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6

Absorption Refrigeration Systems

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6.1 Intoduction
6.2 Basic-Absorption System
6.3 Practical Ammonia Absorption System
6.4 Electrolux Refrigerator
6.5 Theoretical COP of the Absorption Refrigeration System
6.6 Domestic EIectw!ux Refrigerator
6,7 Lithium 5roiiiid Absorption Refrigeration. System.
6.8 Actual Analysis of Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration System
6.9 Advatages of Absorption Refrigeration Systems over . Cómpi c ssion
Refrigeration System

-
X6.2 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING ABSOF

6.1 INTRODUCTION
All the mechanical cycles of refrigeration discussed in the last two chapters use the energy in
the form of mechanical work for the operation of the cycle. The major drawback of the vapour
compression refrigeration system is that it requires a compressor to compress large volume of
refrigerant vapour which requires large mechanical power for its operation. If some methods are
used to reduce this volume before compression, there would be considerable reduction in weight of
the system and power requirement for its operation.
Great strides are made to use the heat energy instead of work for producing refrigeration
because it gives high C.O.P. of the system compared with machine operated with supply of work
energy. Absorption refrigeration cycle is one of the oldest known cycles used for producing
refrigeration effect. A French scientist Ferdinand Cane developed the first absorption refrigeration
machine in early 1860. In olden days, these types of refrigeration systems were used for small
refrigerating capacity up to 20 tons only. Nowadays units are developed up to 1500 tons capacity.
The units which are generally used for air-conditioning purposes are available from 100 tons to 700
tons capacity.
Some liquids have great affinity of absorbing large quantities of certain vapours and reducing
them to liquid state, this reduces the total volume significantly.
The absorption system differs fundamentally from vapour compression system only in the
method, employed for compressing the refrigerant. In the absorption system, the compressor is
replaced by an absorber, generator and a pump.
6.2 SIMPLE ABSORPTION SYSTEM
The absorption refrigeration system is heat operated unit which uses a refrigerant that is
alternately absorbed by and liberated from the absorbent. Minimum number of primary units essential
in absorption system includes evaporator, absorber, pump, generator and the condenser. Fig. 6.1 (a)
shows a simplified flow diagram of an ammonia absorption system in which water serves as the
absorbent and NH3 as refrigerant.
The principle of this system is identical with that of a single stage compression system except
in the manner in which the pressure of the refrigerant vapour is increased to the level required for
condensation. The two cycles differ in that the absorption cycle uses a heat operated generator to
produce the pressure differential where the mechanical compression cycle uses a compressor. The
absorption cycle substitutes physico-chemical process for the purely mechanical process of
compression cycle.
Instead of compressing the low pressure refrigerant vapour, it is first absorbed by the weak-
solution of the refrigerant in water which is sprayed in the absorber. Absorption of ammonia lowers
the pressure in the absorber, which in turn draws more ammonia vapour from the evaporator. Usually
some form of cooling is employed in the absorber to remove the heat of solution evolved there. The
cooling of hot weak ammonia solution is necessary to increase its absorption capacity, because at
high temperature, water absorbs less ammonia vapour. The strong ammonia solution thus formed
is then pumped into the generator. The pump increases the pressure of the solution about 10 bar.
The strong solution of ammonia is heated by some external means (steam or gas), and in the heating
process, the refrigerant vapour is driven out of solution and the same heat is given out to the
condenser, where it is condensed to high pressure liquid ammonia. The weak solution of ammonia
left in the generator after ammonia has driven off; is first throttled to a low pressure level by an
expansion valve and then returned to the absorber. The high pressure liquid ammonia is passed
through a throttle valve to the evaporator where it absorbs its latent heat of vaporization and maintains
the cold. The dry ammonia vapour coming out of evaporator is allowed to mix with the weak solution
of ammonia sprayed in the absorber. This completes the cycle.
JING ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.30

P. C
gym
pour 4
Ge erator (1) Absuther
eof Q.
.s are
htof .. ___
•1
Rectifier & •
Dephlegmator Pr,su ()
ation reducing Valv(
work Pfl •m U7 Pump
icing ,.. Heat '
"Cd Exchanger Q
ation
;mall F. Evaporator
acity. k
CCondensor
Thrtt1e valve
o700 I r*IXI

icmg +

n the Fig. 6.1


sons
6.3 PRACTICAL AMMONIA ABSORPTION SYSTEM
The basic components of practical NH 3 absorption system are listed below and numbered on
plate-I.
iat is (1) Generator. (2) Analyser. (3) Rectifier. (4) Condenser. (5) Receiver. (6) Heat-exchanger (HE,)
ntial or liquid sub-cooler. (7) Expansion valve (EV). (8) Evaporator. (9) Water-jacked absorber. (10) Pump
i.1 (a) (P). (11) Heat-exchanger (HE 2 ) ( Aqua ammonia Heat Exchanger). (12) Expansion valve (EV 2).
is the
(13) Pump (P2). (14) Pond containing cooling water. (15) Heating coil.
The system described in the last article is not very economical. However, by the addition of
xcept
certain auxiliary equipments, the economy can be sufficiently improved to make the system practical.
d for
The basic auxiliaries included are an analyzer, a rectifier and two heat exchangers as shown in
br to
The plate-I.
ssof The vapour which rises from the solution in the generator consists of ammonia vapour along
with small quantities of water vapour. Unless major part of this water-vapour is removed before the
veak- vapour enters the condenser, this water-vapour may enter the expansion valve and freeze there. As
wers this mixture of ammonia vapour and water vapour is cooled, the water vapour condenses out first.
ually The analyzer performs the function of dehydration by bringing the vapour into contact with the
.The aqua richest in ammonia and by cooling the vapour with this aqua. If the dehydration is not complete
iseat enough in the analyser, an added water cooled vessel called a rectifier may be used to complete the
rmed process for sending anhydrous dry ammonia to the condenser. In the heat exchanger HE,, liquid
Jbar. refrigerant is sub-cooled by using low temperature ammonia vapour. This sub-cooled liquid is passed
ating through the expansion valve to the evaporator. The mixture absorbs heat in evaporator and enters
othe into the water jacked absorber. Water jacketing to the absorber is provided to cool the hot weak
ionia ammonia solution to increase the absorbity of the weak solution, then the strong ammonia solution
an from the absorber is passed through the pump and aqua ammonia heat exchanger to the generator.
ssed
The weak hot solution from generator is passed to the absorber in the form of spray through aqua
itains
ammonia heat exchanger. The weak liquid absorbs vapour coming from evaporator and becomes
ution
strong in ammonia.
* 6.4 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

The aqua ammonia heat exchanger located between the absorber and generator provides cooling
of weak solution and heating of strong solution. This operation saves the amount of cooling needed
for the absorber and the amount of heat needed for the generator. With the inclusion of this heat
exchanger, a very effective economy can be achieved.
Heat absorbed
The C.O.P. of the system is given by C.O.P. =
Work- supplied
In this particular system, energy is supplied to the system in the form of heat in the generator
and in the form of work W1 and W2 to the pumps P1 and P2 . -

