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SCHOOL BASED FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TEACHING

AND LEARNING OF KISWAHILI PLAYS IN SECONDARY

SCHOOLS IN ELDORET WEST SUB COUNTY,

UASIN GISHU COUNTY

CHERONO MAGDALENE MARITIM

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION IN PARTIAL

FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF

DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT

OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION AND

EDUCATIONAL MEDIA,

MOI UNIVERSITY

2019
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DECLARATION

Declaration by the candidate

I hereby declare that this thesis is my original work and has not been submitted in this or

any other university for any academic awards.

_______________________________________ Date: ___________________________

CHERONO MAGDALENE MARITIM

EDU/PGCM/1037/14

Declaration by the supervisors

This thesis has been submitted for examination with our approval as the university

supervisors.

_______________________________________ Date: ___________________________

DR. DAVID WANYONYI


SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
MOI UNIVERSITY

_______________________________________ Date: ___________________________

DR. DAVID KESSIO

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

MOI UNIVERSITY
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DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to my dear husband Shadrack Ng’etich and my lovely daughters

Nasha, Sasha and Tasha for their financial, moral support and fervent prayers. To them I

say thank you very much. God Bless you abundantly


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I acknowledge God for enabling me to go this far. I honour the contribution of my

Supervisors Dr. David Wanyonyi and Dr. David Kessio of school of Education, Moi

University for their useful comments, criticisms and suggestions they provided

throughout the study. I am greatly indebted to their tireless guidance encouragement and

keenness during the period of study. I wish to thank all the schools which participated in

the study and respondents who collectively and individually contributed to the

accomplishment of this study. I also extend my sincere appreciation to my classmate

Ruth Kisanda and my brother Abraham Maritim for their great motivation and moral

support.

Thanks and God bless u all


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ABSTRACT

There is a general concern on the way Kiswahili is taught in Kenyan schools. The number
of periods it is allocated is lower than its counterpart English. Kiswahili is not used by the
teachers as a medium of communication in schools and even in the administration, leave
alone the students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the school based factors
influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in Secondary schools in Eldoret
West Sub-county. The objectives of study were to establish the influence of instructional
methods, assessment methods, teacher preparedness and instructional resources on the
teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays. It also identifies the effect of attitude of
teachers and learners towards the learning of Kiswahili plays. The study adopted input-
output theory or the production function theory of education. Descriptive survey research
design was used. The target population was 156 Kiswahili teachers and 3,022 form three
students. Stratified, simple random and purposive sampling were used to select
respondents. Simple random sampling was used to select 42 Kiswahili teachers and
purposive sampling to select 594 form three students. The study used questionnaires,
interview schedule, observations checklist and document analysis guide to collect data.
To ascertain the validity and reliability of the research instruments six secondary schools
from Eldoret East sub-county were used for pilot study. Descriptive and inferential
statistics was used to analyze the data collected. The instructional method, teacher
preparedness, instructional resources and teacher’s attitude influence the teaching of
Kiswahili plays. The model results yielded, (R2 = .756) showing that all the school-based
factors account for 75.6% variation in teaching of Kiswahili plays in secondary schools in
Eldoret West Sub County. The type of instructional methods mainly used to teach the
play includes group discussion and question and answer. Learner centered teaching
method was used. The formative assessment methods used were mostly written tests
which included assignments, random assessment tests, continuous assessment tests and
end of term and year examinations. Oral exercises were mostly used during lessons. The
instructional media mainly used was print media, guide books, reference books and
revision material. Audio visual that was used include video DVD set plays. It was
recommended that the teacher of Kiswahili needs to attend more in-service training such
as seminars, workshops and other in-service courses so as acquaint themselves with the
latest knowledge and skills. This training would help in improving their teaching
methodology and expose them to innovative instructional media. The findings indicated
that learners and teachers had a positive attitude towards the play. This study would be
beneficial to the teachers teaching Kiswahili plays, Kenya institute of curriculum
development and all other stakeholders in the Ministry of Education since it has promise
on how to enhance the teaching and learning of the Kiswahili plays for better
performance.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION............................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION.................................................................................................................. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................... iv

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................... v

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................ vi

LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................... xi

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... xiii

LIST OF ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ........................................................ xiv

CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY .......................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Background of the Study ........................................................................................... 1

1.3. Statement of the Problem ....................................................................................... 10

1.4. Purpose of the Study .............................................................................................. 12

1.5. Main Objective ....................................................................................................... 12

1.5.1. Specific Research Objectives ............................................................................. 12

1.6. Main Question ........................................................................................................ 13

1.6.1. Specific Research Questions .............................................................................. 13

1.7. Justification of the Study ........................................................................................ 13

1.8. Significance of the Study ....................................................................................... 15

1.9. Scope of the Study.................................................................................................. 17

1.10 Limitation of the Study......................................................................................... 17

1.11 Assumptions of the Study ..................................................................................... 18

1.12 Theoretical Framework ......................................................................................... 18


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1.13 Conceptual Framework ......................................................................................... 20

1.14 Definition of operational terms ............................................................................. 22

CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................ 24

LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................... 24

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 24

2.2. Characteristics of Kiswahili Plays.......................................................................... 24

2.3 Instructional Resources ........................................................................................... 27

2.3.1 Instructional Materials in Teaching and Learning Kiswahili Plays .................... 30

2.3.2 Availability of Instructional Resources ............................................................... 31

2.4 Teacher Preparation................................................................................................. 33

2.4.1 In-service Training .............................................................................................. 37

2.4.2 Qualification and Adequacy of Kiswahili Teachers............................................ 41

2.5 Instructional Methods.............................................................................................. 43

2.5.1 Effective Instructional Strategies for Teaching and Learning ............................. 45

2.6 Assessment Methods ............................................................................................... 47

2.7 Attitude towards Kiswahili Language ..................................................................... 49

2.7.1 Teachers' Attitude towards Kiswahili Language ................................................. 49

2.7.2 Students’ Attitude ................................................................................................ 50

2.8 Review of Related Studies ...................................................................................... 52

CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................ 55

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY..................................................... 55

3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 55

3.2. Research Design ..................................................................................................... 55

3.3. Study Area .............................................................................................................. 56

3.4. Target Population ................................................................................................... 56


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3.5. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure .................................................................... 56

3.6. Research instruments.............................................................................................. 59

3.6.1. Questionnaire for teachers of Kiswahili and Students ....................................... 59

3.6.2. Interview for Head of Subject ............................................................................ 60

3.6.3 Observation Guide ............................................................................................... 60

3.6.4 Document Analysis ............................................................................................. 61

3.7 Reliability and Validity of Research Instrument ..................................................... 61

3.7.1 Validity ................................................................................................................ 61

3.7.2 Reliability ............................................................................................................ 62

3.8. Data Collection Procedures .................................................................................... 63

3.9. Data Analysis Procedures....................................................................................... 63

3.10. Ethical Considerations.......................................................................................... 64

CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................... 66

DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION


....................................................................................................................................... 66

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 66

4.2 Background Information of Respondents ............................................................... 67

4.2.1 Status of the School ............................................................................................. 67

4.2.2 Gender of Respondents ........................................................................................ 68

4.3 Influence of Instructional Methods used by teachers on the teaching of Kiswahili


plays .............................................................................................................................. 68

4.3.1 Instructional Methods used to teach Kiswahili Plays .......................................... 69

4.3.2 Areas of Kiswahili play students face difficulty ................................................. 70

4.3.3 Number of times the students had read the play ................................................. 71

4.3.4 Challenges in selecting instructional method ....................................................... 72


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4.3.5 Correlation between Instructional Methods used by Teachers and the Teaching of
Kiswahili plays .......................................................................................................... 73

4.4 Methods used by teachers to assess the Kiswahili play .......................................... 74

4.4.1. Type of Assessment Method .............................................................................. 74

4.4.2. Challenges in Selecting Assessment Methods ................................................... 75

4.4.3. Students performance in Kiswahili plays ........................................................... 76

4.5 Influence of Teacher Preparedness on the teaching of Kiswahili plays .................. 77

4.5.1 Highest level of professional qualification .......................................................... 77

4.5.2 Teaching experience ............................................................................................ 78

4.5.3 Teachers’ Attend In-service Courses .................................................................. 79

4.3.5 Correlation between Teacher preparedness and the teaching of


Kiswahili plays .......................................................................................................... 80

4.6 Influence of Instructional Resources on the teaching of Kiswahili plays ............... 82

4.6.1. Type of Instructional Media Used ...................................................................... 82

4.6.2 Students watch live presentations of Kiswahili set plays .................................... 83

4.6.3 Number of times students watch the live presentations per year ........................ 84

4.6.4 Teachers Support students watching Kiswahili plays ......................................... 85

4.6.5 Factors influencing teachers in using instructional media .................................. 85

4.3.5 Correlation between Instructional Resources and the Teaching of


Kiswahili plays .......................................................................................................... 86

4.7 Teachers and students’ Attitude on the Teaching and Learning of


Kiswahili plays .............................................................................................................. 87

4.7.1 Perception of Teachers Regarding the Teaching of Kiswahili plays ................ 88

4.7.2 Perception of Learners Regarding the Kiswahili play ......................................... 90

4.7.3 Correlation between Teacher’s Attitude and the Teaching of Kiswahili


plays ........................................................................................................................... 92
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4.8 Influence of school based factors on the Teaching of Kiswahili plays ................... 94

4.8.1 Analysis of Variance on Teaching of Kiswahili plays ........................................ 95

4.8.2 Coefficients of Teaching of Kiswahili plays ....................................................... 96

CHAPTER FIVE .......................................................................................................... 100

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................. 100

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 100

5.2 Summary of the Findings ...................................................................................... 100

5.2.1. Instructional Methods used .............................................................................. 100

5.2.2. Assessment Methods ........................................................................................ 102

5.2.3. Teacher Preparedness ....................................................................................... 102

5.2.4. Instructional Resource ...................................................................................... 103

5.2.5. Attitude of Teachers and Students.................................................................... 103

5.3. Conclusion............................................................................................................ 104

5.4 Recommendations ................................................................................................. 105

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research ......................................................................... 106

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 107

APPENDICES ............................................................................................................... 115

APPENDIX A: CONSENT LETTER ..................................................................... 115

APPENDIX B: Questionnaire for Teachers of Kiswahili Plays ............................ 116

APPENDIX C. Questionnaire for Form Three Students ...................................... 124

APPENDIX D: Interview schedule for the head of Kiswahili subject ................. 130

APPENDIX E: Observation Guide for the Researcher ......................................... 132

APPENDIX F: Research Authorization .................................................................. 133

APPENDIX G: Research Permit ................................................................................. 134


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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Sampling Frame ........................................................................................... 58

Table 4.1 Status of the School ...................................................................................... 67

Table 4.2 Gender of Respondents ................................................................................ 68

Table 4.3 Instructional method teachers use in teaching Kiswahili plays.................... 69

Table 4.4 Areas of Kiswahili Play................................................................................ 71

Table 4.5 Correlation between Instructional Methods used by teachers and the

teaching of Kiswahili plays ................................................................................ 73

Table 4.6 Highest Level of Qualification ..................................................................... 78

Table 4.7 Teaching Experience .................................................................................... 79

Table 4.8 Correlation between Teacher preparedness and the teaching of Kiswahili

plays ................................................................................................................... 81

Table 4.9 Type of instructional media used to teach plays .......................................... 83

Table 4.10 Number of times students watch the live presentations per year ............... 85

Table 4.11 Teachers Support students watching Kiswahili plays ................................ 85

Table 4.12 Correlation between instructional resources and the teaching of Kiswahili

plays ................................................................................................................... 87

Table 4.13: Perception of teachers regarding the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays ................................................................................................................... 88

Table 4.14 Attitude of Students.................................................................................... 91


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Table 4.15 Correlation between teacher’s attitude and the teaching of Kiswahili plays

............................................................................................................................ 93

Table 4.16 Model Summary on teaching of Kiswahili plays ....................................... 95

Table 4.17 Analysis of variance on teaching of Kiswahili plays ................................. 96

Table 4.18 Coefficients on teaching of Kiswahili plays ............................................... 97


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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................... 21

Figure 4.1 Number of times the students had read the play ......................................... 72

Figure 4.2 Challenges in selecting the method to use in teaching Kiswahili plays ..... 72

Figure 4.3: Type of Assessment Method...................................................................... 75

Figure 4.4 Challenges Eencountered while assessing students .................................... 76

Figure 4.5 Student’s performance rating in Kiswahili plays ........................................ 77

Figure 4.6 Attended Kiswahili plays in-service course ................................................ 80

Figure 4.7 Students watch live presentations of Kiswahili set plays ........................... 84

Figure 4.8 Factors influencing teachers usage of instructional media ......................... 86


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LIST OF ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

CHAKAMA Kiswahili Association of East Africa

GOK Government of Kenya

HOS Head of subject

KCSE Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education School Curriculum

KESSP Kenya Education School Support Programme

KICD Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development

KIE Kenya Institute of Education

KNEC Kenya National Examination Council

KRTs Key Resource Teachers

L2 Second language

NCSTI National commission for Science, Technology and Innovation

SbTD School based Teachers Development

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science

TSC Teachers Service Commission

UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

USA United States of America

R2 R Squared
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives,

research question, justification and significance of the study. The scope of the study,

limitations, assumptions of the study, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and

definition of operational terms are also presented.

1.2 Background of the Study

Language is the most effective means of human communication and human beings

cannot do without it, apart from communication, language also forges cultural ties and

economic relationship. Muitung’u & Njeng’ere, (2008) affirms that a person’s use of

language shows which social group they belong to, their level of education, occupation,

class, religion, age, sex and personality. It is common for people to identify with those

who speak the same language as themselves (Gathumbi & Masembe, 2005). Language is

not genetically inherited but it is acquired and learnt. Shitemi & Mwanakombo (2001)

looked at a different angle to the choice of a given language and said that it can amount to

a denial of the right to participate in societal affairs. This happens when the language

chosen is one that is not widely spoken by some section of the society.

Kiswahili is developing rapidly with the rapid growth of the world and currently is used

globally. Mohammed (2008) noted that Kiswahili is taught in a number of African,

American and European universities as well United Nations adopted it recently along

with English, French, Arabic, Spanish, Chinese and Russian, as a medium of


2

communication in Security Council debates. Mulokozi (2002) points out that computer

software for Kiswahili had been created thus Google sites could be read in Kiswahili. Its

international appeal has also been boosted by the use of its phrases in theatres, songs and

television programme. This language tends to be a language of instruction in the first

three grades of primary school in areas where it is the mother-tongue (Chimerah, 2000).

Elsewhere, it is offered as a foreign language offered as a subject in approximately a

hundred universities across the United States of America (Chimerah, 2000).

Kiswahili language is used in many parts of the world. First, it is taught in many

universities in the Middle East, Europe, Japan, China, and USA among others. Second,

major world broadcasting corporations broadcast in Kiswahili including the British

Broadcasting Corporation, Deutschewell, Channel Africa, Voice of America, Radio

Japan and Radio China international to mention just a few (Mulokozi, 2002). In the

United Nations Headquarters, Kiswahili is one of the 42 officially recognized languages

used to disseminate information to its member countries. In addition, computer software

for Kiswahili has been created, thus Google and Wikipedia sites can be read in Kiswahili,

and therefore, Kiswahili is increasingly becoming an international language.

The development of Kiswahili language from a minority language in the 18th century to

an international language can be attributed to many factors. These include trade, writings,

religion, colonial rule, communication, education and post- independence government

policies. Today, there is no doubt that Kiswahili is one of the major indigenous languages

in the continent whose role in development cannot be gainsaid. Mulokozi (2000) argues

that language is fundamental to people’s identity. This means that most African countries
3

using foreign languages feel lacking in cultural identity and hence ready to take this

slightest opportunity to have a language that can express their cultural diversity and

ostensibly to address the needs of majority, who do not speak, read or understand foreign

languages.

Kiswahili has also been recognized as one of the official languages of the African Union.

This status gives this language a lease of life to compete favorably with English and other

non-indigenous lingua franca like French, Spanish and Portuguese. In the region,

Kiswahili is spoken in East, Central and Southern Africa. It is the National and official

language in Tanzania. In Uganda, Kiswahili is a lingua franca but has not received wide

popularity because the language has often been associated with Islamic, slave trade and

military (Mohammed, 2008). In addition, Kiswahili is spoken in the Democratic Republic

of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia and parts of Madagascar. The language is basically

used in East Africa as a tool for regional integration and cohesion as well as lingua

franca for commerce (Mulokozi 2002).

Kiswahili can claim to be the East and central African region’s foremost language of

wider communication. As a result of its impressive expansion as an inter-ethnic lingua

franca, it has become one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa transnationally.

It is also spoken as a mother-tongue by its original “tribes” collectively known as the

Waswahili of the coastal regions of Kenya and Tanzania (including islands of Zanzibar

and Pemba). Majority of Swahili speakers, however speak it as mother tongue as well as

a second language (L2) (Chimerah, 2000).


4

Mwenda (2006) postulates that the East African countries are currently working on a

common language policy, because of the understanding that uniformity in language will

lead to unaffected flow of information, people and capital across the borders. In addition,

the inter- university council of East Africa is emphasizing the exchange of Kiswahili

curriculum at university level to facilitate students and staff exchange programmes

through CHAKAMA. This will make all countries in East Africa to be at par in the

development of Kiswahili in general. It should be noted that one of the objectives of

CHAKAMA is to organize joint research to reduce disparities that have afflicted higher

institutions of learning for a long time. There is no doubt therefore, that with the coming

into effect of the East African Common Market on 1st July 2010, Kiswahili will play a

leading role in improving literacy, galvanizing unity, commerce and communication

consequently acting as a vehicle towards the federation of East African countries.

