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Weighted Averages and

M at h T u t o r
Math Tutor Atomic Mass
You have learned that the mass of a proton is about 1 u and as a specific mixture of isotopes. For example, 75.76% of
1. 85.47 u
that a neutron is only slightly heavier. Because atomic nuclei chlorine atoms have a mass of 34.969 u, and 24.24% have a
consist of whole numbers of protons and neutrons, you might mass of 36.966 u. If the isotopes were in a 1:1 ratio, you could 2. 28.1 u
expect that the atomic mass of an element would be very near simply add the masses of the two isotopes together and divide
a whole number. However, if you look at the periodic table, you by 2. However, to account for the differing abundance of the
will see that the atomic masses of many elements lie some- isotopes, you must calculate a weighted average. For chlorine,
where between whole numbers. In fact, the atomic masses the weighted average is 35.45 u. The following two examples
listed on the table are average atomic masses. The atomic demonstrate how weighted averages are calculated.
masses are averages because most elements occur in nature

Sample Problem
A sample of naturally occurring silver consists of 51.839% Ag-107 (atomic mass
106.905 093 u) and 48.161% Ag-109 (atomic mass 108.904 756 u). What is the average
atomic mass of silver?

To find average atomic mass, convert each percentage to a decimal equivalent and multiply by the atomic
mass of the isotope.
0.518 39 × 106.905 093 u = 55.419 u
0.481 61 × 108.904 756 u = 52.450 u
107.869 u
Adding the masses contributed by each isotope gives an average atomic mass of 107.869 u. Note that this
value for the average atomic mass of silver is very near the one given in the periodic table.

A sample of naturally occurring magnesium consists of 78.99% Mg-24 (atomic mass

23.985 042 u), 10.00% Mg-25 (atomic mass 24.985 837 u), and 11.01% Mg-26 (atomic mass
25.982 593 u). What is the average atomic mass of magnesium?

Again, convert each percentage to a decimal and multiply by the atomic mass of the isotope to get the mass
contributed by each isotope.
0.7899 × 23.985 042 u = 18.95 u
0.1000 × 24.985 837 u = 2.499 u
0.1101 × 25.982 593 u = 2.861 u
24.31 u
Adding the masses contributed by each isotope gives an average atomic mass of 24.31 u.

1. Rubidium occurs naturally as a mixture of two isotopes, 72.17% Rb-85

(atomic mass 84.911 792 u) and 27.83% Rb-87 (atomic mass 86.909 186 u).
What is the average atomic mass of rubidium?
2. The element silicon occurs as a mixture of three isotopes: 92.22% Si-28, 4.69%
Si-29, and 3.09% Si-30. The atomic masses of these three isotopes are as follows:
Si-28 = 27.976 926 u, Si-29 = 28.976 495 u, and Si-30 = 29.973 770 u.
Find the average atomic mass of silicon.

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms  117

C h a p t e r s u mm a ry
Summary

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Review Games
Concept Maps

SECTION 1 The Development of a New Atomic Model KEY TERMS

• In the early twentieth century, light was determined to have a dual electromagnetic radiation
wave-particle nature. electromagnetic spectrum
• Quantum theory was developed to explain observations such as the wavelength
photoelectric effect and the line-emission spectrum of hydrogen.
frequency
• Quantum theory states that electrons can exist only at specific atomic photoelectric effect
energy levels.
quantum
• When an electron moves from one main energy level to a main energy level
photon
of lower energy, a photon is emitted. The photon’s energy equals the
energy difference between the two levels. ground state
• An electron in an atom can move from one main energy level to a higher excited state
main energy level only by absorbing an amount of energy exactly equal to line-emission spectrum
the difference between the two levels. continuous spectrum

SECTION 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom KEY TERMS

• In the early twentieth century, electrons were determined to have a dual Heisenberg uncertainty
wave-particle nature. principle
• The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to quantum theory
determine simultaneously the position and velocity of an electron or orbital
any other particle. quantum number
• Quantization of electron energies is a natural outcome of the Schrödinger principal quantum number
wave equation, which describes the properties of an atom’s electrons.
angular momentum quantum
• An orbital, a three-dimensional region around the nucleus, shows the region number
in space where an electron is most likely to be found. magnetic quantum number
• The four quantum numbers that describe the properties of electrons in spin quantum number
atomic orbitals are the principal quantum number, the angular momentum
quantum number, the magnetic quantum number, and the spin quantum
number.

