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# A.I.

R 1ST, 1ST, 4TH, 4TH…/80 in top 100 50+ Centers All India

## Content by IIT / IISc Grads Faculty from Top Institutes

State Variable Analysis
GATE Question (ECE-2007)

## The state space representation of a separately excited DC servo motor

dynamics is given as,
𝐝𝛚
𝐝𝐭 = −𝟏 𝟏 𝛚 𝟎
+ 𝐮
𝐝𝐢𝐚 −𝟏 −𝟏𝟎 𝐢𝐚 𝟏𝟎
𝐝𝐭
where 𝛚 is the speed of the motor, 𝐢𝐚 is the armature current and u is
𝛚 𝐬
the armature voltage. The transfer function of the motor is
𝐔 𝐬

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2007)

𝟏𝟎 𝟏𝟎(𝐬 + 𝟏)
𝐀 (𝐂)
𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟏𝟏𝐬 + 𝟏𝟏 𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟏𝟏𝐬 + 𝟏𝟏
𝟏 𝟏
𝐁 (𝐃)
𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟏𝟏𝐬 + 𝟏𝟏 𝐬 𝟐 + 𝐬 + 𝟏𝟏

GATE Question (ECE-2007)

## Common Data Questions:

Consider a linear system whose state space representation is
𝟏
x ̇(t) = Ax(t). If the initial state vector of the system is 𝐱 𝟎 = , then
−𝟐
𝐞−𝟐𝐭
the system response is 𝐱 𝐭 = −𝟐𝐭 . If the initial state vector of the
−𝟐𝐞
𝟏
system changes to 𝐱 𝟎 = , then the system response becomes
−𝟏
−𝐭
𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐞 .
−𝐞−𝐭
GATE Question contd…(ECE-2007)

The Eigen value and eigenvector pairs 𝛌𝐢, 𝐯𝐢, for the system are
𝟏 𝟏
(A −𝟏, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 −𝟐,
−𝟏 −𝟐
𝟏 𝟏
(B) −𝟐, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 −𝟏,
−𝟏 −𝟐
𝟏 𝟏
(C) −𝟏, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝟐,
−𝟏 −𝟐
𝟏 𝟏
(D) −𝟐, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝟏,
−𝟏 −𝟐

GATE Question (ECE-2007)

## The system matrix A is

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝐀 𝐂
−𝟏 −𝟐 −𝟏 −𝟐
𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟏
𝐁 𝐃
−𝟏 𝟏 −𝟐 −𝟑

GATE Question (ECE-2008)
A signal flow graph of a system is given below

## The set of equations that correspond to this signal flow graph is

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2008)

𝐱 𝛃 −𝛄 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 𝐮
𝐝 𝟏
𝐀 𝐱𝟐 = 𝛄 𝛂 𝟎 𝐱𝟐 + 𝟎 𝟎 𝐮𝟏
𝐝𝐭 𝐱 −𝛂 −𝛃 𝟎 𝐱𝟑
𝟐
𝟑 𝟎 𝟏

𝐱 𝟎 𝛂 𝛄 𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝐮
𝐝 𝟏
𝐁 𝐱𝟐 = 𝟎 −𝛂 −𝛄 𝐱𝟐 + 𝟎 𝟏 𝐮𝟏
𝐝𝐭 𝐱 𝟎 𝛃 −𝛃 𝐱𝟑
𝟐
𝟑 𝟏 𝟎

𝐱 −𝛂 𝛃 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 𝐮
𝐝 𝟏 𝟏
𝐂 𝐱𝟐 = −𝛃 −𝛄 𝟎 𝐱𝟐 + 𝟎 𝟏 𝐮
𝐝𝐭 𝐱 𝟐
𝟑 𝛂 𝛄 𝟎 𝐱𝟑 𝟎 𝟎

𝐱 −𝛄 𝟎 𝛃 𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝐮
𝐝 𝟏
𝐃 𝐱𝟐 = 𝛄 𝟎 𝛂 𝐱𝟐 + 𝟎 𝟎 𝐮𝟏
𝐝𝐭 𝐱 −𝛃 𝟎 −𝛂 𝐱𝟑
𝟐
𝟑 𝟏 𝟎
GATE Question (ECE-2009)

## Consider the system dx/dt = Ax + Bu with

𝟏 𝟎 𝐩
𝐀 = 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐁 = 𝐪 ,
𝟎 𝟏
where p and q are arbitrary real numbers.
Which of the following statements about the controllability of the
system is true?