Kiswahili language has made huge strides forward in its usage in Kenya. It has been

entrenched in the Kenyan Constitution as both national and official language according to

Republic of Kenya (2010). In Kenya spread of Kiswahili language, not only provide a

vehicle for national coordination and unification, but also to encourage communication

on an international basis within East Africa, Eastern part of Congo and parts of Central

Africa. The recognition of Kiswahili both as a unifying national language as well as a

means of Pan-African communication over a considerable part of the continent made it a

compulsory subject in primary schools in Kenya.

In the Kenyan context, the choice of Kiswahili as the language of social mobilization

allows the participation of a large number of Kenyans in our societal affairs. In the new
5

constitution Government of Kenya, (2010), Kiswahili has also been designated as the

nation’s official language, which will require government publications and business to be

in Kiswahili. It is a language that unifies the large multilingual society as Kenya’s is.

Typically, it is used in the nation’s courts, parliament and administration. It also holds a

significant position in the curriculum as a compulsory subject taught at the primary and

secondary school levels and is examined in the Kenyan education system.

As a second language, majority of Kenyans depend on Kiswahili for their day to day

transactions in social and political matters. It is a lingua franca: especially in urban areas

less so in homogeneous rural areas, a language that is used by Kenyans from diverse

tribal background (Barasa, 2005). In this respect, it is regarded as a language that serves

in uniting all Kenyans. The critical role that literacy plays in everyday lives of people in

Kenya as everywhere around the world is indisputable. For an individual today to lack

literacy skills is to be saddled with a handicap in the full participation in and enjoyment

of the many quality life enhancing resources available. Kiswahili being a national

language and official language, (English being the other) GOK (2010), youth’s lack of

appropriate level of literacy in this language can be a major challenge. Kiswahili has been

made a co-official language with English.

The current constitution of Kenya also states that for one to be nominated for elections

into the national assembly, one must be able to speak and unless incapacitated by

blindness or other physical cause to read Swahili and English language well enough to

take active part in the proceedings of the national assembly. Since the promulgation of

the new constitution (2010), Kiswahili has become one of the two official languages as
6

section 7 of the new constitution declares Kiswahili and English as official languages in

Kenya (GOK, 2010).

The Ministry of Education has also placed immense value on the development of

Kiswahili language alongside other languages taught in primary and secondary schools.

This is why the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education School Curriculum (2002)

emphasizes the importance of Kiswahili language, as a compulsory and examinable

subject. Though, Kiswahili is a second language to most Kenyans, studies have also

shown that pupils are more active in class when teachers rephrase their English questions

in Kiswahili (Kembo-Sure 1996, Mwangi & Ogechi, 2006). This underlines its

importance in curriculum instruction.

In the secondary School Kiswahili syllabus; listening and speaking skills are a pertinent

component of the KIE (2002) revised secondary school syllabus. In a country like Kenya,

lack of appropriate levels of literacy amongst her citizens, particularly in Kiswahili which

is the national and official language-is a major challenge in the globalized, technology

and information dominated world. Kenyans therefore need to identify what Kiswahili

literacy knowledge and skills they require to succeed as individuals and as a nation in the

current growing world. Kiswahili language has made huge strides forward in its usage in

Kenya.

According to Republic of Kenya (2010), it has been entrenched in the constitution as both

national and official language alongside English. According to Kenya National language

policy, Kiswahili is a medium of instruction in lower primary where different ethnic

groups have settled whereas in upper primary it is taught as a subject. Muitung’u &
7

Njeng’ere (2008) affirm that Kiswahili is taught because of its status as a national

language and its value as lingua franca within Kenya and generally East Africa. Both

Kiswahili and English are taught as compulsory and examinable subjects in primary and

secondary schools in Kenya. However, Kenya has not put enough resources in

developing a Kiswahili corpus so that it can adequately serve as a national language.

In schools Kiswahili is currently assigned fewer lessons than English. This makes it have

limited time for effective implementation. Even achieving the general objectives of

Kiswahili stated in the syllabus becomes a challenge. Apart from time allocation, there

are various factors which can challenge effective implementation of Kiswahili subject.

The revised Kiswahili curriculum which was launched in 2003 came with a lot of

changes. This change has affected the use of standardized Kiswahili language since most

teachers are not prepared for it. Teachers of Kiswahili therefore, need to be acquitted to

such changes. This will enhance their ability to interpret and implement Kiswahili

curriculum objectives.

Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) carried out a study to find out

whether there were enough trained teachers to implement the revised Kiswahili

curriculum. It found out that even though teachers were trained, they still required regular

in-service particularly in Kiswahili, English and Business Studies (KICD, 2007).The

government has tried to improve the implementation of Kiswahili curriculum by

introducing the School based Teachers Development (SbTD) programme. A large

number of teachers were not in-serviced. This programme was launched in 2005 with the

aim of strengthening subject specialists in Kiswahili among other subjects (MOE 2005).
8

Attitude is a very significant element in the implementation of Kiswahili curriculum.

Students generally hold either positive or negative attitude towards academic courses.

These attitudes are influenced by varied factors unique to individuals. One student may

have a positive attitude towards a subject and the other negative attitude towards the same

subject. A positive attitude however translates a high student academic achievement

(Marriott & Marriott, 2003). The success of any learning depends largely on instructional

procedures. Every given instructional procedure is used to achieve desired objectives it

must be properly harnessed through adequate and proper use of instructional facilities.

The persistent problem of non-availability of most instructional material is of a great

concern. Merely using instructional resources does not guarantee effective teaching. The

resources must be appropriately selected. Teachers being the implementers of the

curriculum, (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2004), there should be preparedness through pre-

service and in-service courses as well as professional documents. Proper instructional

strategies must be put in place to aid implementation of Kiswahili curriculum. In post-

primary institutions like teacher training colleges, Kiswahili is a core subject too. In the

higher institutions of learning, that is, universities, Kiswahili is one of the courses of

study.

Lewis (2009) observes that Kiswahili is not only a Kenyan language, but it is also a

language that is fast becoming an inter-Africa lingua franca. In an increasingly

competitive society, the minimum entry requirements into various courses in higher

institutions of learning have gone up. Attaining higher grades at KCSE is, therefore, of
9

uttermost importance. Kigotho (2010) revealed that most youth leaving schools in Sub-

Saharan Africa have no problem solving, communication and social skills.

Communication skills can be developed in classrooms if Kiswahili being one of the

compulsory languages in the Kenyan secondary school curriculum, is well taught.

Kiswahili is a language of communication in almost all areas concerned with human

activities like in business, in schools, in homes and also in social gatherings. The

Ministry of Education places emphasis on Kiswahili language. The new syllabus or

revised one aptly defined the integrated approach to make the teaching of the languages

more effective and this includes Kiswahili as a language (KIE, 2002). Mogambi (2011)

stated that Kiswahili has been sidelined in the Kenyan system of education. It has been

regarded as a second-rate language in Kenya.

Even after the introduction of the 8-4-4 system of education, which made the language

compulsory and examinable right from primary to secondary school, most learners seem

not eager to master the language. Kimemia (2001) observes that Kiswahili is a lingua

franca of a large part of the Kenyan society at all socio-economic levels. In Kenya,

Kiswahili plays a crucial role in national development; first it is an official language,

second a national language third a core compulsory and examinable subject for all

candidates at KCSE according to the Kenyan curriculum.

Kenyan education system is examination oriented thus the release of KCSE examination

results, is used to judge prospective candidates by the grades of their certificates hence

decisions are made on who proceeds to the next level of education. Various courses take

Kiswahili as an alternative to English thus a good pass in Kiswahili is an asset for


10

students aspiring for further education or employment. The study therefore, sought to find

out the causes responsible for poor performance within the school environment which

ranges from daily language usage, type of teachers as well as their attitude, school

teaching and learning resources, student views to Kiswahili teaching and learning in

Eldoret West Sub County.

1.3. Statement of the Problem

Kiswahili language plays a pivotal role in the Kenya society. This is attested by

prominence the Ministry of Education puts in the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

language. In the secondary school curriculum Kiswahili is a compulsory subject and

hence all students go through the Kiswahili syllabus. Kiswahili as a subject is divided

into two major components that is language and literature. The literature part entails the

novel, the play, the short story and poetry. The Kenya Vision 2030, long-term

development blue print for the country, articulates the appropriate national goals to meet

people`s aspirations motivated by a collective aspiration for a better society (Mogambi,

2011).

Globalization has made the world become more dependent on Information,

Communication Technology (ICT) (with language being a central factor), and its skilled

and proficient use is a key factor in economic and social opportunities (Mogambi, 2011).

Therefore, in order to participate fully in the realization of the Kenya’s Vision 2030, the

secondary school curriculum should embark on a comprehensive path towards imparting

improved listening skills in a language readily understood, and that is Kiswahili.

Literature review reveals that most teachers of Kiswahili have concentrated on content

delivery; seldom do they concentrate on the teaching and learning tasks that enable
11

learners to acquire various language skills. In order to accomplish this, the teacher needs

to go beyond the product-oriented approach to teaching and utilize methods, activities

and techniques that would ensure learning by active listening. Empirical studies reveal

inherent limitation in teaching listening and glaring neglect of the skill in the teaching of

Kiswahili language in secondary schools in Kenya. Thus, the gap in this study was the

school based factors influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in

secondary school.

Kiswahili language is so vital in Kenya and indeed, the entire East African region to the

extent that poor performance at KCSE threatens the socio-economic and political fabric

of life. Studies reveals that Kiswahili had not been taken seriously in the way it was

taught in schools. The number of periods it was allotted was lower than its counterpart

English. The performance in Kiswahili at the KCSE examination over the years had not

been impressive and most students have not been able to attain the C+ grade which is

considered to be an average of good performance in the national examination.

KNEC (2015) reports that the mean score of Kiswahili in KCSE nationwide was 47%

which is a C, a grade that is below the expected mean of C+. Bearing this in mind it’s

important to study the factors causing this poor performance. The teaching and learning

of Kiswahili plays was crucial because most students read the Kiswahili plays before

doing the Kenya certificate of secondary education examination (KC.S. E), and therefore

the play contributed a lot towards their performance.

Despite the critical role Kiswahili plays nationally, regionally and internationally, its

performance in national examinations was still below expectation. The researcher sought
12

to establish the effectiveness of the instructional resources, instructional methods being

used, the teacher and student attitude towards the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays. This study therefore answered the question; what school based factors influence

the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays.

1.4. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the school based factors influencing the

teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays and suggest possible recommendation in an

effort to enhance effective teaching and learning which would culminate into good

performance in Kiswahili plays.

1.5. Main Objective

The main research objective of this study was to find out the school based factors

influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays.

1.5.1. Specific Research Objectives

The specific research objectives for this study were:

i. To establish the influence of instructional methods used in teaching Kiswahili

plays.

ii. To investigate the influence of assessment methods on teaching of Kiswahili plays.

iii. To evaluate how teacher preparedness influences the teaching of the Kiswahili

plays.

iv. To determine the effect of instructional resources on the teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays.
13

v. To establish the influence of teacher’s and student’s attitudes on teaching and

learning of Kiswahili plays.

1.6. Main Question

The main research question was; what school-based factors influence the teaching and

learning of Kiswahili plays?

1.6.1. Specific Research Questions

i. What is the influence of instructional methods used in teaching Kiswahili plays?

vi. How do teacher’s assessment methods influence the teaching of Kiswahili plays?

ii. How does teacher preparedness influence the teaching of Kiswahili plays?

iii. What is the effect of instructional resources used on teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays?

iv. What is the influence of teacher and student attitudes on teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays?

1.7. Justification of the Study

Kiswahili is a lingua-franca especially in the urban areas, less so in the homogenous rural

areas. It is the national language and therefore it is a language that unifies the large

multilingual society. Barasa (2005) states Republic of Kenya has forty one different

linguistic groups. All the groups have their own distinct languages, some are closely

related. Kiswahili comprehensions contain texts that talk about peace and also bring

aspects different cultures hence the ability to understand the multilingual society and

appreciate each other as Kenyans.


14

Effectiveness of the instructional methods, instructional resources, student’s attitude and

teacher’s preparation of documents are very necessary for the transmitting of the values

for national unity. According to Chimerah (2000) Kiswahili is a medium of instruction in

Kiswahili lessons and in the lower levels of primary education (class one to three) in

urban areas where there are heterogeneous groups unlike the use of mother tongue in the

rural areas.

The general objectives of teaching Kiswahili at secondary school level are contained in

the revised version of the syllabus (KICD, 2007) are: to recognize, investigate, evaluate

and develop the different genres of language and literature in Kiswahili, to learn and

evaluate different concepts of the cultures using Kiswahili, to realize some of the current

issues affecting the society for instance HIV/AIDS, gender equality, development in

science and technology, to conserve the environment to meet the daily needs and future

needs and to be proud and happy in using Kiswahili as a national and international

language.

These objectives are in line with the national objectives of education in Kenya which

include; enabling citizens improve on the religious and society’s moral values, to ensure

equality in society and responsibility, to enhance the different cultures of Kenya and to

enhance and develop good relations nationally and internationally. Kiswahili plays in

essence accomplish a variety of the learning goals. Teachers and the learners must

therefore understand and use effective instructional methods and resources to ensure that

the subject pass the intended objectives.


15

New instructional strategies developed teaching approaches and methodology

reconsidered in order to suit the demands of the integrated approach to teaching

Kiswahili language. It is with such knowledge that the researcher was prompted into

investigating the influence of the school based factors influencing the teaching and

learning of Kiswahili language plays. Various KNEC reports confirming poor

performance in Kiswahili subject, there was good ground for this study to be carried out

to determine the influence of school based factors influencing the teaching and learning

of Kiswahili language plays. It is expected that this findings would address to school

based factors responsible for poor results in other aspects of Kiswahili subject.

1.8. Significance of the Study

The findings on the school based factors influencing the teaching and learning of

Kiswahili language plays would aid various stakeholders in secondary schools in Kenya.

It would give an understanding that would help curriculum developers, implementers and

other stakeholders to facilitate decision making, planning and implementation of

improved teaching of Kiswahili play. The objectives of teaching Kiswahili language at

secondary school level in Kenya justify a study that may yield better preparation of

learners in listening skills and enhance their performance.

Findings from this study may also be important to teacher trainers as they could help in

reviewing of their programmes in order to put more emphasis on Kiswahili language

teacher’s professional competences especially in handling the five fundamental language

skills in general and listening skills in particular which is largely ignored by teachers of

language. Teacher training institutions may find this study useful in reviewing their
16

training curriculum so that they produce competent secondary school teachers of

Kiswahili who can confidently teach listening skills.

It is also hoped that the findings of this study would benefit learners, teachers, curriculum

designers, course book designers and the Kenya National Examination Council, who

would find the recommendations in the study essential in assessing the nature of teaching

and learning that occurs in the area of Kiswahili plays. This study would help teachers of

Kiswahili re-examine their views on plays as just a receptive skill. The findings would

also help in enhancing the use of this skill by learners in real life after school. It could

also lead to extension of the frontiers of knowledge by adding value to existing theories,

concepts or shed light on educational practices.

The findings of the study would inform schools administrators to provide the necessary

resources for the teaching/learning of Kiswahili. In addition, Kiswahili language

curriculum developers and course designers would benefit from the study as it would to

provide information on teachers and subject requirements. The finding is also intended to

influence school administrators to adopt sound language policies so as to foster the right

attitudes towards Kiswahili. Further, the findings would also contribute to the

advancement of knowledge in Kiswahili by suggesting solutions to the factors that

influence poor performance of Kiswahili plays at secondary education. The knowledge

generated from this study would be expected to contribute to the existing knowledge

about school based factors influencing Kiswahili language plays. The findings from this

study would go a long way in promoting the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays, in

Eldoret West Sub-County and other parts of the county.


17

1.9. Scope of the Study

The study focused only on the school based factors influencing the teaching and learning

of Kiswahili plays in Eldoret west sub-county in Uasin-Gishu County. The school based

factors considered included instruction methods, assessment method, instructional

resources, attitudes of teachers and students and teacher preparedness. Secondary schools

were targeted in the study. The sample included form three students because most of

them would have read the Kiswahili plays. The decision to choose Eldoret west sub-

county in Uasin-Gishu County among others in the County was a representative sample

in the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays. The study was conducted between May

and July 2016.

1.10 Limitation of the Study

The following limitations inherent in the study were recognized and put into

consideration when making inferences and conclusions in the study. The quality of the

study outcome fully depended on the honest of information obtained from respondents

and the lessons that were observed. Secondly, the literature reviewed in this study

focused mainly on teaching listening in English language classrooms since the

pedagogical principles and practices involved in teaching any second language are

basically similar. Empirical studies conducted in Kenya with regard to teaching and

acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili was used.

Thirdly, the scope of the research did not allow the researcher to have a wider population.

A smaller sample of schools and respondents were used in this study. This is a limitation

because a small sample and therefore, generalizations have been made from the study.

Yet another limitation was the fact that the researcher used questionnaires and interviews
18

schedule which may be affected on the respondent’s perceptions and self-assessment. The

researcher would explain issues that seemed to be unclear. More so, some respondents

were allowed to express their views in Kiswahili. The study was also limited to public

secondary schools, since they are the majority and receive teachers from TSC.

1.11 Assumptions of the Study

The study made the following assumptions; the teachers in secondary schools were

trained similarly and students were sampled from the same Kiswahili backgrounds. All

students selected for the study had undergone the same level of tuition in terms of

teaching time. All schools had the same language policies. The research assumed that the

sampled population was willing to answer the questionnaires and co-operate in the

interviews. The sampled population was literate and was assumed they would fill the

questionnaires appropriately and within a short period of time. Teacher and students

responses to the questionnaires and interviews represented a true state of the school based

factors influencing the teaching of Kiswahili plays.

1.12 Theoretical Framework

The study was guided by input-output theory or the production function theory of

education. It had been used by a number of authorities such as Coleman, Campbell,

Habson, Mepartland, Mood, Weinfall (1966) and Fuller (1985) in an attempt to measure

the contribution of various factors of educational output. The production function theory

of education measures output (student achievement) by standardized achievement test

scores. Education is a service which transforms fixed quantities of input (individuals) into

individuals with different quality attributes, to enable students to cope with and perform

in society after they have completed schooling. The production theory advances that a
19

school was seen as an entity which receives inputs (students, resources, teachers) and

transformed them to educational outputs’ through a process.

