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~ R} (12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) (19) World Intellectual Property Organization International Bureau (43) International Publication Date 30 May 2003 (30.05.2003) (10) International Publication Number WO 03/043880 Al (SI) International Patent Classification”: B63B 39/12, 1U, LN, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, 9100, 9108, MZ, NO, NZ, OM, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SD, SE, $G, SI S11, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VN, (21) International Application Number: PCT/HRO2/000%6 YU, ZA, 7M, 2. (22) International Fling Date: 10 October 2002 (10.10.2002) (84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), (25) Filing Language: Croatian Burasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TI, TM), 'Buropean patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, (26) Publication Language: Engtish ES: FLFR, GB, GR, TE, TT, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE. SK, (80) Priority Da P20010731A 10 October 2001 (10.10.2001) HR a (7) Applicant and Inventor: Ziha, Kalman (HR/HR); Liudevita Posavskog 15, 10000 Zagreb (HR) (81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 7, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, ‘GM, HU, IDI, IN, IS, JP, KE. KG, KP. KR, KZ,1.C,LK, TR), OAPI patent (BF. BI, CE. CG, C1, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, T6). Declaration under Rule 4.17 ‘of mentorship (Rule 4.17(i) for US only Published: with international search report For tworletter codes and other abbreviations, refer tothe "Guid ‘ance Noves on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin: ring of each regular issue of the PCT Gazcut. Title: M to change trim one unit MP and tons per unit of immersion TPI, as follows [RMINATION OF THE DISPLACEMENT OF DI > SHIPS (57) Abstracts On the ships Stted with waditional draft) marks at three positions: at aft perpendicular, amidships and at forward perpendicular, dd, sit is possible 10 define the value of the equivalent draft for hydrostatic caleulations,usrign the data for the ship's hull ans a rigid body on an even keel, employing the observed saggin or hogging amidships Wand the draft correction Facvior Cy or the draft correction coefficient y=1Cy as follows (Formula 1D. The procedure for determination of the displacement of Jongitudinally deflected ships is based on the expression for the draft correction factor C, employing aetual flotating waterline characteristics, such as the waterline length, Ly, water plane area Av longitudinal moment of inertia J, of the waterline about a transverse axis, through the center of flotation, moment (Formula I), or by using the general parabolic SB spproximation forthe waterline shape depending only on waterplane coeticient (formula I). The values ofthe coretions factors, as presented, can be calevlated once forall drafts, already in the design phase and are valid in the entire ship's service SS tiretime. ‘The displacement of a longitudinally deflected ship ean be also determined using the water plane area Ay), the correction factor as dafned by the fits requested, and the observed displaement A, a8 A= A® + WineiAwiCa.oF the standard displacomentAs, when it is A=AS-Watteshyi(I-C2). Besides, the same accuracy can be accomplished y only two draft readings da, at positions aft and forward (Formulare TV) centred with respect to the water-plane centre of Notation, what provides simultaneous corrections due to longitudinal defletion and trim. The position correction factor Cx is defined as (Formula V). ‘The equivalent draft for determination of the displacement of longitadinally deflected ships is obtained as (Formula VD. 'O 03/0: 10 0 2 30 3s WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE DISPLACEMENT OF DEFLECTED SHIPS DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Field of application This invention applies to more accurate determination of the displacement of merchant ships built from clastic materials, which suffers from significant temporary or permanent longitudinal deflections in ship's service due to hull bending, such as hull sagging or hogging, what provokes changes of the immersed hull form, leading to inaccuracies in determination of the ship's displacement, particularly important for ‘modem large merchant ships. According to International Clas objects) 9/08 (Properties) ification, this invention can be classified as : B-63 (Ships and floating ‘Technical problem ‘The problem tackled by this invention is the more accurate determination of ship's displacement whose hull under longitudinal loadings caused by bending, changes the immersed hull form. Absolutely accurate determination of shi displacement is very complex and in most cast impossible, due to a number of imperceptible and immeasurable circumstances, such as, temporary or permanent, longitudinal or transverse, local or global, residual or thermal deformations, as well as corrosion, ageing, damages, reparations o hull fouling, what cannot be accounted for in realistic conditions of the ship's service. The ship's displacement is the most important property for determination of the ship's operational efficiency ‘and every improvement in practices and accuracy of its determinations is useful either for the ship's crew or for the ship-owner. State of art ‘The shipping practice applies simplified approximate method for the determination of the change of the displacement due to small longitudinal deflection of the immersed hull based on the assumption of a parabolic deflection line. The methods currently in use do not account for the shape of the immersed ship hull and therefore are less acourate. Since the draft and deadweight survey methods based on draft readings aft, amidships and forward, has been established earlier when the ships were smaller and of different shape, the inaccuracies of traditional methods are particularly significant for large modern ‘merchant ships with full hull form. 10 20 25 » WO 037043880 PCT/FIRO2/00046 2 The ships displacement, as well as the other hydrostatic particulars of hulls, traditionally are calculated for all anticipated drafts, using known methods from the theory for ships considered as rigid bodies on a hypothetically even keel, and represented by diagrams and/or tables, once for the entire ship's service lifetime, usually already in the design phase. During the deadweight survey procedure, the displacement, the trim and the deflection are determined on the basis of draft readings or results of automatic draft measurements using adequate devices, aft, forward and amidships, sometimes both on portside and starboard sides, employing the permanent ship's hydrostatic data, for each load case. ‘The basic geometrical relations of a longitudinally deflected ship hull in a sagging condition, as well as the notation used in the text, are presented on Fig. 1. The average or the mean draft of ship in service is traditionally obtained on the basis of draft readings d? ,d2 ,d% observed on aft perpendicular, on portside and on starboard sides amidships and on forward perpendicular, and represents the standard draft, see Fig, 1., for hydrostatic calculations and determination of displacement, as follows dg+dy 2 a @ In order to simplify the procedure and save time and expenses of survey, it is usual to take draft readings on only one, usually the most accessible side. ‘The hull sagging or hogging are defined traditionally amidships, regardless of the actual position of the extreme value, on the basis of observed drafts, as follows: gets 2 @ a,—d, From the term (2), it is obvious that the deflection amidships is positive for sagging condition and negative for hogging condition, Fig. 1 ‘The traditional, simplified draft and displacement survey method for longitudinally deflected ships due to bending is based on the equivalent draft for hydrostatic calculations defined by using observed drafts, as follows: dg +6-d2 +49 8) 8 ‘Substituting (1) and (2) into (3), the equivalent draft can be rewritten on the basis of 1/4 of the amidships anu deflection, as follows: aml! @) 42 ‘The equivalent draft defined by the term (4) is denoted in shipping sometimes as the “quarter mean draft” or the “mean of mean draft”, Put succinctly, the equivalent draft for hydrostatic calculations of a longitudinally deflected ship hull, according to (4), is obtained as the observed draft amidships corrected for 1/4 of the hull deflection amidships according to (2). 