H
•••= Q++

where Qa is the amount of heat absorbed in evaporator and Q9 is the heat supplied in the
generator.
Selection of Absorbent and Refrigerant. The importance of good thermal properties in
refrigerants and absorbents is evident. It is also important that the refrigerant and absorbent must
have certain chemical and physical properties.
The required properties of ideal refrigerant, absorbent and refrigerant-absorbent combination
are listed below for the efficient working of the system.
Properties of Ideal Refrigerant. (1) It should have vapour pressure characteristics that will
permit boiling at 2°C to 10°C and condensation at 40°C or above, at pressure not far from atmospheric.
(2) High critical temperature.
(3) Large latent heat of vaporization.
(4) Low specific heat.
(5) Stability in complete cycle.
Properties for Ideal Absorbent. (1) Ideal absorbent should remain in liquid condition under
operating conditions.
(2) The absorbent should have a greater affinity for the refrigerant.
(3) Heat liberated should be minimum when refrigerant is absorbed by the absorbent.
(4) It should have high boiling point.
(5) It should have, low specific heat.
(6) It should have chemical stability.
Properties for Ideal Refrigerant-Absorbent Combination. (1) The desirable absorbent-
refrigerant combination should have the property of high solubility at conditions in the absorber
but should have low solubility at conditions in the generator.
(2) The refrigerant must be much more volatile than the absorbent for easy separation in the
generator.
(3) The refrigerant properties should be such as to provide moderate operating pressures.
(4) The refrigerant and absorbent must be chemically stable at all operating conditions.
(5) Both should not form a solid phase.
(6). The absorbent should have .a strong affinity for the refrigerant,
(7) Both should not cause corrosion. .
(8) Both should be non-toxic and non-flammable.
(9) Viscosity should be low to promote heat and mass tranfers.
Pract
.
(10) The refrigerant should have high latent heat to reduce mass flow rate.
CONDITIONING
C0
L11wiues c:uviuig.
cooling needed
;ion of this heat

in the generator 15

HEATER
(6.1)

supplied in the

it properties in ~ •
absorbent must

ant combination

!ristics that will


)m atmospheric.

HIGH PRESSURE NH3 VAPOUR

HIGH PRESSURE NH LIQUID COOLING WATER

LOW PRESSURE NH 3 (LIQUID+


WEAK NH3 SOLUTION
VAPOUR) MIXTURE

LOW PRESSURE NH 3 VAPOUR STRONG NH3 SOLUTION

Practical Ammonia W ater Absorption Refrigeration System


Y 6.5

[ j
NH,-LIQUID

r STRONG NH3
I SOLUTION
_• WEAK NH3
SOLUTION

øOO HYDROGEN
)pOOg

MIXTURE OF HYDROGEN
AND NH3 VAPOUR
#IIA IAti1\l lID
w
A

DUMLMO Z) I #MVI flfrI IIN

Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator


PUMP
parts a
uses a
T
By its
and at
its pan
II
refrige:
norma.
h
vapoui
which
H • T
WEAK SOLUTION OF LITHIUM WATER VAPOUR AT HIGH TEMPERATURE T
BROMIDE SALT heat so
STRONG SOLUTION OF LITHIUM
vapou
.
WATER AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
BROMIDE SALT conder
to the
FI CONDENSED WATER AT HIGH
__TEMPERATURE
WATER AT LOW TEMPERATURE
the eve
ammo

COOLED WATER (TAKING THE COOLING G WATER FROM POND
.•• COOLING
. LOAD AT LOW TEMPERATURE) ........
• ammoi
ammoi
WATER VAPOUR AT LOW TEMPERATURE L. ammoi
Thisst
Actual Lithium Bromide Salt Solution Cooling Plant
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.5 *

There are no ideal combinations of fluids except H 20 + NH3 and H20 - Lil3r which are
considered to be the nearest available. The ''2° + NH is used where evaporation temperature is
near 0°C or below and other combination is used in air-conditioning applications.
Hoinworth listed 49 refrigerants coupled with various absorbents to give 180 combinations as
possibilities. Of the many combinations that have been tried, only the Ammonia-water and Lithium-
bromide - water cycles remained in common use in air-conditioning applications. In addition,
ammonia water-absorption sytem finds an important place in large tonnage industrial applications.
Ammonia-water combination is used because it possesses most of the desirable qualities which
are listed below:
(1) One cu. m of water absorbs 800 cu. m of NH 3 .
(2) Latent heat of NH3 = 1310.4 kJ/kg at - 15bC.
(3) Critical temperature of NH 3 = 132.6°C.
(4) Specific heat of NH3 liquid 4.68 kJ/kg-K.
(5) Boiling point at atmospheric pressure = - 33.3°C.
The only disadvantage is, it generates more heat in absorber when it is absorbed, therefore
cooling must be provided and special material should be used as it is corrosive to metals.
6.4 ELECTROLUX REFRIGERATOR
This type of refrigerator is generally used for domestic purpose only as it is more complicated
in its construction and working. This type of refrigerator was developed first in 1925 by Münters
and Baltzervon (Swedish engineers) when they were studying at Royal Institute of Technology in
Stockholm for their undergraduate course.
This type of refrigerator is known as three fluids absorption system. The elimination of aqua-
pump from the absorption machine would produce a system with a complete absence of moving
parts and work-input. The main purpose to eliminate the pump is to make the machine noiseless. It
uses a refrigerant, a solvent and an inert gas for the working of the system.
The inert gas is confined to the low-side of the system only (to the evaporator and absorber).
By its presence, it is possible to maintain the uniform pressure (total pressure) throughout the system
and at the same time permitting the refrigerant to evaporate at low temperature corresponding to
its partial pressure.
In the high pressure side of the system (generator and condenser), there exists only the
refrigerant which is subjected to the total pressure of the system so that it is condensed by using the
normal cooling water or air as it is done in other systems.
In the low side of the system, the total pressure is the sum of partial pressure of ammonia
vapour and the partial pressure of the hydrogen which is used as inert gas. The liquid ammonia
which comes into the evaporator, evaporates at the partial pressure of the ammonia.
The system arrangement is shown in Fig. 6.2 and its working is described as follows:
LURE The strong aqua ammonia solution is heated in the generator by the application of external
heat source and NH3 vapour is removed from the solution. The water vapour carried with the NH 3
vapour is removed in the separator as shown in the figure. Then the dry NH 3 vapour is passed in the
condenser and it is condensed by using external cooling source. This liquid NH 3 flows under gravity
to the evaporator and it evaporates in the presence of hydrogen atmosphere absorbing the heat from
the evaporator and it maintains low temperature in the evaporator. This mixture of hydrogen and
ammonia vapour is passed into the absorber as shown in the figure, and the weak solution of aqua
ammonia from the separator is allowed to flow, into the absorber through trays. This weak aqua
ammonia solution comes in contact with the hydrogen and ammonia vapour and it absorbs only
ammonia, making the solution rich in ammonia and hydrogen is separated as shown in the figure.
This strong solution is further passed to the generator and it completes the cycle.
ij 6.6 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING ABSOE

There is no pump to create the pressure differential between condenser and evaporator or not I
an expansion valve. The evaporator side is charged with H 2 so that total pressure is the same as that work,
of condenser side. steady
The cycle operates on the principle of Dalton's law where P NH3 + PH2 = constant, so that the
total pressure is same thoughout the system. where
Due to the presence of H 2 in the low side of the system, the pressure of NH will be below that I
of NH on the condenser side. Thus, the NH can evaporate at low pressure (temperature) while H 2
neglig
takes no part in the process except to supply its partial pressure to maintain the balance. H 2 is
therm
prevented entering into the condenser side by strong solution forming a trap at absorber and liquid
NH3, U-trap at the condenser outlet.
The H2 returns to the evaporator having no affinity for the absorbent. The H 2 is held in this
position by the U-tube.
Due to small pressure differences in the system, the solution is circulated through absorber
and generator by thermal action alone. The parts are so arranged that the liquid refrigerant flows to whem
the evaporator by gravity action only. Care is taken to keep the hydrogen isolated in the proper part where
of the system, otherwise the pressure will be unbalanced and machine will stop.
Liquid NH also evaporates in the presence of air or other inert gases, but lightest the gas, the
faster the evaporation takes place, since hydrogen is the lighter gas and readily available, and is also
non-corrosive and insoluble in water, it is generally, used for this type of refrigeration system.
6.5 THEORETICAL COP OF ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM AND ITS COMPARASIÔN
WITH CARNOT COP
In absorption system, the heat Q is supplied in the generator at temperature Tg and Qe is
9
absorbed from the evaporator or refrigerator at Te and discharged to the condenser (Q = Q + Qe) at
temperature T

