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CHAPTER 1 - To be cultured and refined is to show

good tastes and manners indicative of

Humanities and the Arts good, proper education
(tamang asal, paguugali, at tamang
“Man is the measure of all things.” – Protagoras karunugan)
(481-411 BCE)
Fundamental Principles of the
Vitruvian Man (1490) – Leonardo da Vinci
Man continues to evolve in knowledge and
technology thus leaving an indelible mark of his  Human nature is inherently good
legacy.  Individuals are free and are capable of
making choices
Why Study Humanities?  Human potential for growth and
development is virtually unlimited
Humanities came from the Latin word  Self-concept plays an important role in
“humanus” which means, human, cultured and growth and development
refined.  Individuals have an urge for self-
Humanities (Arts and Music, Literature,
 Reality is defined by each person
Religious Studies, History, Philosophy)
 Individuals have a responsibility to both
- (Generally)Contains the records of themselves and to others
man’s quest for answers.
- (Simply)Studies man and the manner in Nature of Arts
which he conducts himself from the
 Art > Aryan root “Ar” which means “to
time of his existence to present (Martin join or put together”
and Jacobus, 2004)
- (Knowledge) composed of academic ART
disciplines that make it distinctive - Oldest and most important means of
(natutukoy) in both content and expression developed by man.
method from the physical and biological - Is Subjective employs the use of
sciences and from the social sciences. perception, insights, feelings and
- (Study) devoted to understanding the intuition.
different phenomena within the human - Through Humanities deals with man’s
cultural contexts. internal world.
- (Expressions) individual manner of - Provides enjoyment and stimulation
expressions and documented to
compare in the past, present, future Latin term “sars”,”artis” means everything
humans. that Is artificially made or composed by
- To be human is to show characteristics man.
of rationality, benevolence and care.
Humanities through arts deals with man’s
- (alam ang tama at mali, kabaitan,
internal world, his personality and experience
- Art is subjective: it employs the use of o of functional objects to make
perception, insights, feelings and intuition. human life better.

- Art provides enjoyment and stimulation Art: As Viewed by Philosophy

- Art provides people with an image of Philosophy as a field of discipline has attempted
themselves, to enable them to further to explain almost all aspects of human
understand their nature, passions and desires. existence. Aesthetics is the philosophical study
of beauty and taste.
Functions of Art
PLATO (428 – 347 BCE)
Functional Art Forms – architecture, weaving,
and furniture-making serves functions the make - Philosopher of Ancient Greece
a man’s life better - Known for his Dialogues (The Republic)
that includes his famous teacher,
Non-functional Art Forms – painting, sculpture, Socrates
music. Literature, dance and theatre serve - Have loved and hated the arts at the
purposes far beyond mundane survival same time
functions. - Good literary stylist and a great story
Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata- listening to it teller.
does something to the human spirit, giving hope - The originals are called the Forms.
and making him realize how amazing it is just to  Art is Imitation
be alive. o Art is imitation of physical
things. Art is a copy of a copy
ALL ART FORMS GENERALLY HAVE THE which leads people farther from
FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS: away the truth. At best, art are
great for entertainment
 The human need for expression
 Art is dangerous
o Thoughts, emotions,
o Art has power to stir emotions.
imaginations, dreams and
So arts should not go
aspirations are expressed in this
uncensored. (mentioned in The
 The social need for display, celebration
and communication - Artist are people who have the ability to
o Share and convey the art to make a better copy of the true Form.
others, may empathize and may
realize that people are ARISTOTLE (382-322 BCE)
connected - Famous Philosopher of Ancient Greece
 The physical needs for functional - Student of Plato
objects - First distinguished between what is
o All art is man-made. All good and what is beautiful.
technology is art. The creation - Good (expresses Actions) Beautiful
- Symmetry and Definiteness o Non-aesthetic and does not
- In his Poetics, physical manifestation of consider the beauty of the work
beauty is likewise affected by size. Not of the mastery of the artist, but
too big nor too small. rather, the artwork is
- Arts aim to give pleasure and in giving appreciated for what it is. (Waw
pleasure. artwork, nice yun na yun).
- Painting and sculptures were seen as
representation, imitation of ideas, - Color only used for its decorative
imagination or reality. function.
- Considered art as imitation of or
Artists and Artisans
representation of nature.
