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ATURAL
HE ULTIMATE VISUAL GUIDE TO EVERYTHING ON EARTH

HISTORY
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1 THSON A ! J

NATURAL
HISTORY
What if our planet's kaleidoscope
of life could be contained within the
covers of a book? The result would
be something very close to Natural
History. Page after page displays a
dazzling array of species from
around the globe. From bacteria
to bison, giant redwoods to ruby-
throated hummingbirds, tripe fungi
to trumpetfish, this is a unique record
-
of the rich diversity of life on Earth.

LIVING EARTH
A fullv illustrated introduction explains the
story of our planet, from the unique conditions
that first sustained life, to the evolution and

classification of organisms that exist today.


A specially designed "tree of life" charts the

complex and interconnected relationships

between species.

EXTRAORDINARY DIVERSITY
At the heart of the book is a breathtaking visual

catalog with m^ ''


) full-color entries. In

addition to plants, animals, tungi, and microscopic


lif 'S, this encycicyi ' ' >rv also

covers rocks, mim* J "md fossils, providing an


unparalleled survey of the natuia, , rid.

LOOK CLOSER
Specially commissioned photographic features
zoom in on single specimens, drawing readers
into close encounters with some of Earth's most
spectacular species.
* •

Perfect for the entire family, from students to


amateur naturalists, Natural History is a testament
to the beauty of our world and an inspiration to
conservationists everywhere.

$50 00 USA
$55.0' acla

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NATURAL
HISTORY
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m SMITHSONIAN O

NATURAL
Mil ULT1M ATI V I S U \ l GUIDI I o EVERYTHING ON EARTH

HISTORY
FOREWORD 6
LONDON. NEW YORK. MELBOURNE ABOUT THIS BOOK 8
MUNICH, AND DELHI
DK PUBLISHING
SENIOR PROJECT EDITOR Katlirvn lcnncss\ I

PROJECT EDITOR Victoria Wiggins


SENIOR ART EDITORS Gadi Farfour,

EDITORS Becky Alexander, Ann Baggalev,


Kim Dennis-Bryan, Ferdie McDonald,
Elizabeth Munsey, Peter Preston,
CressidaTuson, Anne Yclland
US EDITORS Jill Hamilton, Christine Heilman,
Jane Perlmutter

DESIGNERS Paul Drislane, Nicola Erdpresser,


Anna Hall, Richard Horsford,
Phil Fit/gerald,
Stephen Knovvlden, Dean Morris, Amy
Orsborne, Steve Woosnam-Savage LIVING EARTH MINERALS, MICROSCOPIC
PHOTOGRAPHY Gary Ombler
SPECIAL
PICTURE RESEARCH Neil Fletcher,
A living planet 12 ROCKS, AND LIFE
Peter Cross, Julia Harris-Voss, Sarah Hopper,
Active Earth 14 FOSSILS PROKARYOTES 90
Liz Moore, Rebecca Sodergren, Jo Walton, Changing climates 16
Debra Weatherley, and Suzanne Williams Hahitats for life 18 MINERALS 38 PROTISTS 94
DK picture library Claire Bowers Amoebas and
DATABASE Peter Cook, David Roberts
Human impact 20 ROCKS 62 relatives 96
Origins of life 22 Flagellates 97
PRODUCTION EDITOR Tony Phipps
Evolution and diversity 24
FOSSILS 74 Rhizarians 98
SENIOR PRODUCTION CONTROLLER
Inderjit Bhullar Evolution in progress 26 Alveolates 100
Classification 28 Heterokonts 101
MANAGING EDITOR Camilla Hallinan
MANAGING ART EDITOR Karen Self Animal genealogy 30 Red and green algae 103
ART DIRECTOR Phil Ormerod Tree of life 32
ASSOCIATE publisher Liz Wheeler
REFERENCE PUBLISHER Jonathan Mctcalf

DK INDIA
MANAGING EDITOR Rohan Sinha
ART DIRECTOR Shcfali Upadhyay
PROJECT MANAGER MalavikaTalukdcr

CONTENTS
PROJECT EDITOR Kingshuk Ghoshal
PROJECT ART EDITOR Mitun Banerjcc
EDITORS Alka Ranjan, Samira Sood,
Garima Sharma
ART EDITORS Ivy Roy, Mahua Mandal,
Nccrja Rawat
PRODUCTION MANAGER Pankaj Sharma
dtp Coordinator Sunil Sharma
SENIOR DTP DESIGNERS Dhceraj Arora,
\
Jagtar Singh, PushpakTyagi