The theory explains how student achievement (outputs) is dependent upon school inputs

such as teaching/learning resources, adequacy and qualification of teachers, school

language policies as well as the school administration. A school receives input, that is,

students, teaching personnel, teaching and learning resources and instructional materials.

A certain process of transformation that is teaching and learning takes place where skills

in Kiswahili language practices are disseminated to students. The process is guided by

teachers who utilize their academic and professional, qualifications, teaching experience

and school language policies to influence student language usage, development of the

right attitudes towards Kiswahili and proper time management. This results to high

output (student achievement) measured through high grades, competence in spoken and

written Kiswahili.

Basing the study, it is correct to say that learners of Kiswahili play would learn from the

characters in the plays by observation, imitation and modeling and would in a position to

predict the consequences of a particular behavior, this would influence the behaviors they

portray. Educational inputs refer to variables such as the teaching personnel, teaching and

learning resources, facilities and students. While student academic achievement in

Kiswahili play is taken to be educational output. To realize good academic achievements,

in Kiswahili plays students are admitted to schools based on their academic abilities and

teachers placed according to their academic and professional qualifications.


20

Teachers employ academic and professional competence to enable students to read, write

and develop proper use of Kiswahili plays. In addition, they should guide learners

develop the right attitudes towards Kiswahili through motivation. Once learners have

been prepared for four years, they sit for their final KCSE examination, which aided to

gauge their basic grasp and application of Kiswahili plays. In this case, high academic

performance is taken to be the output.

1.13 Conceptual Framework

The study sought to find out the school based factors influencing teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays from the production function theory described above. Performance in

Kiswahili plays is affected by factors such as teacher factors, student factors and school

physical resources. The dependent variable was the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays, while the instructional resources, method, teacher preparedness, student and

teacher attitudes towards Kiswahili plays. The relationship between the independent and

dependent variables was conceptualized as summarized in figure 1.1.


21

Independent variable Dependent variable

School Teaching and Learning of


 based factors Kiswahili plays
 Teaching methods  Plot
 
Instructional resources  Character
 Assessment method  Setting and atmosphere
 Teacher preparedness  Theme
 Teacher and student attitudes  Style

Intervening variable
 Government policy
 School Supervision

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework

The intervening variable was the government policy and school supervision. The

researcher assumed that the government policy guides the teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays and the supervision was the same in all the schools. School physical

resources entail things such as class size, physical facilities, instructional materials,

teaching and learning resources as well as language policies. Teacher factors include;

professional qualifications, academic qualifications, teaching experience, teaching

methods and attitudes while student factors include academic ability, time management,

language use and attitudes. The utilization of school facilities as well as teaching and

learning resources, teachers guide learners’ through a process that involves the teaching

of language skills both spoken written and daily language tests. Therefore, the study

sought to find out how these factors affect teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in the

sampled schools.
22

1.14 Definition of operational terms

Assessment: refers to the process of curriculum appraisal.

Attitude: Is a set of beliefs developed in a due course of time in a socio-cultural setting.

Refers to learned predispositions to respond positively or negatively to certain

situations, objects or persons, and in the context of the study. It refers to the

attitude of the students towards the learning of Kiswahili plays.

Instruction: As used in the study refers to the process of teaching or order of direction

or statements telling what to be done or followed. It is a set of events designed

to initiate, activate, and support learning.

Instructional methods: Refers to approaches used in teaching of Kiswahili plays.

Instructional resources: These are materials used to enhance teaching of Kiswahili play.

In–service training refers to short courses offered to teachers who are already in

teaching profession on different aspects of curriculum content.

Kiswahili play: a composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character or to

tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and

dialogue and typically designed for theatrical performance in Kiswahili.

Learning resources: These are items that store, carry and/or deliver information in a

learning situation (Kafu, 2010). In this context, the term refers to human

resources, visual and audio-visual aids the teacher uses during Kiswahili plays

instruction.

Learning: Refers to the relatively permanent change in capacity for performance

acquired through experience or training. It is a process where learners gain


23

knowledge, skills and experiences from exposure to Kiswahili plays through

different instructional methods and resources.

Plays: A genre of literature (drama).

Public Secondary School: Is a TSC staffed post-primary institution that offers KCSE at

the end of a four year course.

School based factors: Means those determinants of performance within an educational

institution like school physical resources, teaching/learning resources,

instruction method, school language policy and attitude to languages in use

within the set-up.

Teacher preparation: This is how the teacher of Kiswahili makes prior arrangements to

deliver/disseminate information. It also includes the preparation of the

professional documents.

Teaching methods: refers to a strategy used by the teacher to deliver the curriculum

content in Kiswahili play.

Teaching resources: Something that a teacher uses to achieve objective, e.g. raw

materials or personnel.

Teaching: Teacher’s ability to instruct during Kiswahili plays lessons. The constituent

potentiality is the ability to design classroom activities in view of the process

of instruction that gets the learner to acquire new ideas, knowledge, and

values in Kiswahili plays. In this study, this term has been used to refer to a

systematic development of listening skills among learners of Kiswahili plays.


24

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter has reviewed literature relating to Kiswahili plays from past research

studies, books, journals and internet. This section is organized under the following sub

areas: the elements and characteristics of Kiswahili plays, studies on the factors affecting

the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays (instructional methods, teacher preparedness,

instructional media, assessment methods, attitude of teachers and learners) were

provided.

2.2. Characteristics of Kiswahili Plays

Play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue

between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. The aim

of teaching Kiswahili plays to students is to make them: Discover the joy of reading

literature and become aware of new ways of perceiving the world around them.

Appreciate the aesthetic value of language. Engage personally with a variety of texts and

the world in order to develop intellectual, emotional, social, cultural and global

awareness. Appreciate the importance of context in which literally texts are written and

understood (Christine, 2005). The above aims of teaching Kiswahili plays have not been

fully achieved as the teaching and learning of the plays is influenced by numerous factors

in secondary schools.

Aristotle considered these six things to be essential to good drama/play;


25

Plot: This is what happens in the play. Plot refers to the action, the basic storyline of the

play; Theme: Theme refers to the meaning of the play. It is the main idea or lesson to be

learned from the play; Character: Characters are the people (sometimes animals or

ideas) portrayed by the actors in the play .It’s the characters who move the action or plot

of the play forward; Dialogue: This refers to the words written by the playwright and

spoken by the characters in the play. The dialogue helps to move the action of the play

along; Music/Rhythm: While music is often featured in drama, in this case Aristotle was

referring to the rhythm of the actors’ voices as they speak; Spectacle: This refers to the

elements of a play; sets, costumes; special effects etc. Spectacle is everything that the

audience sees as they watch the play; the study of Kiswahili plays based on the Kiswahili

syllabus looks into five elements some which have been highlighted in the Aristotle view.

The elements comprise of:

Plot: This refers to how events are linked through cause and effect relationships within a

text (Odipo, 2013). The plot of a story is the chronological arrangement of related events

and episodes in that story. Most plots have several elements in common, these are: -

exposition, rising action, climax and falling action or resolution.

Character: This refers to representation of a person, with motivation and intellectual,

moral and emotional qualities. (Odipo, 2013), a character is a person or animal that takes

part in the action of work of art. In most cases though, a character is a normal human

being. Every credible work of art uses both main and support characters. More often than

not, main characters are dynamic. A character is one who is capable of growth and

actually goes on to grow and change in emerging in the story. Support characters, in most
26

cases, are static. Static characters do not change much in the course of a story. Their main

role though is to keep the plot of the story moving on.

Setting and Atmosphere: It refers to the time, place, physical details and circumstances

in which a situation occurs. Atmosphere refers to the mood or emotional quality of the

writing usually created through the setting.

Theme: This refers to central idea(s) in a text. Odipo (2013), a theme is the main idea in

a work of art. It is the idea the writer intends to convey about that subject and must be

conveyed in a debatable statement or sentence. A work can have more than one theme

and usually not stated directly.

Style: This refers to the writer’s purposeful use of language to achieve certain effect.

Odipo (2013), style is an individual’s manner of doing things. Style is the way in which a

piece of literature is written. It refers not so much on what is said rather than how it is

said. Elements that contribute to style include diction, sentence structure, rhythm,

imagery and tone.

In teaching the areas of study, teachers would lead students to holistic and meaningful

appreciation of Kiswahili plays. They will help students understand how the study of any

area needs to consider one or more of other areas. Teachers of Kiswahili plays will also

be guided by the three principals of literature teaching and learning according to

Christine (2005). These are:

Personal engagement: Teachers will create a positive classroom environment where

Kiswahili plays are discussed, enjoyed and valued. Structure classrooms interaction to
27

enable students to:-engage with the text plays, develop individual responses to text, Share

and evaluate different viewpoints and perspectives

Critical Appreciation: Teacher will model the use of key skills for critical appreciation

of text play and provide the specific feedback to guide students in developing critical

responses that are substantiated by textual evidence.

Meaningful Connections: The teacher will: guide students to explore connection s

between the text play and students own lives, the rest of the world and other text and

encourage the love of literature through providing opportunities for students to engage

with wide range of Kiswahili plays.

The teaching of the five elements of Kiswahili plays is core in the syllabus. The teachers

have a greater responsibility to ensure that the five areas are well covered. This may not

be an easy task because the teacher and the learners encounter hurdles in the process. The

teacher therefore is faced with the challenge to ensure that the students understand the

concepts taught. This study focused on the factors that influence the teaching and

learning of the five core areas of Kiswahili plays.

2.3 Instructional Resources

Instructional resources are important in the instructional process. A review of research

concerning the impact of technology on learning in schools have revealed that integrating

media resources into the instructional process has a positive impact on learners and the

way teachers function in class (Kafu, 2010 & Farrant, 2006). The teacher may use a wide

variety of resources available for any topic imaginable, including textbooks and internet

sources. This is because the teachers’ ability to address the instructional objectives partly
28

lies on the availability of the teaching and learning resources. These resources should be

made, accessible to all teachers through establishment of resource centres with staff,

audio-visual facilities, equipment and work materials. The emphasis on the effectiveness

of the use of instructional resources in teaching and learning has been noted by many

other authorities among them. The non-availability of facilities and materials is one of the

major constraints that affect instruction in most schools the world over. Without

necessary media resources, the quality of teaching and learning will be poor and

uncoordinated and this will directly impinge on the implementation process.

Instructional methods and a variety of objects and events representing the subject of

information must be organized and displayed for effective learning. The Ministry of

Education (2000), further underlines the essence of instructional materials by asserting

that apart from the teacher, a key factor in effective delivery of the curriculum is the

availability and quality of teaching and learning resources without which classes will

always be teacher-centred and didactic and students will not learn how to work

independently or in groups.

Research over the last decades has consistently grounded on the important role of

instructional resources in successful language learning and teachers who use one

textbook and repeatedly follow the sequence in each unit causing boredom to set in. The

monotony has to be broken and teachers ought to vary their instructional activities. In line

with this, Wanjiku (2002) studied factors that affect the availability and acquisition of

resources in teaching languages. The study revealed that a lot of emphasis is on


29

textbooks, particularly the course book. Wanjiku`s study however, does not reveal why

the situation is the way it is.

Mobisa (2003) studied the use of instructional resources in secondary schools in Kenya

and revealed that their availability and use is wanting. He further concluded that teaching

and learning resources play a vital role in the learning process and when used properly,

they can help reduce the burden of instruction. He does not however delve into

instructional strategies. Teaching resources are suitable for educational inquiry. In most

subjects all over the world, teaching is often closely linked to adopted text books.

Aldridge, Laugksch & Fraser (2006) argues that this is the case for history teaching in

USA where teachers relied on these textbooks, consequently denying students an accurate

picture of the complexity and richness of American history. Aldridge et al., (2006) argue

that when teachers rely heavily on the class text as a basis for classroom teaching, the

students are deprived of a conceptual lens that would help them better comprehend the

world around them. Aldridge studied teaching of history and unlike this study, does not

make an inquiry about instructional strategies for teaching history.

Aggarwal (2007) argues that language teaching must appeal to the learner in as many

ways as possible. This appeal in the early stages may be to the sense of sight and hearing.

The visual appeal will demand a maximum use of pictures, sketches and diagrams. The

auditory (Sense of hearing) is stimulated naturally by visual representations, and non-

verbal forms like facial expressions and gestures that are essential in explaining words

and sentences. Outlining guidelines for improving listening, Aggarwal (2007) suggests

audio-visual aids can encourage learners to listen carefully. Listening in Kiswahili


30

language classrooms should therefore not be an activity that teachers divorce from visual

context. What a learner sees is part of the comprehension experience and body language

forms part of how learners acquire virtually all language skills.

From the foregoing review, it is evident that relevant instructional resources are an

essential pre-requisite in the instructional process. More importantly, a curriculum is not

deemed complete if it is void of relevant course books and teaching resources. This skill

is neglected, firstly because the most commonly used English course books give teachers

little advice or materials to assist in developing pupil’s listening skills. From the

foregoing review, it is evident that relevant instructional resources are an essential pre-

requisite in the instructional process. More importantly, a curriculum is not deemed

complete if it is void of relevant course books and teaching/learning resources. Previous

studies looked at Kenyan schools but this current study wanted to establish the

availability of these resources in Eldoret West Sub-County and establish its relation to the

performance it posts in learning of Kiswahili plays.

2.3.1 Instructional Materials in Teaching and Learning Kiswahili Plays

Mogeni (2005) observes that resources help recollect and add variety to a language class.

The use of pictures and graphics make language rooms better and attractive while at the

same time doubling as material for learning. This adds life to the class and the lesson in

general, although this material must be relevant. Just like any other subject, a multi-media

approach is very important. Visual aids provide a variety of stimuli to the learners and

hence assist children in learning about unfamiliar people, places and events.
31

Instructional materials play a vital role in the teaching and learning process and have

proven to have several inherent advantages over other methods. They provide children

with necessary concrete experiences. Orpwood (2002) concurs with this idea by saying

that discovery learning is very important if learning materials are available. He further

says that resources not only facilitate but sometimes even make learning possible,

particularly when abstract concepts are being learnt. Mogeni (2005) observes that

resources help recollect and add variety to a language class.

The use of pictures and graphics make language rooms better and attractive while at the

same time doubling as material for learning. This adds life to the class and the lesson in

general, although this material must be relevant. Just like any other subject, a multi-media

approach is very important. Visual aids provide a variety of stimuli to the learners and

hence assist children in learning about unfamiliar people, places and events. If the

Kiswahili teachers actively involve children in the learning process by using instructional

resources that have been effectively selected, they will develop communicative

competence.

2.3.2 Availability of Instructional Resources

Twoli (2007) refers to teaching and learning resources as aids that teachers use to assist

learning and enhance student’s participation in class for effective learning. Since the

implementation of free tuition in public primary schools, the government took the

responsibility of investing in instructional materials and text books. The reason was as

stated in Kenya Education Sector Support programme document (GOK, 2005) aims at

providing text books for learners as the tool for attainment of quality education.

Incidentally curriculum developers give little emphasis to development and production of


32

teaching materials for languages. The quality of teaching learning resources is very

important in effective delivery of curriculum (Ministry of Education (2003). In absence

of teaching learning materials, lessons were teacher centered and students would not do

their work independently.

Mokamba (2007) observe that there is an outcry from teachers on lack of the basic

resources like textbooks. Incidentally curriculum developers give little emphasis to

development and production of teaching learning materials for languages besides

textbooks and more attention is given to production of materials and resources for

sciences and technical subjects. This worsens the teaching of languages. The selection of

the right textbooks in primary schools should be guided by the orange book prepared by

the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD 2007). Teaching and learning

materials play a key role in a child’s learning.

A report by the Ministry of Education in (Government Summative Evaluation of the

Primary and Secondary school education curriculum May 2010 found that publishers

were producing textbooks which had factual and editorial errors. Teaching and learning

materials like textbooks and other reference materials are available, concerns about the

quality of the recommended materials some of which had factual errors, inconsistent

information, inaccuracies and poor or difficult language of the learner is worrying.

Wanjiku (2002) carried out a study on factors that affect the availability and acquisition

of resources in the teaching of languages. Her study found out that a lot of emphasis was

laid on course books but not other resource materials. Success cannot be realized through

the use of textbooks alone.


33

2.4 Teacher Preparation

Personal education for teachers of Kiswahili which should stress qualities of independent

learning, choice and acquirement of relevant knowledge would encourage such teachers

to want to practice such skills in their work as a profession. To train is to teach someone

the skills that are needed in order to do something. It is in relation to this that

Radhakrishnan (2008) sees a teacher as a transmitter of intellectual traditions and

technical skills from generation to generation. The quality of education and learning

depends heavily on the competence of the teacher since these are the forefront in

instructional delivery system. Thus the central role of the teacher in the instructional

process is reflected in the fact that: the teacher in the school interprets the objectives and

the content in the curriculum plan and manages the learning situation through which

intention is transformed into practice.

Taylor & Richards in Barasa (2005) also see “the skill and experience of the teacher’ as

the pivot of the process of the curriculum. They argue further that the teacher’s

perception of what was intended by the curriculum developers and teacher’s ability to

shape his teaching so as to facilitate the achievement of their interventions add to the

realization of the objectives and aims of the curriculum. It is possible for teachers of

Kiswahili not to effectively implement the Kiswahili syllabus due to unpreparedness. In

this way, objectives stated in the Kiswahili syllabus (KIE, 2002) would not be achieved.

It is worth noting that teachers of Kiswahili start teaching with different academic

backgrounds and orientations depending on the training they underwent. One of the

questions to be answered by this study is; the challenges the teachers experience in the

course of choosing and using instructional strategies.


