Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Situational Analysis

There are a lot of plants that possess insecticidal properties around

that most people ignore, with dengue running rampant an immediate action is

needed. It is said that Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) leaves, Garlic (Allium

sativum), and Citronella (Cymbopogon Nardus) have insecticidal properties that

can kill a mosquito.

According to the World Health Organization, mosquitos are one of

the deadliest animals in the world. They cause millions of deaths to humans every

year because of their ability to carry and spread disease . They only not carry

dengue but also, zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, malaria and Japanese

encephalitis.

Mosquitoes are insects with long slender bodies, narrow wings with

a fringe of scales on the hind margins and along the veins , and long, very thin

legs. In females, the elongate proboscis is firm and usually adapted for piercing

and sucking blood; the males cannot suck blood, but both sexes feed on nectar of
various plants. There are four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and winged adult.

Eggs may be oviposited (laid) singly or in rafts, deposited in water, on the sides of

containers where water will soon cover them, or on damp soils where they must

undergo a maturing process before they can hatch when flooded by rainfall or high

tides. Only the female mosquitoes bite, using blood protein for the development of

their eggs. The flight range of mosquitoes varies greatly, from several hundred

feet in some species to more than 20 miles in others (excerpted from Public Health

Pest Control Applicator Training Manual, FDACS, 1994, 30 pp).

Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional

practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes.

Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies

is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. Recently,

commercial repellent products containing plant-based ingredients have gained

increasing popularity among consumers, as these are commonly perceived as

“safe” in comparison to long-established synthetic repellents.

According to a study of Alfredo Rabena (Agriculture Business Week,

2010) he found that kakawati (Madre de Cacao) leaves are good source of

coumarins, a toxic substance that can kill almost all types of pests and insects .
While garlic has been useful as a spice for a very long time .

However, the most interesting about garlic is its properties that is powerful natural

insect repellant. Garlic bulbs contain an amino acid that converts to a substance

called allicin when crushed, blended or chopped. The characteristic odor released

as a result of this process has powerful properties.

Citronella has found its way into many commercial preparations

through its familiarity, rather than its efficacy. Citronella was originally extracted for

use in perfumery, and its name derives from the French citronelle around 1858.

Today, citronella is one of the most widely used natural repellents on the market,

used at concentrations of 5-10%. This is lower than most other commercial

repellents but higher concentrations can cause skin sensitivity. (Malar J, 2011)

Statement of the Problem

The researchers are dealing with different types of plants, one of the

problems that they will encounter is how are they going to make all three plants ,

and their properties work together instead of going against each other.

This study aims to answer the following questions:


1. Does mixing three different plants with different insecticidal properties

makes a difference than one insecticidal plant to be much effective

insecticide?

2. Are the insecticidal properties of three different plants complement each

other to make an insect repellent?

3. Does the insect repellent also have an effect to the people?

Sub- Problems

1. If the product produces allergens

2. If the product develops an unpleasant odor.

3. If the extract of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) leaves , Garlic (Allium

sativum), and Citronella (Cymbopogon Nardus) is an effective way of

natural insect repellant.

General Objectives

To utilize the insecticidal properties of Madre de Cacao leaves,

Garlic, and Citronella and be able to produce an effective alternative way of

eliminating insects primarily mosquitos.


To determine if Gliricidia sepium, Allium sativum, and Cymbopogon

Nardus can provide adequate, affordable alternative insect repellent.

Specific Objective

1. to develop an effective insect repellent made of common house hold

plants (Madre de Cacao leaves, Garlic, and Citronella).

2. to find a method that will effectively combine the plant mixtures without

producing an unpleasant odor.

3. to concoct a product that won’t produce allergens.

Hypotheses

With different insecticidal properties extracted from three different

plants (Madre de Cacao, Garlic, and Citronella), will be able to formulate and

produce an effective mosquito repellent.

Significance of the Study

This study aims to identify the potential effectiveness of three

different plants with different insecticidal properties in repelling insects most

especially mosquitoes. If the study yields favorable results, it will contribute to the
society in lessening the outbreak for dengue and other diseases and have a lesser

cost value than other products in the market.

Definition of terms

Mosquito is a small flying insect that bites the skin of people and animals and

sucks their blood

Insecticidal is used for destroying insects

Repellent is a substance that is used to keep something out or away

Extract is the obtained substance from raw materials from which it is

contained

Oviposit is laying of eggs used especially of insects

Dengue is an acute infectious disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by

aede mosquitoes and characterized by headache, severe joint pain

and a rash.
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

According to Wany, et al. (2003) citronella grass has been serving from years as

a mosquito repellent in the field of ancient and modern medicine. Commercially

available mosquito repellents are chemical based and disastrous to human health.

They attempted to prepare a 100% herbal product based on Citronella leaf

remains, which was not used after steam distillation. It is cheap, effective and

environment friendly. It is a first and preliminary work based on formulating and

evaluating herbal mosquito repellent cakes using natural binders such as neem

powder, potato starch, cornstarch, coconut shell powder, wood powder and cow

dung. They believed that the efficacy of prepared citronella leaf cakes are

evaluated on three different parameters such as flammability, burning time and

mosquito repellency test. Based on the results obtained from these parameters,

the residual percentage of each combination of cakes was calculated and it

suggested that Neem powder cake has the most effective repellency activity when

impregnated with 10% Citronella oil.