15 20 30 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 3 To the observed draft amidships d2, from the hydrostatic data (displacement curve, hydrostatic tables), the observed displacement denoted as A’, can be assigned, and to the standard draft amidships 4 according to (1), from the hydrostatic data (displacement curve, hydrostatic tables), the standard displacement denoted as A , can be assigned by considering the hull on even keel as a rigid body, Fig. 2. Itis traditionally accepted that the displacement of a longitudinally deflected hull A can be assessed for a ship hypothetically considered on even keel as a rigid body, by the displacement A” pertinent to the corrected amidships draft d"””", according to (4), Fig. 2. Of course, for large amounts of sagging or hogging and/or large trim, it is more appropriate to use traditional lengthwise integration for displaced and inclined sectional areas, so called Bonjean’s curves. Invention essence ‘The amount of % of the amidships sagging or hogging in (4) is appropriate for draft corrections in only some particular cases and in general does not account for the shape of the ship hull. For more accurate displacement assessments of a longitudinally deflected ship, a variable draft correction factor denoted c, as well as its reciprocal value ¢, —1, are introduced in the following manner: 6) ‘The essence of the invention is in the rational, but still simple and practical method for determination of the variable draft correction factor C, in (5), employing the true data of the hull form presented by the sole water-plane characteristics on different anticipated drafts, Fig. 1. The invention employs the practically adopted assumption of relatively small, for this purpose parabolic hull deflection line, considering ship's sides as parallel in the range of the hull deflection. ‘The invention is extended by a suggestion for a new placement of ship's draft marks, instead on perpendiculars aft and forward and amidships, at only two positions alongside the hull, where the observed drafts coincides with equivalent drafts of a ship hypothetically considered on an even keel as a rigid body, Fig. 1. By the draft marks placed as it is presented in this text, both the more accurate correction due to longitudinal deflection and the correction due to the trim are simultaneously accounted for the displacement survey. The suggested positions of draft marks aft and forward are determined on the basis of the draft correction factor C,, defined in (5) and are generally valid for usually adopted practical assumption of small deflections and small trim in ship service. » 2 30 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 Description of the invention ‘The ship’s hull deflection line by longitudinal bending is assumed on the basis of many experimental and numerical evidences that the prove how the deviations are of limited order of significance and usually appropriate for technical calculations, in the form of a second order parabola with the extreme value in the centre of flotation, as it is shown: w(x) = © "Loy! 2 ‘The parabolic defection line (6) after rectification represents the equivalent floating line, which defines the same displacement of a deflected ship as itis of the hypothetically rigid hull on even keel, Fig.1. It is obvious that the deflection line of a ship's hull in service is neither symmetric nor paraboli ‘moreover, that the actual shape and the true position of the extreme value are practically immeasurable, ‘Therefore, the more practical assumption for modem large ships about the position of extreme value of the deflection line in the centre of flotation, instead in the mid between the perpendiculats, ie. W, W is introduced, Fig. 1. On the other hand, it is not practical to determine the hull deflection shape and the position of the extreme value on board more precisely. Moreover, in most cases it is imperceptible, and therefore, for ships with traditionally placed draft marks, the deflection amidships has to be considered as the extreme of the deflection line. ‘The changes in hydrostatic properties due to hull deflection are mostly dependent on the floating water- plane geometric characteristics. The longitudinal change in buoyancy due to relatively small deflection w(x) of © a hull with hypothetically parallel ship's sides, with respect to the actual water-plane of length Lut, and breadth B(x) at any position along the ship, is defined as follows: 462) = 7 sea WOD(2) o ‘The displacement of the deflected ship part in the area of the floating line in the water of specific gravity 7 ‘sear Supposing a parabolic floating line (6), can be obtained by longitudinal integration of (7), as itis shown: Tl Ag ay te Cou! 2Y ‘The correction of draft amidships relative to the observed amidships draft, due to the displacement of the f Ba) 7 Wir fea Wy" Ag "Cy 8) deflected hull part, can be determined as a parallel immersion or emersion employing area of a water- plane 4,, and moment of inertia J, of the waterline with respect