First American Edition, 2010


First published in the United States by
DK Publishing
375 Hudson Street
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CONSULTANT EDITOR
New York, New York 10014
Established in 1846, the Smithsonian Institution — the world's David Burnie is a former
10 11 12 13 14 109876 54 32
LD096—09/10
1
largest museum and research complex — includes 1museums
9 winner of the Aventis Prize for
and galleries and the National Zoological Park. The total number Science Books, and the editor
Copyright© 2010 Dorling Kindcrsley Limited of objects, works of art, and specimens in the Smithsonian's of DK's highly successful Animal.
Foreword copyright © 2010 Smithsonian Institution
collections is estimated at 1 37 million, the bulk of which is He has written or contributed
Without limiting the rights
All rights reserved.
contained in the National Museum of Natural History, which holds to more than 00 books and
1 is a
under copyright reserved above, no part of this
publication may be reproduced, stored in or
more than 126 million specimens and objects. The Smithsonian fellow of the Zoological Society
introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, is a renowned research center, dedicated to public education, of London.
in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and history.
photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without
the prior written permission of both the copyright CONTRIBUTORS
owner and the above publisher of this hook. SMITHSONIAN CONSULTANTS
Dr. Stephen Cairns, Dr. Allen Collins, Dana M. De Roche, Richard Beatty, Amy-Jane Beer,
Publishedin Great Britain by
Dorling Kinderslev Limited Dr. Carla Dove, Leslie Hale, Dr. M. G.
(Jerry) Harascwych, Gary Dr. Charles Deeming, Dr. Kim
Hevel, Dr. Rafael Lemaitre, Dr. Chris Meyer, Dr. Jon Norenburg, Dennis-Bryan, Dr. Frances Dipper,
A catalog record for this book is available from
the Library of Congress. Dr. David L. Pawson, Paul Pohwat, Dr. Jeffrey E. Post, Dr. Klaus Dr. Chris Gibson, Derek Harvey,
Rutzler, Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues, Dr. Michael Vecchione, Dr. Warren Professor Tim Halliday, Geoffrey
ISBN 978-07566-6752-8
Wagner, Dr. Jeffrey T.Williams, Dr. Don E.Wilson, Dr. George Zug Kibby, Joel Levy, Felicity Maxwell,
DK books are available at special discounts when Dr. George C. McGavin, Dr. Pat
purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums,
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Discover more at
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PLANTS FUNGI ANIMALS
UYlRWORIs 108 MUSHROOMS 210 INVERTEBRATES 24S Vlbatrosses, petrels,
S P on es >50 ami shearw aters
MOSSES 1 10 nU 111N(,1 2 36 g
1 !1

Cnidai ians !S2 c ri ebes 423


URNs \\1) Rl 1 \ 1 1 \ I S 112 1 ICHENS 242 i latworms >56 Flamingos 424
( U UJS, GINKGOS, Roundworms Stoi ks, Ibises, and berons 425
indgni tophi hn 1 16 Segmented worms >58 I'rln ,ms anil relati> is 1 !8

COMF1 RS 1 IS Velvel worms >58 Bii ds ol pre\ I JO


Water bears !59 Cranes and rails I 38
FLOWERING PI UTO 122
Arthropods >60 Waders, gulls, and auks l I I

Kisal angiosperms 124 \i ,u hnids >62 Sandgn tuse 452


Magnoliids S
v.\ spiders >68 Pigeons and doves i ;3
Monocotyledons I JO I'ai'ii ils anil 456 katOOS
I lorseshoe i rabs !68 i 1 »<

1 udicotvledons ISO 269 Cuckoos, hoatzin, and turacos 460


Crustac eans
Insects 274 Owls 463
Ribbon worms {(HI Nightjars m^\ (rogmouths 467
Bryozoans J00 1[ummingbirds and sv* His 469
1 ampshells J01 Trogons 472
MolluslcS ^01 Mousebirds 472
13i\al\is id 1
Kingfishers .uu\ relatives 47 3
Gastropods J04 Wi lodpeckers and toucans 477
Cephalopods J09 Passerines 482
Chitons Jl 3
MAMMALS 500
lusk shells 31 \
1 mammals
gg laying 502
I i binoderms J14 Pouched mammals 50 3