Artist – a person who exhibits exceptional skills
Poets, according to Aristotle, imitated
in the visual and/or the performing arts.
three things:
Artisan – a person who is in a skilled trade that
 Things and events which have been or
involves making things by hand.
still are;
 Things which are said to be seen and
The Art Forms
are probably; and
 Things which essentially are.  Painting
o Best described as application of
IMMANUEL KANT (1721-1804)
pigment to a surface
- German Enlightenment Philosopher  Sculpture
- In 1763 he wrote treatise on Aesthetics o An art form that is best
entitled, “Observations on the Feelings described as three-dimensional.
of the Beautiful and Sublime”  Architecture
- Interests beauty o Most functional of all art forms.
- Beauty rests on the manner which  Music
people respond to objects or things. o Art of sound expressed through
- Beauty is a matter of taste. a song, through instruments or
a combination of both.
Kant explained that taste can be both  Dance
Subjective and Universal o Art of body movements that is
attuned to a musical piece.
 Subjective Taste
 Literature
o Does not focus on the
o Art of using words to express
properties of the object itself
thoughts, ideas, and feelings.
but rather of the pleasure one
 Theatre
experiences as he responds to
o The performance of drama.
it. (Waw artwork, ang galing
ang ganda ng pagkakagawa Visual arts include painting, sculpture and
daming nagawang meaning) architecture while music, dance and theatre are
 Universal Taste consider as performing arts.
Appreciating Arts CHAPTER 2
The Study of Arts is aimed at engaging Art Subject Defined
the audience to have a relationship with the
work that would make them understand art not Subject refers to what the work represent it
only itself but from the view of the artist, the could be a person, an object a scene or an
period, the culture, and the society on which it event.
was created. An audience should be able to:
Representational or objective arts – artworks
 Give good physical description of the that have subjects.
artwork based on their knowledge of
Non-representational or non-objective arts –
art elements and materials
artworks that do not have subjects. Non-
 Analyze the artwork in terms of what
objective arts do not represent descriptions,
the artist wants his work to represent
stories or references to identifiable objects or
and their subjective reaction to the
works which includes their thoughts
and feelings. - Color usually conveys mood.
 Perceive the artwork in the context of - Bright and dark hues affect how a piece
its history. of painting may be interpreted.
 Give meaning to the artwork based on - Light and delicate lines suggest gaiety
its description, analysis and context. - Dark, heavy ones communicate
 Judge the artwork as to whether it is foreboding or heavy feeling.
good or bad based on the perception of
it and its aesthetic and cultural value. Sculptors and painters have opted for non-
objective art.
Appreciating art is essential to man’s
understanding of himself and his psychic need Artist of objective art can choose any object
to seek expression. that inspires them for their art. Their choices is
virtually unlimited.
Art is here to stay. It is man’s legacy. It is the
proof that he together with others have sought SOURCES OF OBJECT
to express the working of his mind and achieve
immortality. Art is human expression and the artist’s choice
of subject are clues to their inner world which
The Scream tells viewers how their art should be
- By the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch
- Second most famous image in art The following are the sources of the artist’s for
history their works.

 Nature – most popular source of

objective art. Mountains, trees, animals,
 People – Human subjects, whether real lengthened to give the
or imagined. Works can range from a impression of thinness.
single subject to a group. c) Mangling – Artists show subject
 History – historical art works depict real as cut, lacerated, mutilated or
events which are verifiable facts that hacked with repeated blows.
occurred in the past. Purpose of such d) Cubism – presented through
works are either to commemorate the use of figures: a cone,
events or to teach history to the cylinder, sphere, triangle,
viewers. square, and cube. Forms in their
 Legends – based on legends present to basic geometrical shapes.
viewers of the art something tangible  Symbolism – visible sign of something
even when unverified. Art brings “life to invisible such as an idea or quality. The
these stories”. key to deciphering symbolic art involves
 Religion – based on the sacred text studying the background and
 Mythology – can also be based on the personality of the artist.
stories of the gods and goddesses of  Fauvism –used bright colors applied to
Ancient, Greece, Rome. a surface, painted pictures of comfort,
 Dreams and Fantasy – intrigue of the joy and pleasure.
unconscious also inspires artists to  Dadaism – Dada is French for hobby
present it through art for others to see, horse. Aims to show the wickedness of
relate and interpret. society.
 Technology – modern era with its tall  Futurism – wanted their art works to
buildings and amazing machines are capture the speed and force of the
also subject matter for the artist. modern industrial society.