to the transverse axis through the centre of flotation CF, as follows: at 1A, ae ace Tova Aye (Lu 12Y as @ 1s 2» 25 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 5 ‘The dimensionless draft correction factor Cq due to deflection is derived only by basic water-plane geometric characteristics employing (9), and can be easily calculated from commonly available ship's permanent hydrostatic particulars, as shown: C, = tal 4w (10) (Lu /2Y Alternatively, in some practical cases, the correction of draft amidships may be approximated by substitution of the moment to change trim one unit MT? and tons per unit of immersion TP7 in (10) and can be expressed in consistent units (for inconsistent units, additional units conversion is required), as follows: MTL Ly 4° TPL (Ly, 12 For simplicity, the true waterplane shape of beam By and water-plane area coefficient (10a) Cyp = Ayp (LyB,1), can be approximated by a symmetric general parabola of order k, in the following form: (iy 2) (Ly 12) The substitution of (11) in (7) and the repeated integration as in (8), having in mind that k=Cyp/(1- B(x) = By ren}) Cyyp)’ may lead to satisfactory assessments of water-plane area characteristics as follows: k Ag © B yp Loy <= Bplay 12) ot © Bylot Gg = Byte 2) > text (4) CG (3) 1 *5E=2G) - It is easily recognizable from (14), that Cy significantly differs from 1/4 and that it is an increasing function of Cyp. Specifically, Cg=1/4 only for a unique value of Cyyp is amounting to Cyyp=0.834. The maximum value of Cy=1/3 is attained for Cyyp=l, i.e. for rectangular waterline shape. The minimum value of Cq=1/6 is attained for Cyyp=1/2, ie. for triangular waterline shape, ‘The invention takes a step further. When the deflection is not too great, a second order symmetric parabola (6), shifted vertically relatively to the observed waterline, for amount of parallel immersion defined as a fraction of the maximal deflection supposed at the position of to the centre of flotation in amount of w,Cq in (6), Fig. 1., can be used as an approximation denoted equivalent waterline of the null, as shown: eG 12)*-x'] as) (,/2) (2), 2» 30 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 6 In order to find the true displacement of a deflected hull, it is imagined that the equivalent waterline is rectified back to a plane waterline by vertical translation of hull sections at some position “x”, amounting to the value w(x) defined by the equivalent waterline (15), Fig. 1. The positions along the ship's hull with respect to longitudinal centre of flotation LCF, where the observed drafts are equal to the equivalent draft can be obtained in intersections between the equivalent ‘waterline line and the observed waterline by employing the square root of the draft correction factor Cz (10), (10a) or (14), Fig. 1., from the condition w()=0 in (15), as: (6) an ‘As the consequence of above assumptions, for trimmed deflected ships, is the equivalent waterline passing through the longitudinal centre of flotation, what is intrinsic to the suggested method because of the fact that the corrections due to deflection and due to trim are accounted for all at once. The draft ‘marks placed on the specified positions are closer to the amidships, therefore making easier their fitting on ship’s sides, slightly reducing the accuracy of draft readings at perpendiculars, but increasing the accuracy in obtaining of the equivalent draft, in general simplify and accelerate draft survey, which are due to less intense motion even more accurate, and finally, improve the accuracy of deadweight survey. Application procedure This invention is easily applicable to existing ships with traditionally placed draft marks by determining either once for the ship’s all possible and anticipated drafts in the entire service lifetime or in each particular situation the value of draft correction factor accurately, according to 10) i (10a) and approximately according to (14). Commonly, the observed amidships draft is corrected to the equivalent amidships draft dy,2 using deflections amidships w, (2) and the draft correction factor (10, 10a or 14) instead of constant 1/4 in (4), as shown: dj +2d3(c,-1)+dj _ dj +di(f-2)+47 2c co) ‘The equivalent draft (18) is identical to the term (5) and represent a more rational basis for comprehensive and accurate displacement assessment of deflected ship hull of the commonly used equivalent “mean of mean” draft (3), since the draft correction factor Cy (10, 10a or 14) accounts appropriately for the hull form via