparing the trainee.

Presenting the operation.

Try out the trainees’ performance.

Follow-up or Rewards and feedback.

Discovering Or Identifying The Training Needs

A training programme should be established only

when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of

specific problems. Identification of training needs must

contain three types of analysis.

Organizational Analysis. Determine the


organization’s goals, its resources and the allocation

of the resources as they related to the organizational


Operations Analysis. Focus on the task or job

regardless of the employee doing the job.

Man Analysis. Reviews the knowledge, attitudes

and skills a person must acquire to contribute

satisfactorily to the attainment of organizational


Preparing the Instructor

The instructor is the key figure in the entire

programme. He must know both the job to be taught

and how to teach it. The job must be divided into

logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper

time without the trainee losing perspective of the

whole. This becomes a lesson plan. For Each part

one should have in mind the desired technique of



Preparing the Trainee

Putting the learner at ease.

Stating the importance and ingredients of the

job and its relationship to work flow.

Explaining why he is being taught.

Creating interest and encouraging questions.

Explaining the ‘why’ of the whole job and

relating it to some job the worker already


Placing the learner as close to his normal

position as possible, and


Familiarizing him with the equipment,

materials, tools and trade terms.

Presenting The Operations

There are many ways of presenting the operation

namely, explanation, and demonstration etc. an

instructor mostly uses the method of explanation. In

addition one may illustrate various points through the

use of pictures, charts, diagrams and other training

aids. Demonstration is an excellent device when the

job is essentially physical in nature.

Explain the course of the job.

Do the job step by step according to the procedure.

Explain each step that he is performing.

Have the trainee explain the entire job.

Try Out The Trainees’ Performance


Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job

several times slowly, explaining him each step.

Mistakes are corrected and if necessary, some

complicated steps are done for the trainee the first

time. Then the trainee is asked to do the job,

gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the

trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in the

right way.


The final step in most training procedures is that of

follow up. This step is undertaken with a view to

testing the effectiveness of training efforts. It is

worth remembering that if the learner hasn’t learnt,

the teacher hasn’t taught.

Selection of a Training Method

Nature of Problem Area

The choice of training method depends upon the task


to be done or the manner in which people interact

with each other.

Level of Trainees in the Organization’s Hierarchy

Method’s Ability To Hold And Arouse The Interest Of

Trainees During The Training Period

Availability Of Competent Trainers

A training method is as effective as the ability of the

trainers. He is the most important figure in the entire

training programme. Therefore before venturing into

a training programme we have to first find a good


Availability of Finance

Availability of finance is crucial for any training

programme. To make a training programme effective

adequate finance is necessary.

Availability of Time

Training cannot be done in a hurry. Adequate time is

necessary to make the training programme as




Executive or management development is a long-term

educational process utilizing a systematic and organized

procedure by which managerial personnel learn

conceptual and theoretical knowledge. Executive or

Management Development implies that there will be a

change in knowledge and behavior of the individuals

undergoing development programme. Self-development is

an important concept in the whole programme of

management development.

Method of Executive Development

On-the-Job Methods

Coaching. This is learning through on-the-job

experience. Coaching involvers direct personal

instructions and guidance usually with demonstration and

continuous critical evaluation and correction. Coaching is

given by a superior as he teaches job knowledge and skills


to a subordinate.

It provides an opportunity to a trainee to develop


It provides quick feedback to the trainee as well as

trainer of what they lack and what measures can be

taken to overcome their shortcomings.

Job Rotation. Job rotation is a means for management

development offers certain positive contributions. It

allows the managers to appreciate the intricacies involved

in difficult jobs and how their own jobs are affected by

such intricacies. The trainee is periodically rotated from

job to job so that he acquires a general background of

different jobs.

Special Projects. Under this method, a trainee is

assigned a project that closely related to the objectives of

his department. The trainee will study the problem and

make recommendations upon it.

Committee assignments. Under this method, an

adhoc committee is constituted and assigned a subject to

discuss and make recommendations. The committee will

make a study of the problem and present its suggestions to

the departmental head. The trainees have to work together

and offer solutions to the problem. This method helps

trainees to solve an actual organizational problem.


Role Playing. Here various individuals are given the roles

of different managers who are required to solve a problem

or to arrive at a decision. Role playing helps the trainees

to develop better perspective in performing their jobs

because they may see the jobs from different angles.

Case Study.

It produces realism into formal instruction.

It develops the decision-making ability in the trainee.


It develops a cooperative approach and independent

thinking in work-related situations.

It demonstrates various types of goals, facts and

conditions obtained from real organizational settings.

The trainee is expected to study the information

given in the case and make decisions based on the

situation. The case method is used in the classroom

with an instructor who serves as a facilitator.

The trainees may be given a problem to discuss

which is more or less related to the principles already


Conference Training. In this method, the trainer

delivers a lecture and involves the trainees in a discussion

so that doubts, if any, are clarified. The conference

method is a group-centered approach where there is a

clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and


standards. The trainee as a member can learn from others.

Management Games. A management game is a

classroom exercise in which teams of students compete

against each other to achieve common objectives. Two or

more teams participate depending on the situation, with

each team having 4 to 7 participants. Each competing

team is given a company to operate in the light of the

situation provided in the game.

The participants develop skills particularly

diagnostic decision-making skills and group

interactions skills.

Participants learn to operate in a competitive environment.

Sensitivity Training, or T Group Training. In

sensitivity training, a small group of ten to twelve people

is assisted by a professional behavioural scientist who acts

as a catalyst and trainer fo the group. Leaderless group

discussion takes place where group members express their


ideas and feelings freely. They can discuss anything they


In-Basket Exercise. Also called ‘In-tray’ method

of training, in this method, the participants are given a

number of business papers such as memoranda, reports

and telephone messages that would typically come to a

manager’s desk. Present the exercise to the trainee and to

note his reaction. Papers are given to the participant and

he is required to act on the information contained in these


Syndicate Method. Groups of trainees consisting of

8-10 members in each group are involved in the analysis

of a problem. Each group is given a brief about the

problem. Each group independently discusses the issues

involved and presents its ideas. These are then evaluated

by group members with the help of the trainer.