34

Farrant (2006) notes that one of the most frequent cause of the collapse of otherwise

promising strategies for change is failure to provide adequate training for teachers. A

curriculum is only as good as the quality of its teachers. Singh et al., (2008) on teacher’s

professional efficiency also say a teacher should possess knowledge of the fundamentals

of the subject he/she teaches. He should have a sound academic and cultural background.

In addition, the teacher must have the required professional training without which he/she

will commit serious pedagogical blunders. What appears to be lacking in the foregoing

discussion are suggested suitable programmes of training teachers of Kiswahili to enable

them perform as expected.

With the integrated approach to teaching Kiswahili, (KIE, 2002) a teacher of this subject

requires a sound command in all language skills. Since integration is a recent innovation

in Kiswahili language instruction, a teacher of Kiswahili is required to attend in service

training programmes. However, this study found that in-service courses were only mainly

organized for some skills that were infrequent and lacked quality. Mutoro (2001) carried

out a study in Bungoma Sub County on factors that affect curriculum implementation for

the learning impaired and observes that teacher experience determines competence and

efficiency. He also points out that continuous teacher training makes the teacher receptive

and flexible in the implementation of the curriculum. His study however does not

consider strategies teachers can use to effectively implement the curriculum.

Garet et al., (2001) in a study published in the American Research journal, talking about

what makes for effective teacher development explored teacher`s perceptions of the type

of professional development courses that were effective. They came to the basic
35

conclusion that the core features of professional development activities that have

significant positive effects on teachers` self-reported increases in knowledge and skills

and changes in classroom practice were: Focus on content knowledge, Coherence with

other learning activities and opportunities for active learning. This particular study

focused on the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of

listening skills in Kiswahili language.

The Kenya Institute of Education (2002) points out the need for teachers to be exposed to

continuous training. In-service courses may be organized and disseminated at various

levels in Kenya. The KIE organizes and facilitates in-service courses at national level for

selected subject teachers from different regions who in turn are expected to move back to

their Sub County’s to train other teachers. A study needs to be done to investigate

whether this is ever done in Kiswahili subject and teaching of listening in particular. In-

service education covers those activities directed towards remediation of perceived lack

of skill or understanding. In-service education is necessary and appropriate when people

need special training to correct deficits in their skills.

Buchler (2003) says in-service courses are very important and useful to the teacher. He

advices that teachers should practice and reflect upon all skills in in-service training they

receive. Teachers, he says should not be left on their own in the event of any innovation.

Teachers need support through in-service courses in order for them to achieve their

objectives in teaching. In-service training equips teaches with knowledge, skills and

attitudes needed for implementation of any educational programme which includes

sensitizing them on any changes in the curriculum. Ochieng (2006) investigated students’
36

attitudes towards and performance, in integrated English syllabus and came to the basic

conclusion that student’s incompetence in English is as a direct result of teacher’s

inadequate initial training capabilities, lack of skill and knowledge in their preparation

and teaching of English. The case could be true with teachers of Kiswahili.

Ochieng (2006) however does not venture into instructional strategies teachers of English

use, he does not point out interventions to be put in place which the current study seeks to

do. The Kiswahili language education curriculum provides language teachers with

knowledge about the implementation of the secondary school Kiswahili language

curriculum according to the philosophy of education, the national goals of education and

objectives of teaching the subject.

Teachers of Kiswahili language should have cognition on how to use listening to instill

national values in learners in which student-teachers ought to be adequately prepared:

listening, speaking, reading and writing and each of them demands varied abilities. When

teachers of Kiswahili are not well prepared, it is common place for education that such

teachers tend to teach by the methods which were used by teachers who taught them. In

no area of language is this more true than that of listening. It is probably for this reason

that this study established that the procedure of listening around the class has been

perpetuated by neglect and haphazard teaching.

Secondary school teachers of Kiswahili should be trained to teach all the skills in the

integrated Kiswahili language curriculum in teacher training colleges. However, the

challenges experienced in teaching and acquisition of listening skills at secondary school

level may be linked to experiences in the training colleges; the teaching methods,
37

assessment procedures and strategies at secondary school level may not be significantly

different from those used in colleges. Kiswahili language has been taught in Kenya for

more than a century now, but there have been few innovations in the training of teachers

of Kiswahili with regard to teaching listening skills.

Teachers of Kiswahili start teaching with different academic backgrounds and

orientations depending on the training they underwent, they undergo training in content

and methodology and while in service, they are supposed to attend workshops and in-

service courses. Basing on the foregoing arguments, education planners have thus

continued to think about the best ways to improve the quality of education through the

preparation and equipping of teachers with desired skills and attitudes required for

effective teaching and learning process. Teacher preparedness is a vital component for

effective curriculum implementation as they are professionals capable of making rational

decisions. A teacher needs to be fully prepared in terms of pre-service training, in-service

training as well as professional documents.

2.4.1 In-service Training

Ornstein & Hunkins (2004) noted that effective implementation of any curriculum

innovation can only happen if the teacher’s pre-service training is adequate and regular.

An implication that teacher training is an important determinant of their potential for

effective curriculum implementation. Some common forms of in-service programmes

include courses like seminars, workshop and conferences. It is through the in-service

training that teachers get the opportunity to advance their knowledge on their areas of

specialization. In-service of teachers greatly affect the quality of curriculum

implementation. Teachers are an important resource in the teaching and learning process
38

and their training and continued professional development is pivotal to achieving the

vision and aspirations of the country, (Sessional paper No. 14 of 2012).

Teacher qualification shows an important but complex relationship to pupil’s outcome

(MOE, 2006). A teacher impacts knowledge and skills to learners. The Kenya Institute of

Education (KIE, 2007), points out that teachers should be able to put into consideration

the syllabus content given the specific subject objectives. In their report on survey carried

out during the monitoring of the implementation of the revised Kiswahili curriculum

(2004) some teachers indicated in the questionnaire that certain topics like language use

“Matumiziya Lugha” and grammar “Sarufi” were difficult to achieve their objectives

because of mother tongue influences and inadequate time allocation.

In-servicing of teachers is continuously updating teachers with skills to promote

efficiency in performance. The education of the teacher does not end in the pre-service

training but has to be continuous even after the teacher graduates and enters into the

teaching service (Chemutai, 2010). In-service education takes place at any time, either as

full time or part time study during the professional life of activities in which a serving

teacher, head teacher, school inspector or educational administrator may participate in for

purpose of improving his/her instructional or professional knowledge, interest and skills.

Ornstein & Hunkins (2004) argue that most new educational programmes cannot be

implemented without providing proper training for teachers which enables the teachers to

look at a particular curriculum development effort as their own and not something being

imposed from outside. Teachers are reluctant to get involved with changes in the system.
39

They further assert that many teachers tend to disregard available evidence regarding new

curricular or pedagogical practice if it challenges their understanding and outlook; they

feel “left” holding the bag when there is no continued support for the new curriculum.

KIE (2007) carried out a survey to find out whether there were enough trained teachers to

implement the revised curriculum and found out that even though the teachers were

trained, they still needed regular in-service particularly in Kiswahili. This will influence

their implementation of Kiswahili curriculum as they will be in line with the changing

Kiswahili trends.

The Ministry of Education Science and Technology designed, developed and

implemented the school based teacher development (SbTD) in service programme. There

still exist a large number of non in-serviced teachers who still need adequate in-servicing

as far as the Kiswahili curriculum is concerned. The SbTD programme aimed at

strengthening primary subject specialists in Kiswahili among other subjects. The

programme was launched in 2005 with aim of training 18, 000 Kiswahili Key Resource

Teachers (KRTs) from each of the primary schools in the country (MOE 2005).

Nyaga (2009), in her study on factors influencing implementation of Kiswahili

curriculum in Kiambaa Division found very few teachers attended in-service training and

this increased the ignorance amongst the teachers thus leading to lack of improved and

current strategies of Kiswahili curriculum implementation. Omao (2007) carried out a

study on effectiveness of implementation of the revised secondary school Kiswahili

curriculum. She found that some teachers had attended few in-service courses. However,
40

the courses had not helped them since the facilitators were not Kiswahili specialists and

did not provide them with specific information that could assist in Kiswahili teaching.

According to Ornstein & Hunkins (2004) teachers are reluctant to get involved with

changes in the system. They further assert that many teachers tend to disregard new

curriculum pedagogical practice if it challenges their understanding and outlook. These

are the documents that a teacher needs to attain to show how well he/she is prepared for

the teaching process. Some of the documents are records of work covered, scheme of

work, lesson plans and lesson notes. These documents if used appropriately make

curriculum implementation effective through good performance in examinations.

Thungu, Wandera, Gachie and Alumande, (2008) affirms that records of work gives an

update of work covered in each subject taught in a given class on a daily basis. Schemes

of work, interprets the syllabus and systematically averages the content to be covered

over a specific period of time. A lesson plan is a teacher’s document that describes in

details the course of instruction to be taken during a lesson. Mwaura (2003) states that,

teachers find it difficult learning new strategies that cut across old habits and

assumptions.

Teachers then need to improve on teaching and learning strategies through training and

in-service courses. Many teachers do not read after leaving colleges or institutions of

learning, yet training is necessary condition for effective performance of teaching roles

and responsibilities. From these findings, it appears that training is very necessary for

good quality education but it becomes unfortunate when students trained by qualified

teachers obtain poor results.


41

2.4.2 Qualification and Adequacy of Kiswahili Teachers

Teacher quality is the most important school resource input because it predicts student

achievement. Ferguson & Gilpin (2001) argue that teacher quality is a broad category,

which includes dimensions such as experience, subject knowledge, scholastic aptitudes,

and their teaching ability. Several researchers studying the relationship between teachers’

and student achievements show that teachers with high test scores or highly selective

educational backgrounds are more likely to produce gains in student achievement. Its

common knowledge that academically qualified teacher has more authentic knowledge

about the relevant subject than the academically less qualified teacher.

Muhammad & Rashid (2011) demonstrate that academic qualification, professional

qualification, refresher courses or trainings and teacher experience are the most important

qualities of a teacher. The qualities like academic qualification and knowledge of the

subject matter, competencies, skills, and the commitment of a teacher have an impact on

teaching and learning process. Metzler & Ludger (2010) in their study found that teacher

quality is a key determinant of student learning and subsequent academic achievement.

Further, he postulates that there is a strong indication that most teachers in both primary

and secondary schools in developing countries are conscripted into teaching professions.

This implies that the teaching profession in developing countries has two lots of teachers,

those who choose the profession for intrinsic reasons and those who for reasons beyond

their control find themselves in the profession.

Kombo (2005) observes that the learners regard the teacher as a source of power,

resources (knowledge and skills) as well as personal satisfaction (such as recognition,


42

approval and acceptance). In the classroom, the teacher is expected to play multiple roles,

which include teaching, guidance and administration. In view of the continuous

renovation and development of teaching knowledge and of the constant change taking

place within educational systems, it does not seem possible to equip the teacher trainee

with all knowledge and skills required for an entire professional life.

According to Newstrom and Davis (2002), a study on quality and teacher training and

student achievement indicated that trained teachers do make a difference and in particular

teacher qualification, experience and amount of education and knowledge were positively

related to student achievement. It’s worth noting that it’s the teacher who translates the

broad general curriculum goals into learning experiences and the method of presenting

content. They do most of the evaluation. Therefore, the teacher initiates, develops and

directs student learning so as to realize good results in the national exams. Kuenzi (2008)

argues that certain teacher attributes like verbal ability, subject matter knowledge,

pedagogical knowledge, years of experience and certification status influence student

achievement.

Research clearly shows that teacher expertise is the most significant school-based

influence on student learning Saracologlu, (2000). School improvement always calls for

enhancing the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teachers. Whatever course of action

a school adopts, success usually hinges on providing support and resources for teachers to

strengthen existing expertise or to learn new practices. The current Bachelor of Education

programme in Kenyan universities offers a concurrent Bachelor of Education in


43

Kiswahili language programme offering the following courses: Education courses,

Kiswahili language courses and Literature in Kiswahili courses.

Inexperienced teachers on the other hand rely on traditional methods of teaching which

may not suit the purpose at the time. The teacher is a key to educational innovation, he

points out that educational change can only succeed when teachers are sufficiently

impressed by the validity of a new approach and thoroughly grounded in the techniques

necessary for implementation. Qualification of Kiswahili teachers weighs heavily on

language performance, in secondary schools thus compromising quality of education.

2.5 Instructional Methods

Killen (2004), states that teaching methods provide a framework for orderly organization

and presentation of instructional activities. A proper understanding of these methods and

some of the factors related to their selection is a pre-requisite for good teaching.

Teachers’ methodology is a sufficient actor in facilitating the implementation of the

intended aims and expressed objectives. Learning methods however represent two main

approaches in teaching: Learner centred and teacher centred approaches (Killen, 2004).

Learner centred approach appeals most since, apart from motivating the learners and

teaching them how to learn, it also has the added advantage of helping them to remember

easily what they have learned. This method also caters for individualized learning.

Learner centred methods of teaching therefore help teachers identify individual abilities

and weaknesses and deals with each appropriately. In whatever level teaching is being

done in order for it to be effective, it must correspond to the stage of the mental

development of the learner. The teacher has to motivate the learner by employing a
44

method that links content to the experience of the learners. According to KICD (2007),

the role of methodology is to enable the children to achieve instructional objectives at the

end of the learning, teaching methods affect children’s performance and therefore,

teacher needs to be conversant with the different methods in order for the children to

have high performance level.

Cohen and Hill (2001) observed that teachers should use different methods to ensure that

learners have grasped the content taught. The teacher’s methodology is a sufficient factor

in facilitating the implementation of the intended aims and expressed objectives of a

given educational programme. These include approaches to the teaching of the subject,

instructional methods and teaching/learning activities and how the required skills are

developed. A good teacher uses several methods of teaching in a single lesson depending

on the teaching/learning situation of a given lesson.

Berry (2009) views that teachers appear to use teacher-centered methods more frequently

that using learner centered method to instruct. The blooms taxonomy has three main

category of learning, that is; cognitive, affective and psychomotor and they could be used

as a basis for deciding the mode of instruction a teacher can use. In cognitive domain

learning may take place using all the methods of teaching, affective domain may be

achieved using discussion, case study, role play method while psychomotor learning may

be best acquired by active physical participation such as demonstration, experimentation

or project work.
45

According to the Ministry of Education in Kenya (2011), the learner should be placed at

the Centre of the teaching and learning process through methods that actively and

meaningfully engage learners in learning activities. Kiswahili needs to be taught using

the most relevant methods like the learner centered methods like group discussion, role

play and demonstration in order to make it interesting to the learners. The study however,

did not reveal the teacher’s awareness of other teaching methods. Killen (2003) asserts

that a learner centered approach appeals most since it motivates the learners and teach

them how to learn. He further supports that effective method must correspond to stage of

the mental development.

2.5.1 Effective Instructional Strategies for Teaching and Learning

Listening strategies are activities that contribute directly to comprehension of listening

input. They can be classified by how the listener processes the input as follows: top-down

strategies. These are listener based (tapping from background knowledge on the topic) to

help listeners interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Role-playing

can also be useful for teaching listening. In this activity, learners take on roles and act out

a given scenario (Petty, 2004). A few students can take on roles of characters in a

play/novel/short story then they are interviewed by other learners in the class about their

motives.

Alternatively, role-play can be a single performance viewed by the rest of the class. In

this case, the teacher could possibly give the observers in various groups a specific

listening task. Brainstorming is technique of producing a large number of creative ideas

for subsequent evaluation (Petty, 2004). The teacher may start by carefully defining the
46

topic to be brainstorming for ideas as students take turns at writing on the board or

flipchart.

After the session, they can choose the most useful ideas Baker & Westup (2000).

Language Games can produce intense involvement and a quality of concentration no

other teaching method can match. They increase the amount of interest and motivation

towards the subject (Petty, 2004). Most games for teaching listening can be played by

students as individuals or in groups. Using the buzz, students in pairs are asked to discuss

in order to answer a question.

Students can engage in various games like picture recognition: Pictures can be cut out

from colour magazines and each picture assigned a number and spread on the table. Then

the teacher describes pictures one by one as students identify them (Petty, 2004).

Alternatively, students in groups may be given a set of twenty cards with each group

having the same set of cards of which each has a different phrase with an underlined

word. Then students work in pairs to sort the underlined words into various parts of

speech; nouns (nomino), verbs (vitenzi) adverbs (vielezi) adjectives (vivumishi) and

pronouns (viwakilishi). Similar games can be devised for classifying types of: oral

narratives, and nouns.

The value of simulations, games lies in the freedom it gives the learner to choose the

activity he/she likes best and the scope it gives them to experiment with the knowledge

and skills being acquired. Effective teaching and learning, of Kiswahili plays the teacher

must use heuristic methods of teaching. Mukwa & Too, (2002), the teacher should also

use teaching techniques that will encourage interaction and keep the learner involved in
47

the learning process. Some of the techniques include questioning, role play, storytelling,

computer mediated communication, grouping, assignment, brainstorming, mimicking and

modeling. It’s therefore true to involve learner is an interested learner, an interested

learner will learn.

The teaching and learning of Kiswahili play must involve the learners so that they can

learn effectively. The difficulty in understanding and appreciating Kiswahili plays is due

to the fact that some teachers don’t pay attention to the appropriate methods of teaching

plays, which would enable them to transfer the information to the students easily. Thus

instead of deriving pleasure and entertainment out of studying the plays, students feel

burdened with implication for the exam something that makes them take the study of the

plays as a difficult task to accomplish.

2.6 Assessment Methods

Assessment refers to any observation or a measurement of developmental progress and

performance of students. For teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays to be effective, the

teacher of Kiswahili plays will identify and monitor the students changing needs, ability,

and interest so that they can modify or adapt their teaching methods teachers will also

give their timely and useful feedback to students and provide them with opportunities to

act on the feedback to improve on their teaching and reduce the setbacks encountered.

Duncan (2007) states that, it is commonly reported that students do not read teacher’s

feedback command.