 Surrealism – deeper meaning, true and
Ways of Presenting the Subject ugly part of human nature.
 Expressionism – strong emotions,
 Naturalism – In Greek (Hellenistic) art,
depicts the emotion aroused by objects
gods and heroes, looked and behaved and events. Involve chaos, sadness,
like human beings. Not focus on specific
tragedy and defeat.
attributes of and individual but more on
universal characteristics. CHAPTER 3
 Realism – portraying the subject as it is.
Most popular way of presenting art The Artist and His Medium
 Abstraction – abstract means “to move  Visual artists – use the visual arts as
away or to separate from”. Move away their venue of expression. These include
from reality. the painters, the sculptors, and the
a) Distortion – subject is architects.
misshapen or twisted out  Creative artists – are more adept at
b) Elongation – stretched writing words and arranging musical
vertically and/or some parts
notes. These include the writers, poets, - wise artists should not stop learning.
 Performing artists - express their art Curation
through execution in front of an - derived from the Latin word ‘curare’
audience. These include singers, which means to take care.
dancers, actors and musicians. - involves managing, overseeing and
 Visual arts – perceived by the eyes. Its assembling or putting together.
medium are those materials that can be o Curator – responsible for the
occupy space. acquisition of objects. He is the
- Graphic or two-dimensional art which one who decides on what
include drawing, painting, mosaics, objects to select to be part of
collage and printmaking. the collector or exhibit.
- Plastic or three-dimensional arts which The Different Media of the Visual
include sculpture, architecture and
A. Graphic or Two-Dimensional Arts
 Auditory or time arts – medium for this
 Drawing – fundamental skill
art is the viewers can ear and which are
needed in the visual arts.
expressed time.
Forms of drawings:
 Combined arts – medium for these art
 Sketch – shows the
are those viewers can see and hear
general organization or
which considers both time and space.
a design of a product
These includes dramas, dance, and
being planned.
 Cartoon – is a full-size
work meant to be used
The Process of Art Production
as a guide or basis for
The Medium the real work.
1. Pencil
- influenced by certain considerations - made of graphite
such as: the availability of the material, comes in different
the nature and special characteristics of hardness soft to hard or
the material. thickness from thick to
- inherent limitations as well as needle like.
potentials. - 6b indicates the
softness of the lead
The Technique
- Graphite pencils are
- Artists knowledge of medium and his
capable of producing
skill in making it achieve what he wants
different kinds of lines
it to, is the artists technique.
and a variety.
- Artists can also vary their techniques
a) Hatching – series of thin parallel lines
depending on what they want to show.
run in the same direction.
- Artists exploring different medium and
also vary and update his techniques.
b) Cross-hatching – series of thin parallel made from loose charcoal
lines and criss-crossing it with another mixed with a binder and
set of thin parallel lines. pressed into sticks
c) Stippling – using the sharp point of the - Soft charcoal produces dark
pencil to make dot patterns to create velvety tones. Hard charcoal
depth in some parts of the drawing. produces light, gray ones.
d) Blending – using the finger or a paper 5. Paper
stump to gradually change the tone - most common surface used
from dark to light. in two- dimensional art
2. Ink - oldest material for drawing. - an organic material made
Pen and ink drawings are from woods, grass and linen
characterized by controlled rags.
uniform lines. 3 types of paper
3. Pastel 1. hot-pressed paper – smooth
- composed of dry pigments 2. cold-pressed paper –
held together by a gum moderate texture
binder and compressed into 3. rough paper – most texture
sticks. (tooth).
- 3 kinds of pastels: soft  Painting
pastel, hard pastel and oil - describe as the art of
pastel. creating beautiful effects on
a. Stippling – using pastel of a flat surface.
different colors to produce small - describe as the art of
marks, thus creating pattern. creating beautiful effects on
b. Feathering – using the point of a flat surface.
the pastel to make parallel strokes Pigment is the part of the paint
creating a feather like effect. that gives color. It is fine
c. Scumbling – layering using pastel. powder which was grounded
The side of the pastel is lightly drawn from clay, stone, mineral,
on top of an existing color. vegetable matter or produced
d. Impasto – thickly applying the by chemical process.
pastel by pressing it hard to create Different Media Used for Painting.
opaque effect. 1. Water Color
e. Sgrafitto – applying a thick deposit - the pigments are mixed
of pastel on the support then using a water and applied to paper.
blunt pen, scrapes. Underlying color - Paper is the most commonly
and create the design. used ground for watercolor
4. Charcoal 2. Gouache
- organic medium that comes - The pigment has been mixed
from burnt wood with water and added with a
- compressed charcoal and chalk-like material to give it
manufactured charcoal that an opaque effect.
