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# 6

## 2.0 Preliminary Study

The size of water tank is 8540 mm x 7920 mm. The water tank will be constructed at the location

## Figure 2.1: Location of water tank in borehole location plan

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Table 2.1: Summary of laboratory test result of soil sample from Borehole 2

Sample number UD 1 UD 2
Depth (m) 2-2.9 7-7.9
Moisture content (%) 17 18
Bulk density (kN/m3) 21.08 20.50
Dry density (kN/m3) 18.04 17.36
Cohesion (kN/m2) 42 51
Phi angle (o) 0 0

## For clay soil, Gs = 2.70 to 2.90. For this project, Gs = 2.70

Saturated unit weight for sample 1
1+𝑤
γsat = (1+𝑤𝐺 ) Gsγw
𝑠

1+0.17
= (1+0.17∗2.70) (2.70 x 9.81)

= 21.24 kN/m3
Saturated unit weight for sample 2
1+𝑤
γsat = (1+𝑤𝐺 ) Gsγw
𝑠

1+0.18
= (1+0.18∗2.70) (2.70 x 9.81)

= 21.03 kN/m3

## Gross ultimate bearing capacity for general shear failure condition

qu = 1.3c’Nc + qNq + 0.4γBNγ (square foundation)
c’ = cohesion
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## For this project, the water table is located as case 1 in figure 2

q = q’ = effective surcharge = D1γ + D2 (γsat – γw)

Nc = 5.70
Nq = 1.00
Nγ = 0
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𝑞𝑢
qall = 𝐹𝑆

## qu = gross ultimate bearing capacity

FS = factor of safety

Qall = qall A
qall = gross allowable load-bearing capacity
A = area of foundation

## Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundation on Saturated Clay (μs = 0.5)

q0 B
S e  A1 A2
Es

A1 = f (H/B, L/B)
A2 = f (Df /B)
L = length of the foundation
B = width of the foundation
Df = depth of the foundation
H = depth of the bottom of the foundation to a rigid layer
qo = net load per unit area of the foundation
Es = modulus of elasticity of soil
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## Figure 2.3: Values of A1 and A2 for elastic settlement calculation

Table 2.4: Typical values of modulus of elasticity for different types of soils

For this project, the soil for depth below ground surface 3 m to 12 m is medium clay.
Es = 15 x 103 kN/m2
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Consolidation settlement

 H  p
S c  Cc   log
 1  e0  p0

Cc = compression index

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## e0 = initial void ratio

Table 2.6: Typical values of soil void ratio for different soils

## for this project, e0 = 0.38

H = thickness of clay layer
p = p0 + Δp, final pressure
p0 = overburden pressure
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𝑞𝑜 𝐵 𝐿
Δp = net consolidation pressure at mid-height of clay layer, (𝐵+𝑍)(𝐿+𝑍)

N𝜂𝐻 𝜂𝐵 𝜂𝑆 𝜂𝑅
N60 = 60

## N = measured penetration number

𝜂𝐻 = hammer efficiency (%)
𝜂𝐵 = correction for borehole diameter
𝜂𝑆 = sampler correction
𝜂𝑅 = correction for rod length
Variations of 𝜂𝐻 , 𝜂𝐵 , 𝜂𝑆 , 𝜂𝑅 is referred to Table 3.5.

Table 7: Variations of 𝜂𝐻 𝜂𝐵 𝜂𝑆 𝜂𝑅

## For this project,

Hammer is from China, hammer type is Donut and hammer release is free fall, so
𝜂𝐻 = 60%
Borehole diameter is 100 mm, so
𝜂𝐵 = 1.0
Sampler is standard sampler, so
𝜂𝑆 = 1.0
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## Rod length is more than 10 m, so

𝜂𝑅 = 1.0
𝑁 ∗ 60 ∗ 1.0 ∗ 1.0 ∗ 1.0
N60 = 60

## Table 2.8: Correlations for N60

BH2
Soil SPT
Depth below ground surface (m) N60
layer (N-value)
Fill 1.6 0 0
3 7 7
Clayey 5 6 6
sand 8 10 10
12 79 79
17 70 70
22 51 51
Silty 27 54 54
clay 32 76 76
37 82 82
42 100 100

## Undrained shear strength, cu

cu = 0.29 Pa N600.72
Pa = atmospheric pressure, ≈ 100 kN/m2

## Calculate skin resistance (Qs) for piles in clay by using α method

Qs = Σ f p ΔL
p = perimeter of pile
ΔL = length of pile in each layer of soil
f = unit skin resistance in clayey soils
f = αcu
cu is undrained shear strength
α is empirical adhesion factor. The approximate variation of the value of α is shown in
Table 9.
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## For piles in saturated clays under undrained conditions (φ = 0):

Qp = 9cuAp
cu = undrained cohesion of the soil below the tip of the pile
Ap = area of pile tip

𝑄𝑢
Qall = FS

## Qall = allowable load-carrying capacity for each pile, Qp + Qs

FS = factor of safety

## The total settlement of a pile under a vertical working load Qw

se(1) = elastic settlement of pile
se(2) = settlement of pile caused by the load at the pile tip
se(3) = settlement of pile caused by the load transmitted along the pile shaft
(𝑄𝑤𝑝 + 𝜉𝑄𝑤𝑠 ) 𝐿
se(1) = 𝐴𝑝 𝐸𝑝

Qwp = load carried at the pile point under working load condition
Ap = area of cross section of pile,
L = length of pile
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## Ep = modulus of elasticity of the pile material

ξ varies between 0.5 and 0.67

For this project, pile material is concrete. Modulus of elasticity of concrete is 14 x 106
to 41 x 106 kN/m2.
Ep = 30 x 106 kN/m2
ξ = 0.67

𝑞𝑤𝑝 𝐷
se(2) = (1 – μs2) Iwp
𝐸𝑠

## D = width or diameter of pile

qwp = point load per unit area at the pile point = Qwp/Ap
Es = modulus of elasticity of soil at or below the pile point
μs = Poisson’s ratio of soil
Iwp = influence factor < 0.85
For this project, the soil for depth below ground surface 3 m to 12 m is medium clay.
Es value is referred to Table 4.
Es = 15 x 103 kN/m2

## For this project, the soil is saturated clay.

μs = 0.5
Iwp = 0.85
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𝑄 𝐷
𝑤𝑠
se(3) = ( 𝑝𝐿 ) 𝐸 (1 – μs2) Iws
𝑠

## p = perimeter of the pile

L = embedded length of pile
𝐿
Iws = influence factor, 2 + 0.35√𝐷

Table 2.11 shows the limiting values for maximum settlement and maximum
differential settlement for foundations.
Table 2.11: Limiting values for maximum settlement and maximum differential
settlement for foundations
Maximum settlement ST(max)
In sand 32 mm
In clay 45 mm

## Maximum differential settlement ΔST(max)

Isolated foundations in sand 51 mm
Isolated foundations in clay 76 mm