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2009)

## (A) The system is completely state controllable for any nonzero

values of p and q
(B) Only p = 0 and q = 0 result in controllability
(C) The system is uncontrollable for all values of p and q
(D) We cannot conclude about controllability from the given data

GATE Question (ECE-2010)

## Common Data for Questions:

The signal flow graph of a system is shown below.

## U(s) 2 1/s 1/s 1 0.5 Y(s)

−1
−1

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2010)

## The state variable representation of the system can be

𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝟏 𝟎
𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮 𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮
𝐀 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟐 𝐂 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟐
𝐲 = 𝟎 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐱 𝐲 = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐱

−𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 −𝟏 𝟏 𝟎
𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮 𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮
𝐁 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟐 𝐃 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟐
𝐲 = 𝟎 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐱 𝐲 = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐱

GATE Question (ECE-2010)

## The transfer function of the system is

𝐬+𝟏 𝐬+𝟏
𝐀 𝟐 (𝐂) 𝟐
𝐬 +𝟏 𝐬 +𝐬+𝟏
𝐬−𝟏 𝐬−𝟏
𝐁 𝟐 (𝐃) 𝟐
𝐬 +𝟏 𝐬 +𝐬+𝟏

GATE Question (ECE-2011)

The block diagram of a system with one input u and two outputs
𝐲𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝟐 𝐢𝐬 𝐠𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 𝐛𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐰.

A state space model of the above system in terms of the state vector 𝐱
and the output vector 𝐲 = 𝐲𝟏 𝐲𝟐 𝐓 is
GATE Question contd…(ECE-2011)

𝐀 𝐱 = 𝟐 𝐱 + 𝟏 𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝟏 𝟐𝐱
𝟏
𝐁 𝐱 = −𝟐 𝐱 + 𝟏 𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝐱
𝟐
−𝟐 𝟎 𝟏
𝐂 𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝟏 𝟐𝐱
𝟎 −𝟐 𝟏
𝟐 𝟎 𝟏 𝟏
𝐃 𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝐱
𝟎 𝟐 𝟏 𝟐

GATE Question (ECE-2012)

## The state variable description of an LTI system is given by

𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝐚𝟏 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝟎
𝐱𝟐 = 𝟎 𝟎 𝐚𝟐 𝐱𝟐 + 𝟎 𝐮
𝐱𝟑 𝐚𝟑 𝟎 𝟎 𝐱𝟑 𝟏
𝐱𝟏
𝐲= 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝐱𝟐
𝐱𝟑

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2012)

## Where y is the output and u is the input. The system is controllable

for
𝐀 𝐚𝟏 ≠ 𝟎, 𝐚𝟐 = 𝟎, 𝐚𝟑 ≠ 𝟎
𝐁 𝐚𝟏 = 𝟎, 𝐚𝟐 ≠ 𝟎, 𝐚𝟑 ≠ 𝟎
𝐂 𝐚𝟏 = 𝟎, 𝐚𝟐 ≠ 𝟎, 𝐚𝟑 = 𝟎
𝐃 𝐚𝟏 ≠ 𝟎, 𝐚𝟐 ≠ 𝟎, 𝐚𝟑 = 𝟎

GATE Question (ECE-2013)

The state diagram of a system is shown below. A system is described
by the state – variable equations
𝐗 = 𝐀𝐗 + 𝐁𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝐂𝐱 + 𝐃𝐮

1 −1 1 −1 1
u y

1 s 1 s

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2013)

The state – variable equation of the system shown in the figure above
are

−𝟏 𝟎 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟎 −𝟏
𝐗= 𝐗+ 𝐮 𝐗= 𝐗+ 𝐮
𝐀 𝟏 −𝟏 𝟏 𝐂 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟏
𝐲= 𝟏 −𝟏 𝐗+𝐮 𝐲 = −𝟏 − 𝟏 𝐗 − 𝐮

