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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME

INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION

__________________________

A research

Presented to

Faculty Development

In Partial Fulfillment in course

Research 2

Presented by

Carlos, Lance A.

Reyes, Jerome Ryan D.

Tan, Ramon Diego A.

PHILIPPINE YUH CHIAU SCHOOL

Del Pilar, Cabatuan, Isabela


EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

ABSTRACT

Climate change has only been worsening over the years. With this, the cases where

extreme temperatures are felt have also been rising. Rice husks and coconut fibers are two of

the Philippines’ most common agricultural by-products that are often only put to waste. In

this research, these two components were tested to see how efficient they would work as

home insulation boards for proper heat regulation.

Three prototypes houses were built to test the effectiveness of the insulation boards:

the first had no insulation, the second had one rice husk board and one coconut fiber board,

and the third had two coconut boards with a rice husk board in between. Test results showed

that the prototype with the 1:1 ratio of rice husk and coconut fiber boards worked best in

regulating heat and maintaining coolness in a hot environment.

The R-Value of the product was compared to that of commercially produced

insulation boards, and it was found that their values only had small differences. Hence, these

two types were found to be similarly effective; however, in terms of prices and health safety,

the naturally produced insulation board offered more benefits.

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Chapter I

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

Being that the Philippines is a tropical country and is located near the equator, one of

the constant environmental problems in the country is the extremely hot weather experienced

particularly in the summer during March to June. When mere winds from electric fans cannot

even help, some resort to using air conditioners. But not all Filipinos get to have this luxury

due to its high cost. Air conditioners are not the most eco-friendly as well, since it is known

to produce chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that only add to greenhouse gases.

There are more solutions to this excessive heat problem, and the utilization of

insulation boards is one. Insulation in homes provides resistance to heat flow; in warm

climates, it is used to keep the heat outside and in cold climates it is used to keep the heat

inside. This is used in a variety of locations in houses: inside walls and roof systems, under

floors, and around foundations. Consequently, with proper heat regulation, cooling costs from

electric fans or air conditioners are also lessened. However, the use of common, synthetic,

commercially produced insulation boards such as fiberglass and foam insulation arouses a

number of potential health hazards.

It is for these reasons that in this study, the researchers use agricultural by-products,

specifically rice husk and coconut fiber which are considered by most as mainly non-

functional, as components of a natural and effective home insulation board that would be safe

to the home and environment, and useful to the people.

As the Philippines is mainly an agricultural country, 47% of its land area is devoted to

crops. With that in mind, rice is one of the main harvests grown, as it is the staple food in the

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

country. Rice husk, which is the outermost layer that is separated from the rice grains during

the milling process, is generated in large volumes. The estimated production of these is an

average two million tons per annum, which is equivalent to about five million BOE (barrels

of oil equivalent) in terms of energy. Yet in countries where rice is the staple food, the

processing of rice functions as a waste or discarded by burning them (Bronzeoak, 2003).

Rice hulls are formed from hard materials, including lignin and silica, which is a type

of silicon oxide polymer that does not have a melting point and most commonly is used for

its hardness, to protect the seed during the growing season. Furthermore, rice hulls have the

properties that are very desirable in producing insulation, such as low thermal conductivity,

high melting point, low bulk density and high porosity (Haryati et al., 2017).

Coconut wastes come in second: shells, husks, and coir dust, since the Philippines

also produces most of the world market for coconut oil, and has the largest number of

coconut trees in the world. Approximately five hundred million coconut trees in the

Philippines produce tremendous amounts of biomass as husk (4.1 million tonnes), shell (1.8

million tonnes), and frond (4.5 million tonnes annually). In the husk of the coconut,

approximately 75% of it is fiber and 25% is fine material. This fiber has high lignin content

and low cellulose content, creating resilient, strong, and highly durable materials

characteristics. Although, traditionally, the dust and small fibers were only left behind and

accumulated as a waste product.

