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# REPORT Discrete Structures

Section: EM

## TOPIC: SET THEORY

GROUP MEMBERS:
Talha Mehmood FA18-BSSE-0010
Discrete Structures – EM | SET THEORY

## INTRODUCTION TO SET THEORY :

Set theory is a branch of mathematics that deals with the
properties of well-defined collections of objects, which may or may not be of a
mathematical nature, such as numbers or functions.
Between the years 1874 and 1897, the German mathematician and logician Georg
Cantor created a theory of abstract sets of entities and made it into a mathematical
discipline.

DEFINITION :
In naive set theory, a set is a collection of objects (called
members or elements) that is regarded as being a single object. To indicate that an
object x is a member of a set A one writes x ∊ A, while x ∉ A indicates that x is
not a member of A. A set may be defined by a membership rule (formula) or by
listing its members within braces.
Example: The set given by the rule “prime numbers less than 10” can also be
given by {2, 3, 5, 7}.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A SET:
The basic characteristics of a set is:
1. It should be well defined.
2. Its objects or element should be well distinguished.

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Discrete Structures – EM | SET THEORY

METHOD OF SETS:
There are two method of set:

##  Tabular Method - Elements are listed and then putting braces

{ }. For example:
A is a set of vowels : A={a, e, i, o, u}
 Selector Method - Elements are not listed but are indicate by
description of their characteristics. For example:
A = {x | x is a vowel in English alphabet}

TYPES OF SETS :
i. Finite Set - A set can be counted by a finite number of elements.
A= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

## ii. Infinite Set- Aset cannot be counted in a finite

number. A = {1, 2, 3…. …}
iii. Singleton set– A set contain only one element.
A = {a}

## iv. Empty, Null Set - Any set which has no element.

This sets are denote by {} / ∅ (𝑝ℎ𝑖).

## v. Equal Set – The elements of both are equal.

vi. Equivalent Sets - If the elements of one set can be, put into one to one
correspondence with the elements of another set, then the two sets are
called equivalent sets. The symbol used to denote this set is [ ≡ ].

vii. Subsets– If every elements of set A is also an element of a set B then set A
is called subset of B “A is a subset of B” (A ⊆ B).

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Discrete Structures – EM | SET THEORY

## Here B is super set &A is Subset.

OPERATIONS ON SETS:

##  Intersection of sets ( ∩):

The intersection of two sets A and B is the set that contains all
elements of A that also belong to B , but no other elements.
The intersection of two sets A and B is denoted as (A ∩ B) which is read a “A
cap B” or “A intersection B ”
Example:
if A = {1, 2, 3, 4} , B = {2, 4, 5, 6}then A ∩ 𝐵 =?
Ans: A ∩ 𝐵= {2, 3}

##  Union of sets ( ∪):

The union of two or more set will be the set that consists all
elements that belong to the individuals set.
Example: If A = {1, 2, 3,}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, Then A ∪B =?
A ∪B = {1, 2, 3} ∪{2, 3, 4, 5} ={1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

## Some Laws of set theory:

 (𝐴) = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝐴
 (𝐵) = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝐵
 (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵
 (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝐴 𝑜𝑟 𝐵

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Discrete Structures – EM | SET THEORY

##  When A and B are mutually non-exclusive sets:

(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝐴 + 𝐵 − (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)
 When A, B, are mutually non-exclusive sets:
(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = 𝐴 + 𝐵 + 𝐶 − (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) − (𝐵 ∩ 𝐶 )- (𝐴 ∩ 𝐶) + (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶)
 (𝐴) = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) + (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)′
 (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶) + (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶′)
 (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵′ ∩ 𝐶′) = 𝐴 − (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) − (𝐴 ∪ 𝐶) + (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶)
 (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = 𝑈 − 𝐴 − 𝐵 − 𝐶 + (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) +( 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶) + (𝐴 ∩ 𝐶) − (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵
∩ 𝐶)

THE END