The literature suggest that a part of the problem is that teachers and students see feedback

in isolation from other aspects of the teaching and learning process and consider feedback

as primarily a teacher owned endeavor. Taras, (2003), correspondingly suggests that the
48

feedback process is most effective when all protagonists are actively involved in the

process. Nicole (2008), states that the workload for the teacher can be offset by the

reduction of the time needed to give feedback on the final product and by in cooperating

peer feedback into some of the stages.

Study in the impact of feedback on student learning achievement indicates that feedback

has potential to have a significant effect on student learning achievement (Hattie &

Timperly 2007). This potential is strongly related to the quality of the feedback and

unsurprisingly, Hattie and Timperly (2007) noted that the most improvement in students

takes place when students get information feedback about a task and how to do it more

effectively and is clearly related to the learning goals. By contrast the impact of feedback

on learning achievement is low when feedback focuses on “praise”, reward and

punishment.

Hattie & Timperly (2007) also notes that feedback is more effective when it addresses

achievable goals and when it does not carry high threats to self-esteem. When assessing

the teaching and learning of Kiswahili Plays. The teacher should therefore; identify

student’s learning gaps and needs, so that teaching strategies and activities can be

changed or modified to improve their performance. Provide multiple opportunities for

students to demonstrate their skills and abilities through meaningful tasks/activities so

that students’ development and progress can be monitored, reported and communicated to

parents at meaningful point. Provide rich qualitative and formative feedback, framed in

terms of what students can and need to do to help them determine the steps to take to

improve their learning.


49

Involving students actively in learning to assess themselves and each other: i.e. self and

peer assessment respectively) using explicit and clear assessment criteria that are made

known to students. In the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays, feedback is an

important part in the learning cycle but both students and teachers frequently express

disappointment and frustration(s) in relation to the conduct of feedback. The teachers of

Kiswahili plays should therefore embrace feedback as a way of improving learning of

Kiswahili plays.

2.7 Attitude towards Kiswahili Language

Attitude has been defined differently by different scholars. Teachers’ attitude plays an

important role in the present context. In the professional courses, the teachers have

changed their role from being the controllers of the class to the facilitators. They accept

students’ mistakes in the language use as a necessary part of the language learning. They

help motivate students use more and more language in their daily life.

2.7.1 Teachers' Attitude towards Kiswahili Language

Learners learning outcomes are influenced by the interpretation of teacher’s interpersonal

behavior. Attitude is an important aspect in learning of any language; it can either hinder

or enhance the learning of this language. How one feels about a certain language can

determine to some extent how well one can teach that particular language. The language

policies in education, which reflect the attitudes of policy makers, have been responsible

for the attitudes teachers and learners have towards Kiswahili.

The pupils and teachers through this, develop a negative attitude towards Kiswahili. This

attitude that many people have towards Kiswahili dates back to colonial times whereby
50

British colonizers imposed their language, English, to Kenyans and made them think it is

superior to their own (Mbaabu, 2003). Until recently, English is barely understood by

25% of the more than 35 million Kenyans, remains the official language and is used in

most of the official realm (Mugambe, 2005). Ndegwa (2005) found that teachers'

attitudes influence their choice and use of teaching approaches. Other studies have

showed that teacher's attitudes affect the way the teachers handled children.

2.7.2 Students’ Attitude

Language learning is affected by the attitude and motivation of learners. Motivated, de-

motivated and a motivated student have different perceptions of their class teacher and

curriculum. The perceptions are responsible for their attitudes. Meenakshi (2008) argues

that an individuals’ perception of the class teacher, peer group, syllabus and his/her

awareness for future needs affect his/her attitude to language learning. Learner’s learning

outcomes are influenced by their interpretation of teachers’ interpersonal behavior. If

they believe that the teacher is associated with them and their learning outcome, the

teacher empathizes with them, understands their problems, they react positively and this

factor contributes to their motivational level in the classroom.

Akey (2006) carried a longitudinal study among high school students of grade 9-11 to

ascertain if there exists any relation between school context, student attitudes and

behavior and academic achievement. In the study, she found that perceived academic

competence (attitude) had a positive influence on reading achievement among high

school students. Those students who had a positive attitude towards reading had a higher

achievement than those who had negative attitude. Mbugua & Kiptui (2009) argue that
51

attitudes of students towards a particular subject have an implication on their academic

achievement.

On attitude of the learner, international discussions have concluded that language

learning is closely related to the attitudes of the learners towards the language. Attitude

has recently received considerable attention from both first and second language

researchers. Learning occurs more easily, when the learner has a positive attitude towards

the language and learning. Haitema (2002) from his study on attitude reveals that there is

a positive relationship between affective characteristics and language achievement.

Attitudes towards learning are believed to influence behaviors such as selecting and

reading books, speaking in that language among others.

A relationship between attitudes and achievement has been shown to exist. The study

reported that there is support for the proposition that attitudes influence achievement,

rather than achievement influencing attitudes. Both negative and positive attitudes have a

strong impact on the success of language learning. In most cases however, these may be

beyond their reach as compared to the alternatives or possibilities available. This is in

line with the considerations of resource limitation and the social settings, which may

finally be perfected, in poor performance of students in national exams.

Teachers should take a little more careful approach when disseminating knowledge in

language. This is so because not all second language students have sufficiently developed

language skills and that this adversely affects their potential for success. Therefore, any

negative attitudes from either teachers or learners will seriously impair performance in

examinations. It is the duty of a fluent and effective teacher to help the students to make
52

choices along their lines of aspirations as well as helping them build positive attitude in

Kiswahili language and to raise the level of quality of their aspirations through good

performance at national examinations.

Therefore, a student may feel comprehension is difficult or easy and behave in such a

way as to show the difficulty or simplicity. For example a student may fail to read

comprehension and fail to complete assignments. This behaviour can be observed and

inferred to as either positive or negative attitude towards teaching and learning of

Kiswahili play.

2.8 Review of Related Studies

Ipara (2003) investigated oral questioning in the pedagogy of Kiswahili grammar in

Bungoma Sub County and found that non response by learners during Kiswahili language

classrooms was due to the fact that learners are denied an opportunity to listen to

language. Although this study mainly focused on oral questioning in the delivery of

Kiswahili grammar rather than the application of listening strategies. The present study

will be based on the fact that the instructional practices in Kiswahili language classrooms

will influence the way the students master the Kiswahili plays.

Makembo (2005) study on teacher-learner perception of listening in secondary schools in

Tharaka Sub County indicated that teacher’s use of listening sub-skills in training

learners in classroom was low. He recommended that teachers and learners of English

language should increase the priority of listening in class. The current study was based on

the school based factors influencing the way the students master the Kiswahili plays.
53

Murunga (2006) studied factors that affect student’s achievement in poetry in Kiswahili,

observed that students develop a negative attitude towards this genre of literature because

of the tendency of teachers of Kiswahili to neglect the use of listening skills in the initial

stages of poetry lessons. This study discloses that not many teachers of Kiswahili give

learners an opportunity listen in the classroom. This gives an insight to the current study

especially in looking at the order in which the four primary Kiswahili language skills

should be used in the classroom. However, the study does not propose various

instructional strategies that may be used by teachers of Kiswahili. However the current

study looked on school based factors influencing teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays.

Underscoring the relationship between content and instructional strategies, Omulando

(2009) conducted a study in Kakamega Central to establish language strategies in the

instruction of English language in secondary schools in Kenya and while seeking to

establish how content being covered determined the nature of language learning

strategies used by learners; no lesson was observed in listening skills. This study differs

from that of Omulando (2009) in the sense that its main concern is the school based

factors influencing the way the students master the Kiswahili plays, but the two studies

are similar in the sense that they are both based on educational theories and language

learning theories.

Though Omulando’s study was concerned with strategies in the instruction of English

language, some of the findings arrived at formed a good basis for this study. Makembo

(2005) & Omulando (2009) investigated listening skills, teacher-learner perception of


54

listening and the relationship between content and instructional strategies in secondary

schools respectively. Ipara (2003) investigated oral questioning in the pedagogy of

Kiswahili grammar. However, none of these studies was concerned with the school based

factors influencing Kiswahili plays.

Most studies have focused on attitudes, classroom interaction, methodology and

instructional materials and how they affect learning. No known study has traced the

influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in

Kiswahili language. It is clear that the attitude of both teachers and learners could affect

the performance of learners. Many of the previous studies have focused on performance

of Kiswahili and not on Kiswahili play which the current study was investigating. Also

these studies were conducted outside Eldoret West sub County with different respondents

which may not have similar conditions.


55

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

This chapter focused on the following areas; the research design, area of study, target

population, sample and sampling procedures, research instruments, piloting, reliability

and validity of the instruments, data collection and analysis procedures and ethical

considerations.

3.2. Research Design

This study adopted descriptive survey research design. It involves gathering of facts or

obtaining pertinent and precise information concerning the current status of phenomenon

and whenever possible draw possible conclusions from the facts discovered. Descriptive

methods are widely used to obtain data useful in evaluating present practices and

providing for decision. A survey research is a self-report study that requires the collection

of quantifiable information from the sample by interviewing or administering

questionnaire to a sample of individuals (Kothari, 2008; Orodho, 2008; Mugenda 2008).

This design was considered appropriate for the study because it facilitated collection of a

wide range of information or data from a large population with different characteristics

and from different geographical background (Orodho 2008). Descriptive survey is a

method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a

sample of individuals. It was used to collect information about peoples’ attitudes,

opinions, habits or any of the variety of education or social issues. Based on the above,

this study was suited for a descriptive survey design because the researcher administered

questionnaires and also interviewed the respondents. The researcher also sought the
56

opinion on the factors influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays and

examined the attitudes of teachers and students towards Kiswahili plays.

3.3. Study Area

The study was conducted in Eldoret West Sub-County in Uasin-Gishu County. The

research problem was to investigate the school-based factors influencing the teaching and

learning of Kiswahili plays. This problem is universal to all secondary schools in the

country. However, since it was not possible for the researcher to visit all secondary

schools in the country, secondary schools was selected from Eldoret West Sub-County as

a representative sample for the study. The findings from the study can be applied to

schools in other counties because the students read the same Kiswahili plays and

encounter similar challenges. The area was chosen to be a representative sample since no

similar study has been carried out in the area.

3.4. Target Population

Population is a complete set of individuals, cases or objects with some common

observable characteristics. The study targeted secondary schools in Eldoret West Sub-

County. According to the statistics from the D.E.O Office (2015) there are sixty-nine (69)

public secondary schools, with a total of three thousand and twenty-two (3,022) form

three students and 156 Kiswahili teachers. The target population was 156 Kiswahili

teachers and 3,022 form three students.

3.5. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure

Sampling is the procedure a researcher uses to gather people, places or things to study. It

is a process of selecting a number of individuals or objects from a population such that


57

the selected group contains elements representative of the characteristics found in the

entire group (Orodho 2008). Gay (2003) recommended that when the target population is

small (less than 1000 members), a minimum sample of 20% is adequate for educational

research. From the 69 public secondary schools in Eldoret West Sub-county, 21 schools

were selected for the study.

The study utilized various sampling techniques. The stratified sampling procedure was

used to categorize the sub county into various zones with each of them forming a stratum.

Stratified sampling technique provided a better comparison across the strata (Saunders et

al., 2007). Stratified random sampling was appropriate since it enabled the researcher to

represent not only the overall population but also key sub-groups of the population. The

schools and respondents were further stratified according to the zones.

Purposive sampling was used to select Kiswahili head of subject and Kiswahili subject

teacher. Since, head of subjects and the teacher were more informed and have a similar

characteristic that is near equal level of education and more homogeneous to be included

as part of the sample. Purposive sampling was used to select two Kiswahili teachers for

the study from each selected school. One of the teachers was the Head of subject (HOS)

and the other was Kiswahili subject teacher, giving a total of 42 teachers for the study.

This study employed simple random sampling procedure to select form three students to

participate in the research. Form three students were chosen because they are reading the

Kiswahili set plays and were in a position to explain the challenges they are facing in the

learning of Kiswahili plays. A total of 594 form three students were selected using simple

random sampling. Simple random sampling was used as a major sampling technique
58

because each respondent had an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. It was

appropriate because the entire population was relatively large, diverse and sparsely

distributed, hence random sampling technique would help to achieve the desired

objective. This technique was appropriate for the study as it is cost effective and efficient

in administration. The sampling technique gave each student in the population an equal

probability of being the sample. The sample size was 18 Kiswahili teachers and 594 form

three students.

Table 3.1 Sampling Frame

Zone No. of school No. of F3 students per zone

Sirikwa 11 120

Kapyemit 5 52

Turbo 6 106

Kiplombe 9 86

Soy 11 120

Sugoi 9 85

Kibulgeny 5 75

Moi’s bridge 7 30

Koisagat 6 20

Total 69 594

Source: D.E.O’s office Eldoret West Sub-County 2015


59

3.6. Research instruments

The study used primary data, collected through direct communication from the respondents

by using questionnaires, interview schedule, observation checklist and document analysis

were used by the researcher to collect data.

3.6.1. Questionnaire for teachers of Kiswahili and Students

A questionnaire is a research tool that gathers data over a large sample (Kombo 2006).

Gay (2003) maintains that questionnaires give respondents freedom to express their views

or opinion and also to make suggestions. The questionnaire was used for data collection

because it offers considerable advantages in the administration. It also presents an even

stimulus potentially to large numbers of people simultaneously and provides the

investigation with an easy accumulation of data. The questionnaires were used to collect

data from the students and Kiswahili teachers. Self-completion questionnaires were

selected because they are cost effective when handling large number of widely spread

respondents especially those who are literate (Leed & Ormrod, 2001).

The questionnaire is the most appropriate research tool as it allows the researcher to

collect information from a large sample with diverse background; the finding remained

confidential, saves time and since they are presented in paper format there is no

opportunity for bias. The questionnaire was developed according to the research

objectives and comprised of five sections: Section one collected the background

information and research objectives. In carrying out this study, the researcher developed

questionnaires of open and close ended type to collect data from the sampled respondents.
60

3.6.2. Interview for Head of Subject

An interview is a conversation in which one person, the interviewer, seeks responses for a

particular purpose from another person, the interviewee. Orodho (2008) postulate that

many people are willing to communicate orally than in writing and they provide data

more readily and fully than on a questionnaire. The interviewer asked questions to the

respondent towards giving data to meet the study objectives. An interview ensured that

answers are reliably aggregated and allow comparisons to be made. The researcher

conducted face to face interviews using structured and unstructured interview with the

purpose of obtaining information from the HOS and the subject teachers.

3.6.3 Observation Guide

Observation guide is a researcher instrument that guides the researcher in gathering data

from key areas through sight. This involves looking at the phenomenon, objects or form

of behavior that are indicated in the instrument from which meaning are extracted or

analyzed. A checklist is a type of informational job aid used to reduce failure by

compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention. It helps to ensure

consistency and completeness in carrying out a task. The data collection was carried out

in the classroom during instructional time by teachers.

The researcher created a consent form which explained objectives of the study, data

collection procedures, privacy information, and requirements of the participants. The

observations of classrooms were conducted in order to observe the nature of assessment,

instruction methods used, instruction materials and teacher preparedness. The

observations were done in a walk-through fashion and the observer spent 15-20 minutes

in each classroom. The teacher participants were informed of the week in which they
61

would be observed, but were not told on which day, nor during which class the

observation would take place. Immediately following each classroom visit, the data was

recorded on the observation checklist. Observation guide assisted the researcher to gather

data on the set plays and also on the availability and use of instructional media to teach

the Kiswahili plays.

3.6.4 Document Analysis

This is a guide the researchers used in collecting data from documented records. In this

study the researcher sought information on teacher preparedness and the methods used in

assessing the Kiswahili plays. Document analysis guide, therefore, helped the researcher

to gather information from the schemes of work, lesson plans record of work covered and

student progress records.

3.7 Reliability and Validity of Research Instrument

Before the actual data was collected, the researcher conducted a pilot study in the

neighbouring Eldoret East Sub County. The pilot study participants were 5 head of

subject, 5 Kiswahili teachers and 30 form three students, giving a total of 40 respondents.

The purpose of the pilot study was to enable the researcher to ascertain the reliability and

validity of the instruments and to familiarize herself with the administration of the

questionnaires. The instrument was revised accordingly after the pilot study, ready to be

administered to the respondents in the main study.

3.7.1 Validity

According to Borg and Gall (2003) content validity of an instrument is improved through

expert judgment. The researcher used expert judgment to assess the validity of the data
62

collection tools. The researcher also sought the assistance from the supervisors,

colleagues and specialist in education to improve validity of the instrument. The expert

opinion in this case was the supervisors who assessed the data collection tools.

To determine content validity of the instrument the researcher sought suggestions from a

panel of lecturers at the school of Education, Moi University. The study also established

the content and face validity to assess the accuracy, meaningfulness, appeal and

appearance of the data collection instruments. To determine the content validity of the

instrument items, the supervisors assisted in ensuring that the instruments are in relation

to the set objectives and content area under study. Their views were used as a basis to

modify the research items and make them adaptable to the study.

3.7.2 Reliability

The instrument is said to be reliable if it consistently yields similar results when re-tested

with similar subjects (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2009; Orodho, 2004). The pilot study

enabled the researcher to assess the clarity of the questionnaire items so that those items

which are inadequate or vague are modified to improve the quality of the research

instrument, thus increasing its reliability. Reliability of data collection tool was its ability

to consistently yield the same results when repeated measurements are taken on the same

individuals under the same conditions.

The instrument was administered in a consistent fashion to enhance reliability of the

measurement instrument. The questionnaires were assessed for their reliability through a

pilot study. Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha was computed for each item to determine the

reliability of the research instrument. A reliability coefficient of 0.708 was assumed to


63

reflect the internal reliability of the instruments (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2000). The

questionnaires deemed reliable after many typographical errors and omissions detected

was corrected in the instrument and were sufficient to be used in the main study. The

questionnaire was refined on the basis of the responses and the items which required

revision was corrected to make them more meaningful before the actual collection of

data.

