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Anti-Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract

on Gallus gallus domesticus

Proponents:
Beltrano, Francisco Jr. S.
Montehermoso, Nesabel T.
Zamora, Quencess Desiree L.
Bacani, Justine Queenie C.

Research Adviser:
Mardlyn M. Sarceda

A Science Investigatory Project Submitted


As Entry for the Division Science
And Technology Fair 2019
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………..... 3
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………... 4
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM………………………………………………….6
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………....7
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS…………………………………………………………8
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………………………….9
MATERIALS & METHODS………………………………………………………… 20
RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………… 24
DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………….. 29
RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………………………30
ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………………… 30
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….. 32
APPENDICES….………………………………………………………………………34

LIST OF TABLES

Table1. Paired Sample t-test of results of Post-Test A and Post-Test B………………………………...25


Table2. One- Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Experimental Groups and Controlled Groups..26
Table3. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment A (Pre-Post)…………………………………………………27
Table4. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment B (Pre-Post)…………………………………………………27
Table5. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment C (Pre-Post)…………………………………………………28
Table6. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment D (Pre-Post)…………………………………………………28
Table7. Tukey’s HSD Test in each treatment……………………………………………………………29

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure1. Mean number of results of Pre-test and Post-test of three trials in four different treatments…24

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

ABSTRACT
High Cholesterol Level has numerous effects on a person’s life. It is said that around 2.6

million deaths in the world is due to high cholesterol. In the Philippines, almost 17 percent of 20-

29 years old have high boarder line to high cholesterol levels. Since banana fruit is abundant and

it was found out that its peel contains pyridoxine or vitamin B6, it had been use in lowering the

cholesterol level of the chickens which were used as an experimental animal. There were four (4)

treatments and three (3) replications in the study. Each treatment varied on the amount of extracted

banana peel. Treatment A: 25mL of Banana Peels Extract; Treatment B: 100mL of Banana Peels

Extract; Treatment C: Commercialized lowering cholesterol medicine; and Treatment D: Water

only. All of the four treatments have undergone three trials.

Keywords: Anti-hypercholesterolemia, Banana, Cholesterol, Pyridoxine

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

INTRODUCTION

High Cholesterol Level has numerous effects on a person’s life. It is said that around 2.6

million deaths in the world is due to high cholesterol. In the Philippines, almost 17 percent of 20-

29 years old have high borderline to high cholesterol levels, according to the 2008 National

Nutrition Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI-DOST). According to the

American Heart Association, many foods that come from animal --- like meats and dairy products

--- contain saturated fats, while baked goods and fast foods pack trans-fats. Cholesterol does not

dissolve in water and therefore it cannot travel through the body itself. Particles known as

lipoproteins help transport cholesterol through the bloodstream. The bodies need healthy levels of

cholesterol to function. Cholesterol is a fatty substance made by the liver and distributed

throughout the body. It allows the bodies to make vitamin D and hormones, and makes up bile

acids. They also get less than 25 percent of our body’s cholesterol from the foods we eat, especially

animal fats. Cholesterol circulates throughout the bloodstream in little bundles called lipoproteins.

The interior of these bundles is composed of fat, while proteins form the exterior walls. High

cholesterol means you have a lot more cholesterol in your blood than you need. Most people who

have high cholesterol do not have any obvious symptoms.

A disease in the heart is one of the major diseases that can result in fatality. According

to a recent study, one out of four deaths is caused by heart diseases due to high cholesterol. The

arteries become narrowed and blood flow to the heart muscle is slowed down or blocked. Low-

density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol around to where it is needed. If there is too much

cholesterol, it may be deposited into the arteries. LDL is commonly referred as “bad” cholesterol.

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may begin as early as childhood.

Although the exact cause is unknown, atherosclerosis may start with damage or injury to the inner

layer of an artery. The damage may be caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high

triglycerides, a type of fat (lipid) in your blood, smoking and other sources of tobacco, and insulin

resistance, obesity or diabetes.

Banana Peels are the outer covering of a banana fruit. This fruit is abundant in many

parts of the world. It is usually used as a as food for animals, in water purification, for

manufacturing of several biochemical. It has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant and anti-

inflammatory functions, which might be attributed to its flavonoid compounds. It has also been

found out that Banana peel contains Pyridoxine or Vitamin B6.

Pyridoxine is a vitamin which is also known as vitamin b6. It is usually found in plants.