Harrison et al. (2011) stated that higher cost means lower productivity and

consequently this reduces the profit. Therefore, alternative materials having the same or

better properties as the conventional material need to be explored as it can offer lower cost

(Yuhazari, et al. 2011). Rice husk and coconut fiber are two of the most common and most

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

unrecognized agricultural wastes that could be utilized in beneficial innovations today that

would prove to be very beneficial, with home insulation as an example.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The climate of the Philippines is tropical and maritime, characterized by relatively

high temperature, high humidity and abundant rainfall. During the summer season,

particularly March to May, temperature could rise up to 36 degrees Celsius. On the other

hand, during the rainy season, the country experiences low temperature that some may also

find uncomfortable. Throughout these months, discomfort and health problems can occur

especially when a home is poorly insulated. Cooling and heating appliances use more

electricity when the heat regulation is poor. Therefore, when the temperature flow throughout

the house is well regulated, these machines will be more efficient and energy consumption

would be lessened.

The following questions will be answered in the process of the study:

1) Will coconut fiber and rice husk effectively regulate temperature flow in a house?

2) Will the natural insulation board be more efficient compared to commercially

produced synthetic insulation boards?

3) Will the product make a significant difference in reducing harmful gases that is

emitted by cooling and heating appliances?

HYPOTHESES

1) Ho: There is no significant difference in using coconut and rice husk to regulate

temperature flow in a house.

Ha: There is a significant difference in using coconut and rice husk to regulate

temperature flow in a house.

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2) Ho: There is no significant difference between the natural insulation board and the

commercially produced synthetic insulation boards.

Ha: There is a significant difference between the natural insulation board and the

commercially produced synthetic insulation boards.

3) Ho: There is no significant difference in the reduction of harmful gases that is emitted

by cooling and heating appliances from using the product.

Ha: There is a significant difference in the reduction of harmful gases that is emitted

by cooling and heating appliances from using the product.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Over the years, world has been experiencing worse, extreme heat due to global

warming. Because of the effects of the excessive heat from the sun, the researchers proposed

a study that would help with this issue. With the use of a home insulation board, heat inside

homes is properly regulated, protecting the occupants against the cold during the rainy season

and the excess heat during summer. Insulation is also useful in reducing noise pollution. The

outcome on this research will rebound to the benefits of the following:

The people. Due to global warming, people have become more prone to illnesses.

Home insulations can help in maintaining good body health. Less exposure to heat that

results to dehydration and heatstroke. Less illnesses caused by the cold weather like colds and

Norovirus.

Insulation in homes using natural insulation boards is also inexpensive. This product

will reduce the amount of energy used by heating and cooling appliances in keeping the home

comfortable. Because of this, home insulation will reduce electricity bills and the cost of

cooling and heating in the home.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

The environment. Another benefit of insulating the home is a reduced environmental

impact. With an insulated home, less energy would be used for heating and cooling in trying

to get the desired temperature. The carbon footprint will be lessened, and so will the amount

of harmful chemicals released into the environment from air conditioning units.

Future researchers. With tested and accurate results, future researchers can use the

given evidences and facts to produce new products or further improve the existing researches.

This study may also help in the enrichment of future researchers’ knowledge in this field, and

in gathering data on using agricultural wastes in producing useful innovations.

OBJECTIVES

1) To properly regulate heat flow inside the home.

2) To efficiently utilize the natural materials found within the environment.

3) To make a natural product that is less expensive but is as effective as synthetic

alternatives.

4) To lessen energy costs of cooling or heating appliances.

5) To promote less hazardous materials that are being released into the surroundings.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Rice husk and


Temperature of
coconut fiber
the room
insulation board

Reduction of
harmful gases
Effectiveness of
Temperature
heat flow
outside the room
Efficiency regulation
compared to
synthetic
insulation boards
Figure 1. 7
EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

Figure 1 shows the relationship of the dependent and independent variables present in

the study. The temperature would depend on the rice husk and coconut fiber insulation board;

its thickness and location in the house. For the effectiveness of the heat regulation, the

temperature of the room and the temperature outside the room would be compared to each

other. The effectiveness of this natural alternative would determine its efficiency in

comparison to synthetic insulation boards and the reduction of harmful gases released onto

the atmosphere.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The general intent of this study is to slow the rate of heat transfer in hot and cold

weathers, decelerating conductive heat flow and—to a lesser extent—convective heat flow.

With the use of rice husk and coconut fiber as the main components of a home

insulation board, the study would focus on giving the public a lower priced product in

comparison to commercially produced ones, but having the same, if not more, effectiveness.