Multi-management.Also known as ‘Junior-Board of


executives’, it is a system in which permanent advisory

committees as constituted to study problems of the

organizations and make recommendations to top level


Special Courses. The executives may be required to

attend special courses, which are formally organized by

the enterprise with the help of experts from educational



Since organizations exist to achieve goals, the degree of

success that individual employees have in reaching their
individual goals is important in determining organizational
effectiveness. The assessment of how successful employees
have been at meeting their individual goals, therefore,
becomes a critical part of HRM. This leads us to the topic
of performance appraisal.

People differ in their abilities and aptitudes. These

differences are natural to a great extent and cannot be

eliminated even by giving the same basic education and

training to them. There will be some differences in the
quality and quantity of work done by different employees
even on the same job. Therefore, it is necessary for
management to know these differences so that the
employees having better abilities may be rewarded and the
wrong placements of employees may be rectified through
transfers. The individual employee may also like to know
the level of his performance in comparison to his fellow
employees so that he may improve on it. Thus, there is a
great need to have suitable performance appraisal system to
measure the relative merit of each employee.

The basic purpose of performance appraisal is to

facilitate orderly determination of an employee’s worth to
the organization of which he is a part. However, a fair
determination of the worth of an employee can take place
only by appraising numerous factors some of which are
highly subjective, as for instant, attendance, while others
are highly subjective, as for instant, attitude and
personality. The objective factor can be assessed accurately
on the basis of records maintained by the Human resource
or personnel Department, but there is no device to measure
the subjective factor precisely. Notwithstanding this,

appraisal of these factors must be done to achieve the full

appreciation of every employee merit.

Definitions. According to Wendell French, performance

appraisal is, “the formal, systematic assessment of how

well employees are performing their jobs in relation to

established standards, and the communication of that

assessment to employees”.

According to Flippo “Performance appraisal is the

systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an

employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his present

job and his potential for a better job.


Provide valuable information for personnel decisions such

as pay increases, promotions, demotions, transfers and

terminations. The information provided forms the basis

for suitable personnel policies.

Provide feedback about the level of achievement and

behaviour of subordinates. It also identifies individuals

with high potential who can be groomed up for higher



Tell a subordinate how he is doing and suggesting

necessary changes in his knowledge, behaviour and

attitudes. It provides information, which helps to counsel

the subordinate. It also serves to stimulate and guide

employee’s development.

Analyze training and development needs. These needs can

be assessed because performance appraisal shows people

who require further training how to remove their

weaknesses. By indentifying the weaknesses of an

employee, it serves as guide for formulating a suitable

training and development programme to improve his

performance in his present work.

Performance appraisal facilitates human resource planning

and carrier planning permanent performance appraisal.

Performance appraisal promotes a positive work

environment, which contributes to productivity.










Purpose of Performance Appraisal

The objective of performance appraisal fall in two


Administrative; and
2) Self-improvement

Administrative Objectives.


This is the most important administrative

use of performance appraisal. It is to the common interest

of both the management and employees to promote

employees onto position where they can most effectively

utilize their abilities. It is mismanagement to promote

employees into position where they cannot perform

effectively at the time in question. A properly developed

and administered performance appraisal system can aid in

determining whether individuals should be considered for

promotions. The system must rate the ratee for the present

job and his potentialities for the higher job. A person

performing the job well does not necessarily mean that he

is fit for promotion.


In an organization, it may be necessary to

consider various types of personnel actions such as transfer,

layoffs, demotions and discharges. In some cases, such

actions are called for because of unsatisfactory

performance while in other cases it may be called for due to

economic conditions over which the organization has no

control because of changes in production process. Such

actions can be justified if they are based on performance


c) Wage and Salary Administration:

In some cases, the wage increases are based

on the performance appraisal reports. In some cases,

appraisals and seniority are used in combination.


d) Training and Development:

An appropriate system

of performance appraisal can be helpful in identifying the

areas of skills or knowledge in which certain employees are

not up to par, thus pointing out general training deficiencies

which presumably should be corrected by additional

training, discussions, or counseling. Performance appraisal

can also help in spotting the talented employees so as to

train and develop them to create an inventory of executive

skills. It can also provide the areas where the

employees/executives could be further trained and

positioned to meet retirement and expansion situations.

e) Personnel Research:

Performance appraisal helps in

research in the field of personnel management. Various

theories in human relationship are outcome of efforts to

find out the cause and effect relationship between the
personnel and their performance

Self Improvement.

The performance appraisals bring

out the deficiencies and shortcomings of the employees.
Performance appraisal helps human resource development
in a way. A promotion minded individual could ask for the
target programmes of a position he seeks and use the
information given by performance appraisal to prepare him
for the job and enhance his candidacy.

Performance appraisal also helps to

spot out a person’s ability to see an organization problem,
devise ways of attracting it, translate his ideas into action,
incorporate new information as it arises and carry his plans
through the results. It highlights a sort of total managerial
action in contrast to things they customarily factor out as
conceptual entities-things such as planning function,
leadership ability, or financial knowledge. The manager’s

selection will often be improved by this emphasis on the

whole managerial job.

Difference between Performance Appraisal and

Job Evaluation:

Performance Appraisal Job Evaluation

1. Performance appraisal is concerned with the Job evaluation is the analysis of
differences among the employees in terms various jobs to know the demands,
of their performance. It is also termed as which the normal performance of
merit as it is concerned with the particular jobs make on average
comparative merit of individuals. employees. It does not take into
account the individual abilities of the
2. It considers the abilities and performance of It considers the requirement of
individuals. various jobs in terms of jobs
description and job specifications.

3. The purpose of merit rating is to appraise The purpose of job evaluation is

the performance of individuals to take limited, i.e. to determine the worth of
decisions like increase in pay, transfer, the job on the basis of demands made
promotion, etc. It also serves as guidelines by a particular job on the average
for the management to consider the type of worker. This facilitates fixation of
training, which should be imparted to the wages for various jobs.

4. Performance appraisal rates the man and not Job evaluation analyses the job to
the job as it is concerned with assessing of determine their relative worth and fix
the abilities of the individuals. As a matter their wage levels that are fair and
of fact, it measures the worth of different equitable.
employees to the organization.

5. Performance appraisal is used as a basis of Job evaluation is used to shape the

personnel policies as regards transfer and wage policy of the organization.