It facilitates the transmission of nervous impulses. The molecules which are essential for

transmitting information in the nervous system are called "neurotransmitters", the most well-

known neuro-transmitter is serotonin. It contributes to the homocysteine metabolism that, at high-

levels, is associated with for example cardiovascular diseases and cognitive impairment.

This study sought to find alternative treatment in lowering high total cholesterol levels.

The researcher preferred to use banana peel due to its availability and accessibility. This study

desired to discover the effectiveness of this extract as an alternative medicine of high level of total

cholesterol.

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This general objective of this study is to determine the anti-hypercholesterolemia activity

of Musa acuminata peel or banana peel by extracting its nutrients from the peel.

Specifically, it will aim to answer the following questions:

1. Is the Musa acuminata peel can be effective in lowering the levels of total

cholesterol?

2. Is there a significant difference between the experimental groups and the control

groups?

3. Were the expected number of total cholesterol levels in experimental groups and

control groups achieved?

4. In terms of statistics, is there a significant difference between the experimental

groups and the negative control in terms of the number of total cholesterol after

two days?

5. Is there a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of the

number of total cholesterol levels after two days?

The hypotheses will be tested for further analysis of data to answer the major problem:

1. The banana extract is not effective in lowering the level of total cholesterol.

2. There is no significant difference between the experimental groups and the control groups.

3. The expected number of levels in total cholesterol in experimental groups and control

groups were not achieved.

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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4. There is no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the

negative control in terms of the number of total cholesterol levels after two days.

5. There is no significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of the number

of branching points of blood vessels after two days.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In this study, the people that suffer from chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and other

symptoms and effects of having high cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis will benefit because it

may inhibit to the coagulation of the fats in the blood vessels.

This study will be beneficial to the following:

Medical Treatment. This study will help to treat people with high cholesterol levels and

atherosclerosis. They can have an alternative medicine which is easy to buy, and very affordable.

In additional, this will be easier because banana peels are abundant and we can find it anywhere.

Banana peels will have a good contributions in the field of medicine for it has less side effects that

can harm our body.

Economy. This study will encourage the other countries to participate in the world trade and to

improve the medicinal practices and healthcare services. This research will help to raise the

production of the plant and its products.

Community. This study will benefit the people of a community, especially the patients who have

a high cholesterol levels and a plaque on blood vessels or atherosclerosis. This will also prevent

deficiencies and improve the health of the society.

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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Education. The research, anti-hypercholesterolemia activity of Musa acuminata peel (Banana

peel) extract on Gallus gallus domesticus, will give an additional knowledge in the study of science

and technology. This study will make the people aware that banana peels can help in lowering the

cholesterol levels and cure atherosclerosis and they can avoid heart problems and failures. Also,

the academes will have a broader knowledge about this usual, cheap, and wasted plant.

Research. This study can be a reference for aspiring scientist to study the anti-

hypercholesterolemia activity of Musa acuminata peel (Banana peel) extract on Gallus gallus

domesticus in the future. They can also improve the research and study it more for new

informations that they can gather about it.

Environment. This study will help to decrease the waste of banana peels because it is one of the

plants that has a high number of waste in the Philippines and in the world. We don't know that

there is a nutrient in the peels that is very helpful in our health.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

The study determined the anti – hypercholesterolemia activity of Musa acuminata Peels

(Banana Peels) Extract in chickens. In testing the extract to chicken, there would be four treatments

with three replications each; (25ml and 100ml of the extract, Rosuvastatin medicine - Positive

Control, and Water - Negative Control). The estimated time range of the experiment from

extracting the banana peels is 19 hours, given that the researchers only have 1-hour period of doing

this every day and the number of peels that they only collected that day. The researchers haven’t

spent any money for all the tools used because it is provided by the school’s laboratory and the

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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banana peels were from some shops that uses banana. The testing of extract in chickens was

conducted from the period of September 19 to September 26, 2019 at the Laboratory of James L.

Gordon Memorial Hospital. The limitation of this study is to determine the anti-

hypercholesterolemia activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) extract against high

cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis that will undergo in spectrophotometer to detect if there is

vitamin B6 or pyridoxine present and the blood of chickens will undergo for total cholesterol test.