SECTION 3 Electron Configurations KEY TERMS

• The ground-state electron configuration of an atom can be written by using electron configuration
the Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, and the Pauli exclusion principle. Aufbau principle
• Electron configurations can be depicted by using different types of Pauli exclusion principle
notation. In this book, three types of notation are used: orbital notation,
Hund’s rule
electron-configuration notation, and noble-gas notation.
noble gas
• Electron configurations of some atoms, such as chromium, deviate from
the predictions of the Aufbau principle, but the ground-state configuration noble-gas configuration
that results is the configuration with the minimum possible energy.

118 Chapter 4

hot objects, and the line-emission spectra of 5/13/2011
Untitled-40 118 4:51:22 AM
1. a. Examples include gamma rays, elements.
X rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, 3. Frequency ranges from approximately 4.29 ×
infrared light, microwaves, and radio 1014 to 7.50 × 1014 Hz. Wavelength ranges
waves. from 400 to 700 nm.
b. 3.00 × 108 m/s 4. red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet
2. Light’s wavelike properties include the
5. The wave theory could not explain the
measurable characteristics of frequency and
photoelectric effect or hydrogen’s line-emis-
wavelength as well as the ability to interfere
sion spectrum.
and diffract. Light exhibits particle-like
properties when it is absorbed and emitted 6. a. c = λν, where λ is the wavelength, ν is
by matter in phenomena such as the the frequency, and c is the velocity

118  Chapter 4
C HAPTER RE V I E W
CHAPTER 4 Review
16. a. the number used to specify the
SECTION 1 12. Using the two equations E = hv and c = λv, derive an
main energy level of an atom
b. by the letter n
The Development of a New equation expressing E in terms of h, c, and λ.
c. all orbitals within the same main
Atomic Model 13. How long would it take a radio wave whose frequency
is 7.25 × 105 Hz to travel from Mars to Earth if the
energy level
REVIEWING MAIN IDEAS distance between the two planets is approximately d. The number of electrons allowed
8.00 × 107 km? per main energy level is equal
1. a. List five examples of electromagnetic radiation. to 2n2.
b. What is the speed of all forms of electromagnetic 14. Cobalt-60 is an artificial radioisotope that is produced
in a nuclear reactor and is used as a gamma-ray
17. a. The angular momentum quantum
source in the treatment of certain types of cancer. number indicates an orbital’s
2. Prepare a two-column table. List the properties of If the wavelength of the gamma radiation from a shape.
light that can best be explained by the wave theory in cobalt-60 source is 1.00 × 10-3 nm, calculate the
one column. List those best explained by the particle
b. A sublevel, or subshell, consists of
energy of a photon of this radiation.
theory in the second column. You may want to the orbitals that are within a given
consult a physics textbook for reference. main energy level and share the
SECTION 2
same value of l. For example, an
3. What are the frequency and wavelength ranges of
visible light?
The Quantum Model of atom’s 3d subshell consists of five

4. List the colors of light in the visible spectrum in order

the Atom d orbitals.
18. a. 1; s
of increasing frequency. REVIEWING MAIN IDEAS
b. 2; s and p
5. In the early twentieth century, what two experiments 15. Describe two major shortcomings of Bohr’s model c. 3; s, p, and d
involving light and matter could not be explained by of the atom. d. 4; s, p, d, and f
the wave theory of light?
16. a. What is the principal quantum number? e. 7
6. a. How are the wavelength and frequency of b. How is it symbolized? 19. a. the orientation of an orbital
b. How are the energy and frequency of electromag- d. How does n relate to the number of electrons
b. 1, 3, 5, and 7, respectively
allowed per main energy level?
c. How are the energy and wavelength of electromag- c. Subscripts are used to indicate
netic radiation related? 17. a. What information is given by the angular the various orbital orientations
momentum quantum number? possible in terms of an x, y, z,
7. Which theory of light—the wave or particle b. What are sublevels, or subshells?
theory—best explains the following phenomena?
three-dimensional coordinate
a. the interference of light 18. For each of the following values of n, indicate the system centered on the nucleus.
b. the photoelectric effect numbers and types of sublevels possible for that main For example, px refers to a p
c. the emission of electromagnetic radiation by an energy level. (Hint: See Figure 2.6.) orbital along the x-axis, py
a. n = 1
excited atom indicates a p orbital along the
b. n = 2
8. Distinguish between the ground state and an excited c. n = 3
y-axis, and pz indicates a p orbital
state of an atom. d. n = 4 along the z-axis.
e. n = 7 (number only)
9. According to Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom,
how is hydrogen’s emission spectrum produced? 19. a. What information is given by the magnetic
quantum number?
PRACTICE PROBLEMS b. How many orbital orientations are possible in each
of the s, p, d, and f sublevels?
10. Determine the frequency of light whose wavelength is
c. Explain and illustrate the notation for distinguish-
4.257 × 10-7 cm.
ing between the different p orbitals in a sublevel.
11. Determine the energy in joules of a photon whose
frequency is 3.55 × 1017 Hz.