Methods of Appraisal

There are various methods of merit rating may be

classified into:
Traditional Methods and
2) Modern Methods.

Traditional Methods

Traditional methods are very old

technique of performance appraisal. They are based on
trait-oriented appraisal. Evaluation of employees is done on
the basis of standards of personal traits or qualities such as
attitudes, judgment, versatility, initiative, dependability,
leadership, loyalty, punctuality, knowledge of job, etc.

There are seven traditional methods of appraisal. They


Unstructured appraisal.
Employee ranking.
Forced distribution.
Graphic – rating scales.
Check – lists.
Critical incidents.

Field review.

Unstructured Appraisal.

Under this, the appraiser is required to write

down his impression about the person being appraised in an
unstructured way. However, in some organizations,
comments are required to be grouped under specific
headings such as quality of job performance, reasons for
specific job behaviors, personality traits, and development
needs. This system is highly subjective and has its merit in
its simplicity and is still in use especially in the small firms.

Ranking Method:

Ranking is a simple process of placing

in a rank according to their job performance. It permits
comparison of all employees in any single rating group
regardless of type of work. All workers are judged on the
same factors and they are rated on the overall basis with
reference to their job performance instead of individual
assessment of traits. In this way, the best in placed first in
the rank and the poorest occupies the last rank. The
difficulty of this system is that the rater is ranked to
consider a whole person. Subjectively of the appraiser may

enter into his judgments. Asking the appraiser to rank

employees on certain desirable traits can reduce the
subjectiveness in this method. The other difficulty with this
method is that it does not indicate the degree of difference
between the first man and the second man, and so on.

Paired comparison is an improvement over

simple ranking. Under this, every employee in a job family
is compared with every other employee to determine which
is the better worker. The rater is provided with a little
booklet containing two names on each page. Obviously the
number of rank order would be n(n – 1)/2, where n is the
total number of persons to be compared. In this way, every
employee is compared with every other employee in the
same job family. The paired comparison gives a more
reliable rating than the order of ranks although this system
is more tedious to construct and use. It cannot be used for
periodic employee’s ratings, as it does not make evaluation
of any improvement in the employees that might have been
over a period of time.

Forced Distribution Method:

Some appraisers suffer from a

constant error, i.e., they either rate all workers as excellent,
average or poor. They fail to evaluate the poor, average or
excellent employees clearly. The forced distribution system
is devised to force the appraiser to fit the employees being
appraised into predetermined ranges of scales. It has an
advantage over the paired comparison system in that two or
more employees can be given equal ratings. This system is
based on the presumption that employees can be divided
into five points scale of outstanding, above average,
average below average and poor. In this system, the
appraiser is asked to distribute the employees into these
categories in such a way that about 10% of the men are in
group ‘outstanding’, 20% ‘above average’, 40% ‘average’,
and 10% ‘poor’.

This method obviously eliminates the room

for subjective judgment on the part of supervisors. This
system is easy to understand and administer. The objective
of this technique is to spread out ratings in the form of a
normal distribution, which is open to criticism. Many

times, this group is comparatively smaller. As a matter of

fact, forced distribution of rankings is feasible for a large

Graphic Rating Scales:

Under this method, scales are established for a

number of specific factors and qualities. Five degree are
established for each factor and general definitions appear at
points along the scale. Generally, the rater is supplied with
a printed form, one for each person to be rated. The
selection of factors to be measured on the graphic rating
scale is an important point under this system.

There are two types:

Characteristics, such as initiative and dependability, and
Contributions, such as quantity and quality of work.

Since certain area of job performance cannot be

objective measured, it is likely that graphic scales will
continue to use a mixture of both characteristics and

Graphic scales impose a heavy

burden upon the supervisor. He must report and evaluate
the performance of his subordinate on scales involving as
many as five degree on perhaps ten different factors. The
main drawback of this system is that the rater may be
biased. However, one means of ensuring that the rater has
based his scoring upon substantial evidence is to leave
space on the form after each factor and require him to
explain the reason for his rating. In effect, he is asked to
give example of the ratee’s behavior that justifies the
assigned rating. A supervisor may tend to rate him men
high to avoid criticism from them.

The graphic rating method is easy to understand and easy

to use. It permits the statistical tabulation of scores in terms
of measures of central tendency, skew ness and dispersion.
It permits a ready comparison of scores among employees.
The scores presumably reveal the merit or value of every
individual. However, this method has certain serious
drawbacks. There is an implication that a high score of one
factor can compensate for a low score on another. If a man
scores for attendance, attitude, cooperativeness, etc.
Frequently, the rating tends to cluster on the high side
under this system. A supervisor may tend to rate his men
high so that they may receive high share of pay raises in
some cases.

Check Lists:

It also consists of two techniques:

Weighted check list, and
b) Forced choice.

Weighted Check List:

Under this method, various statements are

prepared in such a manner that they describe various types
and levels of behavior for a particular job. Each statement

is attached with a scale value. At the time of rating the

employees, the supervisor just collects and checks all the
statements. After the weights and values are attached to the
individual traits, the rating up to this level is gathered on
the rating sheet. Then the weights are averaged and
employee is evaluated. The weighted check – the persons
thoroughly acquainted with job and perfect at preparing
and weighing statements should prepare list. When this
process is over, rating is placed on separate cards. Then
raters who actually observed the accomplishment of the
work sort these cards. They rank the employee from poor to
excellent. Weights are then assigned to the statements in
accordance with the way they are ranked by the raters.

Under this method, the supervisor is

not allowed to accumulate vague impressions as a basis for
rating. Because of this, it compels the supervisor to think in
terms of very specific kinds of behavior. This method
involves a lengthy procedure of evaluating employees. It
requires certain qualifications to be met on the part of the
supervisor regarding the job he is assigned to look after.
Moreover, this method is a relatively costlier affair. It puts
more strain on the financial resources of the organization
particularly in terms of personnel development time.

Financial burden is further increased when diverse jobs are

evaluated, as a separate procedure must be established for
each job.

Forced Choice:

This method is used particularly

with the objective of avoiding scope for personal
prejudices. Under this method, the rater is forced to choose
between descriptive statements of seemingly equal worth
describing the person in question. Statements are chosen of
both the sides (favorable as well as unfavorable). For
example, the following two pairs of statement from each
pair that is represented by supervisor.