This study focuses on making banana peels significant in some aspects like its capacity to be a

treatment for lowering high cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Problems Associated with High Cholesterol Level

High Cholesterol Level has numerous effects on a person’s life. It is said that around 2.6

million deaths in the world is due to high cholesterol. In the Philippines, almost 17 percent of 20-

29 years old have high borderline to high cholesterol levels, according to the 2008 National

Nutrition Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI-DOST).

Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of

cholesterol in the blood. It is a form of hyperlipidemia, high blood lipids, and hyperlipoproteinemia

(elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood). Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in

the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor

mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2

diabetes and an underactive thyroid.

About 1 out of every 500 people has an inherited disorder called familial

hypercholesterolemia, which can cause extremely high cholesterol levels (above 300 milligrams

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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per deciliter). People with this disorder can develop nodules filled with cholesterol (xanthomas)

over various tendons, especially the Achilles tendons of the lower leg. Cholesterol deposits also

can occur on the eyelids, where they are called xanthelasmas.

Atherosclerosis

“Based on Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER), 1998-

2019, Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your

heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow

to your organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic, but over time, the walls in your

arteries can harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a

specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Atherosclerosis

refers to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls (plaque),

which can restrict blood flow. The plaque can burst, triggering a blood clot. Although

atherosclerosis is often considered a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in your body.

Atherosclerosis may be preventable and is treatable.

Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may begin as early as childhood. Although

the exact cause is unknown, atherosclerosis may start with damage or injury to the inner layer of

an artery. The damage may be caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides,

is a type of fat (lipid) in your blood, smoking and other sources of tobacco, and insulin resistance,

obesity or diabetes. Once the inner wall of an artery is damaged, blood cells and other substances

often clump at the injury site and build up in the inner lining of the artery. Over time, fatty deposits

(plaque) made of cholesterol and other cellular products also build up at the injury site and harden,

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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narrowing your arteries. The organs and tissues connected to the blocked arteries then don't receive

enough blood to function properly. Eventually, pieces of the fatty deposits may break off and enter

your bloodstream. This may cause blood clot, which can block the blood flow to a specific part of

your body, such as occurs when blocked blood flow to your heart causes a heart attack.

The complications of atherosclerosis depend on which arteries are blocked. When

atherosclerosis narrows the arteries close to your heart, you may develop coronary artery

disease, which can cause chest pain (angina), a heart attack or heart failure. When atherosclerosis

narrows the arteries close to your brain, you may develop carotid artery disease, which can cause

a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries in your arms

or legs, you may develop circulation problems in your arms and legs called peripheral artery

disease. This can make you less sensitive to heat and cold, increasing your risk of burns or frostbite.

In rare cases, poor circulation in your arms or legs can cause tissue death (gangrene).

Atherosclerosis can also cause aneurysms, a serious complication that can occur anywhere in your

body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of your artery. If an aneurysm bursts, you may face life-

threatening internal bleeding. Although this is usually a sudden, catastrophic event, a slow leak is

possible. If a blood clot within an aneurysm dislodges, it may block an artery at some distant point.

Atherosclerosis can cause the arteries leading to your kidneys to narrow, preventing oxygenated

blood from reaching them. Over time, this can affect your kidney function, keeping waste from

exiting your body. (1998-2019 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

(MFMER))

Global Burden of Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Diseases

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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For most populations in the world, the last 100 years has witnessed greater improvements

in health status, compared to any other time in history. Globally, life expectancy increased by

about 25 years during the twentieth century, with a greater than 50% increase in longevity for

most populations. These improvements in health are likely a result of both improvements in

disease prevention and healthcare (leading to a marked reduction in childhood mortality and

deaths from infectious diseases), as well as improvement in socio-economic conditions in most

societies. During this period, the major causes of death and disability have shifted from a

predominance of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases, to chronic diseases such as

cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancers and diabetes. The pace and timing of this

epidemiological transition is not uniform and varies both across and even within specific

countries and regions. The transition occurs not only between disease categories (e.g., infectious

diseases giving way to cardiovascular diseases), but also within a broad disease category (e.g.,

among cardiovascular diseases, rheumatic heart disease of the young has been replaced in most

regions by coronary artery disease or strokes in middle and old age).