−𝟏 𝟎 −𝟏 −𝟏 −𝟏 −𝟏
𝐗= 𝐗+ 𝐮 𝐗= 𝐗+ 𝐮
𝐁 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟏 𝐃 𝟎 −𝟏 𝟏
𝐲 = −𝟏 − 𝟏 𝐗 + 𝐮 𝐲= 𝟏 −𝟏 𝐗−𝐮

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2013)

The state transition matrix 𝐞𝐀𝐭 of the system shown in the figure
above is

𝐀 𝐞−𝐭 𝟎 𝐂 𝐞−𝐭 𝟎
𝐭𝐞−𝐭 𝐞−𝐭 𝐞−𝐭 𝐞−𝐭

𝐁 𝐞−𝐭 𝟎 𝐃 𝐞 −𝐭 𝐭𝐞−𝐭
−𝐭𝐞−𝐭 𝐞−𝐭 𝟎 𝐞−𝐭

GATE Question (ECE-2014)

## Consider the state space model of a system, as given below

𝐱𝟏 −𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝟎
𝐱𝟐 = 𝟎 −𝟏 𝟎 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝟒 𝐮;
𝐱𝟑 𝟎 𝟎 −𝟐 𝐱 𝟑 𝟎
𝐱𝟏
𝐲= 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝐱𝟐
𝐱𝟑

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2014)

The system is
(A) controllable and observable
(B) uncontrollable and observable
(C) uncontrollable and unobservable
(D) controllable and unobservable

GATE Question (ECE-2014)
Consider the state space system expressed by the signal flow diagram
shown in the figure.

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2014)

## The corresponding system is

(A) always controllable (C) always stable
(B) always observable (D) always unstable

GATE Question (ECE-2014)
An unforced linear time invariant (LTI) system is represented by
𝐱𝟏 −𝟏 𝟎 𝐱 𝟏
=
𝐱𝟐 𝟎 −𝟐 𝐱 𝟐
If the initial conditions are 𝐱 𝟏 𝟎 = 𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐱 𝟐 𝟎 = −𝟏, the solution of
the state equation is
(A) 𝐱 𝟏 𝐭 = −𝟏, 𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 = 𝟐
(B) 𝐱 𝟏 𝐭 = −𝐞−𝐭 , 𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 = 𝟐𝐞−𝐭
(C) 𝐱 𝟏 𝐭 = 𝐞−𝐭 , 𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 = −𝐞−𝟐𝐭
(D) 𝐱 𝟏 𝐭 = −𝐞− 𝐭, 𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 = −𝟐𝐞−𝐭

GATE Question (ECE-2014)

## The state equation of a second-order linear system is given by

𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐀𝐱 𝐭 , 𝐱 𝟎 = 𝐱𝟎
𝟏 𝐞−𝐭
𝐅𝐨𝐫 𝐱 𝟎 = ,𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐚𝐧𝐝
−𝟏 −𝐞−𝐭
𝟎 𝐞 −𝐭 − 𝐞−𝟐𝐭
𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐱 𝟎 = ,𝐱 𝐭 =
𝟏 −𝐞−𝐭 + 𝟐𝐞−𝟐𝐭

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2014)

𝟑
When 𝐱 𝟎 = , 𝐱 𝐭 𝐢𝐬
𝟓

## 𝐀 −𝟖𝐞−𝐭 + 𝟏𝟏𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝐂 𝟑𝐞−𝐭 − 𝟓𝐞−𝟐𝐭

𝟖𝐞−𝐭 − 𝟐𝟐𝐞−𝟐𝐭 −𝟑𝐞−𝐭 + 𝟏𝟎𝐞−𝟐𝐭

## −𝟏𝟏𝐞−𝐭 + 𝟏𝟔𝐞−𝟐𝐭 −𝟓𝐞−𝐭 + 𝟔𝐞−𝟐𝐭

GATE Question (ECE-2014)

## The state transition matrix ϕ(t) of a system

𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝐱𝟏
= 𝐱 𝐢𝐬
𝐱𝟐 𝟎 𝟎 𝟐
𝐭 𝟏 𝟎 𝟏
𝐀 𝐂
𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝐭
𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝐭
𝐁 𝐃
𝐭 𝟏 𝟎 𝟏