Gives clear instructions to his subordinate.

Can be dependent upon to complete any job assigned.
Makes promises that he knows he cannot keep.
Shows favoritism to some employees.

The rater may feel that neither of the two statements in a

pair is applicable, but he must select the one that is more
descriptive. Only one of the statements in each pair is
correct in identifying the better performances and this

scoring key must be kept secret from raters. In this way,

bias removed from the appraisal process. The main
advantage of establishing this system of performance
appraisal is that it has greater objectivity than most other

Forced – choice method is also not free from drawbacks.

They are as follows:

Firstly, it is very expensive to install this system.

Secondly, this procedure involved is very lengthy and

hence more time – consuming.

Thirdly, it is difficult for a supervisor to discuss rating

switch subordinates because the personnel department
scores the items.

Critical Incident Method:

A critical incident means a

significant act by an employee exceeding or failing any of
the requirements of his job. It represents an exceptional
behavior of an employee at work, as for instance, Resisted
the implementation of change; Became upset over work;

Refused to help a fellow worker; Suggested an

improvement in the work method’ Tried to get a fellow
worker to accept the management decision; Welcome new

This method requires every supervisor to record all such

significant incidents in each employee’s behavior, which
indicate effective or successful action and those, which
indicate ineffective or poor behavior. These are recorded in
a specially designed notebook, which contains categories or
characteristics under which various behaviors can be
recorded. Examples of such type of job requirements of
worker a are judgment, learning ability, productivity,
dependability, accuracy of work, responsibility and
initiative. Daily recording of these items seems to be
essential because, otherwise, the supervisor may forget the
incidents with his subordinates.

Under the critical incident

method, the supervisor is supposed to refrain from passing
overall judgments and concentrate upon discussing facts as
he sees them. Theoretically, this should provide a sound
and an objective basis for appraisal of performance of an

employee. The critical incident method is not a rating

method, as it requires the supervisor to pay close attention
to what an employee is doing.

This method suffers from the defect that

outstanding incident happens so frequently that individual’s
appraisal may not vary markedly between any two time
periods. It has been observed that most of the time the
employees have neither positive nor negative incidents. If
the critical event does not happens’ it will be difficult to
rate an employee. Moreover, it may be difficult for a
supervisor to decide what is the critical or exceptional
incident. Her against the human bias may appear in
recording the critical incident. To rectify this defect, Gerald
Whitlock designed a specimen checklist, which consists of
a number of behavior incidents, which are considered to be
an example of uncommonly, ineffective, or effective job
behavior. The usual procedure in constructing the specimen
checklist is to collect behavior incidents from certain
experts in this area. The number of such performance
behaviors ranges from 80 to 150 incidents, equally divided
between effective and ineffective specimens.

Field Review Method:

Under this method, an expert from

the personnel department interviews the supervisors. The
expert questions the supervisor to obtain all the pertinent
information on each employee and takes notes his
notebook. Thus, there is no rating form with factors or
degrees, but overall ratings are obtained. The workers are
usually classified into three categories as outstanding,
satisfactory and unsatisfactory. The interviewer questions
the supervisor about the requirements of each job in his
unit and about the performance of each man in his job. He
probes to find out only how a man is doing but also why he
does that way and what can be done to improve or develop
him. The supervisor is required to give his opinion about
the progress of his subordinates, the level of performance
of each subordinates, his weaknesses, good points,
outstanding ability, promotion ability, and the possible
plans of action in cases requiring further consideration. The
questions are asked and answered verbally.

The success of field review method depends upon the

competence of the interviewer. If he knows his job, he can
contribute significantly to accurate appraisal. Field review
method relieves the supervisors of the tedious writing work

of filling in appraisal forms. It also ensures a greater

likelihood that the supervisors will give adequate attention
to the appraisals because the personnel department largely
controls the process. Superficial judgment can be
eliminated if the appraiser probes deeply.

Criticism of Traditional Methods:

The general criticism of traditional

performance appraisal systems is that they are two
subjective in nature because all of them are on personal
judgment of the rater. The personal judgment is always
subjected to personal bias or prejudice as well as pressure
from certain other areas. The appraiser may not be able to
judge the competence of the employees because of lack of

Because of the judgment role of the supervisors

under the traditional system, performance ratings are
frequently subject to a number of errors and weaknesses,
which are discussed below:

Halo Error: This type of error occurs when the rater

allows one aspect of a man’s character or performance to
influence his entire evaluation. It is the tendencies of many

raters to let the rating they rating to one characteristic

excessively influence their rating on all subsequent
characteristics. Many supervisors tend to give an employee
approximately the same rating on all factors. The error can
be recognized quite easily on factors scales. The rating
scale technique of performance appraisal is particularly
susceptible to the halo supervisor judge all of his
subordinates on a single factor or trait before going to the
next. In this manner, he can consider all of the men relative
to a standard or to each other on each trait.

Central Tendency: This error occurs when the rater is in

doubt about the subordinates or has inadequate information
about them or is giving less attention and effort to the
rating process. Because of these reasons, generally the
raters are reluctant to rate people at the outer ends of the
scale. The rater knows that he has to appraise his
subordinates at periodic intervals but if he is unfamiliar
with some of the subordinates or does not have sufficient
time to devote to the rating process, he may play it safe by
neither condemning nor praising. So he may rate them
‘average’. It is possible for this type of rating i.e., all
average to be a true rating, but its probability is less than its

Leniency or Strictness: Some supervisors have a tendency

to be easy raters and others have a tendency to be harsh in
their ratings. Lenient or easy raters assign consistently high
values or scores to their subordinates and strict or harsh
raters give consistently low ratings. Both the trends can
arise from varying standards of performance among
supervisors and form different interpretations of what they
observe in employee performance.

Recent Behavior Bias: Often some raters evaluate persons

on the basis pf their performance in recent few weeks;
average behavior is not checked. Some employees being
aware of this tendency show better results when they feel
that they are being observed and the report of their
performance is to be compiled soon.