b. E = hν, where E is energy, h is Planck’s emitting a photon. The photon’s energy is

Untitled-40 119
constant, and ν is the frequency equal to the difference in energy5/13/2011
between 4:51:23 AM
c. E = hc/λ the two levels.
7. a. wave theory 10. 7.05 × 1016 Hz
b. particle theory 11. 2.35 × 10–16 J
c. particle theory 12. E = hc/λ
8. The ground state of an atom is the atom’s
13. 267 s
lowest energy state. An excited state of an
atom is any energy state that is higher in 14. 1.99 × 10–13 J
energy than the atom’s ground state is. 15. Bohr’s model was valid only for a single-
9. According to Bohr, a line-emission spectrum electron atom, and it did not explain the
is produced when an electron drops from a chemical nature of atoms.
higher-energy orbit to a lower-energy orbit,

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms  119

c h a p t e r r e vi e w CHAPTER REVIEW

20. a. What is the relationship between n and the total 31. Write the orbital notation for the following elements.
20. a. The total number of possible number of orbitals in a main energy level? (Hint: See Sample Problem A.)
orbitals in each main energy level b. How many total orbitals are contained in the third a. P
is equal to n2. main energy level? in the fifth? b. B
c. Na
b. There are 9 orbitals in the third 21. a. What information is given by the spin quantum d. O
energy level and 25 orbitals in the number?
fifth energy level. b. What are the possible values for this quantum 32. Write the electron-configuration notation for the
number? element whose atoms contain the following number
21. a. The spin quantum number of electrons:
indicates the spin state of an 22. How many electrons could be contained in the a. 3
electron in an orbital. following main energy levels with n equal to the b. 6
number provided?
b. +1/2 and -1/2. a. 1
c. 8
22. a. 2 d. 13
b. 3
b. 18 c. 4 33. Given that the electron configuration for oxygen is
c. 32 d. 6 1s22s22p4, answer the following questions:
e. 7 a. How many electrons are in each oxygen atom?
d. Theoretically, n = 6 can contain
b. What is the atomic number of this element?
72 electrons. c. Write the orbital notation for oxygen’s electron
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
e. Theoretically, n = 7 can contain configuration.
98 electrons. 23. Sketch the shape of an s orbital and a p orbital. d. How many unpaired electrons does oxygen have?
23. Sketches should look like the 24. How does a 2s orbital differ from a 1s orbital?
e. What is the highest occupied energy level?
s and p orbitals shown in Figure 2.5a f. How many inner-shell electrons does the atom
or should show a line-circle and a 25. How do a 2px and a 2py orbital differ? contain?
g. In which orbital(s) are these inner-shell electrons
line-dumbbell shape. located?
SECTION 3
24. The 2s orbital has a higher energy
than a 1s orbital does, and the Electron Configurations 34. a. What are the noble gases?
b. What is a noble-gas configuration?
distance of the electron from the REVIEWING MAIN IDEAS c. How does noble-gas notation simplify writing an
nucleus is farther for a 2s orbital than atom’s electron configuration?
for a 1s orbital. 26. a. In your own words, state the Aufbau principle.
b. Explain the meaning of this principle in terms of 35. Write the noble-gas notation for the electron configu-
25. The orientation of a 2px and a 2py an atom with many electrons. ration of each of the elements below. (Hint: See
orbital are at right angles to each Sample Problem B.)
27. a. In your own words, state Hund’s rule.
other. a. Cl
b. What is the basis for this rule?
26. a. An electron occupies the lowest- b. Ca
28. a. In your own words, state the Pauli exclusion c. Se
energy orbital that can receive it.
principle.
b. In a multi-electron atom, the 36. a. What information is given by the noble-gas
b. What is the significance of the spin quantum
notation [Ne]3s2?
lowest-energy orbital is filled first. number?
b. What element does this represent?
Electrons are then added to the
29. a. What is meant by the highest occupied energy
orbital with the next lowest level in an atom?
37. Write both the complete electron-configuration
energy, and so on, until all of the b. What are inner-shell electrons?
notation and the noble-gas notation for each of the
elements below. (Hint: See Sample Problem C.)
electrons in the atom have been
30. Determine the highest occupied energy level in the a. Na
placed in orbitals. b. Sr
following elements:
27. a. Orbitals of equal energy are each a. He c. P
occupied by one electron before b. Be
any orbital is occupied by a c. Al
second electron. d. Ca
e. Sn
b. By placing as many single elec-
trons as possible in separate
120 Chapter 4
orbitals in the same energy level,
electron-electron repulsion is ↑↓ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑↓
minimized and favorable lower- 29. a. The highest occupied energy level in an 31. a. ​ _ ​   ​ _ ​   ​
​   ​ ​
​ ​   ​
​
atom is the electron-containing main 1s 2s ​  2p ​
energy arrangements result. Untitled-40 120 5/13/2011 4:51:24 AM
28. a. No two electrons in the same energy level that has the highest principal
↑↓     ↑ _ ↑ _ ↑
atom can have the same four quantum number.   _
​ _ ​  ​  ​   ​ ​
​ ​
​
​
quantum numbers. b. Inner-shell electrons are electrons that 3s    ​  3p  ​

