Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6


Basic Assumptions of the Art  Four important elements: time, the performers,
where the performance took place, relationship
- Art has been created by all people at all times, in all between the audience and the performers
countries and it lives because its well-liked and enjoyed  Cannot be traded as commodity
- Art involves experience; there can never be appreciation
of art without experience. Poetry
- Art is not nature; Nature is not art.
Art is made by man;  Poetry is an art form where the artist expresses
Art is everywhere. his emotions through words.
- Art is man’s oldest means of expression;  Words are carefully selected to exhibit clarity and
- Art as a means of expression & communication. beauty

“The humanities constitute one of the oldest and most important Architecture
means of expression developed by man”. Human history has
witnessed how man evolved not just physically but also culturally,  The art of designing and constructing buildings
from cave painters to men of exquisite paintbrush users of the and other types of structures.
present. Even if one goes back to the time before written records of  It is often referred to as the “mother of the arts”
man’s civilization has appeared, he can find cases of man’s because it houses, serves as background for, or
attempts of not just crafting tools to live and survive but also occurs in relation to other fields of art.
expressing his feelings and thoughts. The Galloping Wild Boar  Materials used include stone, concrete, brick,
found in the cave of Altamira, Spain is one such example. In 1879, wood, steel, glass, and plaster.
a Spaniard and his daughter were exploring a cave when they saw  Three important elements: plan, construction and
pictures of a wild boar, hind, and bison. design


According to experts, these paintings were purported to belong to  Dance is series of movements that follows the
Upper Paleolithic Age, several thousands of years before the rhythm of the music accompaniment.
current era. Pre-historic men, with their crude instruments, already  A creative form that allows people to freely
showcased and manifested earliest attempts at recording man’s express themselves
innermost interests, preoccupations, and thoughts.
Literary Art
The humanities, then, ironically, have started even before the term
 focuses on writing using a unique style, not
has been coined. Human persons have long been exercising what
following a specific form or norm.
it means to be a human long before he was even aware of his being
one. The humanities stand tall in bearing witness to this magnificent  may include both fiction and non-fiction such as
phenomenon. Any human person, then, is tasked to participate, if novels, biographies and poems.
not, totally partake in this long tradition of humanizing himself. Theater
Popular Art Expressions
 Uses live performers to present accounts or
VISUAL ARTS imaginary events before a live audience.
 Theater art performance usually follows a script,
 Appeal to the sense of sight though they should not be confused with literary
 Mainly visual in nature arts.
 Is the kind of art form that the population is most  Considers several elements
likely more exposed to
Applied Arts
 Some mediums of visual arts include paintings,
drawings, lettering, printing, sculptures, digital  incorporate elements of style and design to
imaging, and more. everyday items with the aim of increasing their
FILM aesthetical value.
 Artists in this field bring beauty, charm, and
 The art of putting together successions of still comfort into many things that are useful in
images in order to create an illusion of movement, everyday life.
 focuses on its aesthetic, cultural, and social value
Functions of Art
 considered as both an art and an industry
 Techniques: motion-picture camera, animation A. AS A THERAPY
techniques, computer generated imagery
 Takes into account many important elements In its therapeutic function, art can be and is used as
therapy for individuals with a variety of illnesses, both
Performance Art physical and mental.


 the artist’s medium is mainly the human body
which he or she uses to perform, but also Art also functions as an artifact: A product of a particular
employs other kind of art such as visual art, time and place, an artwork represents the ideas and
props, or sound technology of that specific time and place. As we look back
over history, we find in art striking, and in some cases, the

only, tangible records of some peoples. The insights we  Other Works of art
gain into cultures, including our own are enhanced
tremendously by such artifacts as paintings, sculptures, Kinds of Subject
poems, plays, and buildings.
 History
 Still Life
The personal functions of art are varied and highly  Seascape
subjective. This means that its function depend on the  Cityscape
person- the artist who created the art.  Animals
 Nature
Art is considered to have a social function if and when it  Myth
addresses a particular collective interest as opposed to a  Dreams
personal interest. Political art is a very common example  Mythology
of an art with a social function. Art may convey message  Fantasies
of protest, contestation, or whatever message the artist
intends his work to carry. Levels of Meaning