3. Oil Paints  Printmaking
- Pigments are mixed with oil - Process used for making
as its binder reproductions of graphic
- Discovered by a Flemish works.
painter Jan Van Eyck - Repeated transfer of a
- Surface for oil paints are master image from a
canvas and wood. printing plate (matrix) onto
- Thick impasto to produce a surface.
rough surface which gives 1. Relief Printing (Raised)
the work the element of - oldest method of
texture. printmaking
4. Tempera - cutting away using knives or
- Pigment mixed with egg yok gouges
(sometimes with the white) 2. Intaglio Printing (Depressed)
as binder. - opposite of relief printing
- Dries quickly and the colors - the lines of the image are
do not dull or yellow with cut or incised to a metal
age. plate
5. Fresco 3. Surface Printing (Flat)
- Mixed with water and - Includes all process in
applied on a portion of the which printing is done from
wall with wet plaster a flat surface (plane).
6. Acrylic Example of this type is
- modern medium of synthetic serigraphy or silkscreen
paint using acrylic emulsion printing.
as binder. -
- Quick drying quality of water Plastic or Three-Dimensional Art
color and is as flexible as oil  Sculpture
paints. - Word sculpture originated
 Mosaic from the Latin word
- Made of small tiles or ‘sculpere’ which means to
irregularly cut pieces of curve.
colored stones or glass - Art of practice of creating
called tesserae. three-dimensional forms or
 Collage figures.
- Derived from a French word - Described as having length,
‘coller’ which means to width and volume
stick. 3 kinds of Sculpture
- Gluing or pasting on a firm 1. Freestanding (in the round)
support materials or found - Sculptures which can be
objects. viewed from all sides.
2. Relief 3 types of Casting ;
- Sculptures in which the 1. sand-casting
figures project from a 2. plastic casting
background 3. lost-wax casting
Types of relief sculptures
 Low relief (bas relief) Different Media of Sculpture
- figures are slightly  Stone
raised/projected from its - Is a natural medium. Hard
background, less shadows and relatively permanent.
are created. - Stone will last for many
 High Relief years
- Almost half of the figures - Marble is the most
project from its beautiful stone for
background, or more sculpture
shadows are created.  Wood
3. Kinetic (mobiles) - Also a natural medium
- Sculpture that capable of - Easy to work on
movement by wind, water - In the Philippines, the best
or other forms of energy. woods for sculpture are
- Molave, Acacia, Langka
SCULPTURES Kamagong, Palm wood and
.1.) Subtractive process - Narra is a Philippine hard
- Removing or cutting away pieces of the wood
material to form the figure. - Technique to protect wood
- Use of tool like chisels, hammers, saws (staining and waxing)
and grinders.  Metal
- “freeing” the figure that is hidden or - Has three unique qualities:
trapped within the material tensile strength, ductility
2.) Additive process and malleability.
- Involves the construction of a figure by - Metal can turn into
putting together beautiful sculptures is
- Modeling and assembling example of through assembling
this process (welding) and casting.
3.) Process of Substitution 1. Stainless steel
- Also knows as casting - Known as Inox steel
- Using a mold to produce a 3D figure in - Combination of steel and
another material chromium
- Liquid form
2. Bronze
- An alloy of two elements: tin
and copper.
- Reddish-brown -
3. Brass
- is an alloy of copper and zinc
that gives it a yellowish
golden color.
- More malleable than bronze
and has a lower melting
point -
 Plaster
- Specifically, Plaster of Paris
finely ground gypsum
mixed with water and
poured into a mold.
 Terra cotta (cooked earth)
- Baked clay or clay fired in a
kiln at a relatively high
- Major weakness of clay is
its fragility; it breaks easily.
 Glass
- Made by heating and
cooling a combination of
sand and soda lime.
- May be transparent,
translucent or opaque.
1. Hot sculpting
- Using a metal rod to gather
the molten glass from the
furnace and shapes it using
another tool.
2. Cold working
- Using cold hardened glass.
- Involves sandblasting,
engraving, polishing and
3. Glass blowing
- a synthetic medium made
from organic polymers