And with the use of organic material, the study is intended to reduce the harmful

environmental impacts of synthetic home insulators.

The study is limited to the R-values of insulation. Wherein an insulating material’s

resistance to conductive heat flow is measured or rated in terms of its thermal resistance or R-

value—the higher the R-value, the greater the insulating effectiveness. The R-value depends

on the type of insulation, its thickness, and its density.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The definition of terms provides the reader a common understanding of key

concepts and terminology used in the first chapter, particularly if the term is unusual or not

widely known.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

Asbestos – a heat-resistance fibrous silicate material that can be woven into fabrics, and is used

in fire-resistant and insulating materials such as brake linings. The danger to health

caused by breathing in highly carcinogenic asbestos particles has led to stringent

control of its use

Fiberglass – a synthetic material primarily made of silica. Because it has been used as

replacement for asbestos, the production of fiberglass as insulation had increased

steadily over the years, but with this high amount of product, higher concerns about

possible health dangers also arose.

Foundries – a workshop or factory for casting metal

Maritime – denoting a climate that is moist and temperate owing to the influence of the sea

Norovirus – any of various single-stranded RNA viruses

Per annum – in a year; for a year

Refractory – resistant to heat; hard to melt or fuse*

R-Value – the capacity of an insulating material to resist heat flow. The higher the R-Value,

the greater the insulating power. This is calculated by dividing the thickness of the

material in meters by the thermal conductivity in W/mK

Silica – a hard, unreactive, colorless compound; alternative name: silicon dioxide

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Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Extreme Temperatures: The excessive heat brought about by global warming is felt

all around the world, and its effects are very evident in the surroundings. Because of the great

amount of greenhouse gases humans have emitted ever since the Industrial Revolution in the

1830s, this root problem had only worsened over time. Industrialization has always seemed to

be the key to wealth and better living but in reality, it has been shown that, although it leads

to better conditions of living in certain respects, it affects environment and ultimately

contributes to climate change—as stated by Chigbo Mgbemene et al. (2016) in a study on

industrialization’s backlash affecting climate change. Over the past 50 years, the average

global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history, and that emissions of

greenhouse gases are expected to alarmingly raise global mean temperature over the next

century by 1.0–3.5 °C (Houghton et al., 1995).

This drastic change causes various extremes to the environment that also severely

affects life on earth. Some examples of impacts resulting from projected changes in extreme

climate events are: higher maximum temperatures (more hot days and heat waves over nearly

all land areas), higher minimum temperatures (fewer cold days, frost days, and cold waves

over nearly all land areas), and more intense precipitation events (Ahmad, Q.K. et al., 2001).

Consequently, this leads to longer droughts, greater risk of flashfloods, and higher rates of

extreme temperature-causing diseases.

In 2015, an article by Nate Seltenrich was published regarding the effects of climate

change on worldwide weather patterns and temperatures, and with it, serious implications for

human health. It was also stated that as average temperatures continue to increase and

extreme heat events become more frequent and severe, the overall health burden of these

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extremes could also grow. Furthermore, there has been confirmation that ambient

temperature plays a large role in temperature-associated mortality, and that cardiovascular

mortality is susceptible to ambient temperature and diurnal temperature range, as an

investigation about this in five East-Asian countries had been conducted by Whan-Han Lee

and several other researchers in 2017.

It is commonly thought that higher temperatures result in a higher mortality rate;

however, this is a misconception. Although extreme heat or isolated heat waves indeed pose a

major health risk, it has been found by recent studies that, overall, more deaths occur in cold

weather than in hot. “This reality is obscured by the fact that, unlike heat-related health

effects, which spike during discrete events, cold-related illnesses and deaths are diffuse

throughout the year, don’t require extreme temperatures, and can lag well behind cold snaps.”

(Seltenrich, 2015) Furthermore, a research about the mortality risk attributable to high and

low ambient temperature conducted by Gasparrini et al. was conducted in 2015, where they

evaluated 74 million U.K. and U.S. deaths, and found that low temperatures are associated

with 7.3% of all deaths compared to 0.4% for high temperatures.