Many of the Western countries (such as those in North America or Western Europe)

exhibited this epidemiological transition in the first half of the twentieth century, resulting in

marked increases in CVD during the first half of the century, with CVD rates peaking in the

1950s to 1970s. Thereafter most of these countries have experienced significant declines in

CVD. By contrast, with the later occurrence of industrialization, urbanization and economic

development in most developing countries, this epidemiological transition is more evident in the

latter half of the twentieth century with continuing increases expected in most chronic diseases,

including CVD over the next few decades. Therefore, over the next three decades, the disability

adjusted life years (DALY) attributable to CVD will almost double globally from 85 million

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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DALYs in 1990, to about 150 million in 2020, with 80% of this burden occurring in developing

countries. Other than Sub-Saharan Africa, all major geographic regions of the world are already

experiencing substantial increases in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and this is expected to

continue over the next few decades.

Natural Products in Drug Discovery

Rosuvastatin is used together with diet, weight-loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of

heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people

who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Rosuvastatin is also used

to decrease the amount of cholesterol such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad

cholesterol') and triglycerides in the blood and to increase the amount of high-density lipoprotein

(HDL) cholesterol ('good cholesterol') in the blood. Rosuvastatin may also be used together with

diet to decrease the amount of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in children and

teenagers 8 to 17 years of age who have familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (an

inherited condition in which cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally).

Rosuvastatin is used together with diet, and alone or in combination with other medications, to

decrease the amount of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in adults and children

and teenagers 7 to 17 years of age who have familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia (an

inherited condition in which cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally).

Rosuvastatin is in a class of medications called HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). It works

by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of cholesterol that

may build up on the walls of the arteries and block blood flow to the heart, brain, and other parts

of the body.

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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Accumulation of cholesterol and fats along the walls of your arteries (a process known

as atherosclerosis) decreases blood flow and, therefore, the oxygen supply to your heart, brain,

and other parts of your body. Lowering your blood level of cholesterol and fats with rosuvastatin

has been shown to prevent heart disease, angina (chest pain), strokes, and heart attacks.

Rosuvastatin comes as a tablet (Crestor) to take by mouth. Rosuvastatin also comes as a

capsule (Ezallor) to take by mouth or to open, mix with water, and give through a feeding tube. It

is usually taken once a day with or without food. Take rosuvastatin at around the same time

every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or

pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take rosuvastatin exactly as directed. Do

not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of rosuvastatin and gradually increase

your dose, not more than once every 2 to 4 weeks.

Swallow the capsules (Ezallor) whole; do not chew or crush them. If you cannot swallow

the capsule, open the capsule and carefully sprinkle the contents onto 1 teaspoonful of

applesauce. Swallow the entire mixture immediately without chewing. Do not save the

applesauce mixture for later use.

Continue to take rosuvastatin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking rosuvastatin

without talking to your doctor.

Banana and Its Peel

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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The banana, specifically “Lacatan’, with its scientific name, “Musa acuminata” from the

family “Musaceae”, is native and common in every parts of the world. It is an abundant and

invasive species in the Philippines since it was in a tropical region. They are extremely healthy and

delicious. They contain several essential nutrients and provide benefits for digestion, heart health

and weight loss. Aside from being very nutritious, they are also a highly convenient snack food.

They are among the world’s most popular fruits. Native to Southeast Asia, they are now grown in

many warm parts of the world. Bananas contain a fair amount of fiber, as well as several

antioxidants. One medium-sized banana (118 grams) also boasts potassium (9% of the RDI),

vitamin B6 (33% of the RDI), vitamin C (11% of the RDI), magnesium (8% of the RDI),

copper (10% of the RDI), manganese (14% of the RDI), net carbs (24 grams), fiber (3.1 grams),

protein (1.3 grams), and fats (0.4 grams).

The flesh of the banana is rich in many nutrients and carbohydrates. It is high in

vitamins B6, B12, magnesium, and potassium (Bhagat, 2019). In addition the Stylecraze the sugar

content is the highest when the banana peel is black.

Musa acuminata peels were analysed for minerals, nutritional and anti-nutritional

contents. The result of mineral content indicate the concentrations (mg g 1) of potassium, calcium,

sodium, iron, manganese, bromine, rubidium, strontium, zirconium and niobium to be 78.10,

19.20, 24.30, 0.61, 76.20, 0.04, 0.21, 0.03, 0.02 and 0.02, respectively. (B. A. Anhwange, 2008)

The banana exports of the Philippines is actually our 5th largest export product. In 2008,

the industry has contributed taxes of almost 400 million pesos. We are also seen as one of the

strongest producers of this food product worldwide because of our low production cost and quality.