Miscellaneous Biases: In many cases, the rater may give

higher ratings because he thinks that it would look bad for
him if employees in the other department received higher
pay increases than his pay. Supervisors will tend to rate
their subordinates near the middle of the spectrum if their
bosses put pressure on them to correct the worker’s average

rates or to get rid of the subordinates. Some supervisors

show bias against members of the opposite sex or of
another caste, religion or nationality. They also give higher
ratings to senior employees because they are too ready to
admit that they have not improved under their leadership.
Many a times, a rater is influenced by organizational
positions and may give higher ratings to those holdings the
higher positions.

Many people have attacked the reliability and

validity of traditional systems on different grounds, but the
fundamental criticism has been founded upon the judgment
role of the supervisor and the antagonistic response of the
subordinates. In a study of appraisal systems in General
Electric Co. USA, the investigator found that traditional
approach of performance appraisal resulted in the following

Criticism arises from the very nature of the system.

Criticism has a negative effect upon achievement of goals.
Criticism increases antagonism and defensiveness, which
lead to
interior performance.

Praise has little effect, one way or other.

In this study, ninety-two appraisal interviews based

on traditional measurements were analyzed. Those
subordinates receiving above average criticism showed less
improvement in ensuring ten to twelve weeks than those
receiving less criticism. When the alternative behavioral
approach was introduced by one – half of the supervisors,
differences in subordinates response pattern remained
unchanged. For the appraiser of behavioral supervisor, all
reported more favorable attitudes on such items as amount
of help received, respectability of their supervisors, ability
of the supervisors to plan, the extent to which their abilities
were utilized, acceptance of organization goals and value of
the appraisal interviews. That is why it was observed:

Coaching should be a day – to – day, not a once - a year

Mutual goal setting not criticism improves performance.
Participation by the employee in the goals setting
procedure helps favorable results.

2) Modern methods

There are two important methods of

performance appraisal, which are used by the modern
concerns. The first is management by objectives, which
represents result-oriented appraisal. The second is
behaviorally anchored rating scale, which is based on the
behaviour of the subordinates.

Essentials of a Good Appraisal System.













Limitations of Performance Appraisal:

Performance appraisal may not yield the

desired results because of the following deficiencies:

If the factor included in the assessment is irrelevant, the

result of merit rating will not be accurate.

Different qualities to be rated may not be given proper

weightage certain in cases.

Some of the factors are highly subjective like initiative and

personality of the employees; so the actual rating may not
be on scientific lines.

Lack 360 degree performance appraisal

resist the employee to work with zeal and anthusiasm
personal emotions and likes. So the ratings are likely to be
biased in the same.


Services rendered by individuals to organizations

have to be equitably paid for. This compensation

generally comprises cash payments which include wages,

bonus and shared profits. Good compensation plans have

a salutary effect on the employees.

Methods of Wage Payment

Compensation paid to the labour for the service

offered is called as wages or salary. Giving satisfactory

and fair amount of compensation, can probably eliminate

most of the labour disputes.

Time Wage.
Piece Wage.

Time Wage

It is based on the amount of time spent. Wage is

measured on the basis of unit of time e.g.:- per day, per

month etc. Wages do not depend on the performance of

the employee.

Features of Time Wage:

It is widely used as it is very simple to compute the


It provides guaranteed and secured income, thereby

removing the fear of irregularity of income.

It facilitates payroll fuction.

Advantages of Time Wage System:

Sence of security of income. The worker knows exactly the

amount he is to get.

Conducive climate is provided for better labour-

management relations as dispures are minimized.

The worker will give greater care and attention on quality

and therefore workmanship can be assured.

Disadvantages of Time Wage System:

Time Wage System offers no incentive for employees to

put forth their best efforts.

There is no encouragement for better performance.

Ambitions workers receive no monetary reward for their


It demands intensive and strick supervision.

Piece Wage

It is based on the amount of work performed or

productivity. The earnings of the employee are directly

proportional to his output or performance.

It can offer direct connection between effort and reward.

Best method to ensure higher productivity.

Advantages of Piece Wage System

Direct connection between effort and reward.

It is simple and easy to understand.

The worker is interested in higher efficiency.

Cost accounting and control by management is made easy.


Disadvantages of Piece Wage System

Danger of overlook. This leads to risk of accident and

excessive fatigue.

We require a lot of supervision to maintain the quality and

standard of work.

It is an ineffective method, if quality is to be given top


Incentive Wage Plans

A system of wage payment which would maintain

both quality and quantity is called Incentive wage plan

and it is naturally a judicious combination of both basic

systems of wage payments i.e., Time and Piece wages.

Under the incentive plans of wage payment, both Time

Wage and Piece Wage systems are blended together in

such a manner that the workers are induced to increase

their productivity.

Measurement of the amount of work done.

Establishment of standard output on the basis of which the

incentive has to be worked out.

Setting up a suitable rate of incentive.

Halsey Plan. The standard time required for a job is

determined beforehand on the basis of time and motion

studies. Workers who perform the job in less than the

standard time and thus save time are rewarded with a

bonus but the worker who takes longer than the standard

time is not punished, and is paid wages according to time

wage system.

Rowan Plan. Wages, according to time basis, are

guaranteed and the slow worker is not made to suffer. A

standard time is determinded before and a bonus is paid

according to time saved. The only difference between

Halsey Plan and Rowan Plan relates to the calculation of

bonus. Under this plan bonus is based on that proportion

of the time saved which the time taken bears to the

standard time.

Taylor’s Differential Piece Wage Plan. Under


this plan, there is no guarantee of bonus. The standard of

output is fixed per hour or per day and two piece wage

rates are laid. Those exceeding the standard or even just

attaining it, are entitled to the higher rate and those, whose

output is less than the standard output are paid at a lower


The Emerson Efficiency System. In this system, the

worker is allowed a certain time within which he is

required to complete his job. If he completes the job

within the required time, he is paid bonus. If he takes

longer then the required time, he receives a lower bonus.

The Gantt System. This system is similar to the

Emerson efficiency system. The worker receives the

bonus only if he attains the required standard of

efficiency. No bonus is paid to a worker where his

efficiency is less than 100 %. The foreman is also given a

bonus if the worker under his care attains the required

standard of efficiency.

Fringe Benefits

Fringe benefits are the additional benefits and

services that are provided by a company to its employees

in addition to their direct salary. Therefore, fringe can be

defined as the additional benefits and services that a

company provides to its employees on the basis of their


Today, mostly every company provides additional

benefits to its employees along with the scheduled salary.