GATE Question (ECE-2015)

## The state variable representation of a system is given as

𝟎 𝟏 𝟏
𝐱= 𝐱; 𝐱(𝟎) =
𝟎 −𝟏 𝟎
𝐲= 𝟎 𝟏𝐱
The response y(t) is
(A) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝐭 (C) 1-cos(t)
(B) 𝟏 − 𝐞𝐭 (D) 0

GATE Question (ECE-2015)

## A network is described by the state model is

𝐱 𝟏 = 𝟐𝐱 𝟏 − 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝟑𝐮
𝐱 𝟐 = −𝟒𝐱 𝟐 − 𝐮
𝐲 = 𝟑𝐱 𝟏 − 𝟐𝐱 𝟐

𝐘 𝐬
𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐬𝐟𝐞𝐫 𝐟𝐮𝐧𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐇 𝐬 = 𝐢𝐬
𝐔 𝐬
𝟏𝟏𝐬+𝟑𝟓 𝟏𝟏𝐬+𝟑𝟖
(A) (C)
𝐬−𝟐 𝐬+𝟒 𝐬−𝟐 𝐬+𝟒
𝟏𝟏𝐬−𝟑𝟓 𝟏𝟏𝐬−𝟑𝟖
(B) (D)
𝐬−𝟐 𝐬+𝟒 𝐬−𝟐 𝐬+𝟒
GATE Question (ECE-2016)

## A second-order linear time-invariant system is described by the following

state equations

𝐝
𝐱 𝐭 + 𝟐𝐱𝟏 𝐭 = 𝟑𝐮 𝐭 ;
𝐝𝐭 𝟏

𝐝
𝐱 𝐭 + 𝐱𝟐 𝐭 = 𝐮 𝐭
𝐝𝐭 𝟐

𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞 𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐱𝟐 𝐭 are the two state variables and u(t) denotes the input.

## If the output 𝐜(𝐭) = 𝐱𝟏 𝐭 , 𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐧 the system is

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2016)

## (D) neither controllable nor observable

GATE Question (ECE-2017)

𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝟎 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝟎
Consider the state space realization = + 𝐮 𝐭 ,
𝐱 𝟐(𝐭) 𝟎 −𝟗 𝐱 𝟐 (𝐭) 𝟒𝟓

𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟎
With the initial condition = ;
𝐱 𝟐 (𝟎) 𝟎
w𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞 𝐮 𝐭 𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐨𝐭𝐞𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐮𝐧𝐢𝐭 𝐬𝐭𝐞𝐩 𝐟𝐮𝐧𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧.

## 𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐯𝐚𝐥𝐮𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝐱 𝟐𝟏 𝐭 + 𝐱 𝟐𝟐 (𝐭) 𝐢𝐬________

𝐭→∞

GATE Question (ECE-2017)

## A second order LTI system is described by the following state

equation.
𝐝
𝐱 𝐭 − 𝐱𝟐 𝐭 = 𝟎
𝐝𝐭 𝟏
𝐝
𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 + 𝟐𝐱 𝟏 𝐭 + 𝟑𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 = 𝐫(𝐭)
𝐝𝐭
Where 𝐱 𝟏 (𝐭) and 𝐱 𝟐 (𝐭) are the two state variables and r(t) denotes the
input. The output 𝐜(𝐭) = 𝐱 𝟏 (𝐭). The system is

GATE Question contd…(ECE-2017)

## (D) over damped

GATE Question (EC-2018-2 Marks)
The state equation and the output equation of a control system are given below

−𝟒 −𝟏. 𝟓 𝟐
𝐱= 𝐱+ 𝐮
𝟒 𝟎 𝟎
𝐲 = 𝟏. 𝟓 𝟎. 𝟔𝟐𝟓 𝐱

## The transfer function representation of the system is

𝟑𝐬 + 𝟓 𝟑𝐬 − 𝟏. 𝟖𝟕𝟓
𝐀 𝐁
𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟒𝐬 + 𝟔 𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟒𝐬 + 𝟔
𝟒𝐬 + 𝟏. 𝟓 𝟔𝐬 + 𝟓
𝐂 𝐃
𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟒𝐬 + 𝟔 𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟒𝐬 + 𝟔