The banana production and exporting in our country continues to see tremendous growth and

popularity. Our banana exports are very competitive and is the 3rd biggest in the world. We are

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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also the only country in Asia that is among the top 5 in this industry. Approximately 150 million

boxes each weighing 14 kilos were exported in 2008 to our main customers which are Japan, Hong

Kong, New Zealand, Korea, China, Singapore, Middle East, Canada, Russia and Indonesia.

Banana (Musa acuminata L.) is one of the many fruits that is well consumed in many

countries having lots of benefits on health; however there are less evidences regarding physical

performance, oxidative stress, metabolic, lipid, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human

(Leelarungrayub et al., 2017). According to the article entitled “Effects of Banana (Musa

acuminata Linn) Consumption for Physical Strength, Metabolic Response, Oxidative Stress, Lipid

Profiles, and Interleukin-23 in Healthy Men: A Preliminary Study”(2017), Their preliminary

experiment suggest that banana supplementation involves some physical strength, oxidative stress,

lipid profile, and IL-23 levels in healthy human.

Various parts of Musa acuminata plant varieties (banana) like leaf, pseudostem, root and

fruit have been reported to demonstrate anti-hyperglycemic activity. Based on the research

“Improved Oral Glucose Tolerance with Ripe Fruit Peels of Musa seminifera Lour” (Jannat K,

Morshed Md Z, Akter S, Mohammed R, 2018), The results suggest that methanolic extract of of

Musa seminifera fruit peels (MEMS) can improve glucose tolerance in glucose-challenged mice.

Ethanol extract of fruit peels of Musa acuminata demonstrated the presence of glycosides,

alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and volatile oils [24]. It would be a reasonable assumption

that the fruit peels of Musa seminifera would contain similar nature of phytochemicals. Alkaloids,

flavonoids, saponins, and tannins have variously been reported for their anti-hyperglycemic

activities.

Gallus gallus domesticus (Native Chicken)

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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"The chicken genome fills a crucial gap in our scientific knowledge. Located between

mammals and fish on the tree of life, the chicken is well positioned to provide us with new insights

into genome evolution and human biology," said NHGRI Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.

"By comparing the genomes of a wide range of animals, we can better understand the structure

and function of human genes and, ultimately, develop new strategies to improve human health."

(Researchers Compare Chicken, Human Genomes, 2004).

According to the study, Researchers Compare Chicken, Human Genomes Analysis of First

Avian Genome Uncovers Differences Between Birds and Mammals (2004), about 60 percent of

chicken genes correspond to a similar human gene. However, researchers uncovered more small

sequence differences between corresponding pairs of chicken and human genes, which are 75

percent identical on average, than between rodent and human gene pairs, which are 88 percent

identical on average. Differences between human and chicken genes were not uniform across the

board, however. Chicken genes involved in the cell's basic structure and function showed more

sequence similarity with human genes than did those implicated in reproduction, immune response

and adaptation to the environment.

The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the

red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals.

The chicken is a good animal model for the study of atherosclerosis research, since it

presents lipoprotein levels similar to those in humans. It is a biped, and develops spontaneous and

induced atherosclerosis mainly in response to high cholesterol diets (being stimulated by hormones

and vitamin D), vascular injury or infections (mainly Marek's disease) in a similar way to how

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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humans develop atherosclerosis. The chicken atherosclerosis model proved itself useful and very

suitable for in vivo drug intervention studies.

According to an article entitled, Comparison Places Humans Closer To Chickens than Mice

(2015), researchers often find that the long-supposed evolutionary relationships are contradicted

by the genetic information. For example, recent research compared the gene segments of chickens,

mice and people. If evolution were true, one would expect more similarities between the genetic

segments of mice and humans. To their amazement, researchers found that, of mice and chickens,

we share more common genetic segments with chickens. They tried to explain this result by saying

that perhaps mouse segments change more rapidly than human or chicken segments.

Chickens are now used in the field of science. A study entitled “Further Studies of Chicken

Blood Tests and Their Application” (2011) also proved that chickens can be used in

experimentations as representations for humans.

Decoction

Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve the

chemicals of the material, which may include stems, roots, bark and rhizomes. Decoction

involves first mashing the plant material to allow for maximum dissolution, and then boiling in

water to extract oils, volatile organic compounds and other various chemical substances.

Decoction can be used to make tisanes, tinctures and similar solutions. Decoctions

and infusions may produce liquids with differing chemical properties as the temperature and/or

preparation difference may result in more oil-soluble chemicals in decoctions versus infusions.