3.8. Data Collection Procedures

The researcher sought a research permit from the National commission for Science

Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) after the authorization was approved by Moi

University school of Education. The researcher after obtaining the permit sought

permission from the county Director of Education Uasin-Gishu County, who then

informed the Sub County education officer (DEO) Eldoret West Sub-County. After

getting the permission from the DEO the researcher proceeded to the selected schools to

seek permission from the respective principals. To make this exercise efficient, the

researcher left copies of the questionnaire with respondents and agreed on an appropriate

day for collecting the completed research tool, then proceeded with interviews and

observations in the identified schools. This was done to complement with the concurrent

research design that was adopted for use.

3.9. Data Analysis Procedures

The purpose of data analysis is to describe, discuss, evaluate and explain the content and

characteristics of collected information so as to be able to answer the research questions

(Matthews and Ross, 2010). After all the data was collected, it was cleaned; this involved

identification of incomplete or inaccurate responses in the research tools. The cleaned


64

data was collated, coded and entered in the computer for analysis using the Statistical

Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The research results yielded both qualitative and

quantitative data since the study adopted mixed methods approach. Qualitative data was

analyzed using content analysis based on themes emanating from respondent’s

information.

Responses from the Likert scale (questionnaire) were analyzed quantitatively. Finally,

Pearson product moment correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the

independent and dependent variables. Pearson product moment correlation qualified for

use because the instruments were of interval and ratio-scaled variables. Multiple

regression was used to predict the factors influencing the teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays. After analysis, data was presented in tabular form using frequencies and

percentages, pie charts and bar graphs were also used in data presentation.

3.10. Ethical Considerations

The study ensured that an approval to carry out the research was obtained from

NACOSTI and the Uasin Gishu County Education office. The purpose of the study was

exp1ained to the respondents, their informed consent was sought before the

commencement of the study. Names of respondents were not to be revealed in the final

report and this assured them of confidentiality on information they gave. The

participation of respondents was voluntary with no benefits attached. The respondents

were assured of feedback upon request after the study as this aimed at securing

cooperation from them. Together with the mentioned issues, a rapport with the

respondent was established and this facilitated the collection of data.


65

Questionnaire sets and interviews were carried out to allow privacy of the information

and the respondent’s confidentiality. The researcher also maintained confidentiality at all

times. Only those participating in the research knew the identity of the participants. Any

other subject didn’t know the participants because the researcher used codes to represent

the participants. The researcher was open and honest in dealing with other researchers

and research subject.


66

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter gives the data presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered from

the respondents during the study. More specifically, the chapter analyzed the school-

based factors influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in Eldoret West

sub-county, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was designed to answer the

following research objectives; establish the influence of instructional methods used on

teaching Kiswahili plays, investigate the assessment methods used by the teachers to

assess the Kiswahili plays, establish how teacher preparedness influence the teaching of

the Kiswahili plays, find out the effect of instructional resources used in the teaching and

learning of Kiswahili plays and identify the influence of teacher and student attitude on

the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays.

In the presentation, analysis, interpretation and discussion, data was grouped into six

main sections. The first section analyses background information of the respondents. The

second section analyses findings related to instructional methods. The third section

analyses methods used to assess the play. The fourth section analyses data on teacher

preparedness to teach the Kiswahili play. The fifth section sought to determine the type

of instructional resources used to teach the Kiswahili play. The sixth sub section analyses

data on the teacher and student attitude towards the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

play. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and

presented in graphs and tables.


67

The response rate for teachers and head of subject were 85.7% since out of the 42

questionnaires issued only 36 were used in the analysis. The response rate for students

was 78.6% since out of the 594 questionnaires issued only 467 were used in the analysis.

4.2 Background Information of Respondents

This section summarizes the respondents background information sought during the

study. The information includes their status of the school and gender of respondents.

4.2.1 Status of the School

From the study majority of the teachers 24 (66.7%) were from mixed schools, while

6(16.7%) from girls and boys schools as summarized in Table 4.1. Most of the students

236 (50.5%) were drawn from mixed schools, while 108 (23.1%) from boys school and

123 (26.3%) from girls school. These findings showed that the respondents were drawn

from various status of the school.

Table 4.1 Status of the School

Teachers Students

Item Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

Girls 6 16.7 123 26.3

Boys 6 16.7 108 23.1

Mixed 24 66.7 236 50.5

TOTAL 36 100.0 467 100.0


68

4.2.2 Gender of Respondents

From the study the gender of respondents who participated in the study was summarized

in Table 4.2. From the 467 students who participated, 211 (45.2%) of them were male,

while 256 (54.8%) were female. Majority of the teachers involved in the study 28

(77.8%) were female respondents and 8 (22.2%) were male. This indicated that there

were more female teachers teaching Kiswahili in Eldoret West Sub County as well as the

number of girls in form three was higher than that of male.

Table 4.2 Gender of Respondents

Teachers Students

Item Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

Male 8 22.2 211 45.2

Female 28 77.8 256 54.8

TOTAL 36 100.0 467 100.0

4.3 Influence of Instructional Methods used by teachers on the teaching of Kiswahili

plays

The first objective of the study was to identify the influence of instructional methods used

by teachers on the teaching of Kiswahili plays. This was established using descriptive

and inferential statistics. The analyzed data was presented by using frequencies and

percentages. Pearson correlation coefficient was also used to establish the relationship

between instructional methods and teaching of Kiswahili plays.


69

4.3.1 Instructional Methods used to teach Kiswahili Plays

The teachers had various views on the influence of instructional methods used by

teachers on the teaching of Kiswahili plays as is summarized in Table 4.3. From the study

at least 16 (44.4%) of the teachers used lecture methods, 24 (66.7%) used group

discussion, 34(94%) used question and answer, 6(16.7%) used fieldwork and 16(45%)

used drama as method of instruction.

From this data the methods that were popular among the teachers were question and

answer 34 (94%) followed by group discussion 24(66.7%). The two methods are learner

centered and therefore expose the learners more to the set play. From the findings the

methods that were hardly used by teachers to teach the play were lecture 20(55%) and

drama at 18(50%).

Table 4.3 Instructional method teachers use in teaching Kiswahili plays.

Teaching VF F U R VR Total

methods

Lecture 8(22.2%) 8(22.2%) 0(0.0%) 20(55.6%) 0(0.0%) 36(100%)

Group 0(0.0%) 24 (66.7%) 0(0.0%) 6(16.7%) 6(16.7%) 36(100%)

discussion

Question & 12(33.3%) 22(61.1%) 2(5.6%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 36(100%)

Answer

Fieldwork 0(0.0%) 6(16.7%) 14(38.9%) 6(16.7%) 10(27.8%) 36(100%)

Drama 10(27.8%) 6(16.7%) 2(5.6%) 8(22.2%) 10(27.8%) 36(100%)


70

The learner centered methods also stimulate student’s mental ability, they develop

fluency in expression, develop social learning through interaction, develop team spirit,

critical learning and leadership qualities and all these are geared towards good

performance, active student participation and motivation. The findings agree with Mukwa

and Too, (2002), that teacher should use teaching techniques that will encourage

interaction and keep the learner involved in the learning process. The teaching and

learning of Kiswahili play must involve the learners so that they can learn effectively.

Lecture method was rarely used because it is teacher centered and tends to make students

passive during the lesson. Drama was also used rarely because it was time consuming and

requires a lot of preparation. Learners however, preferred that drama be used to teach the

play. This agrees with Petty, (2004) that role-playing can also be useful for teaching

listening. In this activity, learners take on roles and act out a given scenario.

Brainstorming is technique of producing a large number of creative ideas for subsequent

evaluation. This finding concurs with Killen, (2004) that learner centred approach

appeals most since, apart from motivating the learners and teaching them how to learn, it

also has the added advantage of helping them to remember easily what they have learned.

4.3.2 Areas of Kiswahili play students face difficulty

Regarding the areas of Kiswahili plays students face difficulty, the main areas that were

examined were the plot, characterization, setting and atmosphere themes and styles. The

research sought to find out areas where students experienced difficulty as summarized in

table 4.4. From the study 352(75%) of the students were comfortable with the plot and

115(25%) of them had problems with the plot. On the characterization of Kiswahili plays

16% of the students had issues learning and most of them 394(84%) had no difficulty.
71

Table 4.4 Areas of Kiswahili Play

Play type Yes No Total

Plot 115(25%) 352(75%) 467(100%)

Characterization 73(16%) 394(84%) 467(100%)

Setting and Atmosphere 85(18%) 382(82%) 467(100%)

Themes 134(29%) 333(71%) 467(100%)

Styles 152(33%) 315(67%) 467(100%)

On the setting and atmosphere 85(18%) experienced challenges with 382(82%)

understood. However, 134(29%) of students indicated that they didn’t understand themes

and 333(71%) understood. Finally, on the problems of discussing style used 152(33%) of

the students had difficulties, while 315(67%) were comfortable. From the findings, it’s

clear that most of the students did not experience major challenges in the different areas

of the play.

4.3.3 Number of times the students had read the play

The students were requested to identify the number of times that they read the play and

the findings summarized in Figure 4.1. At least 44 (9%) had read once the play,

145(31%) twice, 131(28%) thrice and 149(32%) more than four times. The findings

indicate that majority of the students had read the play once and this could be a

contributing factor for those experiencing challenges on the different areas of the play.
72

Number of times the students had read the play


Series1, Twice, Series1, Once,
143, 31% 44, 9%

More than 4
times
32%

Series1, Thrice,
129, 28%

Figure 4.1 Number of times the students had read the play

4.3.4 Challenges in selecting instructional method

From the study 20 (55.6%) of the teachers did not have any challenges in in selecting the

method to use in teaching Kiswahili plays and 16 (44.4%) of teachers experience

difficulty in choosing a suitable method of instruction as summarized in Figure 4.2.

Challenges in selecting the teaching Kiswahili play

Series1, Yes, 8,
44%
Series1, No, 10,
56%

Figure 4.2 Challenges in selecting the method to use in teaching Kiswahili plays

The challenges established the teacher workload, large lass roll, inadequate teaching

resources’ and financial constraints as the main obstacles. This agrees with Cohen and
73

Heather (2000) that teachers should use different methods to ensure that learners have

grasped the content taught. A good teacher uses several methods of teaching in a single

lesson depending on the teaching/learning situation of a given lesson.

4.3.5 Correlation between Instructional Methods used by Teachers and the

Teaching of Kiswahili plays

The influence of instructional methods used by teachers and the teaching of Kiswahili

plays was investigated using Pearson product moment correlation as summarized in

Table 4.5. This showed that there was a positive relationship between the instructional

methods used by teachers and the teaching of Kiswahili plays [r=.641, n=36, p<.05].

Table 4.5 Correlation between Instructional Methods used by Teachers and the

teaching of Kiswahili plays

Instructional Teaching of
method Kiswahili
plays

Instructional Pearson Correlation 1 .641**


method
Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Teaching of Pearson Correlation .641** 1


Kiswahili plays
Sig. (2-tailed) .000

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

N=36

This finding indicates an increase in instructional methods leads to improved teaching of

Kiswahili plays. Thus the more the teachers adhere to use of learner centered methods the

faster the teaching of Kiswahili plays in secondary schools. This finding agrees with
74

Killen (2004), that teaching methods provide a framework for orderly organization and

presentation of instructional activities.

Learner centred methods of teaching therefore help teachers identify individual abilities

and weaknesses and deals with each appropriately. Berry (2009) that teachers appear to

use teacher-centered methods are more frequently that using learner centered method to

instruct. Kiswahili needs to be taught using the most relevant methods like the learner

centered methods like group discussion, role play and demonstration in order to make it

interesting to the learners.

4.4 Methods used by teachers to assess the Kiswahili play

The second objective of the study was to identify the methods are used by teachers to

assess the Kiswahili play. This was established using descriptive statistics. The analyzed

data was presented by using frequencies and percentages.

4.4.1. Type of Assessment Method

The findings indicated that 154(33%) of the teachers used oral exercises while 313(67%)

used written exercises as summarized in Figure 4.3. The findings show that oral exercises

were used frequently during the lesson by the teachers to gauge student understanding.

Oral exercises offer instant feedback and also enhance the development of oral skills

among the learners. Written exercises were found to be used more often in the form of

assignments, random assessment tests, continuous assessment tests and examinations.

These exercises are useful in examining the application of knowledge and skills and

relating it to real life situation. Essay type of written exercises allows freedom of

response, creativity and improves writing skills and logical organization of ideas.
75

Type of Assessment Method

Series1, Oral
presentation,
33, 33%

Series1,
Written CATs,
67, 67%

Figure 4.3: Type of Assessment Method

The findings agree with Mukwa and Too (2002), that the people who provide money to

run the institutions where learning takes place will be interested in knowing the results of

the learning exercise. Secondly, students, teachers, administrators and parents all work

hard towards achieving educational goals and it is natural that they want to know the

degree to which those goals have been achieved. This finding agrees with Duncan (2007)

that students do not read teacher’s feedback command. Also concurs with Taras, (2003),

that the feedback process is most effective when all protagonists are actively involved in

the process.

4.4.2. Challenges in Selecting Assessment Methods

The findings indicate that 233(49%) of the teachers encounter difficulty in selecting the

method to use to assess their students, while 234(51%) do not have any problem as

shown in Figure 4.4. This implies the some of the teachers experience difficulty in

selecting the method to use to assess students. The challenges teachers experience while
76

selecting assessment method include; student absenteeism, wide syllabus, language

barrier, poor question answering techniques and laxity by some students to complete

exercises given.

Encounter challenges while assessing students

Series1, Series1,
No, 9, Yes, 9,
50% 50%

Figure 4.4 Challenges Eencountered while assessing students

This concurs with Nicole (2008), that the workload for the teacher can be offset by the

reduction of the time needed to give feedback on the final product and by in cooperating

peer feedback into some of the stages. Also agrees with Hattie & Timperly (2007) that

feedback is more effective when it addresses achievable goals and when it does not carry

high threats to self-esteem, when assessing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili Plays.

4.4.3. Students performance in Kiswahili plays

The teachers were requested to rate their students’ performance rating in Kiswahili plays.

At least 6(16.7%) of the students performed very well, with 14(38.9%) performing well

and 16(44.4. %) had an average performance as shown in Figure 4.5. From the findings it

was established that the performance of Kiswahili plays in most school was fairly good.
77

Students performance in Kiswahili Plays Series1,


Series1, Average, 16
Good, 14
Frequency

Series1, Very
Good, 6

Performance

Figure 4.5 Student’s performance rating in Kiswahili plays

4.5 Influence of Teacher Preparedness on the teaching of Kiswahili plays

The third objective of the study was to identify the influence of teacher preparedness in

the teaching of Kiswahili plays. This was established using descriptive and inferential

statistics. The analyzed data was presented by using frequencies and percentages. Pearson

correlation coefficient was also used to establish the relationship between teacher

preparedness and teaching of Kiswahili plays.

4.5.1 Highest level of professional qualification

The findings in Table 4.6 highlight the highest level of professional qualification of the

teachers involved in the study. Majority 28 (77.8%) of the respondents were bachelor’s

degree holders and 4 (11%) had diploma and masters of Education. This indicated that

most of the Kiswahili teachers had the highest level of professional qualification required

for teaching of plays.


78

Table 4.6 Highest Level of Qualification

Item Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

Diploma 4 11.1 11.1

Degree 28 77.8 88.9

Masters 4 11.1 100.0

Total 36 100.0

The findings indicated that 100% of the teachers had undergone training at different

levels. Bearing this in mind that all the teachers have undergone professional training

then it’s equally expected that the students will portray enhanced performance in

Kiswahili plays. It is therefore important to note that professional qualification makes a

teacher to be more conversant with the scope and nature of content of the subject. The

data reveals that majority of the teachers had a bachelor’s degree. The teacher’s

professional qualification influences their teaching of Kiswahili plays. This agrees with

Singh et al., (2008) that teacher should possess knowledge of the fundamentals of the

subject he/she teaches. Teachers should have a sound academic and cultural background.

4.5.2 Teaching experience

Table 4.7 presents the teaching experiences of the teachers teaching Kiswahili. Majority

of the teachers 30 (83%) had taught Kiswahili for less than five years, with 2(5.6%) for

between 6 and10 years and only 4(11.1%( had taught for between 16 and 20 years. This

indicated that most of the Kiswahili teachers have taught Kiswahili for less than 5 years

and had the required experience in teaching plays.


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Table 4.7 Teaching Experience

Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

1- 5 years 30 83.3 83.3

6 - 10 years 2 5.6 88.9

16 – 20 years 4 11.1 100.0

Total 36 100.0

The Kiswahili teachers were experience enough to teach plays among the secondary

school students. This agrees with Mutoro (2001) that teacher experience determines

competence and efficiency. This concurs with Taylor and Richards in Barasa (2005) that

skill and experience of the teacher’ is the pivot of the process of the curriculum. The

teaching experience is an important basis for further professional development of a

teacher since teachers widely draw from their experience to improve their effectiveness

and to counter problems facing them in their teaching.

4.5.3 Teachers’ Attend In-service Courses

The teachers were further asked if they have attended in-service courses and the findings

are summarized in Figure 4.6. Few 12(33%) of the teachers had been in-serviced and

majority 24(67%) of them had not been in serviced on Kiswahili plays. The findings

show that majority of the teachers have not attended in-service training and therefore

there is need for teachers to attend in-service courses. In-service courses help acquaint the

practising teacher with latest innovations in the curriculum. This enables the teacher to
80

cope with new demands in his/her area of specialization as well as new approaches and

methodology intended to enhance teaching and learning.