Nevertheless, whether it is due to excessively hot or cold weathers, extreme

temperature imposes health risks to everyone, especially people who have conditions that

make them more susceptible to temperature-related illnesses.

Insulation: In 2010, a study on the historical development of thermal insulation

materials was conducted by Dávid Bozsaky. He stated that the history of thermal insulation

was not as long as that of other building constructions and that long ago, thermal insulation

did not form a separate layer in building construction because there was no need to build in

extra materials to assure the insulating function.

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Insulation first began during the prehistoric period, where the people built shelters

from organic materials and later more durable alternatives to protect themselves. As time

progressed, people started using materials other than those found in nature, which they found

to be efficient in insulating.

The first insulated panels made from processing organic materials were first produced

in the 19th century. Along with this, the range of artificial materials such as rock wool,

fiberglass, foam glass, hollow bricks, and expanded perlite also increased. Although plastic

production had already been well-known in the 19th century, the first plastic foam was not

produced until 1941.

In present times, the most common insulation materials are plastic foams and mineral

wool, with only a small amount of natural materials being produced. Over time, these

products had only grown due to a wide range of reasons.

Insulation, which acts as a barrier to heat flow and is essential for keeping homes

warm in the winter and cool in the summer, provides year-round comfort in well-insulated

and well-designed homes. It does not only provide comfort, but also cuts the cooling and

heating bills by up to half its cost. Proper insulation is also environmentally beneficial, as it

helps reduce carbon footprint and lessens the effect of global warming. This caters to

seasonal and daily variations in temperature as well.

Heat flow involves three basic mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation.

Conduction is the way heat moves through materials, such as when a spoon placed in a hot

cup of coffee and heat is conducted through the spoon handle to the hand. Convection is the

way heat circulates through liquids and gases, and is the reason why lighter, warmer air rises,

and cooler, denser air sinks. And radiation is when radiant heat travels in a straight line and

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heats anything solid in its path that absorbs its energy, as stated by the U.S. Department of

Energy.

Most common insulation materials work by slowing conductive heat flow to a lesser

extent convective heat flow. Radiant barriers and reflective insulation systems, on the other

hand, work by reducing radiant heat gain.

Regardless of the mechanism, heat flows from warmer to cooler until there is no

longer a temperature difference. In a home, this means that in cold seasons, heat flows

directly from all heated living spaces to adjacent unheated attics, garages, basements, and

even to the outdoors. Heat flow can also move indirectly through interior ceilings, walls, and

floors; wherever there is a difference in temperature. During the cooling season, heat flows

from the outdoors to the interior of a house.

To maintain comfort, the heat lost during the winter must be replaced by a heating

system and the heat gained during the summer must be removed by a cooling system. Proper

insulation in the home will decrease this heat flow by providing an effective resistance to the

flow of heat.

Rice Husk: The rice husk, also called rice hull, is the outer coating of a seed or grain

of rice. These are produced during rice milling, where the rice husk is removed from the seed

and dried and accumulated at the factory. This covering makes up about 20% to 22% of the

grain by weight. The specific weight of uncompressed rice husk is about 100 kg/m 3, and in

each kilogram of milled white rice, approximately 0.28 kilograms of rice husk is produced as

a by-product during milling.

This is a cellulose-based fiber, which composes of approximately 40% cellulose,

30% lignin group, and 20% silica. The rice husk’s composition of hard materials is what

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makes it a good form of protection for the seed during the growing season. Aside from this,

rice husks also have properties such as low thermal conductivity, high melting point, low

bulk density, and high porosity, which make them very favorable in making organic products.

There are numerous ways in which rice husk is utilized. In its loose form, rice husk is

mostly used for biomass or energy production, like gasification and combustion. Gasification

is the term used when rice husk is converted to synthetic gas in a gasifier reactor with a

controlled amount of air, while combustion is the process of burning carbon in the rice husk,

therefore emitting carbon dioxide and generating heat energy for further use. Aside from fuel,

briquettes are also produced from rice husk through densification. The rice husk briquettes

mainly function as a substitute for fossil fuel, as they are used in industrial boilers.

Because of the chemical composition of rice husk, this also serves as a good

insulating material. Rice husk ash (RHA) may be used as tundish powder, which is used in

preventing rapid cooling of steel and ensuring equal solidification in the casting process.