The process can also be applied to meats and vegetables to prepare bouillon or stock though the

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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term is typically only used to describe boiled plant extracts, usually for medicinal or scientific

purposes.

Decoction is also the name for the resulting liquid. Although this method of extraction

differs from infusion and percolation, the resultant liquids can sometimes be similar in their

effects, or general appearance and taste.

Decoctions are aqueous preparations of plant parts boiled in water for 15–20 min until the

water volume is halved. Decoctions are prepared by breaking the plant parts into small pieces

before soaking in a given amount of water in an earthenware container (Palayok). The water

should cover the plant parts, then the container is covered, and the preparation is boiled until the

water volume is halved. The boiled preparation is strained, cooled, and refrigerated which can be

kept for 2 or 3 days. Commented [Y1]:

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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METHODOLOGY

Preparation and Decoction

Materials

The method that the researches performed to get the extract of banana peel was decoction. Based
on Wikipedia, decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve
the chemicals of the material. In order to perform this method, the researchers used banana peel
(Musa Acuminata Peels), some laboratory equipments which include mortar and pestle, beaker,
reagent bottle, funnel, filter paper, and hot plate. We also used some kitchen equipments like
steamer, knife, aluminum foil and a white cotton cloth.

Banana Peels Mortar and Pestle

Beaker Reagent Bottle Steamer and Hot Plate

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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Funnel White Cotton Cloth Knife


Beaker Beaker Beaker

Aluminum Foil
Beaker

Procedure

Gather the Banana Peels Cut the banana peels in Put the banana peels
smaller pieces with knife in aluminum foil

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
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Roll the sliced banana peels Fill the steamer Place the banana peels in
in aluminum foil with 1L of water steamer

Steam them for 25 to Place the banana peel in Place them in mortar,
30 minutes a white cotton cloth and chop using pestle

Squeeze the peels Pour the solution to reagent


into the beaker bottle using the funnel

22
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Testing of Extract into Chickens

Materials

Red tubes Syringes Gloves

Alcohol Cotton
Red tubes Procedu
re
Procedure

Gathering of Chickens Blood extraction for pre-test Blood sample collected for
pre-test

23
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Feeding the chickens Blood extraction for mid-test Blood sample


with high protein feed collected for mid-test

Injection of banana Blood extraction for post-test Blood sample collected for
peels extract to the post-test
chicken

RESULTS

6
5.36
5.01 5.13
5
4.38
4.16
4
3.03
3 2.69
2.18
2

0
Treatment A Treatment B Treatment C Treatment D

PRE-TEST POST-TEST

24
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Figure1. Mean number of results of Pre-test and Post-test of three trials in four different treatments

To determine the anti-hypercholesterolemia activity of Musa acuminata peels (Banana Peel) extract, the

blood of Gallus gallus domesticus (native chicken) was used. Figure 1 shows the mean number of results

of Pre-Test and Post-Test of three trials in four different treatments. Treatment A (25ml of Banana Peel

Extract) has a mean result of 5.01(Pre-Test) and 2.69 (Post-Test), while Treatment B (100ml of Banana

Peel Extract) has a mean result 5.36(Pre-test) and 2.18(Post-Test). Meanwhile, the positive control

Treatment C (Rosuvastatin) has a mean result of 5.13(Pre-Test) and 3.03(Post-Test). And for the negative

control, Treatment D (Water) has a mean result of 4.38(Pre-Test) and 4.16(Post-Test).

In order to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and

the significant difference of experimental group and the control group, Paired Samples T-Test for

experimental groups and One Way Analysis of Variance for experimental groups and control groups, with

a significance level of 0.05 each was performed.

T-value DF (degree of freedom) P-value

Posttest A – Posttest B 2.838 2 0.948

Level of significance *0.05

Table1. Paired Sample t-test of results of posttest A and posttest B

Table 1 shows the significant difference of the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of

total cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood. Using the formula for the Paired Sample T-Test, the

computed p-value is 0.948 comparing to the critical value, 0.05 level of significance. The computed p-value

is greater than the critical value; therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted and showed that there is no

significant difference between the results in post-test A and post-test B, in terms of the number of total

cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood.

