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Chapter I


Video game is one of the most popular form of entertainment that is often used to

have fun. It provides visual representation of different perspectives in real life, but mostly

imaginative world of a certain person. According to Esposito (n.d.), a video game is a game

which is played using an audiovisual apparatus and which can be based on a story. Video

games is believed to be the cause of an aggressive behavior to hinder the students to excel in

class, to ruin a person’s future career (Deskins, 2013). But it has many benefits that can help a

certain student on their studies.

On the other hand, cognitive learning refers to mental thinking which involves

students in a learning process, acquiring knowledge and skills, understanding something

through thinking, and experience and senses of an individual. It is also an individual’s way of

processing information. The Cognitive Learning Theory explains that the different processes

regarding learning can be understood through the analysis of mental processes and how internal

and external factors influence an individual to acquire learning (Sincero, 2011). If cognitive

processes work normally, a person can acquire and store knowledge naturally. Cognitive

learning involves skills which can largely help an individual in his daily life. Some video games

improve the suite of an individual’s cognitive function (Granic, Lobel, & Engels, 2014). These

cognitive skills are critical thinking, faster and more accurate attention allocation, mental

rotation, spatial visualization and the ability to mentally work in three dimensions, and promote

changes in performance and brain organization (Green & Bavelier, 2004). These skills may be

used anywhere and can truly help on daily living.

Many researchers commonly argue that playing video games frequently affect one’s

academic performance and health (Gray, 2015). Even though it has negative effects to humans,

video games still are beneficial. Playing video games can increase and improve an individual’s

cognitive and spatial skills in relation with education (Campos & Fernandez, 2016). Students

playing non-problematic video games can help enhance task-switching, more effective top-

down attentional control and processing speed, and increased sub-second time perception

(Nuyens, Kuss, Fernandez, & Griffiths, 2018).

Past studies show that neuroscience in relation to video games simply states the

different changes or effects video games can do to a person’s attitude, personality, and basic

motor skills. Video games affected a person’s reaction time and visuo-motor coordination that

resulted into the improvement of these skills. Spatial skills were also proven to have been

improved by video games. Visual attention to a person in video games made them more alert

and aware of even a minimal movement is made. Thus, video game play could play a real role

in an individual’s work performance in a number of professions (Bavelier, 2004).

An article stated that computer and video games are maturing medium and industry

and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. The researchers started

the study to determine the improvement of the students learning in relation to video games.

The future of video games in education was one of the main points in the article. As designers

of interactive learning environments, instructional technologists can also learn from current

developments in gaming (Jayakanthan, 2002).

An article based on DGBL (Digital Game-Based Learning) gave the effectiveness of

DGBL, several reviews of the literature on gaming over the last forty years, including some

studies that use rigorous statistical procedures to analyze findings from multiple studies.
Games are effective not because of what they are, but because of what they embody and what

learners are doing as they play a game (Van Eck, 2006). The learning is not only relevant but

applied and practiced within that context. Learning that occurs in meaningful and relevant

contexts, then, is more effective than learning that occurs outside of those contexts, as is the

case with most formal instruction.

The literature base relating to the use of computer games for learning appears to

remain small and, as with research relating to social and behavioural issues, it has not been the

core focus of a review since 1992. The findings also state the impact of frequent gaming on

academic performance, frequent players are found to be less positive towards school. Frequent

gaming reduces the time available for homework, which can negatively affect academic

performance (Emes, 2011). It has been found that academically unsuccessful boys spend more

time playing video games than high-achieving peers.

The use of video games has shown benefits for ageing population have been proven

to have negative effects. The self-concept measure deteriorated significantly under relaxation

condition and on the passive control group. The cognitive skills deteriorate when it came to

participants with old age. The lifespan did not show any significant effects. Nor were any

correlations found between the time of use of video games and larger effects (Carla, 2011).

The overall findings of the past studies became generally beneficial in terms of

studying through video games. Video games were found to be an alternative and effective way

in learning and also proven to improve basic motor skills, visual attention, reaction time, and

social interaction. The articles concluded that motive, goal, genres, and playtime varies

between gender and age. Video games, despite its numerous benefits, can also cause bad habits

when it comes to too much playtime.