Among other essential oils, citronella oil was the most effective

and provided 2 hours of repellency. Wong et al. (2005) studied five

commercial plant extracts, including citronella, and showed that it is


effective in deterring the infestation of cartons containing muesli and wheat

germ by red flour beetles. Moreover, Olivo et al. (2008) proved that citronella

oil has other effect such as the control of cattle ticks, the most important

active principles being citronella and geraniol. Nakahara et al. (2003) studied

the chemical composition of citronella oil and its antifungal activity. The

crude essential oil markedly suppressed the growth of several species of

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium. The most active compounds among

the 16 volatiles examined, consisting of 6 major constituents of the essential

oil and 10 other related monoterpenes, were citronellal and linalool.

Insecticidal Effects of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia Sepium) In the

Control of Farm.

About 750, 000 different kinds of insects are known, and more are being

discovered every year. Human kind fights a constant battle against harmful insects.

We do this in a number of ways. One of this is by the use of insecticide sprays (An

insecticide is a chemical that kills insects.) the use of pesticides allows us to

produce more food than ever before on less land. Insecticides that are similar to

an insect naturally hormones cause the insect to grow abnormally. The insects

may never grow into adult, so it would never reproduce.

A study done by Rabena, a fulltime professor at the University or

Northern Philippines in Vigan City, found that Madre de Cacao leaves are good
source of coumarins. A toxic substance that can kill almost all types of pests and

insects. Rabena said one kilogram of kakawati leaves, soaked in water overnight

can produce seven gallons of “botanopesticides” (botanical pesticides). “The more

leaves, the more concentrated the pesticides he said. Rabena said he conducted

the study in 1996 in collaboration with a Malaysian chemist Dr. Nordin Lajiz at the

University of the Philippines in Los Baños, Laguna “The three-year study found

botanopesticides are effective pest control.” He said, adding the technology used

by rice and vegetable farmers in eight municipalities in Ilocos sur. Rabena said he

wants to provide Filipino farmers an alternative to commercial pesticides to lessen

the cost of production. He said the Madre de Cacao plant is endemic to tropical

countries such as the Philippines.


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The study used the frequency and percentage distribution to

determine the percentage of frequency and the mean score of each

distribution of Madre de cacao, Citronella oil, and minced garlic mixtures to

the mosquitoes for a given time.

Formula:

% = ƒ × 100 Where: % = Percent


N f = Frequency
N = Number of cases

To find the mean:

𝜮𝒇𝒙
𝒙 =𝜮𝒇

This type of experimental design randomly assigned without

restriction Subjects were assumed to be homogeneous.

There was one application with five replications of mixtures.

Materials

1 empty spray bottle


1 weighing scale
1 empty jar
1 Stove
1 Stirring rod
1 funnel
2 beakers
3 mortar and pestle
Blender
Towel
6 pairs of disposable plastic gloves
9 clinical mask (disposable)
150 ml Isopropyl alcohol
200 ml coconut milk
100 ml water
4 garlics
2 1/5 kgs of Madre de Cacao leaves
50 grams of Citronella leaves and stem

Procedure

Fresh Citronella leaves and stem are obtained in the backyard of one of the

researchers. Garlic are bought from the Palo Public Market. Madre de Cacao

leaves is obtained from the tree and is fresh and healthy. The materials to be used

are all natural and are placed in a table.

1. We will start first by extracting the Madre de Cacao and Citronella

leaves and stem.

2. Start by drying up the Citronella leaves and stem for 2 days under the

sunlight from 6:30 in the morning to 3:00 in the afternoon.


3. Place the dried Citronella leaves and stem in a jar and fill it up with

isopropyl alcohol. Set the jar down and leave for 1 week.

4. After 1 week. Strain the contents of the jar into the empty spray bottle.

5. For the garlic, peel 4 garlics, making sure to remove all the papery skin

both from the outside and from the individual cloves.

6. Place the peeled garlic on the mortar and pestle and smash the garlic

until juice is visible.

7. Squeeze the garlic to get the extract, transfer into a clean container

8. The coconut milk is transferred into a beaker and placed on a stove.

9. Continuously stir the coconut milk until oil is visible.

10. Strain the coconut oil to separate the oil from the granules and transfer

into a bottle.

11. Clean and wash thoroughly the Madre de Cacao leaves.

12. The Madre de Cacao leaves are put on a blender, add 100 ml of water

and blend until the leaves are fine.

13. Put the on the towel and squeeze until juice is extracted from the leaves.

Transfer in a clean container.

For the mixture of the extract:

1. The extract of Madre de Cacao, Citronella, garlic and coconut milk is

placed on a table.

2. Mix a 100 ml extract of Madre de cacao, 50 ml extract of citronella, 20

ml extract of garlic and 10 ml of coconut oil.

3. Transfer the mixed solution in a clean spray bottle using a funnel.


The prepared mixtures in the bottle spray were available for

application. The insect to be tested for are mosquitoes. The

mosquitoes are sprayed once with five replications. Each application

contained 5ml of mixtures.


CHAPTER IV

Summary

Оценить