25
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Source Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Stat P-value

DF SS MS

Between Groups 3 5.6988 1.8996 23.7942 0.0002

Within Groups 8 0.6387 0.0798

Total: 11 6.3375

Level of significance *0.05

Table2. One- Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Experimental Groups and Controlled Groups

Table 2 shows the significant difference of the experimental groups and control groups in terms of the

number of total cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood. As the result implies, the computed degrees

of freedom of two source variation is different. The between variation has a degree of 3 while the within

variation had 3 with the total of 11. Using the formula for the F Test, the computed P-value is 0.0002

comparing to the critical value, 0.05 level of significance. The computed P-value is less than the critical

value; therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and showed that there is a significant difference between

the experimental groups and controlled groups in terms of the number of total cholesterol level of the native

chicken’s blood after the treatments were given.

We also perform Paired Sample T-Test in all treatments to check and determine if there is a significant

difference between the Pre-Test and Post-Test of each treatment

26
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

T-value DF (degree of freedom) P-value

Pre - Post 3.425 2 0.038

Level of significance *0.05

Table3. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment A (Pre-Post)

Table 3 shows the significant difference of the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of

total cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood. Using the formula for the Paired Sample T-Test, the

computed p-value is 0.038 comparing to the critical value, 0.05 level of significance. The computed p-value

is less than the critical value; therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and showed that there is a significant

difference between the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of total cholesterol level

of the native chicken’s blood.

T-value DF (degree of freedom) P-value

Pre - Post 19.821 2 0.001

Level of significance *0.05

Table4. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment B (Pre-Post)

Table 4 shows the significant difference of the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of

total cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood. Using the formula for the Paired Sample T-Test, the

computed p-value is 0.001 comparing to the critical value, 0.05 level of significance. The computed p-value

is less than the critical value; therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and showed that there is a significant

difference between the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of total cholesterol level

of the native chicken’s blood.

27
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

T-value DF (degree of freedom) P-value

Pre – Post 3.679 2 0.033

Level of significance *0.05

Table5. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment C (Pre-Post)

Table 5 shows the significant difference of the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of

total cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood. Using the formula for the Paired Sample T-Test, the

computed p-value is 0.033 comparing to the critical value, 0.05 level of significance. The computed p-value

is less than the critical value; therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and showed that there is a significant

difference between the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of total cholesterol level

of the native chicken’s blood.

T-value DF (degree of freedom) P-value

Pre – Post 2.196 2 0.08

Level of significance *0.05

Table6. Paired Sample t-test of Treatment D (Pre-Post)

Table 6 shows the significant difference of the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of

total cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood. Using the formula for the Paired Sample T-Test, the

computed p-value is 0.08 comparing to the critical value, 0.05 level of significance. The computed p-value

is greater than the critical value; therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted and showed that there is no

significant difference between the results in pre-test and in post-test, in terms of the number of total

cholesterol level of the native chicken’s blood.

28
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

We also used Tukey’s HSD Test to determine if there is a significant difference in each treatment.

Treatments Pair Tukey HSD Q Statistic Tukey HSD P-Value Tukey HSD Inference

A vs B 3.1061 0.2038583 insignificant

A vs C 1.7165 0.6268095 insignificant

A vs D 8.4396 0.0015087 **p<0.01

B vs C 4.8226 0.0373826 *p<0.05

B vs D 11.5456 0.0010053 **p<0.01

C vs D 6.7230 0.0062658 **p<0.01

Table7. Tukey’s HSD Test in each treatment

DISCUSSION

The banana peels with its scientific name, “Musa acuminata” from the family “Musaceae”,

is common all the world. It is an abundant and invasive species in the Philippines since it was in a

tropical region. It possesses high nutritional value and used as a valuable medicinal plant having

antidoxidant and anti-hypercholesterolemia activities. The present study sought to find alternative

treatment in lowering blood cholesterol.

The Blood Cholesterol in Treatment A (25mL of Banana peel extract), Treatment B (50mL

of Banana Peel extract), and showed significant difference between the increased cholesterol level

and the post test.

The Blood Cholesterol in Rosuvastatin between the increased cholesterol level and the post

test showed decrease in trial 2 and trial 3, but increase between trial 1 and 2.

29
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

The results shows that there is more significant difference in Banana peel extract

(Treatment A and Treatment B) in decreasing the blood cholesterol than in Resuvastatin.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher examined the Anti-hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata peel

(Banana Peel) Extract on Gallus gallus domesticus. The researcher recommends:

- Other way to extract (the banana peels) besides decoction.