Cognitive skills have been proven to be improved through video games in the same

way as motor skills and other intuitive skills. Video games can challenge a gamer’s mind that

can stretch and force a person to improve and adapt. Improvement of these certain skills would

take large number of hours into a video game just to be noticed, but application of these certain

skills will have an immense change on a person that will only be recognized by anyone other

than the gamer. Other areas of a person’s life will be affected due to the amount of hours put

into a video game, with the being said such behavior would have a negative and a positive

effect on a person.

On the other hand, the purpose of this study is to determine the different cognitive

skills that students can obtain through playing video game.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

a. How does playing video games influence their cognitive skills?

b. What are the cognitive skills that they developed in playing video games?

c. How do those cognitive skills that are learned in playing video games affect the overall

student’s performance?
Chapter II


2.1 Research Design

This study utilized the qualitative approach. Shank (2002) interprets qualitative research as a

form of systematic empirical inquiry into meaning. Case study design was used as the research

design of this study. Case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary

phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon

and context are not clearly evident (Yin, 2003).

2.2 Research Participants

The researchers chose the participants among grade 11 senior high school students

that are aging from 16 to 19 years old. According to Greenberg (2010), grade 11 senior high

school students, use video games as a motivator for competition with other players and

diversion from the real life, which also means giving all the focus you have on gaming for a

period of time. These two motivators make the perception of students more valid and clear for

they are hooked up in gaming. The researchers used purposive sampling which is appropriate

for our case study research. Purposive sampling is judgmental, selective or subjective

sampling, purposive sampling relies on the judgement of the researcher when it comes to

selecting the that are to be studied (Rai & Thapa, n.d.). As suggested by Creswell (1998), the

researchers picked 5 to 25 participants to participate on the focus group discussion. The

researchers chose SHS students from Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM)

strand considering that this strand is the most appropriate for the students in this strand are

more contact with gadgets, computers and etc. which is relatively close on video games.
2.3 Research Instruments

The researchers used questionnaires to decide who will be the participants of the

study. The questionnaire was divided into two parts, the first part of the questionnaires contains

inquiries about their personal information like name, age, gender, and etc. The second part

contains question about their background in playing videogames like “how long do you spent

on playing video games per day” and “how often do you play video games in a week”. By this

questionnaire the researchers were able to determine which students were appropriate to be

the participant of the study.

2.4 Data Collection Method

The researchers gave the consent form to the chosen participants in the study, the

consent form contains a letter on which it was stated that they are invited for a focus group

discussion that will be conducted by the researchers. The researchers conducted a focus group

discussion among the selected participants and there the researchers asked questions and the

different answers and perceptions of the students on the question were further discussed by the

group. The answers and statements of the participants will remain confidential and will only

be used for the purpose of the study.

2.5 Data Analysis

This research used Thematic analysis for the data. To do that, the gathered data by the

researchers were familiarized and placed into a transcript. The transcript was encoded and was
organized according to its thought and lastly, the themes of the responses given was

categorized according to which research question they answered.


Campos, C. & Fernandez, H. (2016). The benefits of active video games for educational and

physical activity approaches: A systematic review. Retrieved from


Carla, A. (n.d.). Cognitive effects of video games on old people. Retrieved from



Deskins, T. (2013). Stereotypes in video games and how they perpetuate prejudiced. Retrieved

from https://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1062&context=mcnair

Early Research on the Use of Computer Games in CALL. (n.d.). Computer games and language

learning. doi:10.1057/9781137005175.0010

Esposito, N. (n.d.). A short and simple definition of what a video game is. Retrieved from


Gee, J. (2005). Learning by design: Good video games as learning machines. Retrieved from


Granic, I., Lobel, A., & Engels, R. (2014). The benefits of playing video game. Retrieved from


Gray, P. (2015). Cognitive benefits of playing video games. Retrieved from



Green, C. & Bavelier, D. (2004). The cognitive neuroscience of video games. Retrieved from

Greenberg, B., Sherry, J., Holmstorm, A., Lachlan, K. & Lucas, K. (2010). Orientations to video

games among gender and age groups. Retrieved from


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of Gaming in Education. Retrieved from



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non-problematic video gaming and cognitive skills: A systematic review. Retrieved from