Employees are attracted and get encouraged with these

additional benefits and services. There are a lot of

advantages of fringe benefits that attract the employees.

Firstly, as most of the fringe benefits are not taxed

benefits, they are not included in the taxable income.

Another advantage of fringe benefits is that the employees

can avail the fringe benefits, such as health and insurance

with less expenditure. Companies also use these benefits


to attract and maintain the existing employees by

providing them additional benefits. Along with attracting

the employees, fringe benefits such as vacations along

with holidays and rest break also help the employees to

get fresh and perform their duty with more


Lessen fatigue.
Oppose labour unrest.
Satisfy employee objectives.
Promote recruitment.
Minimize turnover.
Reduce overtime costs.


Definitions of Promotion

“A promotion is the transfer of an employee to a job

which pays more money or one that carries some

preferred status.”

Types of Promotion

Limited Promotion

Limited promotion is also known as upgrading. It is

the movement of an employee to a more responsible

job within the same occupational unit and with a

corresponding increase in pay.

Dry Promotion

Dry promotion is a promotion is a promotion as a

result of which there is no increase in the employee’s

pay. Dry promotions are those which are given in

lieu of increases in compensation. It is usually made

decorative by giving a new and longer title to the


Multiple Chain Promotion

Multiple chain promotion provide for a systematic

linking of each position to several other positions.

Such promotions identify multi promotional

opportunities through clearly defined avenues of

approach to and exist from each position in the


Up and Out Promotion

Up and Out promotion often leads to termination of

services. In this type of promotion, a person must

either earn a promotion or seek employment


Basis of Promotion

Different promotion systems are used in different


Promotion Based on Seniority.

Promotion Based on Merit.
Merit Cum Seniority Promotion.

Promotion By selection.
Time Bound Promotion.
Temporary Promotion.

Promotion Based on Seniority

Seniority based promotion systems are based on the

length of service of an employee in an organization.

Seniority systems put a premium on length of service

and job experience. In the case of promotion based

on seniority, the employees are promoted to higher

positions purely based on their length of service

irrespective of their qualifications, experience

performance and track record.

Promotion Based on Merit

Under promotion based on merit, employees are

promoted to higher positions purely on their

performance and work record. Here, the management

will look into the qualifications, experience, previous

work record.

Merit cum Seniority promotion


Promotion based on “Merit cum Seniority” would

have a blend of the advantages of both the systems

discussed above. Both the service seniority and work

efficiency will be taken into account in promoting an

employee. An employee who has service seniority

with desired level of merit and efficiency would be

given priority in promotion to the next cadre as

compared to others having only one of them.

Promotion by Selection

Promotion by selection is a process through which

employees are promoted after undergoing rigorous

test and screening. Under this system employees with

service seniority or better qualifications and

experience need not be promoted automatically. The

employees are normally temporary promotions are

automatically made permanent. Put to various tests

and interviews before a inal selection is made and


some employees are promoted.

Time Bound Promotion Scheme

Under this method, employees would be promoted

according to standards of time set for promotions

higher cadre subject to the condition that they

possess the minimum qualifications required for

entry into a higher position.

Temporary Promotion Scheme

Also known as officiating promotion scheme, under

the temporary promotion scheme, officials are prom

oted temporarily to higher positions in case there are

vacancies and it they are due for promotion. Such

temporary promotion is no guarantee for a permanent

promotion though.


Labour turnover, is the rate of change in the number

of employees of a concern during a definite period. It is a

measure of the extent to which old employees leave and

new employees enter the service of the concern. Labour

turnover is the cause and effect of instability of


Cause of Labour Turnover

Resignations. Resignations may be due to such causes as

dissatisfaction with working conditions, insufficient

wages, bad health, sickness, old age etc. The village nexus

is still very strong in many industries. The workers do to

get long leave to go to the villages and hence they resign

and go home at the time of harvesting of sowing of the

crops. When workers return form their villages after

having finished their agricultural operations, they do not

find old jobs and have to seek employment elsewhere.


Dismissal. Dismissal of employees are the second

important cause o labour turnover. Dismissal may occur

due to participation in strikes or union activities,

misconduct, insubordination and inefficiency. Labour

turnover amount the temporary workers is due to the fact

that as soon as a particular piece of work is completed for

which workers had been employed, they are discharged

and again when new work stars, new workers are


Measures to Reduce Labour Turnover

Increase pay levels to meet competition.

Introduce procedures for relating rewards to performance.
Provide better career opportunities.
Workers organizations should be encouraged to maintain
contact with the workers and redress their grievances.
Improve working conditions.
Improve recruitment and selection procedures to ensure
that job requirements are specified accurately and the
selected employees fit the specifications.
Provide adequate training.


Training is the very essential part for the employees

as well as for the organization. Training stimulates and

stipulates the employee in order to increase the

performance and output level of the organization. The

related activities of the training include the performance

appraisal, wages and salary, incentives and promotions

which keep the employees morally active and fit. This

survey emphasizes the interest level of the company on

giving training and outcome of the training. At the end we

can imagine how long this company can keep its

performance and market share high.

Objective of Study

Objective of this study is to know how much training

and its related activities show impact daily performance of


employees and for the better future of the company.

Corrective steps can be taken if the activities are not

showing desired results.


I have done my project in the NEW DOOARS TEA

ESTATE under the guidance of Mr. Manmohan Singh,
located in the West Bengal at Banarhat in New Jalpaiguri


First of all I would like to explain the process of the Tea

leaves in the machines in order to make the consumable









PLUCKING. It is done by the labourers from the tea

garden. Here was given to the workers are on the basis of
piece wages method. Plucked leaves are weighed and
according to the weight wages are given.


ORGANIZATION. All the leaves are dumped in the large
tubs and created suitable weather. If required hot or cool air

CTC. It means Cutting Teac Centre. Here leaves are

chopped as per the needed sizes.

ROLLING. Here chopped leaves are processed for

rolling. Here leaves are rolled by the giant wheels. It makes
the green leaves in the round shape. While rolling water is
separated from the leaves.


leaves are rolled them they aree forwarded to CFM to give
the desired and public acceptable colour.

DRYER. After colouring the leaves, the wet leaves are

dried under the machines. It makes the leaves fungus free.