Q ',

when

in Fig
Carn

by

Qe

Fig..6.2
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.7 *

Assuming these is no heat transfer at any place except these 4-places and neglecting the pump
work, according to Haw of thermodynamics, energies coming in and going out must be equal for
steady state condition, we can write
QgQeQc
where Q=Q 1 +Q 2
Assuming, the heat transfers in generator, evaporator, condenser and cooler take place with
negligible temperature difference, then the complete system becomes reversible and as per IT-law of
thermodynamics.
Entropy before heat transfer = Entropy after heat transfer.

where Tg T C and T. are generator, condenser and evaporator temperatures respectively


where (Tg > TC > Te).
The COP of the whole system is given by
Qe
Q
From equations (6.2) the value Qc can be substituted in equation (6.3) and we get

Tg T, Te

Qe (]Qg []

•(T—T ( T9 —T I
eTT)

r T—T T
COP
Qg Tc Te T

(T_—T(T
=
T
J T Te J
where Tg >Tc >Te
Now consider a reversible system as shown
in Fig. 6.3 where the Carnot refrigerator is run by
Carnot engine.
The efficiency of the Carnot engine is given
by

= Q1—Q2
=
= T9 —T '

Q1, Q1 T

(T —T
W= Q1
T&)
" Fig. 6.3
6.8 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING
ABSO]
The COP of Camot refrigerator is given by . ., . . .

COP = = Q3. = _____ . . . . s.epara


W Q4 _Q3 T - . . . . . . hydro
. hydro,
T T . . •.
W= Q3 . .
. ...(6.6) ., ...
T exchar
From equations (6.5) and (6.6) we can write . . . . .. .. ,. .
proces
absorp
QTC_Te]QT&_TC]
:

T, T9 machir
C.O.P.
QT_Tc]1T]
(67) 67 1.11
Q1 Tg

where —fl- is the overall COP of the combined system. .


. was us
Qi . . . .
refriger
Comparing the equation (6.4) for absorption system and equation (6.7) for vapour compression . . . . .
.

system, the overall COP of both the systems is same. This indicates that when the system works on refriger,
reversible processes whether it is heat or work, the system COP remains same. . . .

:Tf
The ideal COP of absorption system is always less than one because of irreversibilities associated ..........exampi
with actual heat transfer with temperature differences and other frictional losses. sufficier
.:

In case of VCC the COP is 4 for chilled water applications This when converted to power water vc
works out to about 3175 kJ/ton/hr or 0.88 kW/ton. This is calculated without considering thermal are plac
plant Tj which provides the work to operate refrigeration plant. When Tj of thermal power is . . .: .. .Th
considered, (12600 kJ/kW-hr), then the thermal energy requirement to run refrigeration plant will In
be 12920 kj/hr per ton of refrigeration. The vapour absorption system become attractive when its
and low
COP is greater than 0.98. Thus a vapour compression COP of 4 is equivalent to absorption COP of . .
waterm
0.98 for chilled water applications. In addition to this, waste heat is used in absorption system.
in Chapi
6.6 DOMESTIC ELECTROLUX REFRIGERATOR (cold) .w:
............. . Vacuum
The basic components of this refrigerator are listed below: . . ..
In
(1) Generator. (2) and (2)' Separator. (3) Analyser. (4) Rectifier. (5) Main-condenser. (6) Helping .
necessar
condenser. (7) Liquid heat exchanger. (8) Weak-liquid pre-cooler. (9) Absorber. (10) Gas heat- . .
the figur
exchanger. (11) (a) High-temperature evaporator. (b) Low-temperature evaporator. (12) Hydrogen-
Reservoir. (Pressure equiliser).
i vapour a
. .
. into the
The sequence of operations in domestic electrolux-refrigerator is listed as follows: ., from the
(a)In the generator, the ammonia vapour is formed due to heating of strong ammonia solution. . . . externalli
This formed NH3 vapour is passed through separator, analyser and rectifier to remove the water . . was evap
.

particles and water vapour carried by the ammonia. . . . As I .

(b) The dehydrated NH3 vapour is passed to the main-condenser, where 90% vapour is . removed
condensed here and the remaining 10% is further condensed in the helping condenser. . .
.by circuli
(ç) This condensed high pressure NH 3 liquid is passed to the evaporator section A and B and it ' . . The • . .

is evaporated in the presence of hydrogen atmosphere. During the evaporation, the total heat required . . .exchange
is taken from the refrigerator and maintains the required low temperature in the refrigerator. . the heat t
(d) The mixture of NH 3 vapour and hydrogen is passed to the absorber through the gas heat . .
)
.
.
. .the genera
exchanger, the hot hydrogen coming from absorber is cooled by the cold mixture of hydrogen and .
cost of th
NH3 coming from evaporator.
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 69

(e)- This mixture comes in contact with the weak ammonia liquid which is passed from the
separator into the absorber. The weak liquid absorbs ammonia vapour in the absorber liberating the
hydrogen free and becomes strong solution During the absorption, the heat liberated is given to the
hydrogen and hydiogen becomes hot This hot hydrogen is cooled in the gas heat exchanger.
(I) The strong solution from the absorber is passed to the generator through liquid heat
'exchanger (7), where the strong solution is heated and weak-solution is cooled This heat exchange
process is economical because it saves the amount of heat given in the generator and increases the
absorption capacity of weak NH 3 liquid as it is cooled This completes the cycle
The main advantage of this system is there is no noise due to the absence of mechanical
machinery and no mechanical troubles also It has not been used for industrial applications as the
C 0 P of the system is very low.
6.7 LITHIUM-BROMIDE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
In the absorption system of previous article, water was used as the absorbent and ammonia
was used as refrigerant In the present absorption refrigeration system, the water itself works as a
refrigerant and lithium bromide salt solution as an absorber.
For air-conditioning refrigeration temperatures below. 0°C are not needed An absorption
refrigeration system of this type is successfully developed and has achieved great commercial success
The vapoui press.-Lire of an aqueous solution of lithium-bromide high in salt is very low. For
example 60% lithium biomide water solution at 43.5 0C has a piessure of 0.625 cm of Hg which is
sufficiently low to cause water to boil at 6°C The lithium-bromide solution has a strong affinity for
water vapour because of its very low-vapour-pressure, so that if water and lithium bromide solution
are placed adjacent to each other in a closed evacuated system, the water will evaporate
The arrangement of this system is shown in Figi 6.4.
In the evapoi atoi the water will evaporate absorbing its latent heat from the remaining water
and loweiing its temperature to 2°C as the pressure in the evaporator is 5.5 cm of Hg The cooled
water in evaporator is used to cool the brine or water used for air-conditioning purposes as discussed
in Chapter 2 This foimed water vapour will be absorbed by the strong lithium bromide salt solution
(cold) which is sprayed in the absorber as shown in the figure maintaining very low pressure (high
vacuum) in the evaporator.
In absorbing water vapour, the lithium bromide salt solution is diluted in the absorber and it is
necessary to reconcentrate it This weak solution is pumped by a pump to the generator as shown in
the figure where it is heated by using the steam and the part of water is removed in the form of
vapour and makes the lithium bromide salt solution strong This strong solution is again passed
into the absorber through the heat exchanger as shown in the figure The generated water vapour
from the generator is further passed into the condenser where it is condensed by cold water supplied
externally. This condensed water is again passed into the evaporator to compensate the water which
was evaporated in the evaporator and it completes the cycle
As the Water vapour enters the salt solution in the absorber, the heat of condensation must be
removed from the absorber to increase the absorbity of lithium bromide salt solution This is done
by circulating the cold water from external source as shown in the figure
The heat exchanger which is used in the circuit serves the same purpose of aqua ammonia heat
exchanger used in ammonia absorption system In heat exchanger, weak hot liquid cooled giving
the heat to cold strong liquid before going into the generator. It reduces the heating load (steam) in
the generator and cooling load (circulating Water) in the absorber and reduces the overall operating
cost of the plant
1* 6.10 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

at T2
Q4 at T4

Condensing
Heating water coil
x4IgI
PA coil
Generator OCondenser

Heat
Exchanger

+ I Q1 atT1
J ,
Absorber
==-
Cooling 00 00
8° C
coil
0 0000
000
13°
Evaporator
Q3 at T