E. PHYSICAL FUNCTION OF ART A. Factual pertains to the most rudimentary level of meaning
for it may be extracted from the identifiable or recognizable
The physical functions of art are the easiest to spot and forms in the artwork and understanding how these
understand. The physical functions of art can be found in elements relate to one another.
artworks that are crafted in order to serve some physical B. Conventional meaning, on the other hand, pertains to the
purpose. acknowledged interpretation of the artwork using motifs,
signs, symbols and other cyphers as bases of its meaning.
F. Other Functions of Art
These conventions are established through time,
Music as an art is also interesting to talk about in relation to strengthened by recurrent use and wide acceptance by its
function. Music in its original form was principally functional. viewers or audience and scholars who study then.
Music was used for dance and religion. Unlike today, when one C. When subjectivities are consulted, a variety of meaning
can just listen to music for the sake of music’s sake, the ancient may arise when a particular work of art is read. These
world saw music only as an instrument to facilities worship and meanings stem from the viewer’s or audience’s
invocation to gods. Music also was essential to dance because circumstances that come into play when engaging with art.
music assures synchronicity among dancers.
Artists and Artisans
 Art as a Representation
 Art as a Disinterested Judgment  Robert Henri The Art Spirit (1923) – art when really
 Art as a Communication of Emotion understood is the province of every human being
Subject and Content  Emergence of technology and knowledge in
 Subject refers to the visual focus or the image that may be managing and conserving all of these objects and
extracted from examining the artwork. structures, enabling the retention of the integrity
 Content is the meaning that is communicated by the artist of the artwork and the intention of the artist
or the artwork.  Middle Ages – Craft Guild
Types of Subject  Guilds – groups of artisans or craftsmen who took
on a particular specialization or trade
A. Representational art
 Practice of artists was grounded in the
 These types of art have subjects that refer to object or commitment to work together as a collective
events occurring in the real world. Often, it is also termed
 A special type of fellowship
figurative art, because as the name suggest, the figures
depicted are easy to makes out and decipher.  An association structured with rules, customs,
rights and responsibilities
B. Non-Representational art
 This art does not make a reference to the real world,  Artisans develops immense skills and expertise in
whether it is a person, place, thing, or even a particular his craft
event. It is stripped down to visual elements such as
shapes, lines, emotion, and even concept. Artist and his studio
Sources of Subject  An artist's studio is an extension of himself
 Nature  Studiolo and bottega
 Sacred Oriental Texts  France – academies and art salons support the
 History
production and discourse around art
 Greek and Roman Mythology
 Judeo-Christian Tradition

 Industrial revolution – availability and portability of kind of judiciousness in the manipulation of the
materials, reliance on wealthy patrons for material
commission 3. Post Production Stage
 1900s – art was truly liberated from the traditions  Most drawn out
of the past, artists found freedom to articulate  Decided on how it will be circulated
their aesthetic way of creative production  Allowing the artwork to set
 Tweaking
 Preparing for transport and display
 Role is more of the interpretation and  Promotion and inclusion in publications for
development of the artworks or the colletions discussions
through establishing the significance, relationship
and relevance of these materials
 Ability to research Medium
 Deciding for the display and hanging of materials
for exhibitions  Directly correlates with its composition and
presumed finality of the work
 Institutional curators – affiliated with museum and
galleries  Concrete or tangible
 Independent or freelance curators – have the  Ephemeral or transient
leeway to move around various projects, platforms Technique
and art spaces in a multiplicity of terms
 Reason why art history is described by a seemingly
Buyers limitless example of works of art
 Those who initially assess and survey the artwork  Shows the level of familiarity with the medium
that collectors are interested in being manipulated
 Oversee the sale of the artwork on the behalf of Awards and Citations
the collector
 Those who acquire and purchase artworks for a Order of the National Artist
variety of reasons  Orden ng Pambansang Alagad ng Sining
Art Dealers  Highest national recognition given to Filipino
individuals who have made significant
 Whose direct hand is in the distribution and contributions to the development of the Philippine
circulation of the artworks through a variety of Arts
means: direct sales, galleries, auction houses  Fernanado Amorsolo, 1972 – first awardee for
Museums Visual Arts
1) Rank and title
 Display of artworks for the education of the public 2) Medallion
and the appreciation of these objects only 3) Cash awards
4) State funeral and burial at Libingan ng mga
Production Process 5) Place of Honor

1. Preproduction Stage
 Begins with an idea that he wants to express or
National Living Treasures Award
communicate with his audience
2. Production Stage  Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan
 Material manipulation  Republic Act no. 7355
 May take a variety of forms  Finest traditional artist of the land
 Some artworks rely on a precise and skilled  Ginaw Bilog – Ambahan poetry
execution while others need only intuition and a  Masino Intaray – various traditional musical
instruments of the Palawan People