GATE Question (EC-2019-2M)
Let the state-space representation of an LTI system be 𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐀 𝐱 𝐭 + 𝐁 𝐮(𝐭).
𝐲 𝐭 = 𝐂 𝐱 𝐭 + 𝐝 𝐮(𝐭) where A,B,C are matrices, d is a scalar, u(t) is the input
to the system, and y(t) is its output. Let 𝐁 = 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝐓 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐝 = 𝟎. Which
one of the following options for A and C will ensure that the transfer
function of this LTI system is
𝟏
𝐇 𝐬 = 𝟑 ?
𝐬 + 𝟑𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟐𝐬 + 𝟏

𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
𝐀 𝐀= 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂 = 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎
−𝟏 −𝟐 −𝟑

## SUBJECT: Control System

GATE Question contd…..(EC-2019-2M)
𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
𝐁 𝐀= 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂 = 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏
−𝟏 −𝟐 −𝟑
𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
𝐂 𝐀= 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂 = 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏
−𝟑 −𝟐 −𝟏
𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
𝐃 𝐀= 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂 = 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎
−𝟑 −𝟐 −𝟏

## SUBJECT: Control System

GATE Question (EE-2008)

The state space equation of a system is described by
𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮, 𝐲 = 𝐂𝐱,
where x is state vector, u is input, y is output and
𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
𝐀 = ,𝐁 = ,𝐂 = 𝟏 𝟎
𝟎 −𝟐 𝟏

GATE Question contd…(EE-2008)

## The transfer function G(s) of this system will be

𝐬 𝐬
𝐀 (𝐂)
𝐬+𝟐 𝐬 − 𝟐
𝐬+𝟏 𝟏
𝐁 (𝐃)
𝐬 𝐬 − 𝟐 𝐬 𝐬+𝟐

GATE Question contd…(EE-2008)
A unity feedback is provided to the above system G(S) to make it a closed
loop system as shown in figure.

For a unit step input r(t), the steady state error in the output will be
(A) 0 (C) 2
(B) 1 (D) ∞

GATE Question (EE-2009)

## Common Data Questions:

A system is described by the following state and output equations
𝐝𝐱 𝟏 𝐭
= − 𝟑𝐱 𝟏 𝐭 + 𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 + 𝟐𝐮 𝐭
𝐝𝐭
𝐝𝐱 𝟐 𝐭
= − 𝟐𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 + 𝐮 𝐭
𝐝𝐭
𝐲 𝐭 = 𝐱𝟏 𝐭
where u(t) is the input and y(t) is the output.

GATE Question contd…(EE-2009)

## The system transfer function is

𝐬+𝟐 𝟐𝐬 + 𝟓
𝐀 (𝐂)
𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟓𝐬 − 𝟔 𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟓𝐬 + 𝟔
𝐬+𝟑 𝟐𝐬 − 𝟓
𝐁 𝟐 (𝐃) 𝟐
𝐬 + 𝟓𝐬 + 𝟔 𝐬 + 𝟓𝐬 − 𝟔

GATE Question (EE-2009)

## 𝐀 𝐞−𝟑𝐭 𝟎 𝐂 𝐞−𝟑𝐭 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 + 𝐞−𝟑𝐭

𝐞−𝟐𝐭 + 𝐞−𝟑𝐭 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟎 𝐞−𝟐𝐭

## 𝐁 𝐞−𝟑𝐭 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 − 𝐞−𝟑𝐭 𝐃 𝐞𝟑𝐭 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 − 𝐞−𝟑𝐭

𝟎 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟎 𝐞−𝟐𝐭

GATE Question (EE-2010)

## The system 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 with

−𝟏 𝟐 𝟎
𝐀= ,𝐁 = 𝐢𝐬
𝟎 𝟐 𝟏
(A) stable and controllable
(B) stable but uncontrollable
(C) unstable but controllable
(D) unstable and uncontrollable

GATE Question (EE-2013)

## Common Data Questions:

The state variable formulation of a system is given as
𝐱𝟏 −𝟐 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝟏
= + 𝐮,
𝐱𝟐 𝟎 −𝟏 𝐱 𝟐 𝟏
𝐱𝟏
𝐱 𝟏 𝟎 = 𝟎, 𝐱 𝟐 𝟎 = 𝟎 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲 = 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱
𝟐