- A dose of 100mL, even though there is no significant difference in 25mL(Treatment A)

of Banana Peel Extract and 100mL(Treatment B) Banana Peel Extract, the Treatment B is more

effective in lowering the cholesterol level due to its dose.

- Testing it in lowering the blood pressure (hypertension)

- Testing it as a cure for atherosclerosis

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to express their deepest appreciation to the following people who helped

this research possible:

First of all, to the Almighty God for giving the researcher the knowledge, strength, patience

and knowledge to finish his Science Investigatory Project. Without His guidance, this research

would certainly be impossible to accomplish.

To the researcher's parents for their love, understanding and support.

30
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

To the junior high school principal of St. Joseph College – Olongapo Inc., Mr. Arsenio

Ladiero, for his time and for allowing the researchers to conduct their research.

To the research head of St. Joseph College – Olongapo Inc., Mr. Julius Cesar G. De Vera

for giving his time and patience. And for his guidance in making this research possible and

successful.

To the research adviser of Grade 10 – Charity of St. Joseph College – Olongapo Inc., Ms.

Mardlyn Sarceda, for guiding and helping the researchers to conduct their research.

To the class adviser of Grade 10 – Charity of St. Joseph College – Olongapo Inc., Mr.

Garry De Dios, for his support to the researchers in doing their research.

To the St. Joseph College laboratory facilitator, Mrs. Evelyn Fuñe, for her patience in

allowing the researchers to use the laboratory equipment needed in conducting the research.

To the chief medical technologist, Dr. Diogenes S. Flogio, RMT, for helping the

researchers in conducting their research.

To the staffs, nurses, and doctors of James L. Gordon Memorial Hospital, for allowing us

to conduct our research in their laboratory.

To the readers for taking time to read and understand the researcher’s work.

To all of you, the researcher is deeply thankful for contributing to the success of this

investigatory project. Certainly, without your help, none of this would be accomplished. The

researcher will always be grateful to you.

The Researcher

31
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

REFERENCE

Salim Yusuf, Srinath Reddy, Stephanie Ôunpuu, and Sonia Anand. ”Global Burden of Cardiovascular

Diseases.”https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/hc4601.099487

U.S Library of Medicine. “Resuvastatin” https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a603033.html

NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute. “Researchers Compare Chicken, Human Genomes:

Analysis Of First Avian Genome Uncovers Differences Between Birds And Mammals.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/12/041208230523.htm

Wikipedia. “Decoction.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decoction

Adda Bjarnadottir, MS. “11 Evidence-Based Health Benefits of Bananas.” https://www.healthline.com ›

nutrition

11 Evidence-Based Health Benefits of Bananas – Healthline

Wikipedia. “ Banana.” https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki

Banana - Wikipedia

Wikipedia. “Banana peel” https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki

Mga resulta sa web

Nina Badahur. “What Are the Benefits of Eating Banana Peels? “https://www.livestrong.com › article

What Are the Benefits of Eating Banana Peels? | Livestrong.com

32
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

ecop.pbworks.com › page › Banana...

Mga resulta sa web

Environmental Challenges of the RP / Banana --Alternate Uses

Rene Rafael C. Espino and Marco Rafael C. Espino, Crop Science Cluster ,College of Agriculture. “THE

STATUS OF THE FRUIT INDUSTRY IN THE PHILIPPINES.”www.fftc.agnet.org › library

Mayo Clinic Health Letter. “Arteriosclerosis / atherosclerosis - Symptoms and causes .”

https://www.mayoclinic.org › syc-2...

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Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

APPENDICES

RESEARCH DESIGN

Native Chicken’s Blood

34
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

RESEARCH PARADIGM

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE


Concentration of Banana Peel Amount of Cholesterol in
Extract Chickens

CONTROLLED VARIABLE
Rosuvastatin and
Water

35
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

RAW DATA

Cholesterol Amount in Chickens – Pre-Test

36
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Cholesterol Amount in Chickens – Post-Test

37
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Analysis Result of Vitamin B6 present in Banana Peel Extract

38
Anti – Hypercholesterolemia Activity of Musa acuminata Peel (Banana Peel) Extract
on Gallus gallus domesticus

Transaction of Testing the amount of Cholesterol in Chickens – Pre-Test

Transaction of Testing the amount of Cholesterol in Chickens – Post-Test

39