Solution Evaporator
fig. 6.4 pump pump

The system, although looks complex, is relatively simple. In actual design of the unit, the
absorber and evaporator are placed in the common lower shell, which operates at the low pressure
of the system (0.6 cm of Hg). The generator and condenser are in the separate upper-shell at the high
pressure of the system (7.5 cm of Hg). This type of arrangement is generally known as two-shell
system. The circulating cold water passes through the absorber, where it rises in temperature in
picking up the solution load and further it moves to the condenser and picks up additional load in
condensing generated vapour. The arrangement of the shell system is shown in Plate III.
The capacity of the unit is controlled by regulating the flow of condenser water through a
thermostat located in the leaving-chilled water liner. The solution boiling temperature is maintained
at constant value by maintaining a constant wafer vapour pressure. The amount of water that can be
removed from solution is determined by the amount of cooling water passing through the condenser
coil.
Its principal application is for chilling water and used in air-conditioning plants. The units of
two shell types are available from 100 tons to 700 tons capacity. 100 ton capacity plant requires
approximately 10 kg steam/ton/hour, 2000 litres of cooling water/hr and two pumps of 3 H.P. each.
The components of two shell systems are listed below:
1. Absorber. 2. Evaporator. 3. Generator. 4. Condenser. 5. Heating coil. 6. Heat-exchanger.
7. Coil carrying cooling load. 8. Control valve. 9. Thermostat. 10. Cooling water pond. 11. Cooling /
coil in absorber for increasing the absorbity of solution. 12. Condenser coil for condensing vapour.. /
The working of the two shell compact system is summarised as follows:
(a)As the pressure in the evaporator is low, the water in the evaporator evaporates taking its
latent heat from remaining water. The remaining water is cooled to 2°C and used for taking the
cooling load coming from the cooling coil (7).
(b)Water vapour formed is absorbed by the strong lithium bromide salt sprayed in the absorber
maintaining low pressure in the evaporator. As lithium bromide salt solution absorbs water vapour,
it becomes weak and then it is pumped through pump P1 into the generator.
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.11
JNING
(c) Heat is supplied in the generator from external source, and partly evaporated water makes
the lithium bromide salt solution strong. This strong salt solution is sprayed through heat exchanger
into the absorber as mentioned earlier.
T (d) The water vapour formed in the generator due to heating of salt solution is condensed in
the condenser by circulating the cooling water through the pump P3 (which takes water from pond)
as shown in the figure. The condensate from condenser is supplied to the evaporator again to
compensate the water vapour formed in the evaporator and it completes the cycle.
For cooling the brine quickly coming from the load into the evaporator, the cooled water in the
evaporator is circulated by the pump P2 and sprayed in the evaporator as shown in the figure.
A thermostatic control is kept on the condenser cooling water which controls the quantity of
cooling water according to the temperature of cooled brine passing through (7). The temperature of
brine passing through (7) is decided according to the load coming on the refrigerating plant for
which the cooled brine is used.
For the equilibrium running of the plant, the weight of water vapour absorbed in the absorber
by the lithium bromide salt solution must be equal to the water vapour generated in the generator
which is equal to the weight of condensate in the condenser and it must also be equal to the weight
of water vapour formed in the evaporator.
The pressure difference between the high and low pressure sides of LiBr-H 2O system is low
enough that these systems can use a vapour lift pump and gravity return from absorber to generator,
thus obviating the need for mechanical pumping to move the solution from the low pressure to high
pressure side. This is the specific advantage of LiBr-H 20 system, over H 20-NH3 system.
The only disadvantage of this system is LiBr is not completely soluble in water under all
nit, the conditions which are likely to occur in the system and precautions must be taken to ensure that
ressure these conditions do not occur.
he high Analyser and rectifier are not required in this system as LiBr (absorbent) is not volatile. As
io-shell H20 is refrigerant, the operating pressures are very low. Due to small pressure differential between
ture in high and low side, expansion devices are not required. The usual pressure losses in the pipe lines
load in are often advantageous to the operation.
In this system, evaporator and absorber are combined in low pressure part while generator
ough a and condenser are in the high pressure part (in two vessel system). The open construction provides
ritained ample space for large volume of water vapour to transfer, especially when large volumes are
can be experienced in water at these pressures.
1 enser
This type of system is most useful in any industry where steam is already being used for the
inits of 1 main process. Part of this process steam is used for refrigeration.
So far, nearly 1,00,000 TR (tons of refrigeration) of this type has been installed by Thermax in
equires
P. each. various industries. They include steel plants, power plants, textiles, fertiliser, paper, chemical and
pharmaceutical plants as well as hotels, shopping centres, hospitals and art galleries.
han er. Every 1000 TR capacity plant saves roughly 1 MW power. Besides, this system qualifies for
'ooin 100% depreciation and with no moving parts, the operation and maintenance costs are very low,
apou thereby paying for themselves in short time. Today Japan, Korea, China and India are the largest
manufacturers of this system in the -world.
Today Thermax has nearly 90% market share in India and has ambitious plants to export them
k ing its
ing to South East Asia. This single product generated revenues of Rs. 25 crore in 1995-96 and 100 crore
in 1996-97.
bsorber Another refrigerant-absorbent combination that has been suggested is NH3 in sodium
vapour, thiocyanate salt. This combination is found to be suitable for a refrigeration system using a low-
temperature heat source such as solar energy. Ammonia sodium thiocyanate solution possesses
* 6.12 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

many desirable features as inexpensive, non-explosive and non-corrosive to iron, steel and copper.
They have relatively low vapour pressures and viscosities and, high thermal conductivities and heat
of vaporization.
Advantages and Limitations of Li-Br-Water Absorption System
Advantages
(1) At the operating temperatures and pressures encountered; water as refrigerant is much
more volatile compared to lithum-bromide 'which is practically non-volatile. Hence, it is
feasible to separate the refrigerant from the absorbent for proper evaporation of the
refrigerant in the evaporator.
(2) A concentrated lithium bromide solution has great affinity for water.
(3) Since the operating pressures are low in lithium-bromide-water absorption system, the
pumping cost is low and wall thickness of the shell is less compared with NH 3-water
absorption system.
Limitations
(1)' Since water is used as refrigerant, evaporation temperature must be kept above the freezing
point of water and hence the temperature of chilled water cannot be less than 5°C
(2) Lithium-bromide solution is corrosive Therefore, inhibitors need to be added to the system
to prevent the metal parts from corrosion
(3) Coolant temperatures must be relatively lower to avoid crystallization of the lithium
bromide which makes air cooling 'of the absorber difficult in this system.
CFCs (Chiorofluoro carbons)were found as most versatile refrigerants and they have made
epoch making changes in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries.
6.8 ACTUAL ANALYSIS OF AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Before going to analysis of ammonia absorption system, we must know the properties of aqua-
ammonia'. The common solvent is water and refrigerant is ammonia and solution of ammonia in
water is known as "aqua ammonia".'
Properties The properties of aqua ammonia which are required for thermal calculations of
the system are listed below:
(1)The properties (pressure, temperature, enthalpy) of aqua ammonia depend on the strength'
of aqua solution or concentration The concentration of aqua solütiôn is defined as the ratio of weight of
ammonia to total weight of solution. The concentration may vary from pure water, 0% to anhydrous
ammonia 100%
(2)The 'aqua ammonia' has one concentration at a given temperature and pressure conditions
and it has no tendency either to increase or decrease the concentration unless either temperature or
pressure is increased or decreased. This concentration is known as 'equilibrium concentration'. The
constant equilibrium concentration lines are drawn on the aqua ammonia property chart
The heating of solution which is at equilibrium concentration at constant pressure will evolve
ammonia vapour and decreases the concentration Similarly, cooling increases the concentration
provided ammonia is made available and time is allowed for its absorption
(3)When the water or weak aqua solution absorbs ammonia, the heat is evolved. This heat is
known as heat of absorption or heat of solution. Conversely, heat is required to separate the
components from the solution. ,
(4)If volume of water V,, is mixed with the volume of liquid ammonia VNH3, then the volume
of 'mixture V <(V + VNH3). Generally V. is less by 16 per cent of the total volume of water and
liquid ammonia before mixing. This, is because, part of ammonia volume is absorbed into the water volume.
ClONING 6.13 $'
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
[copper. (5) There is always saturated vapour mixture above the aqua ammonia solution in a closed 1.