GATE Question contd…(EE-2013)

The system is
(A) Controllable but not observable
(B) Not controllable but observable
(C) Both controllable and observable
(D) Both not controllable and not observable

GATE Question (EE-2013)

## The response y(t) to a unit step input is

𝟏 𝟏 −𝟐𝐭
𝐀 − 𝐞 𝐂 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 − 𝐞−𝐭
𝟐 𝟐
𝟏 −𝟐𝐭 𝟏 −𝐭
𝐁 𝟏− 𝐞 − 𝐞 𝐃 𝟏 − 𝐞−𝐭
𝟐 𝟐

GATE Question (EE-2014)

## A system matrix is given as follows.

𝟎 𝟏 −𝟏
𝐀 = −𝟔 −𝟏𝟏 𝟔
−𝟔 −𝟏𝟏 𝟓
The absolute value of the ratio of the maximum eigenvalue to the
minimum eigenvalue is _____

GATE Question (EE-2014)

## The second order dynamic system

𝐝𝐱
= 𝐏𝐱 + 𝐐𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝐑𝐱
𝐝𝐭
where matrices P, Q and R as follows:
−𝟏 𝟏
𝐏=
𝟎 −𝟑
𝟎
𝐐=
𝟏
𝐑= 𝟎 𝟏

GATE Question contd…(EE-2014)

## The system has the following controllability and observability

properties:
(A) Controllable and observable
(B) Not controllable but observable
(C) Controllable but not observable
(D) Not controllable and not observable

GATE Question (EE-2014)

## The state transition matrix for the system

𝐱𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱𝟏 𝟏
= 𝐱 + 𝐮 𝐢𝐬
𝐱𝟐 𝟏 𝟏 𝟐 𝟏

𝐀 𝐞𝐭 𝟎 𝐂 𝐞𝐭 𝟎
𝐞𝐭 𝐞𝐭 𝐭𝐞𝐭 𝐞𝐭

𝐁 𝐞𝐭 𝟎 𝐃 𝐞𝐭 𝐭𝐞𝐭
𝐭 𝟐 𝐞𝐭 𝐞𝐭 𝟎 𝐞𝐭

GATE Question (EE-2014)

## Consider the system described by following state space equations

𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝐱𝟏 𝟎
= 𝐱 + 𝐮;
𝐱𝟐 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟐 𝟏
𝐱𝟏
𝐲= 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱
𝟐
If u is unit step input, then the steady state error of the system is
(A) 0 (C) 2/3
(B) 1/2 (D) 1

GATE Question (EE-2015)
5
In the signal flow diagram given in the
figure, 𝐮𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐮𝟐 are possible inputs u1 x1 y1
1/s
whereas 𝐲𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝟐 are possible 1 1
outputs. When would the SISO system −2

## derived from this diagram be 1 1

controllable and observable? 2
1/s
u2 1 −1 y2
1

GATE Question contd…(EE-2015)

## (A) 𝐖𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐮𝟏 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐢𝐧𝐩𝐮𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝟏 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐨𝐮𝐭𝐩𝐮𝐭

(B) 𝐖𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐮𝟐 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐢𝐧𝐩𝐮𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝟏 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐨𝐮𝐭𝐩𝐮𝐭
(C) 𝐖𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐮𝟏 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐢𝐧𝐩𝐮𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝟐 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐨𝐮𝐭𝐩𝐮𝐭
(D) 𝐖𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐮𝟐 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐢𝐧𝐩𝐮𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝟐 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐥𝐲 𝐨𝐮𝐭𝐩𝐮𝐭

GATE Question (EE-2015)

## For the system governed by the set of equations:

𝐝𝐱 𝟏
𝐝𝐭
= 𝟐𝐱 𝟏 + 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐮
𝐝𝐱 𝟐
𝐝𝐭
= −𝟐x1+𝐮
𝐲 = 𝟑𝐱 𝟏
The transfer function Y(s)/U(s) is given by
𝐀 𝟑(𝐬 + 𝟏)/(𝐬 𝟐 − 𝟐𝐬 + 𝟐) 𝐂 (𝐬 + 𝟏)/(𝐬 𝟐 − 𝟐𝐬 + 𝟏)
𝐁 𝟑(𝟐𝐬 + 𝟏)/(𝐬 𝟐 − 𝟐𝐬 + 𝟏) 𝐃 𝟑(𝟐𝐬 + 𝟏)/(𝐬 𝟐 − 𝟐𝐬 + 𝟐)