Aside from that, RHA can be used in coating molten metal in the tundish and in the ladle,

which becomes a very good insulator. (Kumar et al., 2012)

An insulating material with a high melting point but low thermal conductivity is

desirable, especially in industrial fields. Rice husks possess these qualities, which is why may

be considered “a diamond in the rough”. In the Philippines, this is only treated as an

agricultural waste because of its overlooked utilizations.

There is more than 1.2 million hectares of rain-fed rice-producing areas nationwide.

In fact, in 2007, the country produced around 16 million tons of rice, along with a great

amount of rice hull as a by-product. Every year, an estimated 2 million tons of rice husk is

produced. This is equal to approximately 5 million barrels of oil equivalent in terms of

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

energy. There is this much amount of potential resources that are mostly treated only as

wastes, when they could be used in ways that would deem to be more helpful.

Coconut Fiber: Since the prehistoric times, the coconut tree has served many

purposes due to its versatility. Every part has a function: the fruits, wood, and leaves. This is

the reason why coconuts are widely cultivated, especially on islands, coastal areas, and humid

tropics such as the Philippines, India, Thailand, and Indonesia.

To be more precise, 92 countries worldwide produce coconuts on about more than 10

million hectares. Indonesia, Philippines and India account for almost 75% of the world

coconut production, with Indonesia being the world’s largest coconut producer. The current

production of coconuts has the potential to yield a multitude of products such as electricity,

heat, fiberboards, organic fertilizer, fuel additives for cleaner emissions, and et cetera.

The coconut is made up of 40 % coconut husks, 30 % fiber, and dust making up the

rest. The materials contained in the casing of coconut dusts and coconut fibers are resistant to

bacteria and fungi. In terms of chemical composition, coconut husks consist of cellulose,

lignin, pyroligneous acid, gas, charcoal, tar, tannin, and potassium. Meanwhile, coconut dust

has high lignin and cellulose content.

Coconut fiber is a natural fiber that is extracted from the husk of an unripe coconut.

The individual fiber cells are narrow and hollow with thick walls made of cellulose. Each cell

is approximately 1 mm long and 10-20 μm in diameter, while raw coconut fibers have lengths

varying from 15 to 35 cm and 50 to 300 μm in diameter.

These fibers are removed from the husk by combing and crushing after the coconut is

steeped in hot seawater, a process similar to obtaining jute fiber. This material possesses a

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

good stiffness, which makes it ideal in producing products such as mats, brushes, coarse

filling material, upholstery, and more.

Coconut fiber has many uses; it can be transformed into a fuel source which can

replace wood and other fuel sources, and can also be used as a raw material for making

insulation boards using the hot pressing method. This is because coconut husks have low

thermal conductivity, varying between 0.054 and 0.143 W/mK. Hot pressing is the process in

which heat and pressure is applied to a mattress composed of fibers and resin to mold the

final product In this study, binder less insulation boards made from coconut husk and bagasse

were manufactured using hot pressing with pressure.

In industrial fields, the adding of the coconut fibers in composite concrete

significantly enhances the properties of the concrete in terms of its tensile strength, torsion,

and hardiness. However, the segment percentages of coconut fibers in the composite concrete

undesirably affect the concrete compressive strength. Another function of coconut fibers is to

overlay the top of concrete slab. It can discharge solar radiation thermal in order to improve

the indoor thermal. Rodriguez et al. applied the FEM analysis on coconut fiber to find its

thermal conductivity and layering position on concrete slab. The coconut thermal

conductivity of k is 0.048 W/m.K, with density of 174 kg/m3, and heat capacity of 2600

J/KgK. And it was found that coconut fibers on the top of concrete slab are better as a

thermal insulator than on the inner of the concrete slab.

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Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter of the study presents the methodologies used. Included here are the type

of research conducted, where the assemblage and testing were held, the steps taken in

collecting data, the data analysis, and the materials and equipment used in the study.

PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORK

Requirement of
Analysis

Planning of
Design

Construction of
Design

Rice Husk and Coconut Fiber


as Home Insulation Board for
Integration and Testing of
Proper Heat Regulation
Design

Maintenance
Figure 2.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The type of research used in this study is developmental research. As seen in Figure 2,

this developmental research’s procedural framework indicates the steps of the study: the

requirement of analysis, planning of design, construction of design, integration and testing of

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design, analysis again, and then the final product, which is the insulation board made from

rice husk and coconut fiber.

First, the analysis of requirements was shown through identifying the current and

most relevant problems regarding the effects of extreme temperatures on human health. The

use of agricultural wastes into constructing products that would aid in this problem was also

studied and found potential.

Second, planning of the design was done by considering the data gathered in the

analysis of the requirements and the possible variables that might affect the design itself.

Third, in the construction of the design, all required materials were bought and

prepared by the researchers based on the stated design.

Fourth, under the integration of design, all the materials were put together according

to the built of the design.

Fifth, in the testing stage, the overall built quality of the model was tested to

determine its efficiency. After the testing, the product was put into further analysis to figure

out what improvements could be done.

RESEARCH LOCALE

The study was developed in Philippine Yuh Chiau School, Del Pilar, Cabatuan,

Isabela from June to September, 2019. The construction and testing of the product were

conducted in the said school’s Home Economics Room. PYCS is one of the leading private

schools in the municipality of Isabela that provides effective and quality education to its

learners. The proponents of this study are currently students of the said institution.

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MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

1. Rice Husk – one of the main components of the insulation board

2. Coconut Fiber – second main component in which the rice husk is sandwiched in

3. One (1) 16in x 13in Wooden Board – material that served as the mold where the

insulation boards were formed in

4. Plaster of Paris – white powdery substance used for putting together the rice husk

and coconut fiber by combining it with water

5. Three (3) 16in x 13in x 13in Plywood – material used to build the three prototype

houses

6. Three (3) Stainless Metal Sheets – function as the roofs of the prototype houses

7. 1in x 1in Wood – used in the frame for the roof in the prototype houses

8. Steel Nails – used in putting the frame of the prototype houses together

9. Wood Glue – used in putting together the frame of the prototype houses’ roof

10. Hammer, Saw, Grinder – used as tools to create the main structure

11. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer – device used in determining the temperatures of the

prototype houses during the testing stage

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES

1. Preparation of the Setup

The different materials to be used in the construction and testing of the insulation

boards and prototype houses were prepared. The coconut husk—from which fibers were

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extracted—and rice husk came from one of the researchers, while the plaster of paris, the

plywood, and the 1x1 wood panel were brought from local stores in Cabatuan, Isabela. The

tools such as the hammer, saw, and grinder were borrowed from one of the researchers as

well, while thermometer was borrowed from the school’s laboratory.

2. Construction of the Insulation Boards

A total of five insulation boards were built: two rice husk boards and three coconut

fiber boards. In a big stainless mixing bowl, rice husks and a combination of plaster of Paris

and water were mixed together for cohesion, as seen on Picture 1 below.

Picture 1

Then, as depicted on Picture 2a below, on a 16in x 13in plywood surrounded by a 1 x

1 in. wood panel, the mixture was molded into a rectangular sheet fit to the said

measurements. Similar procedures were done for the coconut fiber insulation boards.

Picture 2a. Rice Husk Picture 2b. Coconut Fiber


Insulation Board Insulation Board 20
EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

3. Construction of the Prototype House

Five pieces of plywood measuring two pieces of 13in x 13in, and three pieces of 16in

x 13in were cut. 1x1 inch wood panels were also cut accordingly to be used as internal

support or the frame of the base. The pieces were then used to assemble the base of one

prototype house as shown on Picture 3. The same process was done with two other prototype

houses of the same measurements.

Picture 3

For the frame of the roof, a total of four 15in. long and two 13in. long 1x1 wood

panels were used for one prototype house’s roof frame. These pieces were put adhered

together using wood glue. The base of the roof made of plywood measuring 16in x 13in is

where the insulation boards were to be put. As for the roof itself, a stainless metal sheet

measuring 32in x 16in was folded in half and stuck to the frame using wood glue as well.

