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Canning is the processing of food in special glass jars with pressure-sealed lids. The jars

Canning is the processing of food in special glass

jars with pressure-sealed lids. The jars are heated up either by placing them in a boiling-water or are

pressure canned to a specific amount of

temperature and time.

Safe Canning Methods • Boiling Water Bath Method The boiling water bath method is safe

Safe Canning Methods

Boiling Water Bath Method

The boiling water bath method is safe for tomatoes, fruits, jams, jellies, pickles and other

preserves. In this method, jars of food are heated

completely covered with boiling water (212°F at sea level) and cooked for a specified amount of

time.

Safe Canning Methods • Pressure Canner Method Jars of food are placed in 2 to

Safe Canning Methods

Pressure Canner Method

Jars of food are placed in 2 to 3 inches of water in a special pressure cooker which is heated to a

temperature of at least 240° F. This temperature

can only be reached using the pressure method. A microorganism called Clostridium botulinum is the

main reason why pressure processing is necessary.

Safe Canning Methods • Pressure Canner Method Though the bacterial cells are killed at boiling

Safe Canning Methods

Pressure Canner Method

Though the bacterial cells are killed at boiling temperatures, they can form spores that can

withstand these temperatures. The spores grow

well in low acid foods, in the absence of air, such as

in canned low acidic foods.

Advantages of Canned Fruits • Cheap • Convenience • Long shelf life

Advantages of Canned Fruits

Cheap

Convenience

Long shelf life

Disadvantages of Canned Fruits • Taste Aspects • Sodium and sugar content • Exposure to

Disadvantages of Canned Fruits

Taste Aspects

Sodium and sugar content

Exposure to BPA (Bisphenol A)

One of the earliest and easiest known practices, drying refers to dehydrating the food. The

One of the earliest and easiest known practices, drying refers to dehydrating the food. The purpose

is to remove all the moisture from the food which

inhibits the growth of yeast, bacteria and helps in preserving food.

Drying of Fruits Outdoors • Sun Drying The high sugar and acid content of fruits

Drying of Fruits Outdoors

Sun Drying

The high sugar and acid content of fruits make

them safe to dry in the sun. Fruits dried in the sun are placed on trays made of screen or wooden dowels. Screens need to be safe for contact with

food. The best screens are stainless steel, teflon

coated fiberglass or plastic.

Drying of Fruits Outdoors • Sun Drying Cover the trays with cheesecloth to help protect

Drying of Fruits Outdoors

Sun Drying

Cover the trays with cheesecloth to help protect the fruit from birds or insects.

Fruits dried in the sun must be covered or brought under shelter at night. The cool night air condenses and could add moisture back to the food, thus

slowing down the drying process.

Drying of Fruits Outdoors • Solar Drying Solar drying also uses the sun as the

Drying of Fruits Outdoors

Solar Drying

Solar drying also uses the sun as the heat source. A foil surface inside the dehydrator helps to increase the temperature. Ventilation speeds up the drying

time. Shorter drying times reduce the risks of food

spoilage or mold growth.

Drying of Fruits indoors • Food Dehydrator

Drying of Fruits indoors

Food Dehydrator

Drying of Fruits indoors • Food Dehydrator
Drying of Fruits indoors • Oven Drying drying of fruit leathers, banana chips or for

Drying of Fruits indoors

Oven Drying

drying of fruit

leathers, banana chips or for preserving excess

produce like celery or mushrooms. Oven drying is slower than dehydrators because it

does not have a built-in fan for the air movement.

It takes about two times longer to dry food in an oven than it does in a dehydrator.

An oven

is ideal

for

occasional

Disadvantages of Too Much Dried Fruits • Gastrointestinal Problems • Increased Calorie Count • Tooth

Disadvantages of Too Much Dried Fruits

Gastrointestinal Problems

Increased Calorie Count

Tooth Decay

Sugar Crash

Sugaring is a method of food preservation that requires the food to be dehydrated and

Sugaring is a method of food preservation that

requires the food to be dehydrated and then to be packed with either crystallized sugar or with the liquids containing high amount of sugar such as

honey or molasses.