Ospina, S. (2004). Qualitative Research. Retrieved from


Sincero, S. M. (2011). Cognitive Learning Theory. Retrieved from


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Raw Data

A. Transcription

Brianna Carl Bryll

Q1: Based on your Siguro uhmm lately Sa akin naman For me, I would say

experience, what napapansin ko na I siguro yung sa that my overall

are the can know na where details of my reactions as an

improvements in the sounds are works, nabibigyan average human has

your critical coming from, and it ko sila ng more drastically increase

thinking, accurate enhances my attention whether it with the help of

attention allocation, thinking on what I is fictitious or playing online

mental rotation, should do next or in reality base. games. Especially

spatial other words Videogames also critical thinking, for

visualization, etc.? foreseeing. (CO1) improved my it is most needed

imaginary skills, with the games I

and to react quickly play. (CO3)

on the events that

requires quick

thinking capacity.


Q2: In what way Mostly about In some category of Tsaka different and

does video games strategies and videogames, critical numerous

routines of the thinking is mechanisms are

improve the said opposition. Kase the necessary. Like needed to be

cognitive skill? challenge of the solving puzzles or mastered for a player

game keeps the building a set of to be good in a game.

players and the things to achieve By mastering these

game going and by something and to mechanisms, critical

that mas madalas ka continue the game. thinking can be

maglalaro and Each game enhanced with the

depending to the promotes a skill na use of coordination

statement of Khoel, pwedeng matutunan of the mechanisms

“repetition of the ng player basta alam combining on how

said activity” daw niya nilalaro niya, the brain interprets

so as long as may alam niya pano the said game.

challenge ang laro laruin, and (CO10)

at parati itong sineseryoso niya

nilalaro dun yun. (CO9)

nafoform yung

skills. (CO8)

Q3: What features Ako naman nawalan For me naman is Different playstyles,

of video games ng isasagot (laughs) the sensation of strategies,

influenced and pero ayun nga, I winning. If mechanisms and

improved your support yung sinabi naranasan mo na enemy coordination

cognitive skill? ni Camille na lahat yung sarap ng that’s what makes

pagkapanalo, me keep on playing

ng sinabi nila are hahanaphanapin mo again and again. Of

important. (CO15) na yun eh and by course, with proper

this you learn how moderation a person

to adjust to the or a gamer instead

different challenges can easily acquire

of the game kase skills if games have

you want that this kind of features.

victory! You want (CO17)

that feeling na


KAMI!!”. (CO16)

Q4: How does a Siguro yung Sometimes it helps Critical thinking

certain cognitive pagtingin sa simple me when there is helps me to clearly

skill helped you in and small details sa lack of equipment think about certain

different classroom test kunware, mas or things needed to things that I need in

scenarios? nagiging aware kase do a task and finish the classroom; for

baka mamaya it on time. It brings example, critical

meron pa lang out my skills that I thinking between

kinlaman yun sa picked up in a game. different choices can

isang question (CO23) be enhanced with the

ganun. (CO22) help of playing

online games.

Khoel Frix Robcel Camille

Parang ganun na rin Uhm ano kase sa Same sa sinabi ni Actually, nasabi na

akin, mostly on akin siguro yung Frix since ka-team nila lahat eh and

critical thinking decision making, all ko siya, every play wala na siguro ako

kase commonly on of the games namin kailangan ng madadagdag basta

the genre of the involve decision tamang timing sa mostly for me is

games I play, it making yan so dapat buong game. So critical thinking.

takes a lot of critical mabilis kang ayun naimprove (CO7)

thinking para magisip kung anong siguro yung

matawag kang decision and tamang pagiging sensitive

“pro” dun so in the gawin to create your ko and critical

process of pursuing play sa isang laro. thinking kase sa laro

to be a pro, natetrain (CO5) minsan kailangan

na rin yung brain namin magpredict

mo sa critical which takes a lot of

thinking. (CO4) brain cell I must say

(laughs) (CO6)

Ito na nga eh, uhm Sige kayo na, wala Wala na din, same For me as a player of

the improvement na ako masasabi na sa points na moba, yung simple

comes kase from (laughs) (CO12) sinabi nila. Tamang timing can control

repetition of said support na lang mga the game itself, if

activity. Based on mamsir (CO13) palaging tama timing

my experience mo then you own the

naeenhance ka and game, lalamang

your skills if kagad team niyo. So

naglalaro ka parati critical thinking and

kasi if once mo lang spatial visualization

yan nilaro, wala are the skills that are

lang yan nagenjoy mainly enhanced in

ka lang siguro ng this games. (CO14)

saglit but no skill

acquired or

enhanced and like

what Carl said each

game corresponds

to certain skills.