SORTING. Here dried leaves are sorted according to

the size, quality etc.

DISTRIBUTION. Sorted products are distributed among

the region wise, quality wise, quantity wise and cost wise

It is noted that all the green leaves are taken from the single
garden as input material, but the output products are not a

single quality. On this basis only the selling price of the tea
in the market are not alike.

In this organization from the weathering to distribution

level different machines are used and many technicians,
supervisors, Foremen, Engineers and workers work on the
machines. In addition to these technicians so many non-
technicians also work in the organization.

It is situated in the ecological friendly atmosphere.

Also the cares are taken to maintain the security and
safety of the employees. A big hospital is also being run
under this organization. Specialist doctors, laboratories are
also equipped.


I tried to collect the data from the following two ways :-

Primary Data Collection.

Secondary Data Collection.

Primary Data Collection

Primary data is collected from the employees through the

direct interaction.

Secondary Data Collection

This data is collected from the company’s manuals, records

and website.


The research instrument of this project is to find the


impact of training and related activities on employs. It

determines how well training helps the employees in

achieving the set standards through increasing their



My sample size of this project is 50. The total strength of

this company is 457.


The structured questionnaire is consisting of the

following 25 questions.


Methodology can be divided into two parts.

Sample Method.
Contact Method.

Simple Method. Under the method questionnaire is

distributed among the sample size.




Answer the following questions:-

1. Did you get training at the time of joining the job?

2. How do you feel that the training you got is helpful

in doing the job?

3. Was the training consisting of technical matter?

4. Where did you get training , on the model or real


5. What is the shape of training i.e. physical,

psychological or combination of both?

6. What is the degree of toughness of your physical


7. Did you pay for training?

8. Have you been paid during the training?

9. How much money approximately your organization


has spent on your training (little or a lot)?

10. Did you realized any hike in your pay after training?

11. Have you ever thought after training that this

organization is not paying as per your capability and

better to leave this organization?

12. Is it happened that you got training on one type of

equipment and in real you are employed on other type of


13. Is it happened that you got training on technical

matter and you are doing administrational job?

14. Have you ever been paid incentives if you stood first

in your training?

15. Do you feel that due to the training your work

performance has increased?

16. If yes, which type of increase i.e. quantitative or


17. If you are performing for better that earlier, are you

getting additional incentives for your good performance?

18. Which type of job i.e. performance based appraisal

or fixed wages you are doing?

19. Are you interested to undergo any further training?

Give Reasons.

20. Is there any system of getting promotion after

undergone training and excellent performance?

21. Which type of promotion system your organization

has i.e. performance based or experience/ service based?

22. Are you satisfied with the promotion and payment

system in comparison with your performance?

23. After getting the training how much percentage could

you succeed in changing the environment of your section

or organization?

24. You got the training on the expenses of the

organization. Have you ever tried to give the same

training to your subordinates voluntarily?

25. Do you think that to perform the job efficiently, you


need some more training and toughness level of training

should be increased?


1. Employment procedure starts with publication of

notification and recruitment. Once selection is done on the

basis of their capabilities and desired standards training is

must in connection with soldiers and where as employees

of civil organizations not necessary. In the civil

organization, training in technical matter is the essential

required qualification for the job.

2. Absolutely the training we get either if may be at the

beginning or middle, helpful in doing the job candidate

whose qualification is ITI in machinist undergone

training, he can handle not only the traditional equipment

but also the new generation equipment efficiently. In the

army even the same tradesman like cook, barber etc also

get the soldier training so that if the situation occurs he

can also fire with the arms.

3. All the jobs are not alike some are technical,

administrational etc. the main aim of training is to

increase the working capability of an employee. The men

who are doing or enrolled for technical jobs surely get the

technical training. No org wastes its financial resurces


4. Training on technical matters aims at the increasing

the technical performance of a worker. If the worker is

new to the technical machine, he can’t be allowed to learn

or practice on real machine because of the danger of life.

In that case training is given on model which is not in

functional condition. Once he learnt about the function of

the equipment as well as the movement of the parts of

machine he can be allowed to work on real equipment

under the supervision of the supervisors.

5. Physical fitness is the identification of healthiness.

Physical training is the essential part of military training

and not for the civil employees. Psychological training is

essential for both. Psychological training helps the


employees to tackle the problem within the fraction of


6. Toughness of physical training is not a matter for

worry ness. It is the symbol of good training. High degree

of toughness results in making strong soldiers who can

protects the country.

7. Training is the responsibility of the organization;

hence all the expenses for training should be born by the

org not by the individual employee.

8. Once a man enrolled in any organization he gets pay

for the entire duration. His pay is restricted in these

conditions in which he is absent from working place for

more than the applicable period. The training period also

considered as working period. He is entitled for the

applicable payment plus some additional allowances like

dearness allowances, traveling allowances etc.


9. The money spent on the training by organization

depends upon the type of the training. The expenses

incurred by defence in making a young guy as a pilot is

very high. In defence there is a provision that if the

aircraft got fire and going to be collapsed then leaving the

air craft the pilot can jump out with the help of parachute.

Reason behind it is the money and time spent on making a

pilot is costlier than the cost of a new aircraft.

10. When employees are recruited in any org and their

job starts with training for e.g. in the Defence forces,

Bank managers, Railway technicians etc, the duration of

training is called probationary period only styfund is

given. After completion of training they will get full

payment. If the training is in the middle of their

employment they will not be paid any extra payment.

11. Same of the employees in both defence as well as

civil cases also may feel that if I leave this job I can get

more payment, in other organizations. The reason behind

it is earlier he doesn’t know much about his technical job,

due to the training he learnt keeping in view this type of

circumstances government as well as civil org make

documentary proof that after getting the training that

individual worker is not allowed to quit the job up to some

mined period.

12. In corporate sector a welder does his welding work

only and sometimes he can be given some additional task

which he can do easily by giving overtime allowances.

But it never be happened giving in corporate sector that an

electrician is doing the machinist work and machinist is

doing turner work. But in rubric sector organization this

type of works are generally happened.