4. Testing

To test the effectiveness of the rice husk and coconut fiber insulation board, three

prototype houses were made: the first did not have any type of insulation, the second had one

rice husk board and one coconut fiber board, and the last had two coconut fiber boards with

one rice husk board sandwiched in between. Three tests were done on the three prototypes,

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

with each test during different times of the day, to determine how well the insulation boards

regulated temperatures.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

Chapter IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the gathered data is presented in tabular presentation, analysis and

interpretation of findings. The data are organized in sequential order based on the statement

of the problems in Chapter I. The analysis of data revealed the following results:

For the first set of tests, the researchers tested the efficiency of the insulation boards

using three conditions as shown in Table 1: first the prototype house without any insulation

board, second a 1:1 mixture of coconut husk and rice husk, third a 2:1 mixture of two coconut

husks and one rice husk wherein the rice husk is sandwiched between the two coconut husks.

The researchers conducted the testing in three different times (three hours apart).

Mixture of Coconut Husk 10:00 am 1:00 pm 4:00 pm

to Rice Husk

No insulation board 36°C 36°C 33°C

1:1 (Coconut Husk and 32°C 32°C 31°C

Rice Husk)

2:1 (Coconut Husk and 34°C 34°C 33°C

Rice Husk)

Table 1: Temperature gathered from three prototype houses exposed in the sun

In the different tests, the prototype house with the 1:1 mixture of insulation board had

the lowest temperature. In this table the researchers concluded that the insulation board with a

1:1 mixture of coconut husk and rice husk works most effectively in regulating the heat

inside the prototype house.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

For the second set of tests run by the researchers, the efficiency of the insulation

board was tested in a cool environment using the prototypes with the same three conditions.

As seen on the table below, the prototype without insulation had the highest temperature out

of the three. The 1:1 ratio of coconut fiber and rice husk board, on the other hand, resulted

with temperatures lower than the first prototype by approximately 4oC. And the insulation

boards with the ratio of 2:1 resulted in the lowest temperatures.

Mixture of Coconut Husk 10:00 am 1:00 pm 4:00 pm

to Rice husk

None 29°C 30°C 30°C

1:1 (Coconut Husk and 25°C 26°C 26°C

Rice Husk)

2:1 (Coconut Husk and 24°C 25°C 25°C

Rice Husk)

Table 2: Temperature gathered from three prototype houses in a cool area

From the results of the tests conducted in a cool area, the researchers found that the

1:1 coconut fiber and rice husk insulation controlled the heat flow best, being able to

maintain a desirable temperature that is not too hot nor too cold.

These results support the ideas of Kumar et al. where they stated that rice husks had

properties that made them good insulators.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

Chapter V

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter offers the conclusions and recommendations in accordance with the

findings.

CONCLUSIONS

Through the tests conducted, the researchers found that rice husks and coconut fibers

worked efficiently as insulation boards in properly regulating heat. The results also show

that—since the product functions effectively—it will, therefore, make a significant difference

in reducing harmful gases that are emitted by cooling and heating appliances such as air

conditioners and heaters. Proper heat regulation in homes would lead to a lesser necessity of

using the said appliances.

Based from the data gathered, the researchers concluded that the ratio of one of rice

husk board to one coconut fiber board performs as a better insulation on the house compared

to a non-insulated house. The 1:1 inch ratios of the said materials maintained the lower heat

flow all throughout the day, maintaining coolness on the heat test and preserving warmth

during the cold test.

With that, rice husk and coconut fiber can regulate the amount of heat flow in a house,

thus giving an all year round comfort as it caters to warm and cool insulation. In comparison

to commercially produced insulation boards, rice husk insulation was found to have a greater

R-Value of R-3 per inch. Thus, naturally produced insulation boards are more able to regulate

heat flow for a favorably lower price point. Furthermore, the abundance of the materials used

in the product make it more affordable and easily accessible.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

RECOMMENDATIONS

As the study progressed, the researchers identified a few things that could be done to

further improve the study. Future research may use different types of adhesive in making the

rice husk and coconut fiber boards.

The researchers also recommend that the thickness of the insulation boards should be

calculated as different places require different transfer of heat flow, and that the thickness of

the insulation board is directly proportional to the heat regulation of the insulated room.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK AND COCONUT FIBER AS HOME INSULATION BOARD FOR PROPER HEAT REGULATION | CARLOS, REYES, TAN

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