the water-plane geometrical characteristics. The substitution f= 2-c, in (18), simplifies the procedure, 2 30 35 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 a Altematively, the standard mean draft amidships (1) can be corrected to the equivalent amidships draft using deflections amidships (2) and the draft correction factor (10, 10 or 14), as follows: 5, = dO) = dy, ~ wall Ca) as) ‘To obtain the actual displacement A of the deflected hull from the permanent hydrostatic particulars for a rigid hull on an even keel, the equivalent mean draft can dé, be used, as clarified on Fig, 2. Hence, the actual displacement of a deflected ship hull on a hypothetically even keel can be defined relative either to the standard displacement or to the observed displacement, employing the amidships deflection wy (2) and the draft correction factor C, (10, 10a or 14), as follows: A=W 4 = Wy ee Cy (20) Walser aa UC) Ql) ‘The expressions 754 Ay Cy in (20) and 7 sgq Ay (Cg) in (21) represent the displacement correction AEB WF oA AG) = per unit of longitudinal deflection of the ship hull amidships, relatively to the observed displacement or standard displacement, respectively. For small deflections and hypothetically parallel ship’s sides, the unit of displacement increment may be viewed as constant amounting to the slope of the displacement curve, i.e, its first derivative Ygeq Ay), Figure 2. If there is a trim encountered on board, displacement of a hypothetically rigid hull on an even keel position (20, 21), have to be additionally corrected for changes due to the trim, When the trim is not too ‘eat, the axis of rotation for change of trim without change of displacement may be assumed to pass through the cenire of flotation LCF of the even-keel waterline. In order to find the true displacement for a trimmed waterline the ship is imagined as rotate back to a waterline parallel to the base. Then the solution may be reached algebraically. For very large trims and deflections, it is best to make use of Bonjean’s curves for direct lengthwise integration of curves of areas of inclined and deflected sections. Water density correction is normally included during a deadweight survey. ‘The suggested procedure based on traditional draft marks placement at ends and amidships, but app! the more accurate draft correction factor, as it is explained above, accounts for the true shape of the ship hull, and therefore represents a rational improvement with respect to traditional methods of draft and displacement survey, since they do not consider the hull form and its changes by drafts. ‘The aim of the considerations in the sequel is to prove that an alternative placement of draft marks, quite different of current practice, on only two positions alongside the ship’s hull, provide easier, faster, more simple and more accurate equivalent draft and consequently, more accurate displacement of a deflected, and moreover, of a trimmed ship, all at once. ‘The two drafts observed on ship sides aft and forward, on lengthways positions xq in (16) from the centre of flotation CF, are denoted as follows: as. af 2» 2s 30 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 8 The distance defined by (16) can be interpreted as the lengthways position of draft observations which provide directly immediate values for equivalent draft calculation, Following the assumption about the position of the maximal deflection close to the centre of flotation LCF, the standard equivalent draft is defined by only two draft reading, Fig. 1., compared to the conventional term (3) which requires three draft readings, as itis shown: az+d7 2 ate, 22) Since the standard equivalent draft (22) virtually coincides with the position of the longitudinal centre of flotation, both corrections for deflection and trim are accounted for all at once. It is obvious from (22), that the determination of the standard equivalent draft (22) does not requires readings of mean draft, as it is normally the case, for example in expression (3). The positions of the draft marks alongside, centred with respect to the longitudinal centre of flotation that define the standard equivalent draft which is pertinent to the same displacement of the trimmed and deflected hull as it is of the hypothetically rigid haul on the even keel. In order to get additional ship service information, if required, there are some additional calculations available in the procedure, related to the ship’s trim and drafts at traditional positions. ‘The trim with respect to