GATE Question (EE-2016)

## Consider the following state-space representation of a linear time-

invariant system
𝟏𝟎
𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐱 𝐭 , 𝐲 𝐭 = 𝐂𝐓𝐱 𝐭 ,
𝟎𝟐
𝟏 𝟏
𝐂= 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐱(𝟎) = .
𝟏 𝟏
The value of y(t) for t = loge2 is _____

GATE Question (EE-2016)

## Consider a linear time invariant system x ̇=Ax, with initial condition

x(0) at t=0. Suppose α and β are eigenvectors of 2 × 2 matrix A
corresponding to distinct eigenvalues 𝛌𝟏 and 𝛌𝟐 respectively. Then the
response x(t) of the system due to initial condition x(0)=α is
(A) 𝐞𝛌𝟏𝐭 𝛂 (C) 𝐞𝛌𝟐𝐭 𝛂
(B) 𝐞𝛌𝟐𝐭 𝛃 (D) 𝐞𝛌𝟏𝐭 𝛂 + 𝐞𝛌𝟐 𝐭 𝛃

GATE Question (EE-2017)
The transfer function of the system Y(s)/U(s) whose state-space equations
are given below is:

𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝟏 𝟐 𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝟏
= + 𝐮 𝐭
𝐱𝟐 𝐭 𝟐 𝟎 𝐱𝟐 𝐭 𝟐
𝐱𝟏 𝐭
𝐲 𝐭 = 𝟏 𝟎
𝐱𝟐 𝐭
(𝐬 + 𝟐) 𝐬−𝟒
𝐀 𝐂
(𝐬 𝟐 − 𝟐𝐬 − 𝟐) 𝐬𝟐 + 𝐬 − 𝟒
𝐬−𝟐 𝐬+𝟒
𝐁 𝐃
𝐬𝟐 + 𝐬 − 𝟒 𝐬𝟐 − 𝐬 − 𝟒
GATE Question (EE-2017)

## Consider the system described by the following state space

representation
𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝟎 𝟏 𝐱𝟏 𝐭 𝟎
= + 𝐮(𝐭)
𝐱𝟐 𝐭 𝟎 −𝟐 𝐱 𝟐 𝐭 𝟏
𝐱𝟏 𝐭
𝐲 𝐭 = 𝟏 𝟎
𝐱𝟐 𝐭
𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟏
If u(t) is a unit step input and = , the value of output y(t) at
𝐱𝟐 𝟎 𝟎
t = 1sec (rounded off to three decimal places) is ________

GATE Question (EE-2018-2 Marks)
Consider a system governed by the following equations

𝐝𝐱𝟏 (𝐭)
= 𝐱𝟐 𝐭 − 𝐱𝟏 (𝐭)
𝐝𝐭

𝐝𝐱𝟐 (𝐭)
= 𝐱𝟏 𝐭 − 𝐱𝟐 (𝐭)
𝐝𝐭

The initial conditions are such that 𝐱𝟏 (𝟎) < 𝐱𝟐 (𝟎) < ∞ . Let 𝐱𝟏𝐟 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝐱𝟏 (𝐭) and
𝐭→∞