Attended Kiswahili plays in-service course


Series1, Yes,
6, 33%

Series1, No,
12, 67%

Figure 4.6 Attended Kiswahili plays in-service course

The findings agree with Buchler (2003) that in-service courses are very important and

useful to the teacher and the practice should reflect upon all skills and training they

receive. In-service training equips teaches with knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for

implementation of any educational programme which includes sensitizing them on any

changes in the curriculum. It is through the in-service training that teachers get the

opportunity to advance their knowledge on their areas of specialization.

4.3.5 Correlation between Teacher preparedness and the teaching of Kiswahili plays

The influence of teacher preparedness on the teaching of Kiswahili plays was

investigated using Pearson product moment correlation as summarized in Table 4.8. This

showed that there was a positive relationship between the teacher preparedness on

teaching of Kiswahili plays [r=.710, n=36, p<.05]. This indicated that the more the

teacher was prepared the higher the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays. Thus the
81

more the teachers are prepared the faster the teaching of Kiswahili plays in secondary

schools.

Table 4.8 Correlation between Teacher preparedness and the teaching of Kiswahili

plays

Teacher Teaching of
preparedness Kiswahili plays

Teacher Pearson Correlation 1 .710**


preparedness
Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Teaching of Pearson Correlation .710** 1


Kiswahili plays
Sig. (2-tailed) .000

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

N=36

The findings agree with Muhammad and Rashid (2011) demonstrate that academic

qualification, professional qualification, refresher courses or trainings and teacher

experience are the most important qualities of a teacher. The qualities like academic

qualification and knowledge of the subject matter, competencies, skills, and the

commitment of a teacher have an impact on teaching and learning process. The

continuous teacher training makes the teacher receptive and flexible in the

implementation of the curriculum.

This agree with Garet et al., (2001) that professional development activities that have

significant positive effects on teachers` self-reported increases in knowledge and skills


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and changes in classroom practice include focus on content knowledge, coherence with

other learning activities and opportunities for active learning. The findings agree with

Kenya Institute of Education (KIE, 2007), that teachers should be able to put into

consideration the syllabus content given the specific subject objectives. In-servicing of

teachers is continuously updating teachers with skills to promote efficiency in

performance. The education of the teacher does not end in the pre-service training but has

to be continuous even after the teacher graduates and enters into the teaching service

(Chemutai, 2010).

4.6 Influence of Instructional Resources on the teaching of Kiswahili plays

The fourth objective of the study was to establish the influence of instructional resources

on the teaching of Kiswahili plays. This was established using descriptive and inferential

statistics. The analyzed data was presented by using frequencies and percentages. Pearson

correlation coefficient was also used to establish the relationship between instructional

resources and teaching of Kiswahili plays.

4.6.1. Type of Instructional Media Used

The teachers used various instructional media to teach plays as summarized in Table 4.9.

The findings indicated that 18(50%) of the teachers used video recorded to teach play,

with 6(16.7%) took their students to watch live performance of the play by various

groups as well as audio tapes and projectors. Two 4(11.1 %) of the teachers used the

chalkboard/pictorials while the remaining 1(5.6%) did not use any form of instructional

media. From these findings most teachers preferred the use of videos because it’s readily

available and easy to use. On the other hand students preferred the use of live
83

performance because they claimed they could interact with the actors also they

understood the play better.

Table 4.9 Type of instructional media used to teach plays

Instructional media Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

N/a or None 2 5.6 5.6

Videos 18 50.0 55.6

Live performance 6 16.7 72.2

Audio tapes- no projectors 6 16.7 88.9

Chalkboard/pictorials 4 11.1 100.0

Total 36 100.0

A live performance is also captivating and breaks the class room monotony. The use of

instructional media is a matter that has long been recognized by educationist as one of the

most important correlates of school achievement. For effective teaching and learning to

occur, various resources are required.

4.6.2 Students watch live presentations of Kiswahili set plays

Figure 4.7 showed the rating of students watching live performance of the Kiswahili

plays. 83% of the teachers take their students to watch the plays while 17% do not take

their learners.
84

Series1, No, 17,


Students watch live presentations of Kiswahili set plays
17%

Series1, Yes, 83,


83%

Figure 4.7 Students watch live presentations of Kiswahili set plays

4.6.3 Number of times students watch the live presentations per year

The teachers were requested to identify how many times the students watch live

performance per year (Table 4.10). At least 12(33%) of the teachers given their students

to attend live shows twice per year, while 24(66%) attend the performance trice yearly.
85

Table 4.10 Number of times students watch the live presentations per year

Times per year Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

Twice 12 33.3 33.3

Thrice 24 66.7 100.0

Total 36 100.0

4.6.4 Teachers support students watching Kiswahili plays

Most of the teacher’s supports their students desire to watch live performance 32(88.9%)

do not support live shows while 4(11.1%) feel that this shows do not add value to their

students as shown in table 4.11.

Table 4.11 Teachers support students watching Kiswahili plays

Response Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

Yes 32 88.9 88.9

No 4 11.1 100.0

Total 36 100.0

4.6.5 Factors influencing teachers in using instructional media

The teachers were requested to identify factors that influence the use of instructional

resources. However, 14(38.9%) of the teachers are influenced by the time available. A

lesson of 40 minutes is not sufficient to undertake use of different instructional resources.

Also 10(27.8%) of the teachers identified the availability of resources, influence the use

of instructional media. Some schools do not have electricity and also insufficient funds to

purchase the required facilities. At least 8(22.2%) of the teachers had difficult with large
86

classes which become a limiting factor in the use of media and 2(5.6%) pointed on the

suitability of the resources.

Figure 4.8 Factors influencing teachers usage of instructional media

From the findings time was the major constrain limiting the use of instructional media.

The use of instructional resources is of great importance in the teaching and learning of

Kiswahili play; because it arouses students’ interest, engages learners into active mental

exercises and makes them to concentrate and participate. The use of instruction resources

makes the teachers work to be easy and also promotes effective teaching and learning of

the play. Lack of these resources limits students’ activity and participation thus rendering

them passive.

4.3.5 Correlation between Instructional Resources and the Teaching of Kiswahili

plays

The influence of instructional resources on the teaching of Kiswahili plays was

investigated using Pearson product moment correlation as summarized in Table 4.12.


87

This showed that there was a positive influence of instructional resources on the teaching

of Kiswahili plays [r=.509, n=36, p<.05]. This indicated an increase on the use of

relevant instructional resources the faster the teaching of Kiswahili plays. Thus the more

the teachers adhere to use of learner centered methods the faster the teaching of Kiswahili

plays in secondary schools.

Table 4.12 Correlation between Instructional Resources and the Teaching of

Kiswahili plays

Instructional Teaching of
resources Kiswahili plays
Instructional Pearson Correlation 1 .509**
resources Sig. (2-tailed) .000
Teaching of Pearson Correlation .509** 1
Kiswahili plays Sig. (2-tailed) .000
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

N=36

This means that the instructional resources selected influence the teaching and learning of

Kiswahili plays. Teachers should try to incorporate instructional resources in their lessons

to motivate the learners and make them active participants.

4.7 Teachers and students’ Attitude on the Teaching and Learning of Kiswahili

plays

The fifth objective of the study was to establish the influence of attitude of teachers and

learners on the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays. This was established using

descriptive and inferential statistics. The analyzed data was presented by using
88

frequencies and percentages. Pearson correlation coefficient was also used to establish

the effect of teachers and learners attitude on the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays.

4.7.1 Perception of Teachers Regarding the Teaching of Kiswahili plays

The perception of teachers on the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays was sought as

summarized in Table 4.13. All the teachers 36(100%) agreed that they enjoyed Kiswahili

lessons, literature lessons, reading and teaching of Kiswahili plays. However, 28(77.8%)

of the teachers felt that the time allocated the play was insufficient and were requesting

that Kiswahili be allocated more. The least 12(33.3%) of the teachers did not have any

difficulty assessing the play, while most of them 24(66.7%) had challenges. Also

14(38.9%) of the teachers used instructional media without any problem while majority

22(61.1%) encountered obstacles. Most of the teachers 26(72.3%) disagreed with the

statement that the preferred the play to the other genre.

Majority 32(88.9%) of the teachers pointed that their students enjoyed learning the

Kiswahili play. The least 10(27.8%) of the teachers agreed that the performance of the

play was better than the other genre, while majority of them 24(66.7%) disagreed with

the statement. From the findings, the ratings for statements regarding the play by most of

the teachers were positive in regard of the Kiswahili plays. This therefore means that

teachers of Kiswahili play had a positive attitude towards the play and enjoyed the

teaching and learning process.


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Table 4.13: Perception of Teachers regarding the Teaching and Learning of

Kiswahili plays

Statement SA A UD D SD
I enjoy Kiswahili lessons 34(94.4%) 2(5.6%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
I enjoy Kiswahili literature 28(77.8%) 8(22.2%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
lessons
I enjoy reading Kiswahili 12(33.3%) 24(66.7%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
plays
Teaching Kiswahili plays is 10(27.8%) 26(72.2%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
interesting
The time allocated to teach 10(27.8%) 18(50.0%) 0(0.0%) 2(5.6%) 6(16.7%)
Kiswahili plays is enough
Assessing Kiswahili plays is 12(33.3%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 6(16.7%) 16(50.0%)
easy
The instructional media for 14(38.9%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 6(16.7%) 16(44.4%)
teaching Kiswahili plays are
readily available
I prefer teaching Kiswahili 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 10(27.8%) 20(55.6%) 6(16.7%)
plays than the other genre of
Kiswahili literature
My Students enjoy learning 6(16.7%) 26(72.2%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 4(11.1%)
Kiswahili plays
The performance of 10(27.8%) 0(0.0%) 2(5.6%) 0(0.0%) 24(66.7%)
Kiswahili plays is better
compared to other genre of
Kiswahili literature

The findings agree with Haitema (2002) that there is a positive relationship between

affective characteristics and language achievement. Both negative and positive attitudes
90

have a strong impact on the success of language learning. Therefore, any negative

attitudes from either teachers or learners will seriously impair performance in

examinations. It is the duty of a fluent and effective teacher to help the students to make

choices along their lines of aspirations as well as helping them build positive attitude in

Kiswahili language and to raise the level of quality of their aspirations through good

performance at national examinations.

4.7.2 Perception of Learners Regarding the Kiswahili play

The researcher sought to find out the attitude of learners towards Kiswahili using a likert

scale to measure the degree of their feelings in different statements. The findings are

presented here below. Attitude is an important aspect in learning. It can hinder or enhance

the learning of a particular subject. The students’ attitude towards the play learning of

Kiswahili plays was sought as summarized in Table 4.14. Majority 453(97%) of the

learners’ enjoyed Kiswahili lessons, with 444(95%) of them enjoying learning of

Kiswahili literature, 434(93%) of the students enjoyed reading the Kiswahili play and

444(95%) agreed that learning Kiswahili play was interesting.

Majority of the students 434(93%) agreed that watching live presentation of Kiswahili

plays promotes understanding and 9(2%) disagreed and 70(15%) undecided. Most of the

students 317(68%) agreed that Kiswahili plays should be dramatized in class, with

70(15%) undecided and 79(17%) disagreed. Also 313(67%) of the students agreed that

the vocabulary used in the set play was understandable, with 103(22%) disagreed and

51(11%) undecided. However 262(56%) of the students prefer learning Kiswahili plays

than the other genre (riwaya, hadithi fupi, ushairi na fasihi simulizi) of Kiswahili

literature and 163(35%) disagreed and only 47(10%) were undecided.


91

At least 290(62%) of the students agreed that they perform better in Kiswahili plays than

other genre of Kiswahili literature and 131(28%) disagreed. Finally, majority of the

students 444(95%) agreed that they were reading Kiswahili play several times to help

understand the play better and 13(3%) disagreed and 8(2%) were undecided. From the

above findings it’s clear that the students like the play and enjoyed the lesson. With the

positive sentiments the teachers were motivated to teach them and this immensely

contributed on the fair performance depicted on the play.

Table 4.14 Attitude of Students

Statement SA A UD D SD
I enjoy Kiswahili lessons 303 150 3 3 8
(65%) (32%) (1%) (1%) (2%)
I enjoy Kiswahili literature 260 184 9 6 8
(56%) (39%) (2%) (1%) (2%)
I enjoy reading Kiswahili plays 277 161 13 8 8
(59%) (34%) (3%) (2%) (2%)
Learning Kiswahili plays is 286 157 16 5 4
interesting (61%) (34%) (3%) (1%) (1%)
Watching live presentation of 345 91 20 7 4
Kiswahili plays promotes (74%) (19%) (4%) (1%) (1%)
understanding
Kiswahili plays should be dramatized 159 157 70 53 28
in class (34%) (34%) (15%) (11%) (6%)
The vocabulary used in the set play is 116 196 52 75 28
understandable (25%) (42%) (11%) (16%) (6%)
I prefer learning Kiswahili plays than 120 138 45(10%) 102 62
the other genre (riwaya, hadithi fupi, (26%) (30%) (22%) (13%)
ushairi na fasihi simulizi) of
Kiswahili literature
I perform better in Kiswahili plays 146 147 47 87 40
than other genre of Kiswahili (31%) (31%) (10%) (19%) (9%)
literature
Reading the Kiswahili play several 367 77 8 11 3
times helps to understand the play (79%) (16%) (2%) (2%) (1%)
better
92

This agrees with Meenakshi (2008) that an individuals’ perception of the class teacher,

peer group, syllabus and his/her awareness for future needs affect his/her attitude to

language learning. Those students who had a positive attitude towards reading had a

higher achievement than those who had negative attitude. This concurs with Mbugua and

Kiptui (2009) that attitudes of students towards a particular subject have an implication

on their academic achievement. The findings are in line with Kinnaird (2010) who

established that attitude has an impact on academic performance of high school students

receiving instructions.

4.7.3 Correlation between Teacher’s Attitude and the Teaching of Kiswahili plays

The influence of attitude of teachers on the teaching of Kiswahili plays was investigated

using Pearson product moment correlation as summarized in Table 4.15. There was a

positive relationship between the attitude and the teaching of Kiswahili plays [r=.461,

n=36, p<.05]. This indicates that the more the teachers develop positive attitude the faster

the teaching of Kiswahili plays. This agrees Ndegwa (2005) that teachers' attitudes

influence their choice and use of teaching approaches. Teacher's attitudes affect the way

the teachers handled children.


93

Table 4.15 Correlation between Teacher’s Attitude and the Teaching of Kiswahili

plays

Teacher’s Teaching of
attitude Kiswahili plays

Teacher’s Pearson Correlation 1 .461**


attitude
Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Teaching of Pearson Correlation .461** 1


Kiswahili plays
Sig. (2-tailed) .000

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

N=36

The Ministry of Education through (KICD), Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development

should organize for regular in-service courses for teachers to update them on how

innovations and developments in the curriculum and instructional methods. The students

identify that the teachers should be prepared well during training and they should be

trained on show best to teach the play. The Government should employ more teachers so

as to reduce the workload of the teachers in the field.

The Ministry of Education should have policies to regulate the production of guide

books. Some guidebooks in the market are not recommended and are not suitable for use.

The Ministry of Education to find ways of assisting schools to purchase the set books so

that the student book ratio 1:1. Set plays should be availed by the schools or the Ministry

of Education or the government to subsidies the cost of the set books so that all the
94

students can have a copy. The ministry should give the titles of examinable set book

early, to allow students start reading the play in form two.

Teachers should improve their teaching methodology by using heuristic instructional

methods. The Ministry of Education should allocate Kiswahili more lessons from six to

eight. This will give ample time for teachers to cover the syllabus. The ministry of

education should allocate more time for teaching Kiswahili so that students get enough

time for the play.

4.8 Influence of school based factors on the Teaching of Kiswahili plays

Multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between one

continuous dependent variable and a number of independent variables or predictors. A

Multiple linear regression model was used to predict the influence of school based factors

on the teaching of Kiswahili plays in secondary schools in Eldoret West Sub County. The

prediction was carried out basing on the effect of the four independent variables (teaching

method, teacher preparedness, instructional resource and teacher’s attitude).

R2 represents the values of multiple correlation coefficients between the predictors used

in the model and teaching of Kiswahili plays. All the predictors used in the model

represent only a simple correlation between the predictors and teaching of Kiswahili

plays. The R2 represented the measure of variability in teaching of Kiswahili plays that is

accounted for by the predictors (independent variables). From the model, (R 2 = .756)

showing that all the predictors account for 75.6% variation in teaching of Kiswahili

plays in secondary schools in Eldoret West Sub County (Table 4.16).


95

Table 4.16 Model Summary on Teaching of Kiswahili plays

Model R R Adjusted Std. Error Change Statistics

Square R Square of the R Square F df1 df2 Sig. F

Estimate Change Change Change

1 .869a .756 .715 .1988 .756 18.543 4 24 .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), Method, resource, preparedness and Attitude

b. Dependent Variable: Teaching of Kiswahili plays

Therefore, the predictors used in the model have captured the variation in the teaching of

Kiswahili plays. The value of adjusted R2 was .715, showing that the prediction of

teaching of Kiswahili plays account for approximately 71.5% less variance. The change

statistics were used to test whether the change in adjusted R 2 is significant using the F

ratio. The model caused adjusted R2 to change from zero to .756 and this change gave

rise to an F ratio of 18.54, which is significant at a probability of .05.

4.8.1 Analysis of Variance on Teaching of Kiswahili plays

The analysis of variance was used to test whether the model could significantly fit in

predicting the outcome than using the mean as shown in (Table 4.17). The F- ratio

represents the ratio of improvement in prediction that results from fitting the model,

relative to the inaccuracy that exists in the model. The F- ratio was 18.54 which is likely

to happen by chance and was significant (P<.05). The model significantly improved the

ability to predict the teaching of Kiswahili plays. Thus, the model was significant leading
96

to rejection of the null hypotheses. This represented the effect size of the regression

model and was significant with a p-value of 0.000.

Table 4.17 Analysis of variance on teaching of Kiswahili plays

Model Sum of df Mean F Sig.