and heat vessel and each component exerts its own partial pressure, therefore the total pressure exerted by
the mixture is the sum of the partial pressure of water vapour and ammonia.
The temperature of the vapour mixture does not indicate the partial pressure. The values of
individual partial pressures are lower than each component in its pure state at the temperature,
is much therefore, each component in vapour form in a mixture is in superheated condition although the
nce, it is mixture is saturated. The degree of superheat for ammonia vapour in a mixture may be found by the
n of the following equation.
= 0.466x + 0.656
tern, the for moderate concentrations (from 0.2 to 0.5), where T. is the saturation temperature of ammonia
-13-water corresponding to its partial pressure and T is the actual vapour temperature and x is concentration.
The partial pressure of water vapour in mixture for the
given concentration at given pressure and temperature is
freezing calculated experimentally.
Analysis. Consider a closed vessel containing the Vapour mixture
e system mixture Of water vapour and ammonia vapour over an aqua
ammonia solution as shown inFig. 6.5.
lithium Assume x is the mole fraction of NH3 in liquid solution Aqua ammonia
and y is the mole fraction of NH3 in vapour mixture as shown
ye made in Fig. 6.5.
According to the definition of mass concentration, the
mass concentration of NH 3 in aqua solution is given by Fig. 6.
= Mass of NH 3 = 17x
Df 'aqua- Mass of NH 3 + Mass of H20 17x + 18(1 - x)
nonia in
17x
itions of 18 - x
The mass concentration of NH 3 in vapour mixture (Xm) can also be calculated with the help of
strength Eqn. (6.4) and it is also given in terms of partial pressures by the following equation:
weight of
= Partial pressure of NH 3 in mixture = NH 3 - Ho
hydrous
" Partial pressure of H 20 in mixture PH, o PH, o
nditions where, P is the total pressure of the mixture.
ature or Volume of the aqua-ammonia. If the volume VNH3 of liquid ammonia is mixed with the volume
on'. The VH 20 of water, the resulting volume of the mixture is given by
= 0 .84x L VNH3 + (1 - x) VH20
,

11 evolve The cause of this is already mentioned.


ntration Enthalpy of aqua-ammonia. Assume ha is the enthalpy of component A at pressure Pa and
temperature T and h b is the enthalpy of the component B at pressure P b and temperature T per mole
.s heat is of each component.
rate the If both components are mixed at the same temperature as shown in Fig. 6.6, then the change in
the enthalpy of each component is given by
volume
ater and
volume.. f dh = f [v - T () ] dp per mole of component ...(6.9)

The upper limit may be taken as P., or


ABSO]
6.14 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

Therefore, the total enthalpy of the mixture, assuming such


one mole of component A is mixed with one mole of places
component B is given by.

H,n =ha + Iv,, _T(J] x (P_P) +hb T for sir

+ IVb +Tj] x (P!fl—Pb)—HlfljX


where Hmjx is the heat rejected due to mixing of the
components.
If na is mole of A per mole of mixture and Tib is the mole
of b per mole of mixture then the enthalpy of one mole mixture
is given by

where
I
hm = naha + na v,, - T(- )
] I
(P, - P) + nbhb + rib vb -

is the heat rejected due to mixing per mole of mixture.


)p ]
-(Pm - ...( 6.10)

Enthalpy of vapour mixture. The enthalpy of one mole of vapour mixture is given by the
following equation:

h,v = [nha ] + [nihb] . ...( 6.11)

where n and n' mole of A and B per mole of mixture.


Heat of mixing. It is already noted that the heat is evolved when NH 3 is absorbed by the water
or weak ammonia or heat is required to separate the ammonia from the strong aqua. The amount of
heat of absorption is a function of the concentration of aqua and it is given by the Mollier equation
as
Qa = [802.5 (1 - x) - 928x 2 kJ/per kg of NH3 absorbed or driven off •
]
...(6.12)
where x 4 is the mean mass concentration of the aqua and it is given by
,

xw 1+xw 2
...(6.13)
2
where x 1 is the initial mass concentration and x, 2 is the final mass concentration.
Therefore, the heat of aqua ammonia solution is given by
h501 = [x,hNH3 + (1 + x) hH20 - xq] kj/kg of aqua ...(6.14)
where hNH3 and hH20 are enthalpies of ammonia and water at solution temperature.
The calculation of heat of solution by using the above equation is justified for most of the cases
in absorber and generator.
6.9 ADVANTAGES OF ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM OVER COMPRESSION
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM .

Advantages:
1. As there is no moving part in the entire system, the operation is essentially quiet and subjected
to a very little wear, so that the maintenance cost is low. The pump motor is quite small compared
with the motor required for a compression system of the same capacity. .
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.15 %
ITIONING
2. Absorption system may be designed to use any readily available source of thermal energy
such as process steam, hot exhaust from furnaces and solar energy. They can therefore be used in
places where electric power is hard to obtain or is very expensive.
3.Absorption unit can be built in capacities well above 1000 tons each which is the largest size
for single compressor unit.
4. Space requirements favour the absorption system more and more as the desired. evaporator
/ temperature drops.
5. Steam which is bled from the turbine is used for winter heating, the same steam can be used
for refrigeration in summer supplying to the generator.
6.In vapour compression system, it is essential to ensure that the ammonia vapour leaving the
evaporator is slightly superheated so that no liquid may enter the compressor. In vapour absorption
system, the presence of liquid in vapour leaving the evaporator will not have any detrimental effect,
except that of reducing the refrigerating effect.
7. At reduced loads (at the same temperature) the 8 Ab-ption
absorption unit is almost as efficient as at full load. The refrigeration
load variations are met by controlling the quantity of 6
...(6.10)
steam supplied to the generator or by changing the mass C.O.P.
flow rate or both. The C.O.P. of a compressor
en by the refrigeration system decreases as the load decreases on I xJr compress on
the system. 2 _____ refrigeration
The variations of C.O.P.s for both systems are
...(6.11) shown in Fig. 6.7.
8.The absorption refrigeration unit can operate at Q 25% 50% 75% 100%
the water reduced evaporator temperature by increasing the steam Variation of C.O.P. with load
imount of pressure which is supplied to the generator with little
equation decrease in capacity. hg. VariitjP!. of COT, ,
load. (approximate):
Where the capacity of the compression system
...(6.12) drops rapidly with lowering evaporator pressure. This is very clear from the p-h chart as shown in
Fig. 6.8 (a).
When the required temperature in the evaporator falls from T1 to T'1 the refrigerating capacity
...(6.13) per kg of refrigerant is decreased and work required per kg of refrigerant is increased which is clear
from p-h diagram. 50, 1 I I

4C
...(6.14) 0

the cases 4 0

. z3Cd
2C

ESSION 1c

+
Temperature in evaporator
subjected —*H
:ompared
Fig (a) Effect of reducing the Fig 6.8 0. ).. Effect of evapom itoi tempenturt
evaporating temperatume on the capacity of tin refui, itrng plant
(Coiid.ring tei*peiuture for both systerasis.
30C approximate). i
$ 6.16 . . REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING ABS

(h'2 - h'1) < (h - h) and (h'3 - h'2 )> (h3 h2 ). . . .. . . .