b. The two different values of the are not in the highest occupied energy
↑↓ ↑↓ _ ↑ _ _
spin quantum number permit two level. b. _
​   ​   ​ _ ​   ​     ​   ​ ​
​ ​

​     ​
electrons of opposite spin states 30. a. first main energy level (n = 1) 1s 2s     ​  2p ​
to occupy the same orbital. b. second main energy level (n = 2) ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _
↑↓ ↑↓ _ ↑
c. third main energy level (n = 3) c. _
​   ​   ​ _ ​   ​    ​   ​ ​
​ ​
​
​ ​   ​
d. fourth main energy level (n = 4) 1s 2s ​     2p  ​    3s
e. fifth main energy level (n = 5)

120  Chapter 4
CHAPTER REVIEW C HAPTER RE V I E W
38. Identify each of the following atoms on the basis of its 46. Given that the electron configuration for phosphorus
electron configuration: is 1s22s22p63s23p3, answer the following questions: 36. a. The notation indicates that in
a. 1s22s22p1 a. How many electrons are in each atom? addition to having all of the
b. 1s22s22p5 b. What is the atomic number of this element? electrons that would be con-
c. [Ne]3s2 c. Write the orbital notation for this element.
tained by neon (10), the atom has
d. [Ne]3s23p2 d. How many unpaired electrons does an atom of
e. [Ne]3s23p5 phosphorus have?
two electrons in its 3s orbital.
f. [Ar]4s1 e. What is its highest occupied energy level? b. magnesium
g. [Ar]3d64s2 f. How many inner-shell electrons does the atom 37. a. 1s22s22p63s1, [Ne]3s1
contain?
b. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s2, [Kr]5s2
PRACTICE PROBLEMS g. In which orbital(s) are these inner-shell electrons
located? c. 1s22s22p63s23p3, [Ne]3s23p3
39. List the order in which orbitals generally fill, from the 38. a. boron
47. What is the frequency of a radio wave whose energy is
1s to the 7p orbital.
1.55 × 10-24 J per photon?
b. fluorine
40. Write the noble-gas notation for the electron configu- c. magnesium
rations of each of the following elements: 48. Write the noble-gas notation for the electron configu- d. silicon
rations of each of the following elements:
a. As e. Sn e. chlorine
b. Pb f. Xe a. Hf d. At
b. Sc e. Ac
f. potassium
c. Lr g. La
d. Hg c. Fe f. Zn g. iron
39. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p,
49. Describe the major similarities and differences
41. How do the electron configurations of chromium and 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p
copper contradict the Aufbau principle? between Schrödinger’s model of the atom and the
model proposed by Bohr. 40. a. [Ar]3d 104s24p 3
b. [Xe]4f   145d 106s26p2
Mixed Review 50. When sodium is heated, a yellow spectral line whose
energy is 3.37 × 10-19 J per photon is produced. c. [Rn]5f   146d  17s2
REVIEWING MAIN IDEAS a. What is the frequency of this light? d. [Xe]4f  145d  106s2
b. What is the wavelength of this light? e. [Kr]4d  105s25p2
42. a. Which has a longer wavelength: green light or f. [Kr]4d  105s25p6
yellow light? 51. a. What is an orbital?