Squares Square

1 Regression 2.934 4 .733 18.543 .000b

Residual .949 24 .040

Total 3.883 28

a. Dependent Variable: Teaching of Kiswahili plays

b. Predictors: (Constant), Healthy, Community, Inclusiveness, Safety

4.8.2 Coefficients of Teaching of Kiswahili plays

The β value explains about the relationship between teaching of Kiswahili plays and each

predictor. The positive β values indicate the positive relationship that exists between the

predictors and the outcome. The t test was used as a measure to identify whether the

predictors were making a significant contribution to the model. When the t-test associated

with β-values is significant and the predictor is making a significant contribution to the

model. The smaller the value of significance (the larger the value of t) that is the greater

is the contributor of that predictor.

Table 4.18 shows the estimates of β values and gives an individual contribution of each

predictor to the model. The β value for teaching method, teacher preparedness, teaching

resources and teacher’s attitude had a positive coefficient as summarized in the model as:

Teaching of Kiswahili plays = .126+.272Tm+.311Tp+.215TR+.152TA+α...Equation 4.0


97

Where:

Tm= Teaching Method

Tp= Teacher preparedness

Tr= Teaching resource

Ta=Teacher attitude

α = error term

Table 4.18 Coefficients on teaching of Kiswahili plays

Model Un Standardized t Sig. Correlations Collinearity


standardized Coefficients Statistics
Coefficients
B Std. Beta Zero- Partial Part Toler VIF
Error order ance
1 (Constant) .126 .413 .304 .763
Teaching .272 .059 .479 4.643 .000 .472 .688 .469 .956 1.046
method
Preparedness .311 .072 .442 4.331 .000 .462 .662 .437 .978 1.023
Resources .215 .071 .358 3.024 .006 .527 .525 .305 .725 1.380
Attitude .152 .070 .258 2.171 .040 .526 .405 .219 .719 1.390
a. Dependent Variable: Teaching of Kiswahili plays

In addition, the β coefficients for each independent variable generated from the model

was subjected to a t-test, in order to test each of the hypotheses under study. The

regression results in table 4.23 showed each of the predicted parameters in relation to the

independent factors were significant. The teaching method β1= 0.272 (p < 0.05) which
98

implies that we reject the null hypothesis stating that there is no significant relationship

between teaching method and teaching of Kiswahili plays. This indicates that for each

use of the required learner centered teaching method there was 0.397 increases in

teaching of Kiswahili plays.

The findings also showed that teacher preparedness β2 = 0.311 (p < 0.05) which

indicates that we reject the null hypothesis stating that there is no significant relationship

between teacher preparedness and teaching of Kiswahili plays. This implies that the

more the teacher was prepared, there was 0.311 increases in teaching of Kiswahili plays.

The same sentiments were echoed by Muhammad and Rashid (2011) that academic

qualification, professional qualification, refresher courses or trainings and teacher

experience were the most important qualities of a teacher.

The value of teaching resource β3 = 0.215 (p < 0.05) which implies that we reject the

null hypothesis stating that there is no significant relationship between teaching resource

and teaching of Kiswahili plays. This indicates that the more the teachers used the

recommended resources the faster the students are able to understand the Kiswahili

plays. There was up to 0.215 more increase in teaching of Kiswahili plays. The findings

concur with Mokamba (2015) that there is an outcry from teachers on lack of basic

resources like textbooks in schools which affects proper implementation of the

curriculum.

The teacher attitude variable β3 = 0.152 (p < 0.05) which implies that we reject the null

hypothesis stating that there is no significant relationship between teacher attitude and

teaching of Kiswahili plays. This indicates that for each increase in teacher attitude,
99

there is up to 0.152 units increase in teaching of Kiswahili plays among students. This

findings in line with Meenakshi (2008) who argues that individual perceptions of the

class teacher, peer groups, syllabus and his/her awareness for future needs affect his/her

attitude to language learning. The findings correlate to those of Meenakshi (2008), who

found that an individuals’ perception of the class teacher, peer group, syllabus and

his/her awareness for future needs affect his/her attitude to language learning.
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CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter gives a summary of the study, draws conclusions and makes

recommendations for the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the school-

based factors influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in Eldoret West

sub-county, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was designed to answer the

following research objectives; establish the influence of instructional methods used on

teaching Kiswahili plays, investigate the assessment methods used by the teachers to

assess the Kiswahili plays, establish how teacher preparedness influence the teaching of

the Kiswahili plays, find out the effect of instructional resources used in the teaching and

learning of Kiswahili plays and identify the influence of teacher and student attitude on

the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays.

5.2 Summary of the Findings

The major purpose of this study was to investigate school-based factors influencing the

teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in Eldoret-west Sub-county. The summary of

the findings was based on the research objectives investigated. Reponses from the

questionnaires, interview schedules and observation checklist were used to get a wide

range of views from the teachers and learners during the study.

5.2.1. Instructional Methods used

The findings from the study indicated that group discussion and question and answer

were the most preferred for teaching the play. Most of the learners preferred these

methods because they are student centered and therefore exposes the students more to the
101

play. Teacher centered method like lecture were rarely used by the teachers. On the

rating of these methods of instruction, group discussion was rated ass the most popular

method as compared to the other methods. Group discussion was rated as the most

popular compared to other methods. Group discussion was preferred because through

discussion a group of learns together and present important information, make

suggestions, share responsibilities, show interest, respect the opinion and ideas of others,

comprehend the topic, evaluate the findings and summarizes the results.

The other method that was also popular was question and answer. This method was used

often because through question and answer the teacher can probe the students and find

out areas of difficulty. This method also encourages students to find a link between ideas

and help them make inferences. The method that was hardly used to teach the play is

lecture.

The teachers refrained from using this method because it makes the learner a passive

agent in the learning process and denies him/her the opportunity to learn. Lecture is

highly vulnerable to monotony unless a teacher has exceptional abilities to stimulate and

sustain the interest of the students continuously; it also does not guarantee that learners

will understand the contents of the lecture. From the study, there is need for more student

centered methods like role play, drama and debates. Use of heuristic method will train

learners to discover facts, principles and laws, to systemize knowledge learnt and to

arrive at generalizations, all through self-efforts.


102

5.2.2. Assessment Methods

Assessment is crucial after every teaching and the method use will enable them teacher

get the feedback. The findings from this study showed that few teachers use oral than and

written exercise. Oral exercises were used during the lesson and written exercises were

used to gauge the students’ continuously. Teachers gave students random assessment

tests, (R.A.TS) continuous assessment tests (C.A.TS) and end of term examinations.

In all the sampled schools there were compulsory CATS and end of term examinations

which were administered either monthly, mid-term, termly or yearly. The exercise were

mostly written essays, they were commonly preferred by the teachers because they

examine application of knowledge and skills and also allows freedom of response and

creativity. It also allows freedom of response and creativity. It also gives learner to relate

what was learnt in the text to the real-life situation.

From the findings it was established that some of the teachers encountered challenges in

assessing their students while others had no difficulty. The greatest challenge for most of

the teachers was absenteeism by their learners. This made it difficult to assess them. The

students who were assessed scored average scores. The general purpose of evaluation and

assessment is to assist in decision making in terms of administrative, guidance and

instructional purposes.

5.2.3. Teacher Preparedness

The findings of the study indicate that all the teachers had undergone training at college

level. Majority of the teachers had an undergraduate degree. This implies that the teacher
103

had been prepared to handle the play. Most of the teachers were trained and are

competent in their work and expect to achieve effective teaching and learning of the play.

Majority of the teachers had not been in-serviced to teach Kiswahili plays. Only a few of

the teachers of the teachers had undergone an in-service course in the Kiswahili play. In-

service course help acquaint the practicing teacher with the latest innovations in the area

of specialization in the curriculum. There was need to organize frequent seminars,

workshops and in-service courses for teachers of Kiswahili.

5.2.4. Instructional Resource

The study found out that the most available instructional media was print media, the set

play (Mstahiki Meya) and the guide books of the play from different authors were

available in all schools. Schools with enough textbooks had better performance than

those whose textbook ratio was high. Where the ratio was 1:1, the students performed

fairly well because each student had a copy of the set book and this enabled the learner to

read the book several times; as compared to where the ratio was ratio was 1:3. In such a

case, the students have a difficulty in reading the play several times and also in

completing assignment given by their respective teachers. It’s therefore important that

schools should strive to have a ratio of 1:1 for effective teaching and learning of the play.

5.2.5. Attitude of Teachers and Students

The teachers and students had positive attitude towards the Kiswahili play. Most of the

students enjoyed Kiswahili lessons and reading the Kiswahili play. The findings of this

study show that the learners had positive attitude towards the play and therefore it’s a

string indicator that they can do well in the genre. The findings therefore demonstrate that
104

the teachers and learners of Kiswahili play have a positive attitude and bearing this in

mind we expect to get good performance in Kiswahili plays.

5.3. Conclusion

The type of instructional methods mainly used to teach the play includes group

discussion and question and answer. Learner centered teaching method was used and

encourage learners to interact with the play.

The assessment methods used are mostly written tests which include assignments,

random assessment tests, continuous assessment tests and end of term and year

examinations. Oral exercises are mostly used during the teaching lesson.

The type of instructional media that were mainly used was print media, guide books,

reference books and revision material. Audio visual that was used include video DVD set

plays. The use of instructional resources was inadequate for effective teaching and

learning of the play.

The teacher of Kiswahili need to attend more in-service training like seminars,

workshops and other in-service courses so as acquaint themselves with the latest

knowledge and skills. This training will also help in improving their teaching

methodology and expose them to new instructional media.

The learners and teachers had a positive attitude towards the play. The stakeholders in the

ministry of Education should equip the teachers because they also have a positive attitude

for effective teaching of the play.


105

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

i. The teachers should strive to use more learner-centered methods of teaching like

debates and drama. Teachers should also allow their students to watch live

presentation of the set play at least twice in a year, because most students

suggested that watching once was not enough.

ii. Teachers should asses their students regularly. Regular exercises keep the learners

on their toes as they will keep revising their work. The teachers should also revise

all the exercises given to students so as to correct areas of weakness.

iii. Schools should strive to have 1:1 book ratio. This can be achieved if the schools

through the government can supplement the parents in purchasing the set books.

The government can also subsidize the cost of set and their respective guidebooks

and revision materials. Schools also to facilitate the purchase of instructional

resource for the teachers so that teaching and learning process can become more

effective.

iv. The study reveals that majority of the teachers have not attended in-service

courses. This being the case, there is need for all the stakeholders in the ministry

of Education to provide forums where teachers can meet and discuss new

strategies and techniques in teaching. Through in-service courses teachers can

also be updated on the requirements by the Kenya National Examinations

Council.
106

v. The teachers and students had positive attitude towards Kiswahili plays.

Therefore, schools should embrace the students and teachers positive attitude in

enhancing the performance of Kiswahili.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research

There is need to replicate the study using other research designs. This would determine

the power of each factor in influencing the teaching and learning of the Kiswahili plays.

Research should be undertaken on the effectiveness of live performances of the set plays

on the students’ performance. Further research is recommended to assess the

effectiveness of drama as a method of teaching the Kiswahili play.


107

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115

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: CONSENT LETTER

Cherono Magdalene Maritim,

Moi University,

P.O Box 3900,

Eldoret.

Dear Respondent,

I am a Post Graduate Student in the school of Education, Subject of Curriculum

Instruction and Education Media. I am currently conducting a study on the factors

affecting the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays in sub county schools in Eldoret

West Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County.

I kindly ask for your consent. I promise that the information provided will be treated with

total confidentiality and will only be used for academic purposes. Please don’t indicate

your name in the questionnaire booklet.

Thanks for your acceptance

Regards

Cherono Magdalene Maritim

Moi University
116

APPENDIX B: Questionnaire for Teachers of Kiswahili Plays

I am a student undertaking a Masters of Philosophy degree in Education at Moi

University. In order to complete this program, I am required to carry out a research and

present a Thesis on “The Influence of school based factors in The teaching and

learning of Kiswahili Plays in Eldoret West Sub County”. Your school is one of those

included in the study. This research is purely for academic purposes and the information

you give will be treated with confidentiality. Do not indicate your name anywhere on this

questionnaire. I kindly request you to participate in my study. Please tick (√) or fill in the

blanks and respond to all items.

SECTION 1

Background Information

1. Name of the school _______________________________

2. Status of the school Girls Boys Mixed

3. Gender

Male Female

4. Academic qualification

a) Diploma
117

b) Degree

c) Masters

d) PhD

5. Teaching experience

a) 1 – 5 years

b) 6- 10 years

c) 11 – 15 years

d) 16 – 20 years

e) More than 20 years


118

SECTION II

i. Which instructional method do you commonly use in teaching Kiswahili plays?

Teaching Very Frequ Undecided Rarely Very

Methods Frequently ently Rarely

a Lecture

b Group discussion

c Question &

answer

d Fieldwork

e Drama

f Others

ii. Do you take your students to watch the live presentations of Kiswahili set plays?

Yes No

If yes, how many times per year?

Once Twice Thrice


119

iii. Do you support the watching of Kiswahili set plays live presentation?

Yes No

Explain___________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

iv. Are there any challenges in selecting the method to use in teaching Kiswahili

plays

Yes No

Explain___________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

2. Which methods do you use to assess your students?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
120

ii. Do you encounter any challenges while assessing your students? If any, state them

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How can you rate the performance of your students in Kiswahili plays?

Very Good Good Average Poor Very Poor

3. Have you ever been in serviced to teach Kiswahili plays?

Yes No

ii) If yes, was the training of any value to your teaching?

Explain:-

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

iii) If no, what are the reasons?

a. Funds are not available

b.The ministry has not organized any

c. Lack of interest
121

d.No time to attend the course

e. The school does not facilitate

f. Any other, state

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

4. i. what type of instructional media do you use to teach plays?

ii. How frequent do you use instructional media?

a) Occasionally

b) Frequently

c) Very frequent
122

iii. State the factors that influence your use of instructional media?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
123

SECTION III

Rate your perception regarding the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays on a five

point likert scale

Key: SA – strongly agree; A – Agree; UD – Undecided; D – Disagree; SD – Strongly

Disagree

Tick (√) where appropriate

NO STATEMENT SA A UD D SD

1 I enjoy Kiswahili lessons

2 I enjoy Kiswahili literature lessons

3 I enjoy reading Kiswahili plays

4 Teaching Kiswahili plays is interesting

5 The time allocated to teach Kiswahili plays is enough

6 Assessing Kiswahili plays is easy

7 The instructional media for teaching Kiswahili plays

are readily available

8 I prefer teaching Kiswahili plays than the other genre

of Kiswahili literature

9 My students enjoy learning Kiswahili plays

10 The performance of Kiswahili plays is better compare

to the other genre of Kiswahili literature


124

APPENDIX C. Questionnaire for Form Three Students

I am a student undertaking a Masters of Philosophy degree in Education at Moi

University. In order to complete this program, I am required to carry out a research and

present a Thesis on “The Influence of school based factors in The teaching and

learning of Kiswahili Plays in Eldoret West Sub County”. Your school is one of those

included in the study. This research is purely for academic purposes and the information

you give will be treated with confidentiality. Do not indicate your name anywhere on this

questionnaire. I kindly request you to participate in my study. Please tick (√) or fill in the

blanks and respond to all items.

Background information

1. Name of the school_______________________

2. Status of the school Boys Girls Mixed

3. Gender Male

Female
125

SECTION 1

Factors influencing the teaching and learning of Kiswahili play.

4. Which areas of Kiswahili plays do you face difficulty

a. Plot. Yes No

If yes how have you been solving?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Characterization Yes No

If yes; how have you been solving it?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

b. Setting and atmosphere Yes No


126

If yes how have you been solving it?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

c. Themes. Yes No

If yes; how have you been solving it?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

d. Styles. Yes No

If yes; how have you been solving it?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
127

5. How many times have you read the Kiswahili set play?

Once twice thrice more than four times

6. What do you think are the factors that influence the learning of Kiswahili Plays?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
128

SECTION II

7. Student attitude in the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays

Rate your perception regarding the teaching and learning of Kiswahili plays on a five

point likert scale.

KEY: SA – Strongly Agree, A-Agree, UD – Undecided, D- Disagree

SD- Strongly Disagree

Tick where appropriate

STATEMENT SA A UD D SD
I enjoy Kiswahili lessons
I enjoy Kiswahili literature
I enjoy reading Kiswahili plays
Learning Kiswahili plays is interesting
Watching live presentation of Kiswahili plays promotes
understanding
Kiswahili plays should be dramatized in class
The vocabulary used in the set play is understandable
I prefer learning Kiswahili plays than the other genre
(riwaya, hadithi fupi, ushairi na fasihi simulizi) of
Kiswahili literature
I perform better in Kiswahili plays than the other genre
of Kiswahili literature
Reading the Kiswahili play several times helps to
understand the play better
129

Give your opinion on how best the Kiswahili plays should be taught

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
130

APPENDIX D: Interview schedule for the head of Kiswahili subject

SECTION 1: Demographic data

1. For how long have you been in this school?

_______________________________________________________________

SECTION II

2. How do your students perform in Kiswahili plays?

Very good Good Average Poor Very poor

3. Are teachers in your school in serviced to teach Kiswahili plays?

_______________________________________________________________

4. If yes, is the in-service beneficial?

________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

5. Which teaching methods do your teachers commonly use to teach Kiswahili plays?

________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

6. How best do you think Kiswahili plays should be assessed?

________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________
131

7. Do the attitude of teachers and learners affect the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays?

________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

8. Do you use instructional media to teach Kiswahili plays? if yes name them

________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

9. In your opinion what factors contribute to the teaching and learning of Kiswahili

plays?_______________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________
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APPENDIX E: Observation Guide for the Researcher

1. Availability of:

Schemes of work_______________________

Lesson plans_______________________

Student progress records_______________________

Record of work covered _______________________

2. Do the teachers have instructional media

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Were the students conversant with the Kiswahili plays?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________
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APPENDIX F: Research Authorization


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APPENDIX G: Research Permit

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