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2.0 Preliminary Study

The size of water tank is 8540 mm x 7920 mm. The water tank will be constructed at the location

where Borehole 2 is located.

Figure 2.1: Location of water tank in borehole location plan


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Table 2.1: Summary of laboratory test result of soil sample from Borehole 2

Sample number UD 1 UD 2
Depth (m) 2-2.9 7-7.9
Moisture content (%) 17 18
Bulk density (kN/m3) 21.08 20.50
Dry density (kN/m3) 18.04 17.36
Cohesion (kN/m2) 42 51
Phi angle (o) 0 0

Table 2.2: Specific gravities of some soils

For clay soil, Gs = 2.70 to 2.90. For this project, Gs = 2.70


Saturated unit weight for sample 1
1+𝑤
γsat = (1+𝑤𝐺 ) Gsγw
𝑠

1+0.17
= (1+0.17∗2.70) (2.70 x 9.81)

= 21.24 kN/m3
Saturated unit weight for sample 2
1+𝑤
γsat = (1+𝑤𝐺 ) Gsγw
𝑠

1+0.18
= (1+0.18∗2.70) (2.70 x 9.81)

= 21.03 kN/m3

Gross ultimate bearing capacity for general shear failure condition


qu = 1.3c’Nc + qNq + 0.4γBNγ (square foundation)
c’ = cohesion
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For this project, the water table is located as case 1 in figure 2


q = q’ = effective surcharge = D1γ + D2 (γsat – γw)

Figure 2.2: Modification of bearing capacity equations for water table

Table 3: Terzaghi’s bearing capacity factors

For this project, φ= 0.


Nc = 5.70
Nq = 1.00
Nγ = 0
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Gross allowable load-bearing capacity


𝑞𝑢
qall = 𝐹𝑆

qu = gross ultimate bearing capacity


FS = factor of safety

Allowable load-bearing capacity


Qall = qall A
qall = gross allowable load-bearing capacity
A = area of foundation

Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundation on Saturated Clay (μs = 0.5)

q0 B
S e  A1 A2
Es

A1 = f (H/B, L/B)
A2 = f (Df /B)
L = length of the foundation
B = width of the foundation
Df = depth of the foundation
H = depth of the bottom of the foundation to a rigid layer
qo = net load per unit area of the foundation
Es = modulus of elasticity of soil
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Figure 2.3: Values of A1 and A2 for elastic settlement calculation

Table 2.4: Typical values of modulus of elasticity for different types of soils

For this project, the soil for depth below ground surface 3 m to 12 m is medium clay.
Es = 15 x 103 kN/m2
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Consolidation settlement

 H  p
S c  Cc   log
 1  e0  p0

Cc = compression index

Table 2.5: Typical values of the compression index Cc

For this project, Cc is assumed = 0.3


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e0 = initial void ratio

Table 2.6: Typical values of soil void ratio for different soils

for this project, e0 = 0.38


H = thickness of clay layer
p = p0 + Δp, final pressure
p0 = overburden pressure
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𝑞𝑜 𝐵 𝐿
Δp = net consolidation pressure at mid-height of clay layer, (𝐵+𝑍)(𝐿+𝑍)

q0 = net stress increase

Standard Penetration Number, corrected for field conditions


N𝜂𝐻 𝜂𝐵 𝜂𝑆 𝜂𝑅
N60 = 60

N = measured penetration number


𝜂𝐻 = hammer efficiency (%)
𝜂𝐵 = correction for borehole diameter
𝜂𝑆 = sampler correction
𝜂𝑅 = correction for rod length
Variations of 𝜂𝐻 , 𝜂𝐵 , 𝜂𝑆 , 𝜂𝑅 is referred to Table 3.5.

Table 7: Variations of 𝜂𝐻 𝜂𝐵 𝜂𝑆 𝜂𝑅

For this project,


Hammer is from China, hammer type is Donut and hammer release is free fall, so
𝜂𝐻 = 60%
Borehole diameter is 100 mm, so
𝜂𝐵 = 1.0
Sampler is standard sampler, so
𝜂𝑆 = 1.0
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Rod length is more than 10 m, so


𝜂𝑅 = 1.0
𝑁 ∗ 60 ∗ 1.0 ∗ 1.0 ∗ 1.0
N60 = 60

Table 2.8: Correlations for N60


BH2
Soil SPT
Depth below ground surface (m) N60
layer (N-value)
Fill 1.6 0 0
3 7 7
Clayey 5 6 6
sand 8 10 10
12 79 79
17 70 70
22 51 51
Silty 27 54 54
clay 32 76 76
37 82 82
42 100 100

Undrained shear strength, cu


cu = 0.29 Pa N600.72
Pa = atmospheric pressure, ≈ 100 kN/m2

Calculate skin resistance (Qs) for piles in clay by using α method


Qs = Σ f p ΔL
p = perimeter of pile
ΔL = length of pile in each layer of soil
f = unit skin resistance in clayey soils
f = αcu
cu is undrained shear strength
α is empirical adhesion factor. The approximate variation of the value of α is shown in
Table 9.
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Table 2.9: Variation of α

For piles in saturated clays under undrained conditions (φ = 0):


Qp = 9cuAp
cu = undrained cohesion of the soil below the tip of the pile
Ap = area of pile tip

Allowable Load
𝑄𝑢
Qall = FS

Qall = allowable load-carrying capacity for each pile, Qp + Qs


FS = factor of safety

The total settlement of a pile under a vertical working load Qw


se(1) = elastic settlement of pile
se(2) = settlement of pile caused by the load at the pile tip
se(3) = settlement of pile caused by the load transmitted along the pile shaft
(𝑄𝑤𝑝 + 𝜉𝑄𝑤𝑠 ) 𝐿
se(1) = 𝐴𝑝 𝐸𝑝

Qwp = load carried at the pile point under working load condition
Qws =load carried by frictional (skin) resistance under working load condition
Ap = area of cross section of pile,
L = length of pile
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Ep = modulus of elasticity of the pile material


ξ varies between 0.5 and 0.67

For this project, pile material is concrete. Modulus of elasticity of concrete is 14 x 106
to 41 x 106 kN/m2.
Ep = 30 x 106 kN/m2
ξ = 0.67

𝑞𝑤𝑝 𝐷
se(2) = (1 – μs2) Iwp
𝐸𝑠

D = width or diameter of pile


qwp = point load per unit area at the pile point = Qwp/Ap
Es = modulus of elasticity of soil at or below the pile point
μs = Poisson’s ratio of soil
Iwp = influence factor < 0.85
For this project, the soil for depth below ground surface 3 m to 12 m is medium clay.
Es value is referred to Table 4.
Es = 15 x 103 kN/m2

Table 2.10: Typical values of Poisson’s ratio for soils

For this project, the soil is saturated clay.


μs = 0.5
Iwp = 0.85
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𝑄 𝐷
𝑤𝑠
se(3) = ( 𝑝𝐿 ) 𝐸 (1 – μs2) Iws
𝑠

p = perimeter of the pile


L = embedded length of pile
𝐿
Iws = influence factor, 2 + 0.35√𝐷

Table 2.11 shows the limiting values for maximum settlement and maximum
differential settlement for foundations.
Table 2.11: Limiting values for maximum settlement and maximum differential
settlement for foundations
Maximum settlement ST(max)
In sand 32 mm
In clay 45 mm

Maximum differential settlement ΔST(max)


Isolated foundations in sand 51 mm
Isolated foundations in clay 76 mm