b. Which has a higher frequency: an X ray or a b. Describe an orbital in terms of an electron cloud. g. [Xe]5d  16s2
microwave? 41. Electrons occupy the higher-energy
c. Which travels at a greater speed: ultraviolet light or 3d sublevel before filling the
CRITICAL THINKING
infrared light? lower-energy 4s orbital. These
43. Write both the complete electron-configuration and 52. Inferring Relationships In the emission spectrum of unusual configurations result because
noble-gas notation for each of the following: hydrogen shown in Figure 1.5, each colored line is they are the electron arrangements
a. Ar b. Br c. Al produced by the emission of photons with specific of minimum energy.
energies. Substances also produce absorption spectra
44. Given the speed of light as 3.00 × 108 m/s, calculate when electromagnetic radiation passes through
42. a. yellow light
the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation them. Certain wavelengths are absorbed. Using the b. an X ray
whose frequency is 7.500 × 1012 Hz. diagram below, predict what the wavelengths of the c. In a vacuum, both travel at the
45. a. What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
absorption lines will be when white light (all of the same speed, the speed of light.
colors of the visible spectrum) is passed through
b. What units can be used to express wavelength?
hydrogen gas.
43. a. 1s22s22p63s23p6, [Ne]3s23p6
c. What unit is used to express frequencies of
b. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5,
electromagnetic waves?
[Ar]3d104s24p5
c. 1s22s22p63s23p1, [Ne]3s23p1
44. 4.00 × 10‑5 m (4.00 × 104 nm)
45. a. all the forms of electromagnetic
300 nm 700 nm
Hydrogen absorption spectrum radiation arranged according to
increasing wavelength or frequency
Chapter Review 121 b. Any length unit is acceptable.
Often, shorter wavelengths are
↑↓ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑ _ ↑
d. ​ _ ​   ​ _ ​   ​        ​   ​ ​
​ ​
​
​ 34. a. The noble gases are the Group 18 measured in nanometers, and
1s 2s ​  2p ​    elements: helium, neon, argon,5/13/2011
krypton, longer wavelengths are measured
Untitled-40 121
4:51:24 AM

32. a. 1s 2s ; b. 1s 2s 2p ; c. 1s 2s 2p4;
2 1 2 2 2 2 2 xenon, and radon. in centimeters or meters.
d. 1s22s22p63s23p1 b. A noble-gas configuration refers to an c. hertz, Hz; one Hz equals one
outer main energy level occupied, in wave per second
33. a. 8 46. a. 15
b. 8 most cases, by eight electrons.
Linda Wilbourn
c. It allows one to abbreviate large portions
5/5/97 b. 15
↑↓ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑ _ ↑ of the configuration. 5th PASS
↑↓ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑↓ _ ↑↓
c. _ ​   ​   ​ _ ​   ​     ​   ​ ​
​ ​
​
​ MC99PEC04000022A c. _ ​   ​ _ ​   ​     ​   ​ ​
​ ​
​      ​
​    ​  ​
1s 2s     ​  2p  ​    35. a. [Ne]3s23p5 1s 2s     ​   ​
3s
2p
d. 2 b. [Ar]4s2 ↑ _ ↑ _ ↑
_  ​ ​
​ ​
​

e. second main energy level (n = 2) c. [Ar]3d104s24p4
f. 2
​  3p ​
d. 3
g. the 1s orbital