For me it is the Teka, hmmm. Ako naman, para sa Pagsamasamahin mo

online feature, with Siguro mainly sa akin is the lahat ng sianbi nila,

this feature kase you challenging feature multiplayer feature yun na yun. Sense of

can team up with niya. Like what ng isang laro kase fulfillment,

different kinds of Brianna said earlier nga karaniwan challenging, online

people or even with yung factor na may naman talagang mas access, multiplayer,

your own friends. challenge yung laro nakakaenjoy all of these na sinabi

This feature helps keeps the game maglaro pag may nila is the key
our mind to be going and the kasama which component to the

flexible for players too, so pag magpupush sa isang games, without these

different type of mas babad ka player na maglaro things magiging

teammates, maglaro pero di consistently and in basura yung laro.

kumbaga marunong aabot sa point na the process Actually, I can say

magadjust yung nakasasama na, maeenhance na na critical thinking

thinking mo based maeenhance at niya rin skills niya. is already used pag

what is in front of maeenhance ang (CO20) namimili ka palang

you. (CO18) cognitive skill mo. ng laro, kase gusto

(CO19) mo di masasayang

pera at oras mo sa

larong bibilhin mo o

itatry mo. (CO21)

Yung sense of Sa allocation ng Ako mainly sa Siguro yung akin

teamwork pumasok attention, uhmm spatial naman is yung

sa akin kase dapat namamanage mo visualization, kase critical thinking, sa

aware ka sa mga kung ano dapat mas every detail bawat lesson sa

taong naapektuhan pagfocusan keysa sa tinitignan ko and im school kumabaga

mo ganun. It really iba and medyo asking myself kung naghahanap ako ng

helped me nalelessen na rin bakit siya nandito way para mapadali

cooperate with my yung pagkacram and ditto ba pinaka- yung ginagawa ko,

classmates in group ganun. (CO26) appropriate na spot so sa pagiisip ng way

activities. (CO25) ganun. (CO27) na yun I can say na, I

am critically

thinking. (CO28)

B. Coding


Improved cognitive skills through CO1 – CO7

playing video games

Factors and features of video game that CO8, CO10, CO16 – CO21

influenced their cognitive skills

The effects of the acquired and CO22 – CO28

enhanced cognitive skills in the

classroom setting

C. Theme

RQ1: What are the cognitive skills that they developed in playing video games?

1. The students developed critical thinking by playing video games.

(CO1, CO3, CO4, CO6 and CO7)
2. The students developed quick mind processing to react immediately and
decide quickly.
(CO2 and CO5)
3. The students developed spatial visualization that makes them aware at
every detail that they saw and make use of them.
RQ2: How does playing video games influence their cognitive skills?
1. The challenging feature of the game makes the player to be engaged into
the game and there the skills will be acquired.
(CO8, CO19, CO21)
2. The diverse mechanics of the game keeps the gamers hooked up and by
this the skills will be acquired as the gamers play the game.
(CO10, CO17, CO21)
3. The online feature or the multiplayer feature of the game keeps the game
more entertaining for the players, by this the gamers can form strategies,
game plans and can acquire skills as well.
(CO18, CO20, CO21)
4. The sensation of winning the game makes the gamers feel that they have
accomplish something and willingness to accomplish more, by this the
eagerness of the player can acquire skills.
(CO16, CO21)

RQ3: How do these cognitive skills that are learned in playing video games affect the
overall student’s performance?
1. Spatial visualization helps the students to be aware in every detail of an
exam, quiz and project.
(CO22, CO27)
2. Quick mind processing helps the students cope with the deadlines of
projects and activities.
3. Critical thinking helps the students to decide on things like multiple
choices question.
4. Accurate attention allocation helps the students to be more sensitive with
their surroundings and by that they can also easily communicate with
their groupmates in certain group activities.
5. Accurate attention allocation helps the students to focus first on their
priorities and to lessen the cramming.
6. Critical thinking helps the students to find a better way to accomplish their