So that the C.O.P. rapidly decreases with decrease in evaporator temperature; . . . . .•.

The effect of evaporator temperature on capacity for both systems is shown in Fig.. 6.8 (b) when
condensing temperature is constant. 5
From this point of view, absorption refrigeration system is more effective when different
evaporator temperatures are required at different times of month or year and this is more efficiently
done without decreasing the capacity of the system. As per the temperature requirement in evaporator . .
(higher or lower) the pressure of the steam supplied to the generator is decraCed Or: iiic;'eei. . . . . . .
9.The cost cannot be compared because it depends upon the costof power available. But it.can ,. . .
be generally said that, higher electric rates or lower fuel rates favour absorption units, where higher the ten
gas rates and lower electric rates favour compression units
(
10.Moreover, as we are all aware, CFCs can leak out and reach the upper part of the atmosphere 40°C
Where they deplete the 0 3 layer which protects the earth from the sun's ultra-violet ras. . .

PROBLEM 6.1. In an absorption type refrigeration system, heating, cooling and refrigeration take place .
at the temperature of 100°C, 20°C and - 10°C. Find the theoretical C. 0. P. of the system. . . .
SOLUTION.. The theoretical C.O.P. of the system is given by the following equation: .

T 7g T, . . . .
C.O.P. = where Tg > T> Te
•TgTeT) . . .
: ..... ... . . .
Tg = 100+ 273=373 K, Te = 20+ 273 = 293 1c T= — 10+273=263K. . .. ... ..
263 373.293 . . . . ..

= 1.915. . . . . .. . .
.. . . .
= 373 293-263.
PROBLEM 6.2. In an absorption type refrigerator, the heat is supplied to NH3 generator by condensing
steam at 2 bar and 90110 dry. The temperature to be maintained in the refrigerator is - 5°C. The temperature of
the atmosphere is 30°C, Find the maximum COY possible of the refrigerator. .
If the refrigeration load is 20 tons and actual C.O.P. is 70% of maximum COY, find the mass of steam
required per hour. . . . . .
SOLUTION. The maximum C.O.P. is given again by the following equation: . . . . suppli
T (Tg —.T . . evapor
C.O. . . of the
g Tc T of heat
Tg = Saturation temperature of steam at 2 bar . . . mean
= 119.62°C = 392.62 K (from steam tables)
71 = 30 + 273 = 303K, Te = _5 + 273 = 268 K . . refrige
268(392.62-3o3 .
Maximum C.O.P. 1.75. . same
= 392.62 303. - 268 )
coolin
Actual C.O.P. = 1.75x 0.7=1.225. . . . . .
20 tons load of refrigeration = 20 x .35 = 70 kJ/sec .. .
Refrigeration load. . . ..
Actual C.O.P. = ,. .. . .. . .
Actual heat supplied . . .. . .
)NING ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 617

Actual heat supplied = 1 5 = 57.15 kJ/sec = 5715 kW


When -, 5715 x 3600
Steam required pr hour
Xh
ffeient fg
ciently It is assumed that only latent heat of steam is used for heating purposes
oratoi 57.15 x 3600
- Steam requirement/hour
= 09 >< 2200 = 104 kg/hr
tit can
PROBLEM 6.3. (a) In an absorption refrigeration system, heating cooling and refrigeration take place at
higher.
the temperatures of 150°C 30°C and - 20°C Find the theoretical C OY of the system
(b) If the heating temperature is;. increased to 200°C and refrigeration temperature is decreased to
sp ici e
- 40°C, find the percentage change in theoretical COYP
T (T Fe
SolunoN (a) COP =
Tg Te Te
Tg = 150,+,273 =.423 K, Te = 30 + 273 = 30.3.K
e place T= —20 + 273 = 253 K
253 (423-3o3
COP= L3o32s3J =l43S

T (T g _Te
(b) COP=IT T
geT e

Tg = 200 + 273 = 473 K. T = 30 + 273 = 303 K


= —40 + 273 = 233 K
233 [473 - 303
tensing
itureof
cop —i
473 [303 233
=12

fsteam Percentage decrease in C 0 P = 1435-12 x 100 = 164%


PROBLEM 6.4. In a NH3 —absorption refrigeration system, the strong ammonia solution at 85°C is
supplied to the generator at a rate of 8, kg/mm The pressure maintained in the generator is 12 bar. The rate of
evaporation (dry - NH3 - vapour) from the generator is 1.5 kg1min. The enthalpy of NH 3 vapour coming out
of the generator is 1880 kJ/kg The remaining weak solution leaves the generator at 105°C Find the quantity
of heat supplied per kg of NH3 vapour generated Assume the specific heat of solution is 4.94 kJ/kg-°C and
mean mass concentration is 0.35.
The NH3 is reduced to liquid at 30°C before entering the evaporator and evaporated at 2 bar. Find the
refrigerating effect and C 0 P of the system Use P-h chart
Also compare the refrigerating effect with that obtained by vapour compression system working between
same pressure limit Assume compression is isentropic, suction is dry and saturated and there is no sub-
cooling Thermal efficiency is 20%
SOLUTION Heat of absorption is given by

Qa 8025(1 w)928X w2
= 8025 (1 -.0.35) 7 928 x (0.35) 2 = 408 kJ/kg of NH3
:0,6.18 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING
ABSO]

Quantity of strong aqua required per kg of NH generated

=—=5.33kg
1.5 \

Quantity of weak aqua left in generator per kg of NH 3 generated = 5.33 - 1 = 4.33 kg.
Considering the enthalpy balance of the generator, is corn
we can write down. evapor
Heat coming in generator = Heat going out from 12 bar• 4
generator (enthalpy of liquid NH 3 at 0°C from P-h chart)-" P
= 418 kJ/kg.
tonso
5.33(418 + 4.94 x 85) + Q8
2b
= 1880 + 4.33[418 + 4.94 x 105] + 408 --
2 in vap
Q, = 1898 kJ/kg of NI-I3 vapour generated. in the
From P h chart driven
= h1 = 558 kJ/kg, h2 = 1663 kJ/kg, h3 = 1924 kJ/kg. H
The refrigerating effect per kg of NH 3 passing mover
fig. Ptob. 64
through the evaporator
= h2 - h1 = 1663 - 558 = 1105 kJ/kg of NH3 . gener
C.O.P. of the absorption refrigeration system
- Refrigerating effect -
- 0582
- Heat supplied - 1898 -
If the vaour compression cycle is used with the same pressure limit, then
Refrigerating Effect = h2 - h1 = 1663 - 558 = 1105 kJ/kg
Work supplied to the compressor = h3 - h2 = 1924— 1663 = 261 kJ/kg
The amount of heat required to produce the work of 261 kJ
vapo.
261
=0.2 =1305kJ/kg.
C.O.P. of compression refrigeration system
1105
= = 0.847.
Heat supplied to compression system
Ratio of for the same refrigeration effect
Heat supplied to absorption system

= = 0.6875.
1898
PROBLEM 6.5. In the generator of an ammonia absorption refrigeration system, 8 kg of strong aqua
solution at 80°C per minute is supplied for every kg of NH 3 driven out from the solution. The remaining weak
solution leaves the generator at 100°C. Assuming the mean mass concentration of the aqua ammonia in the
generator is 0.35, find the quantity of heat supplied from the external source per kg of NH 3 generated.
Take the following data:
Pressure in the generator = 10 bar
Enthalpy of NH3 leaving the generator, = 1890 kJfkg
Mean specific heat of solution = 4.83 kJ/kg-°C aq
Heat loss from the generator to atmosphere = 84 kJ/kg of NH3 generated.
Fig. F
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.19 .

Take the heat of aqua ammonia = 418 kJ/kg at 0°C.


Use the following equation -for the heat of absorption:
Q = 802.50 - x) 928 x,2 .