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms  121

c h a p t e r r e vi e w CHAPTER REVIEW

53. Applying Models In discussions of the photoelectric

RESEARCH AND WRITING
e. the third main energy level (n = 3) effect, the minimum energy needed to remove an
f. 10 electron from the metal is called the threshold energy 57. Neon signs do not always contain neon gas. The
g. the 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals and is a characteristic of the metal. For example, various colored lights produced by the signs are due
chromium, Cr, will emit electrons when the wave-
47. 2.34 × 109 Hz to the emission of a variety of low-pressure gases in
length of the radiation is 284 nm or less. Calculate the different tubes. Research other kinds of gases used in
48. a. [Xe]4f 145d26s2 threshold energy for chromium. (Hint: You will need neon signs, and list the colors that they emit.
b. [Ar]3d14s2 to use the two equations that describe the relation-
c. [Ar]3d64s2 ships between wavelength, frequency, speed of light, 58. Prepare a report about the photoelectric effect, and
and Planck’s constant.) cite some of its practical uses. Explain the basic
d. [Xe]4f 145d106s26p5 operation of each device or technique mentioned.
e. [Rn]6d 17s2 54. Analyzing Information Four electrons in an atom have
f. [Ar]3d 104s2 the four sets of quantum numbers given below.
Which electrons are in the same orbital? Explain your ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
49. Bohr’s model worked only for the answer.
hydrogen atom, whereas Schrödinger’s a. 1, 0, 0, -__ 59. Performance A spectroscope is a device used to
mathematical model applies to all b. 1, 0, 0, +__ produce and analyze spectra. Construct a simple
atoms. The essential difference c. 2, 1, 1, +__ spectroscope, and determine the absorption spectra
between the two models involves the d. 2, 1, 0, +__ of several elemental gases. (Your teacher will provide
issue of certainty. Bohr described 55. Relating Ideas Which of the sets of quantum numbers
you with the gas discharge tubes containing samples
of different gases.)
definite orbits occupied by electron below are possible? Which are impossible? Explain
particles, whereas Schrödinger treated your choices.
electrons as waves having a certain a. 2, 2, 1, +__
b. 2, 0, 0, -__
probability of being found in orbitals at c. 2, 0, 1, -__
various distances from the nucleus.
The two models are similar in that
both associate an electron’s energy USING THE HANDBOOK
with its location relative to the nucleus.
56. Sections 1 and 2 of the Elements Handbook
Also, the most probable location of an (Appendix A) contain information on an analytical
electron in hydrogen, according to test and a technological application for Group 1 and 2
Schrödinger, is at a distance from the elements. The test and application are based on the
nucleus exactly equal to that of Bohr’s emission of light from atoms. Review these sections
lowest-energy orbit. to answer the following:
a. What analytical technique utilizes the emission of
50. a. 5.09 × 1014 Hz light from excited atoms?
b. 5.90 × 10‑7 m (590. nm) b. What elements in Groups 1 and 2 can be identified
51. a. An orbital is a three-dimensional by this technique?
region about the nucleus where c. What types of compounds are used to provide
color in fireworks?
there is a high probability that a
d. What wavelengths within the visible spectrum
particular electron is located. would most likely contain emission lines for
b. Orbitals are like clouds that show barium?
the region of probable electron
locations. The sizes and shapes of
electron clouds depend on the
energies of the electrons that
occupy them.
52. 656 nm, 486 nm, 434 nm, and 410 nm.
Students might realize that these are
the same frequencies of hydrogen’s
line-emission spectrum. Electronic 122 Chapter 4
transitions occur at the same frequen-
cies whether an electron is absorbing 5 6. a. flame tests the moving electrons create an electric
energy and being excited or losing current. Many other answers are possible.
energy and emitting a photon. Untitled-40
b. lithium,
122 sodium, potassium, rubidium, 5/13/2011 4:51:25 AM

cesium, calcium, strontium, and barium 59. The spectroscope can be constructed with a
53. 7.00 × 10‑19 J c. chloride salts long tube of black paper covered on one
54. Electrons a and b are in the same d. those near 500 nm end with a slit, over which a diffraction
orbital, because the only difference 57. Answers will vary depending on which gases grating is attached.
is the spin quantum number. students choose. One of the most common
55. Possible: b. (All 4 quantum numbers gases used or mixed with the red glow of
follow rules.) Not possible: a (if n = neon is sodium, which appears yellow.
2, only l = 0 and l = 1 are allowed); 58. Be sure students focus on the movement of
c (if l = 0, only possible value of electrons, which results from photons striking
m is 0) the surface of metal. Photovoltaic solar cells
may be mentioned as one device in which

122  Chapter 4