The Process of Sugaring • Any fruit that has to be preserved is washed thoroughly

The Process of Sugaring

Any fruit that has to be preserved is washed

thoroughly and desiccated by dehydration.

The food is then cooked in liquid sugar product

or raw sugar until crystallized and the resultant

food is preserved in dried form.

Some fruits are even glazed in sugar syrup, but sold after being extracted from the liquid. The

sugary coating on the fruits and the internal

high sugar content increases the shelf life of the

food.

Advantages • Does not require large number of ingredients • Less time involvement

Advantages Does not require large number of ingredients

Less time involvement

Disadvantage • When the atmospheric moisture is high in content, the yeast present in the

Disadvantage

When the atmospheric moisture is high in content, the yeast present in the environment starts its action and sugar starts fermenting into

carbon dioxide and alcohol.

Pickling is an example of chemical preservation. In the case of pickling, the product may

Pickling is an example of chemical preservation. In

the case of pickling, the product may be preserved by the addition of salt, sugar, acetic acid (vinegar), and alcohol. High sugar content also acts as a fruit

preservative by tying up all available moisture so

that microorganisms cannot grow.

Advantages • Adds unique flavors • Good sources of nutrients, including vitamins, amino acids and

Advantages

Adds unique flavors

Good sources of nutrients, including vitamins, amino acids and healthy bacteria Decrease muscle cramps caused by heat

Can be preserved longer than the food could be

eaten fresh

Disadvantages • Alters the taste of foods • Can cause higher blood pressure

Disadvantages

Alters the taste of foods

Can cause higher blood pressure

Freezing is quick, convenient and the most popular form of home based food preservation. The

Freezing is quick, convenient and the most popular

form of home based food preservation. The actual

freezing process is done at a much lower temperatures of -0 F (- 18 C) or lower.

This is a process where the inside air of the food package is removed before

This is a process where the inside air of the food

package is removed before actually sealing the

package. The reduced atmospheric oxygen greatly slows down the deterioration of food sources and helps in retaining food quality for a longer time.

• Vacuum Pack Food With
• Vacuum
Pack
Food
With

Machine

an

Automatic

1. Clean and prepare the food that you wish

to vacuum pack.

Scrub or peel fruits so dirt is not trapped inside the vacuum seal.

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing • Vacuum Machine Pack Food With an Automatic 2. Place

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum

Machine

Pack

Food

With

an

Automatic

2. Place the food inside the plastic bag.

Most machines require using a specific brand of bag.

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing • Vacuum Machine Pack Food With an Automatic 3. Put

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum

Machine

Pack

Food

With

an

Automatic

3. Put the open edge of the bag into the

sealing machine.

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing • Vacuum Machine Pack Food With an Automatic 4. Press

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum

Machine

Pack

Food

With

an

Automatic

4. Press the button, if necessary, to start the vacuum and sealing process. Many vacuum pack food machines have an automatic sensor that alerts the machine when a

bag has been placed inside and automatically

starts the sealing process.

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing • Vacuum Machine Pack Food With an Automatic 5. Watch

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum

Machine

Pack

Food

With

an

Automatic

5. Watch as the vacuum pack food machine

withdraws

shrinks.

the

air

and

the

plastic

bag

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing • Vacuum Machine Pack Food With an Automatic 6. Wait

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum

Machine

Pack

Food

With

an

Automatic

6. Wait for the machine to stop its operation,

which signaling that the plastic bag has properly been sealed.

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing • Vacuum Machine Pack Food With an Automatic 7. Remove

Two Methods of Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum

Machine

Pack

Food

With

an

Automatic

7. Remove the vacuum packed food and

store it in the pantry, fridge or freezer.