draft marks at new positions is defined as: trimgy =d 7 ~ de 3) ‘The angle of trim in general is obtained on the basis of the trim itself, and of the distance between the draft marks amounting 2x, , as follows: fey = trey | 2X, 4) ‘The trim with respect to the perpendiculars is obtained by employing the length between the perpendicular, as follows: trittns, = tau Lip 5) ‘Note the positive trim is by bow, negative otherwise. The aft draft d, and the forward draft d, at the perpendiculars, accounting only for the lull trim and neglecting the hull deflection, are assessed as follows: (26) dy = AF + ey Uy! 2—%y-LCF) en ‘The mean draft is: gn betds os) 2 Note that for the displacement and trim determinations is sufficient to employ only the two draft readings at specified positions. The draft observation at the position of the longitudinal centre of flotation denoted as 20 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 9 as dcp is required only if the hull deflection at this position is of interest. Otherwise, the draft marks at the positions ofthe longitudinal centre of flotation are not needed, ‘The relative hull hogging or sagging wy with respect to the observed draft marks is defined by employing the observed draft dc, and the equivalent draft df» , both atthe position LCF, as follows: Wey = dite dice (29) ‘The overall sagging or hogging at the position of LCF, can be assessed by employing Wey and the draft comrection factor C,. as follows Wee = Woy Cy 0) Note wey and wycp are considered positive for hogging and negative for sagging condition, ‘Normally, the amidships deflection w,, does not differ significantly of the deflection Woe at LCF, moreover, the difference even cannot be practically measured, ‘The aft draft d, and the forward draft d, at the perpendiculars, accounting for the hull trim and deflection, are calculated as follows: 4, = df ~tey (yy 2— 4 + LCP) + Wye IC) en dy 2d 7 Hey" (Ly !2— 24 LCF) + Weer(I-Cy) 2) For constant draft correction factor Cy=1/4, it follows from (17) that the position factor is C,=1/4, From (16), it follows that for xy=ALy/M , is dy (22) close to dy" (4), that is, if the draft marks are placed at ALy/4 from amidships, the equivalent mean draft dis very close tothe ‘quarter mean draft” d°* For ships with traditionally placed draft marks at aft perpendicular, amidships and on forward perpendicular, drafts are observed on thtee places aft amidships and forward. This invention employs the observed drafts on board, the average or mean draft calculated according to (1), hull hogging or sagging according (2), as well as the equivalent draft amidships according (18) or (19) in order to determination deflected ship's displacement from hydrostatic data tables or from the displacement curve...Besides, the ships observed or mean displacements can be determined and then corrected for the difference of the deflected hull according to (20) or (21). This invention provides a simplified method for determination of the displacement of deflected ships employing only two draft marks placed lengthwise centred with respect to the centre of flotation, at the distance defined by (16), oF (17), instead of traditionally placement of draft marks at aft perpendicular, amidships and on forward perpendicular. Technically, the draft observations on the new positions of draft marks, is performed analogously to the observations at aft perpendicular, amidships and on forward perpendicular, moreover, the draft measurements can be arranged by adequate automatic devices. The {wo draft readings at new positions define the standard equivalent draft (22) in order to determine the 0 5 20 2s 30 38 WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 10 isplacement of the deflected and trimmed ship’s hull, all at once, Although is not necessary, for some practical situations may be useful to put draft marks at the positions of longitudinal centres of flotation, Fig. 3. in order to obtain the hull deflection at this position. For the traditional freeboard control is retained the Pliimsol’s mark. The procedure is applicable on digital computers In addition, the new draft placement eliminates the problem of encountering hogging on one side and sagging on the other side for excessively transversely inclined ship hull fitted with traditional draft marks at perpendiculars and amidships. The alternative placement of draft marks in positions of greater hull breadth in the area of the parallel midbody adds sense for averaging both port and starboard draft marks, even