13. Technical work can only be done by the technician

but a qualified computer operator or typist who got

training in technical job can also does the administrational



14. Performance appraisal is emery where in the form of

reward either it may be a monetary benefit, promotion or

service benefit. It any one stood first or best student

during the training he must be appraised. In general a

certificate of merit is given along with some monetary


15. It is obvious that who undergo training their work

performance generally increases and organizations also

willing to give training those employees who are on the

line to get the promotion. Generally they try hard to learn

to achieve promotion which increases his power as well as

financial benefits.

16. Once performance development occurs that may be

in the quantization as well as qualitative. Quantization in

the service means training helps to produce more units in

lesser time and qualitative means production is according

to the set standards without making any damages to the


products which increases the cost of production.


17. If the performance of any person is tremendously

increased that helps the org in producing the more no of

units in the same time and with the same material, it is

beneficial for the entrepreneur. If the entrepreneur is

getting more benefit with eh same material, he also

distributes the share of profit among those employees.

Which will be the motivation factor for others to follow?

This type of incentives will not be found in government

sector organizations.

18. Appraisal system is everywhere that may be

corporate or public sector organization. In the public

sector organization appraisal generally takes in the form

of word of mouth or in the form of merit certificate.

Whereas in the corporate sector appraisal may lead

performance based wages system. But in the public sector

there is fixed wages system.

19. Organizations generally interested to provide training


to the staff so that they can get good results in work place.

Employees who are willing to get promotion who want

their payment be increased generally keep interest in

getting training. In public sector organizations sometimes

training will not be followed by any appraisal like

promotion or financial benefit that situations employees

generally don’t show interest for training.

20. Performance increases with the help of training if a

person undergone training and performing well them the

others, he should get appraisal like promotion with or

without power them only he keeps interest in performing

well. This type of system is also prevailing in the Defence

forces also. Each and every one no needs to be promoted

to next rank. Promotion will generally be given to these

who got good record of performing well without any

adverse report. This system needed to be stricter so that

who wants to remain in job, works hard which leads to


best performance.

21. Most of the organizations of corporate sector and

defence forces follow the performance based promotion

system. But in the government service sector

organizations follow service based promotions system.

Service based promotion system sometimes gives adverse

results. It the boss is promoted on the basis of service but

he doesn’t know about the work which leads disgust

among the employees.

22. Indian corporate sector is mixture of Japanese and

American style. Indian satisfaction level never ends.

Employees want more payment more promotion and

interested in less working. Whereas entrepreneurs are

interested in giving less wages and getting more work

from employees. It is the general tendency of employees

and owners. Here is a need to come both at a middle point

so that employees work honestly and owners give

remuneration and promotion according to their work so


that both can satisfy at a level.

23. Training helps in performance increase. An

employee who got training can change the prevailing

output standards of his unit by applying the knowledge he

got. Due to this approach other employees also follow him

create a lot of change in positive way.

24. It is the critical factor that in the corporate sector if

any employee possesses high technique of knowledge he

never shares it with others. This is because of the fear of

lacking advantages by others. Some times that knowledge

technician shares his knowledge when he is in the

supervisory staff or managerial staff. It is the

responsibility of him that gets the work done efficiently.

Whoever sharing the knowledge with his subordinates

voluntarily and in his own time it is applaudable by all

managerial staff. This type of attitudes of technicians

should be supported in order to get good performance

from others.

25. Generally training is given according to the level of

employee. It an employee is in initial stage obviously

he will be given initial training. It that technical become

to a supervisor. Then supervisor should also be given

training so that he can lead his team well. Toughness of

training to be increased or not is not a matter. The

matter is that the toughness should be according to the

level of employee and according to the set standards of

all the employees are reaching the set standards them

no need to toughness the training. This toughness

should be like an elastic power of a rubber. Rubber can

be stretched up to a limit. It we stretch the rubber more

them its limit it will be broken into pieces.


Contact Method

Under the contact method information is gathered by

personal interviews.





Interest Level of the Employee

From the sample size (50 members) 35 members are

interested to undergo the training and 10 are not interested

to get training voluntarily and they expressed their

willingness if the company offers. The remaining 5 are

denied to get training voluntarily and forcibly.



People willing to get training seek their better future

by performing well. They need promotion and

financial benefits. Their attitude is to achieve the new

heights in their life.

The people who are not volunteers and express their

willingness, to get training if the company forcibly detail

them for training are good in their present stage, status

and financial position. If the company sends them on

training they are willing to accept the further more


10% of the sample size who deny for promotion and

transfer are either facing demotic problems like age,

family problems or settled well in their life. Due to these

problems they don’t want to undergo training and

transfers on promotion.


Question Yes No Not Remarks

No Known
1. 20 30* -- *Are not technicians
2. 40 10* -- *Experience gives
the knowledge
3. 45 05* -- *Administration side
4. On the model as well as real equipment
5. Combination of both
6. -- 50 -- --
7. -- 50 -- --
8. 50 -- -- --
9. A lot – 35 Little – -- --
10. 25 25 -- --
11. 30 20 -- --
12. 50 -- -- --
13. 48 02* -- *Physically not fit
for technical job.
14. 45 05 -- --
15. 45 05* -- *Knowledge can be
gain through
16. 45 both -- 05 --
17. 50 -- -- --
18. 50 Fixed -- -- --
19. 35 10 05 --
20. 32 18 -- --
21. 32 both 18 -- --
22. 45 05 -- --
23. 45 05 -- --
24. 28 22 -- --

25. 33 17 -- --

This analysis shows that the company tied to fulfill the

needs of the employees. However exceptions are

everywhere. To understand the exceptional cases we

should know the individual differences.



1. Employees are needed to motivate in achieving

further promotions which enable them to perform well

and increase their financial condition.

2. Organization has to maintain strictness in case of

volunteers for training; otherwise they may leave the

company after getting experience and knowledge.

3. Company has to tighten the rules and policies in

order to maintain the discipline.

4. Company has to follow the correct appraisal system

which reduces the employee turnover.

5. Outstanding performing employees should be given

rewards and if possible out of turn promotion by

announcing in the employees meeting. It stimulates the

others to do work voluntarily.


6. Company has to provide bus facility for the

employees to come to their jobs. It creates the full present

and punctuality.


1. Every company keeps the secret information secret

only. No company discloses all the facts.

2. Information given by employees may not be reliable.

3. Study is conducted on the randomly selected sample