 Samson Sulaiman – kutyapi and other instruments

Elements of Visual Arts Three Main Types of Lines

1. Repetition occurs when two or more lines are drawn within

 The elements of art are the visual components which are
a corner following the lines of the corner.
required to create a work of art
2. Lines that are in opposition to each other form a contrast.
 Knowing the basics of the elements of visual art can help
any artist to create a well-balanced and beautiful designs 3. A transition line is a line that connects two workflow
elements. Transition lines allow you to define what the next
 To develop a more thorough understanding of artistic
step in a workflow will be.
composition, one must learn how to examine and utilize
the various art elements • To summarize, including leading lines within a photograph
is a composition technique that can strongly influence the
overall result of an image.
Line is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can
• Leading lines can direct a person’s eye to a main focal
create texture and can be thick and thin. Types of line can include
point or, if used incorrectly, can draw the eye away from
actual, implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonal and contour line.
the subject or appear to cut a photo in half.
• is an important element at the disposal of every artist.
• always has direction, always moving.
• as used in any work of art, may either be straight or curved.
 Color refers to the visual perception of light being reflected
• Lines are the first element of art and are continuous marks
from a surface of an artwork.
that are made on any surface with a moving point.
• Lines can be used in various ways to create different  A property of light
• A line can be used to express various things or feelings; it  Color theory – Sir Isaac Newton 1666
can be used to show various moods or anything abstract.
• Has the ability to direct the eyes to follow the movement or  In the most basic classification, colors can be divided into
provide hints as to a work's focal point three groups: primary, secondary and tertiary.
• Line serves as an essential building block of art, but it
can also serve as the content itself of a work of art, or be Attributes of Color
manipulated to evoke an emotional or intellectual response
from a viewer (Fichner-Rathus, 2010). A. Hue is the term for the pure spectrum colors
A. Vertical Lines commonly referred to by the "color names" - red,
orange, yellow, blue, green violet - which appear in the
- Vertical lines are poised for action. They are poised, hue circle or rainbow. Theoretically all hues can be
balanced, forceful, and dynamic. They express an mixed from three basic hues, known as primaries.
impression of dignity
• A color wheel is an abstract illustrative
- Connote elevation or height, which is usually taken to organization of color hues around a circle, that
mean exaltation or aspiration for action shows relationships between primary,
- Only vertical lines can be used to express an secondary, and tertiary colors, etc.
orderly feeling
B. Values – refers to the brightness or darkness of color; used
B. Horizontal Lines to create the ilusion of depth and solidarity
C. Intensity – the color’s brightness or dullness; the strength
- Horizontal lines are lines of repose and serenity. of the color; vivid/muted
They express ideas of calmness and quiescence.
D. Tints are values above the normal
- Alludes to the position of the reclined body at rest
E. Shades are values below the normal.
- Only horizontal lines can give a feeling of
peacefulness and stillness.  Colors have varied psychological and emotional
C. Diagonal lines
- Black is associated with death and gloom
- Diagonal lines are used to create feelings of - White stands for purity and innocence
movement or action. - Red is associated with blood, anger and fear
- Green implies happiness and abundance
- Convey movement and instability Meanings of Colors Conveyed by the Rose
D. Crooked or Jagged Lines - Red roses also mean courage and fortitude
– reminiscent of violence, conflict or struggle
- Yellow roses stand for freedom
E. Curved lines - Red and Yellow stand for jovial /happy
- Curved lines, sometimes referred as S curves,
- Orange roses speak of enthusiasm and
suggest gracefulness or sexiness.

- Red and White convey unity Kinds of Space

1. Positive space - the areas in a work of art that are the

Texture subjects, or areas of interest.

• Texture is the element that deals more directly with the sense 2. Negative space – areas around the subjects, or areas
of touch. of interest.

• It has to do with the characteristics of surfaces which can be 3. Three dimensional space – can be stimulated
rough or smooth, fine or coarse, shiny or dull, plain or irregular. through a variety of techniques such as shading

A. Implied texture expresses the idea of how a surface Form

might feel. For example, a painting of a blanket might
convey the idea that the blanket is soft. • Shape, Form, and Volume are words that are used to describe
distinct areas or parts of works of art or architecture.
B. Actual texture, on the other hand, is texture that can
actually be felt. For example, a ceramic bowl might • Shape refers to height and width
feature a carved texture that could be felt when • Form refers to height, width and depth
holding that bowl.
• Form applies to the over-all design of a work of art.
• It describes the structure or shape of an object.
Perspective deals with the effect of distance upon the appearance
of objects, by means of which the eye judges spatial relationships. • Form refers to a three-dimensional object. As such, form is an
art term that is only applied to those artworks that are three-
Kinds of Perspective
dimensional, such as sculpture and pottery.
A. Linear perspective is the representation of an
appearance of distance by means of converging lines.
• Forms, much like shapes, can be geometric or organic.
• It has to do with the direction of lines and with the size Geometric forms have hard lines and edges. Organic forms are
of objects. curvy and more free-form.

• Painters usually show the effect of space and distance Types of Form
by using converging lines and diminishing size.
1. Organic forms
• Parallel lines below the eye level seem to rise to a
- irregular in outline, and often asymmetrical.
vanishing point in the horizon, while those above the
Organic forms are most often thought of as
eye level seem to descend to the vanishing point.
naturally occurring.
• Foreshortening is the representation of objects or -
parts of the body as smaller from the point of view of
2. Geometric forms
the observer.
- those which correspond to named regular
B. Aerial perspective is the representation of relative
shapes, such as squares, rectangles, circles,
distances of objects by gradations of tone or color.
cubes, spheres, cones, and other regular
• Objects become fainter in the distance due to the forms.
effect of the atmosphere. Objects appear to be lighter - Find origin in mathematical propositions
in color as they recede into the distance or VOLUME
 Volume refers to the amount of space occupied in three
Space refers to how the artist fills the surface on which a work of art  It refers to solidity or thickness.
is created. It can also refer to the expression of depth within a work
of art.

When talking about a three-dimensional object, space is the actual

volume that is taken up by the artwork.

Space refers to distances or areas around, between or within

components of a piece.

Space can be positive (white or light) or negative (black or dark),

open or closed, shallow or deep and two-dimensional or three-

Sometimes space isn't actually within a piece, but the illusion of it