for ships with significant heeling angle. The loaded conditions with sensible trim and small deflections are of utmost interest for deadweight survey, much more than the ballast conditions, and therefore the new placement of draft marks nearby the load line in combination with traditional draft marks at stem which impacts on propeller immersion and rudder effectiveness and at bow, which affects maneuverability and slamming, appears practical and useful [1] Nomenclature Aqi=aren of the water-plane; By~beam of the water-plane; Cercorrection factor for draft of a deflected bull; Cire=waterline coefficient; d=draft in general; I-=moment of inertia of the waterline about a transverse axis through the centre of flotation; LCF = centte of flotation of the water-plane; Lu-length of the water-plane; ‘MT1=moment to change trim one unit; ‘TPI=tons per unit of immersion; xg-positions of equal equivalent and observed drafts; ‘wehull deflection in general; Greek symbols YuimSpecific gravity of sea water; ‘A=displacement in general; Subscripts 4a, m, f-related to aft, mean and forward; Superscripts ¢, s, o=telated to equivalent, standard and observed; related to deflected null 2» WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 u EXAMPLE ‘The innovation is applied to a bulk-carrier built recently in Croatian shipyards with following main particulars: Lyg=187.63 m, Lpp=179.3 m, B=30.8 m, D=15.45 m, d=10.8 m, DWT=41600 t, Lightship weight=8400 t, Service speed =14.5 knots, The results are presented in Table 1 and on Fig. 1. Table 1. Ex ample: Hydrostatic data and correction factors according the suggested innovation for a bulk-carrier built in a Croatian shipyard Tine Fe eT Ge Gi I or tna en lw fom le.T0 jaloa lel? etém (Ship particulars, Forostatie data Ite rue waterline shape Parabolic 1767.38]0.608 [4.000 [3136]0 4202 ]3214]23921 |o.191 (G.19T JO219 36.604 [600 Jo.187 i74.95|0-760 [4530 OAR|SELE |ORIT ATAD|SRNTS Jo20 [4537 [0220 [0235 |4i.0e6 892 [0295 777 20|0.75 [4961 |aDRs|sI3e [766 [ABD8|"s9OR Joa [4309 [0229 fo239 [aase0 oes foass T7EA2]0.803 [5.051 [4407] 12605 js205 |AS27IS7OTT jose [Azee Joas4 [oz [aa200 [1038 [0239 [7A99|oRaD [7S [#saD]zr8IT |B7aT |AsGH|sOaTT lo.aKd [A0BT [ORAS [OIaT [as.96y [TTA .n48 TPR i0|O.838 [4.174 |4596|20505 [9082 |A7TD|SIONG [oaaw [4031 foes [ODM |aaase [1145 [0252 T7B.a6|0.847 [5.353 |AOSG|STI50 O54 |A7R|S3470 Joasa (3.963 [0252 [0250 [aawan |iisi [a2ss BO9a] oT [2203 [Tas] so0aR [TAI 4855] s5650 [oase [aver o2si [PAST EAs |i209 0257 Teaaao wa JOTSH [RTT sOHeS |TOROT OHA seaRD [oasT [AOTS [OAT (OST Wezad |iaTT |O386 | 70 [183.20]0.873 0977 jOTa|sS956 [ORaS [OAT |SDE [ones [ATTA [02S [02ST [TAA [TS [ozs FT [13.60]o6 [1929 s0r0|sTOsT |TTaTs [i fo5NT [oars ee [OTT [O2eT ATOAT RE [OTT fz [14.00 ]o8 [2.00 s0ua|SGD04 [TUBS [x2TS|ONASO [OTe |S SDH [ODE 2M ARS [AT [0277 0 i iz 5 [a |iTea7 oats [5.007 |A4RS]T7ITS [8539 |46R6|49572 [0.240 [8.173 [0.240 |o.245 |aa.e3s |i08E jozad is ie i7 is o Ha |18443]0.908 |-2.840|/5135|s1408 [10400 [S284] 70812 [028s 5.532 [0283 |a266 [49.064 1459 [o2e2 Ha [184 85|0.916 |=. 000 |S013|oo7Ls |1a7RD |S343] 0045 JoaaT [3484 |o2e7 [ares |a9.si8 /106 [oes WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 12 of S bulbous baw Draft correctien factor Cd Position fgkcor 2 S True waterline shape Parabolic waterline shape 5 pratt in meters? Figure 1. Example: ‘he draft correction factor and the position factor for a bulk-carrier 0 20 WO 037043880 ‘An example of positioning of draft marks according the innovation presented in this patent claims for a 13 bulk-carrier built recently in Croatian shipyards. PCT/HR02/00046 ive draft marks nearby the! load line [Alternati Plimsoll mark AP. Traditional draft marks Figure 2. Example: The suggested alternative placement of draft marks on ship’s side for a bulk-carrier 1s 20 WO 03/043880 PCT/RO2/00046 4 PATENT CLAIMS 1, The method for determination of the displacement of the longitudinally deflected ships, characterized by that the displacement of the longitudinally deflected ship's hull is determined on the basis of the draft readings at aft perpendicular, amidships and at forward perpendicular, at only one side, or averaging readings at both ship’s sides, d?,d2,d?, using the 2dn +47 employing the equivalent draft ship’s hull sagging or hogging , i + 2d, +d? hr———C—C ==" ca Beg ds = do +WyCg =d2 + Wy its reciprocal value ¢z=1/Cs, can be calculated for water-plane length Ly area Ay, moment of inertia of the waterline about a transverse axis through the centre of flotation J;, moment to change trim one ately MEI bpp Es orinan (CLyj!2)? TPL (Ly 129? unit MT! and tons per unit of immersion 7P/, as follows: C, approximate form based only on water-plane coefficient Ci», as follows ¢, = —1__. 