(b)The NH3 generated in the generator is completely condensed to saturated liquid in the condenser and
is completely evaporated in the evaporator. Using the P-h chart, find the ratio of refrigerating effect in the
evaporator to the heat supplied in the generator per kg of NH3 .

Assume the pressure in the evaporator is 2 bar.


Iftheflow of anhydrous ammonia through the evaporator is 8 kg/min,find the capacity of the system in
tons of refrigeration.
(c) Compare the refrigerating effect produced from the amount of heat given to the generator is utilised
in vapour - compression system working in the same pressure limit and having the same conditions of refrigerant
in the inlet and outlet of the evaporator. Assume the compression machine of vapour compression system is
driven by a prime-mover which has a thermal efficiency of 10%.
Assume the compression in the compressor is isentropic and transmission efficiency between the prime-
mover and compressor is 100%.
SOLUTION. The amount of weak solution leaving the generator per kg of anhydrous NH 3
generated
=8-1=7kg
Heat of absorption
= 802.5 (1 - x) - 928x2 = 802.5(1 - 0.35) - 928(0.35) 2
Qa
= 408 kJ/kg of NH 3 generated.
Considering the enthalpy balance of the generator, we can write down.
Heat coming into generator = Heat going out from the generator.
Heat carried by strong aqua + Heat given byheating source = Heat carried by ammonia
vapour + Heat carried by weak aqua + Heat of absorption + Heat lost to thesurroundings.
8[418 + 4.83 x 801 + Q, = 1890 + 7 [418 + 4.83x 100] + 408 + 84
where Q, is the heat supplied per kg of anhydrous NH 3 generated.
6435 + Q5 = 1890 + 6799
Q8 = 2254 kJ/kg of NH 3 generated.
(b) The processes are represented on P-h diagram.
From P-h chart (enthalpies in kJ/kg)
h1 =533,h2 =1667 and h3 =1911
Anhydrous ammonia
1kg
1 Generator

8 kg
I 10 bar
P
Heating
source 2 bar
Strong
aqua at 80°C
L
7Kg
H
Weak aqua
at 100°C -
Fig. Prob. 6.5 (a) Fig. Prob. 6.5(b)
X 6.20 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

• Refrigerating effect per kg of NH 3 = h2 - h1 = 1667— 533 = 1134 kJ/kg


Ratio of Refrigerating effect = 1134
0.503
Heat supplied 2254
1134x8
Refrigerating capacity of the system= 60 3 5 = 43.2 tons.
• (c) The net work available out of 2254 kJ of heat for the compression of refrigerant in the
compressor . is
= 2254 x 0.1= 225.4 kJ.
The. work required in the compressor per kg of NH 3 compressed isentropically
— h2 =1911-1667=244kJ/kg
= h3

The refrigerating effect possible with 225.4 kJ of thermal energy when used to drive the prime
mover coupled to the compression refrigeration machine is
= 2254 .x1134=1047.5kJ
244
Refrigeration effect in compression machine
Ratio of
Refrigeration effect in absorption machine

(for the same given input of thermal energy) = 1047.5 0.924.

PROBLEM 66, A 20 tons refrigerating load on an evaporator is taken by an ammonia absorption


refrigeration machine. The cooling is carried out at - 30°C. The refrigerant coming out of the condenser is at
20°C and it leaves the evaporator at saturated condition. Assume the following data
Pressure in the generator = 11 bait
Temperature of strong aqua = 70°C.
Temperature of weak aqua = 100°C.
Heat of one kg of anhydrous NH 3 leaving the generator = 1930 kJ/kg.
Concentration of the weak aqua = 0.28.
Concentration of the strong aqua = 0.34.
Mean specific heat of aqua solution 4.7 kJ/kg-°C.
Take the heat of aqua per kg at 0°C = 418 kJ/kg.
Heat of absorption is given by Qa = 806 - 588 x —5960 x, 2 .

Neglecting the heat loss to the surrounding from the generator, find the quantity of steam required per
hour for heating the strong aqua solution in the generator if the steam is supplied at 5 bar and 0.9 dry and
condensate comes out at 130°C. Neglect the pressure losses in the system.
SOLUTION. The cooling effect per kg of refrigerant can be calculated from the P-h diagram.
We can locate the points 4, 1 and 2 as per the given conditions in the problem.
From P-hchart, h4 = 514.5 kJ/kg =h1 and h2 = 1655 kJ/kg.
Mass of ammonia circulated per sec in the evaporator is given by
3.5 =
= ______
Tx' 20
WNH3
NH3 = 0.0614 kg/sec = 3.68 kg/min.
h2 —h1 1655-514.5
Assuming 'm' kg of strong aqua is supplied to the generator per kg of anhydrous NH 3 generated,
we can equa the mass of anhydrous ammonia entering and leaving the generator
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATI ON SYSTEMS 6.21 •d

0.34m=1+(m-1)x0.28
m = 12 kg/kg of anhydrous NH generated
Mass of weak aqua leaving the generator per kg of N114 generated
=1271=11kg.
Considering the enthalpy balance of the generator on the basis of one kg of anhydrous NH 3
generated.
Heat of strong aqua + Heat given by steam = Heat in anhydrous + Heat in weak aqua.+ Heat of
absorption.
~ Anhydrous
ammonia
20°C
Generator
11 bar - -
-------- ----------

p Stearn
heating

II
-4 H Strong aqua " Weak aqua
At 70°C at 100

rig Pob 6(a) Fig Prob66Ui)

Heat of absorption can be calculated by using the given formula


Qa = 806 - 588 xw -5960xw2
where x is the mean concentration which is given by
0.28 + 0.34
x = =0.31
2
Qa = 806 —588 x 0.31— 5960 (0.31) 3 51 kJ/kg.
Using the heat balance of the generator.
12[418 + 4.7 x 701 + Q, 1930 + 11[418 + 4.7 x 1001 + 51
Q, 2785 kJ/kg of anhydrous NH3 generated.
As the ammonia circulation is 3.7 kg/mm, therefore heat supplied in the generator per minute
= 37 x 2785 = 10305 kJ/min.
Heat given by one kg of steam in the generator (from steam table)
= [640.2 + 2108.5 x 0.9] - 130 = 2537.85 kJ/kg
10305 x60
Mass of steam reauired er hour = • = 243.6 kg/hr.
2537.85 •
6.22 REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

PROBLEM 6.7. Data for an absorber of an Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration system is given below:
Evaporator Pressure = 2.5 bar.
Temperature of Ammonia leaving the evaporator and entering the absorber - 10°C.
Absorber Pressure = 2.5 bar.
Weak aqua enters the absorber at 50°C with mass concentration of 0.25.
Strong aqua leaves the absorber at 35°C with mass concentration of 0.33.
Anhydrous ammonia circulated through system = 8.5 kg/mm.
Neglect the water vapour returning from evaporator and assume specific heat of solution as 6.3 kJ/kg-°C
and liquid heat at 0°C as 418 kJ/kg.
Calculate the amount of heat to be removed per minute from the absorber in kJ/min.

