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 Transfer of food materials or products of metabolism from one part to another, to areas of
storage, utilization or consumption.
• Xylem – water and mineral
• Phloem – photosynthates
 Movement of sucrose and other organic materials from one place to another within the plant
body, primarily through the phloem
 Driving force: concentration (pressure) gradient
Substance Translocated in the Phloem
1. Water
2. Sugar – carbon sources, most predominant
• Nonreducing sugars – sucrose, stachyose, raffinose, verbascose
• Reducing sugars – glucose, mannose, fructose, and sugar alcohol
3. Nitrogenous compounds – amino acids, amides, ureides
• Legumes
4. Proteins
5. Hormones
6. Inorganic Solutes
Long Distance Transport

 Xylem – roots to shoots

 Phloem – leaves to roots
Source and Sink
 Translocation moves from the source to the sink
 Source: exporting organ, CO2 is greater than needed
*storage organs – roots and tubers
 Sink: Non- photosynthetic, e.g. young leaves, fruit, flower
Factors Determining Translocation in Herbaceous Plants
 Proximity – upper leaves provide photosynthates
 Development – fruits as dominant sink
 Vascular connections – source leaves supply the sink
Mechanism of Translocation of Photosynthates
 Mass or bulk flow (Munch Pressure Flow Hypothesis)
 Diffusion
 Cytoplasmic streaming – cytoplasm to plasmodesmata
 Other
• Facilitated diffusion
• Active transport
• Electroosmosis
Translocation in the Phloem
 Phloem loading – source to sieve
 Phloem unloading – sieve to sink
Photosynthate Allocation and Partitioning
Allocation of Carbon to Source
1. Metabolic utilization within the chloroplast (leaf metabolism and biomass)
2. Synthesis of starch within the chloroplast (storage)
3. Synthesis of sucrose to export to sink
Allocation of Carbon to Sink
1. Metabolic utilization and growth processes
2. Storage
 Differential distribution of photosynthates within the plant
 Efficiency of partitioning from vegetation sinks into storage organs, translates into productivity
for many crops
 sink tissues compete for available translocated photosynthates
 strength regulates translocation and is a function of sink size and activity
 strength greatly influence sugar unloading
 strength – capacity to accumulate metabolites
 sinks tend to draw from close sources
 developing seed or grains are strong sinks
 Grain or fruit can potentially “tilt” at the detriment of other sinks
Partitioning of Carbon to Different Sinks over Life Span
Development Stages
1. Vegetative – meristems and leaves
2. Reproductive – flowers, fruits, seed. Few sinks -> each receives more
*reason why pruning helps fruit trees