3(3~2Cyp ) 2, The method for determination of the displacement of the longitudinally deflected ships, characterized by, that the displacement of the longitudinally deflected ship’s hull is determined on the basis of water-plane area 4,., draft correction factor Cy, from the first request and observed displacement 4°, as follows: A= A? + W7,q4yyCq oF using the standard displacement 4°, as follows A=A' ~Wy7e0dy(I-Cy)» 3. The method for determination of the displacement of the longitudinally deflected ships by adequate placement of draft marks characterized by, that the displacement of the longitudinally dg sd deflected and trimmed ship’s hull is determined on the basis of the equivalent draft ds ="2 °F, employing draft readings dy*,d7* at suggested lengthwise aft and forward positions AC, : : Hy =ELy VG a Ely “Cy centred with respect to the centre of flotation, where the position factor Cz. is defined by the draft correction factor from the first request 20 25 0 as 0 4s WO 037043880 PCT/HR02/00046 12 Equivalent hull | x Watertine The unit change of alsplacement 4p Zs er unit change of draft tos Aw Figure Z— WO 037043880 22 PCT/FIRO2/00046 Traditional draft marks Figure 3. INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT c Appleton No PCT/HR 02/00046 7, SLASSOATION OF S)BJECT MATTE a] TPC 7 B63B39/12 B63B9/00—B63B9/08 ‘Accord nemtinal PatortCasscation (PO) orto both ona asian and IPC 'B FIELDS SEARCHED ‘nam documentston searched (Caselicaonsyton alowed by Gasstcalon s7BO) IPC 7 B63B ‘Bosimaraon sence Ohara minima documentation os eo Wa seh GOCUmBIS av Ge Te Tats Soa ‘lccoris Gta taco coneuned uring ho Taalional sarc (aro dla base and, WhoTs praca Soars OMS wea) £PO-Internal (C: DOGUMIENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT. ‘Gateory* | Cton of document with eaten, whee appepite, of th lovantpassagos tonto aim Ne A US 3 128 375 A (KNUT GRIMNES) 1 7 April 1964 (1964-04-07) figures A GB 154 687 A (JOSEPH MACGREGOR) 1 29 November 1920 (1920-11-29) Figures A US 1 426 103 A (BROOKS RALSTON SHIRLEY) a) 15 August 1922 (1922-08-15) figures A GB 183 719 A (ALFRED EDWARD WATTS; FRANK a WILBER MERRITT) 3 August 1922 (1922-08-03) figures Y] Furor documents are stein he continuation of ox Dx] Paton amy mebors ar iste nanan 7 Spodalclognoe of Gad doconone Spo caogoror or it "Tater documen! pubis ae the intoratena ing date ‘r porty dats and nth eon wih ihe eptoation Bat "AY doament defiing he general ss ofthe at which ot gga coe ne nt cont we, Sona oat onsore to Boo peril rebvance € eater document but published ono ater he ematona ‘ing Sie “L*dozuent wich may vow doubts on pry clas) or ‘ih ced o.etblan io pueafon also another {aon oroher specalresnon (a0 spered) “OF eacunentrfertng tan oral scsi, use, exhiton or “P* epcument puso pio fo th nemationa tng lob Tirta pty dao ied ‘vention ‘documento porto eevance th aimed ive anal be incor novel or cana bo omsores To Involve aninvnvo stp when ne docu s taken shone ocumen of para relevance; te cared Invention ‘anole eEnscered ive an vente sep when the ‘Sument fe comainad wih one or moreso” uch docu fens sch eosiaon bln veto & person ied 8° document member ofthe same pnt tay Dats ihe seul completion of iernafonal sarah 25 February 2003 ‘ito of allng he Faratona sone pat 04/03/2003, Nama and ming aadroos othe SA European Palen! Ofc, P.6, 6916 Patetlaan 2 INL 2200 HV Asm Fok 91-70) 540-2040, Tx. 31 651 op Fae (3170) 90-2016 Trina oficor van Rooij, M Fen POTATO nana ea 182) page 1 of 2 INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT Appleton No| bt 02/00046 ‘(Geontinuation) DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT Cr “Ghar of doco, Wan natn oT APpropraL, OTRO TORVaNT paseaGES ater a eam Ne, A FR_1 208 652 A (KOCKUNS MEK VERKST S AKTIEBOLA) 25 February 1960 (1960-02-25) figures 1 am BOTTENEOnalon doesn ee) a TD page 2 of 2 INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT IQ Aeration no PCT/HR 02/0046 Patent dooument Publication Patent fei Publication ‘ted In search roport cate members) ale Us 3128375 A 07-04-1964 CH 411406 A 15-04-1966 FR 1259077 A 21-04-1961 6B 918992 A 20-02-1963 NL 249970 A SE 302536 B 22-07-1968 6B 154687 A 29-11-1920 NONE Us 1426103 A 15-08-1922 NONE 6B 183719 A 03-08-1922 NONE FR 1208652 A 25-02-1960 NONE Fam RGTASNIO blr omy amo a 6)