Weak solution
50°C and 0.25 Concentration
Absorber

Strong
solution at
concentration
L ® Anhydrous
ammonia leaving
evaporator at
of 0.33 2.5 bar and 10°C
Cooling
coil
Fig. Prob. 6.7
SOLUTION, Considering the quantity of weak solution 'm' kg per kg of anhydrous ammonia
and equating the quantities of anhydrous ammonia entering the absorber and leaving the absorber,
we get.
Ammonia in weak solution + Anhydrous ammonia coming from evaporator = Ammonia in
strong solution.
mxO.25+1=(m+1)xO.33
m=8.37kg
Heat of absorption can be calculated by using the following formula:
Qa = 802.5 (1 - x) - 928x 2
0.25+0.33
where x= = 0.29
2
Qa = 802.5(1 - 0.29) - 928(0.29)2 = 492 kJ/kg.
The total heat of one kg of anhydrous ammonia leaving the evaporator at 2.5 bar and - 10°C
can be calculated from the P-h chart and it is equal to 1688 kJ/kg.
Now equaling the incoming and outgoing enthalpies of the absorber, we get
Heat of ammonia vapour coming from evaporator + Heat in weak aqua + Heat of absorption
= Heat carried away by cooling water + Heat in strong aqua.
1688 + 8.37[418 + 6.3(50)] + 492 = Q + (8.37 + 1)1418 + 6.3x 351
Q (heat carried away by cooling water when one kg of anhydrous ammonia is passed
through absorber from above equation)
= 2332 kJ/kg of anhydrous ammonia
Heat carried away by cooling water per minute
= 2332 x 8.5 = 19822 kJ/min.
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.23 a

PROBLEM 6.8. An ammonia absorption system and its particulars are shown in Fig. Prob. 6.8. From the
given data, find the following:

T
90°C, 12 bar

Condenser
r_f2 bar heat source)
i generator
.
1100C
10°C 25°C
90°C Heat exchanger ttl
valve
2 bar

Cooling E Evaporator
water in
30°C
—5°C
Pump Absorber

Cooling
water out
Fig. Frob. 6.8

(1)Heat removed from the absorber per kg of anhydrous ammonia.


(2) Heat supplied to the generator per kg of anhydrous ammonia.
(3) The .ratio of refrigeration effect to heat supplied in the generator per kg of anhydrous ammonia.
Take the following data: ,
C (Aqua ammonia) = 4.83 kJ/kg-°C
Mean molal concentration of ammonia in aqua = 0.315
Heat of absorption is given by
q = 802.50 - x) - 928 x,2
Heat in ammonia leaving the generator = 1877 kJ/kg..
SOLUTION. The mean mass concentration can be calculated by using the following equation:
17x.
x=
W
18—x
where x is molal fraction of NH 3 in the aqua.
17x0.315
W 18-0.315 = 0.305.

The heat of absorption per kg of NH 3 can be calculated by using the given formula
802.5(1 - x) - 928(x)2 = 802.5(1 - 0.305) - 928(0.305) 2
Qa =
= 427 kJ/kg of NH generated.
Assuming 'm' kg is the weak aqua per kg of anhydrous ammonia leaving the generator and
balancing the heat in heat exchanger, we get.
'Al 6.24 . . . •. . . . REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

Heat lost by weak aqua = Heat gained by. strong aqua . . .. . .. . .


mC(100_40)=(m+1)C(90_30)
m =6kg. .: .. . . ... . . .. .. . .. . . .

Considering the Heat Balance of the Absorber. . . . . .. . . .. ... . .


Heat of ammonia vapour coming from the evaporator + Heat in weak aqua + Heat of absorption .
= Heat in strong aqua + Heat carried away by cooling water
Heat of NH3 vapour.leaving- the evaporator (from P-h chart) . 1700 kJ/kg .
1700 + 6[418 + 4.83 . 40] + 472.= Q +'7[418 ± 4.83 x 30] .
1899 kJ/kg of NH3 absorbed. ,. . . . . ... . . .

Considering the Heat Balance in the Generator


7[418 + 4.83 x 90] + Q = 1877 + 6[418 + 43 x 110] + 112.3 ..
1604 kJ/kg of NH3 generated. . . . . . .
Refrigerating effect from P-h. chart = 1700 - 538 1162 kJ/kg.
Refrigerating ef fect
Ratio 1162 = 0.72 (C.O.P.)
Heat given in generator 1604 . ... . . . . .
PROBLEM 6.9. The total pressure maintained in an Electrolux. refrigerator is 15 bar. The temperatule
obtained in the evaporator is - 15°C. . . . . . . .. . .
The quantities of heat supplied in the generator are (a) 418 kJ to dissociate 1 kg of vapour and (b) 1320 kJ/kg for
increasing the total heat of NH3. The liquid heat of NH 3 entering the evaporator is 336 kJ/kg;
Take the follozving properties of NH 3 at 15°C.
Pressure = 2.5 bar. . .. . .... . .
Enthalpy (h) of NH 3 vapour = 1670 kJ/kg of NH3 vapur. . .. . .
• . Specific volume (z 8) = 0.5 m3 /kg. . . .. .. . . . . ..
The hydrogen enters the evaporator at 20°C. . . .. . ..
C (for H2 ) = 12.8 kJikg°C. .. . .. . .. . . :
Find the C 0 P of the system
Assume NH 3 leaves the evaporator in saturated vapour condition. . . •. .
SOLUTION, Pressure of H2 in the evaporator = 15 2.5 - 12.5 bar. .
The specific volume of hydrogen is calculated by using. the. universal gas equation
= Rh
v where suffix h represents the hydrogen .
Ph . .

where . .. ph .. .. . :
MH . 2 . .. . . .
4157(20+273) . . ... . . .. .. ., . .
Vsh = 0.974 m3/kg .
= 12.5 <
Mass of II2 per kg of NH3,= 0.51 kg: ... .

0.974 =
Refrigerating effect per kg of NH 3 . evaporated (neglecting losses)
= Heat of (NH3 and leaving the evaporator - Heat.of (NH 3 and '2) entering the evaporator
x
= [1670 + 0.5.1. 12.8(—. 15 - 0)] - [336 + 0.51 x 12.8(20 - 0)] . .
= 1572 - 466.5 = 1105.5 kJlkg. . . .. . . . . ..
Heat supplied in generator per .kg of NH3 generated .•.

= 418 + 1320.= 1738 kJ/kg •


Refrigerating effect = '1105.5 =
0 636
Heat supplied 1738 .
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 6.25

PROBLEM 6.10. In a absorption refrigeration system, the heating in generator is carried out by using
steam at 3 bar and 85% dry. The refrigeration temperature is - 10°C. The condensation of the refrigerant is
carried out at 30°C using cooliizg water. Determine:
(a) The maximum possible COP of the system.
(b)If the steam leaves the generator as saturated water at same pressure, determine the quantity of steam
required to run a plant of 20 tonnes capacity. Assume relative COP = 0.4.
SOLUTION. The ideal COP is given by
T(T—T
(COP)m =
T - Te
gc
where suffix g, c and e represents the gas, condenser and evaporator or refrigeration temperature
Tg = T (saturation temperature of steam at 3 bar)
= 133.5°C (from steam table)
= 133.5 + 273 = 406.5 K
T, = 30 + 273.= 303 K
Te = 10 + 273 = 263K
263 (4o6-3o3
= 1.675
(COP)1 = 406.5 303 -
(COP)actui = 1.675 x 0.4 = 0.67
Refrigeration load per mm. 20 x 3.5 >< 60
(COP) actua
l = Heat supplied per min. = Q9
70 x 60
= 0.67 = 6268.6 kJ/min.
Heat lost by the steam for heating = Xhfg = 0.85 x 2163.8 = 1839 kJ/kg
6268.6
m (mass of steam supplied) = 1839.0 = 3.4 kg/mm.

6.1 Discuss the relative merits and fields of applications of vapour absorption and vapour
compression refrigeration systems.
6.2 What modifications are necessary in a simple absorption refrigeration system in order to
improve the performance of the system?
6.3 Draw a neat compact diagram of Lithium bromide water absorption refrigeration system
and explain its working. List out the major fields of applications of this refrigeration system?
6.4 Draw a neat line diagram of Electrolux refrigerator and explain its working principle. What
is the important role of hydrogen in this refrigeration system?
What are its advantages over absorption type refrigeration system ?
6.5 Find the expression for the ideal C.O.P. for vapour absorption refrigeration in terms of Tgi T
and T,
where Te = Temperature at which refrigeration takes place in evaporator.
Tg = Temperature at which heat is supplied to the generator.
= Temperature at which the condensation in condenser and cooling in cooler takes
place.
Represent the effect of Tg and Te on C.O.P. with the help of p-h chart.