## 𝐱𝟐𝐟 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝐱𝟐 (𝐭) . Which one of the following is true?

𝐭→
𝐀 𝐱𝟏𝐟 < 𝐱𝟐𝐟 < ∞ 𝐁 𝐱𝟐𝐟 < 𝐱𝟏𝐟 < ∞
𝐂 𝐱𝟏𝐟 = 𝐱𝟐𝐟 < ∞ 𝐃 𝐱𝟏𝐟 = 𝐱𝟐𝐟 = ∞

GATE Question (EE-2019-2M)
Consider a state-variable model of a system
𝐱𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝐱𝟏 𝟎
= + 𝐫
𝐱𝟐 −𝛂 −𝟐𝛃 𝐱𝟐 𝛂
𝐱𝟏
𝐲= 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱
𝟐
Where y is the output, and r is the input. The damping ratio 𝛏 and the undamped
natural frequency 𝛚𝐧 (rad/sec) of the system are given by:
𝛃 𝛃
𝐀 𝛏= ; 𝛚𝐧 = 𝛂 𝐁 𝛏 = 𝛂; 𝛚𝐧 =
𝛂 𝛂
𝛂
𝐂 𝛏= 𝛃; 𝛚𝐧 = 𝛂 𝐃 𝛏= ; 𝛚𝐧 = 𝛃
𝛃

## SUBJECT: Control Systems

GATE Question (IN-2008)

## The state space representation of a system is given by

𝟎 𝟏 𝟏
𝐗= 𝐗 + 𝐮, 𝐲 = 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱.
𝟎 −𝟑 𝟎
𝐘 𝐬
The transfer function of the system will be
𝐔 𝐬
𝟏 𝟏
𝐀 𝐂
𝐬 𝐬+𝟑
𝟏 𝟏
𝐁 𝐃
𝐬 𝐬+𝟑 𝐬𝟐

GATE Question (IN-2009)

## A linear time-invariant single-input single-output system has a state

space model given by
𝐝𝐱
= 𝐅𝐱 + 𝐆𝐮; 𝐲 = 𝐇𝐱
𝐝𝐭
𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
Where 𝐅 = ; 𝐆= ; 𝐇 = 𝟏 𝟎.
−𝟒 −𝟐 𝟏
Here, x is the state vector, u is the input, and y is the output. The
damping ratio of the system is
(A) 0.25 (C) 1
(B) 0.5 (D) 2

GATE Question (IN-2011)

## The transfer function of the system described by the state-space

equations
𝐱𝟏 −𝟒 −𝟏 𝐱 𝟏 𝟏 𝐱𝟏
= + 𝐮, 𝐲 = 𝟏 𝟎 𝐱 𝐢𝐬
𝐱𝟐 −𝟑 −𝟏 𝐱 𝟐 𝟏 𝟐
𝐬 𝟑𝐬
𝐀 𝟐 (𝐂) 𝟐
𝐬 + 𝟓𝐬 + 𝟏 𝐬 + 𝟓𝐬 + 𝟏
𝟐𝐬 𝟒𝐬
𝐁 (𝐃)
𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟓𝐬 + 𝟏 𝐬 𝟐 + 𝟓𝐬 + 𝟏

GATE Question (IN-2015)

## A system is represented in state-space as

𝟏 𝟐 𝟏
𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮, 𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞 𝐀 = 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐁 = .
𝛂 𝟔 𝟏
The value of 𝛂 for which the system is not controllable is __________.

GATE Question (IN-2017)
A System is described by the following differential equation:
𝐝𝐲(𝐭) 𝐝𝐱 𝐭
+ 𝟐𝐲 𝐭 = + 𝐱 𝐭 , 𝐱(𝟎) = 𝐲(𝟎) = 𝟎
𝐝𝐭 𝐝𝐭
Where x(t) and y(t) are the input and output variables respectively.
The transfer function of the inverse system is
𝐬+𝟏 𝐬+𝟏
𝐀 𝐂
𝐬−𝟐 𝐬+𝟐
𝐬+𝟐 𝐬−𝟏
𝐁 𝐃
𝐬+𝟏 𝐬−𝟐

GATE Question (IN-2018-2 Mark)

## Consider the linear system

−𝟏 𝟎 𝟏
𝐱= 𝐱, 𝐰𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐚𝐥 𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐱 𝟎 = .The solution x(t)
𝟎 −𝟐 𝟏
for this system is

−𝐭 −𝐭
𝐀 𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐞 𝐭𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟏 𝐁 𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐞 𝟎 𝟏
𝟎 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟏 𝟎 𝐞𝟐𝐭 𝟏

−𝐭 −𝐭
𝐂 𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐞 −𝐭𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟏 𝐃 𝐱 𝐭 = 𝐞 𝟎 𝟏
𝟎 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟏 𝟎 𝐞−𝟐𝐭 𝟏