CH OR DATES 318 Sengis 512


Tenrecs and golden moles 51 3

FISH 320
Aardvark 514
jaw less fish* S 322
1 )ugong and manatees 515
( lartilaginous fishes 323
1 [yraxes 515
Ra\ -finned fishes J30 1 lephants 516
I obe finned fishes 349
Armadillos 517
AMPHIBIANS 350 and anteaters
Sl( iths 520
Frogs and toads 352 Rabbits, bares, and pikas 521
I ai i ilians 36 5 Rodents 523
Salamanders and new ts 366 ree shrews
1
'.3 3

(
'<
)l ll^< is 533
REPTILES 370
Primates 5 34
Turtles and tortoises 372
Bats 5 50
luataras 379
1 ledgehi igs and mi m mrats 558
I izards $80
Moles and relatives 559
Vmphisbat nians IS 1 )
Pangolins 561
Snakes J90 ( .11 IIJMII 1 s 562
Croi "clili v and a rs 400 ( )d<l toed ungulates 588
BIRDS 404 1 m ii toed ungulati s

Tinamous 406 Whales, porpoises,


K.itit. s 106 ,m<\ dolphins 612
I <>u I, -j . 1 1 m liir <|s .11 M I I i lati vi s 408
Watl rfowl 412 GLOSSARY 618
nins 416 INDEX 622
I oons i
!0 \( KNOW] DGM1 1 MS 644
P^^r
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We
FOREWORD share this planet \\ itli millions ol spe< ies ol plants, animals
and niu roorganisms, and oui lives .uv intimatel) tied to them,
|um take a momenl to look around you and you w ill sir t li.it we
air intera< ting v\ itli them ever) day, from the food we eat and
thr i lothes we wear to the mi< robes thai live inside our bodies,
the .in we breathe, and the water we drink, We are one small
tw i<^ iii .1 large and complex tree <>| life, a tree where most ol

the branc hes have been lost ovei time.


I Ins hook pio\ ides .\ w uulow iiUii the ivinarkahli' di\itsit\
and natural histon ol the world around us. It has been .1 long
journey, going ba< k 4.6 billion years to the formation of planet
I .nth itself, although astronomers have discovered several
hundred planets in other solar systems over the |>.ist de< ade,
our home is unique given its location in the solar system, its
geological history, and the evolution ol life. Kn\ one of these
things could have changed and we would not be here today.
I lir stmh ol these species, and the interactions among them
and \\ ith their surrounding environment, is our own natural
history. More than .9 million li\ ing species have been described
1

to date, and more than 20,000 new species are discovered and
des( ribed ever) year. Each one of them has a unique story, mu\ is
the ivsult ol millions ol years ol evolution through natural selection
and adaptation to their environment. Their In is arc intertwined

into a gigantic web ol life, \\ ith multiple, constantly changing


connections between them. We are just one species, albeit one that
is ha\ ing an ever increasing impact on this planet and beyond.
Fossils give us a rare \\ indow into the past, a form of time
travel il you \\ ish. We know that most species that have lived in
the past 5 30 million years have become extinct, and thai there
have been mass extinctions when as main as )() pin l
rut of all

species disappeared. For example, fossil leaves from Wyoming


show evidence ol rapidl) changing environments, from temperate
grasslands to tropical forests, same place over time. Some
in the
ol the fossil leaves even show the bite marks left by feeding insects
:>() million years ago. H\ c omparing these fossil communities in
spair and time we can see that species and their natural histon
have ontinuousK responded to em ironmental hange. Some of
i <

them made it; most did not. The stud) of these changes ma) give
us insights into the past, present, and future ol life on Earth.

I he publication ol this hook coincides with the centennial


anniversary ol the Smithsonian's National Museum ok Natural
History. Our collections are pages of a giganti* encyclopedia
ol lilt', and the stor) is told through the insights ol our si imtists
and educators. I trust you will enjo) this magnificenl volume
and accepl n as ,in invitation to explore the Smithsonian and
to i xplore tin natural histor) ol the world around you.

CRISTIAN SAMPER
DIRECTOR, NATIONA1 MUSEUM Ol N\I(IK\I HISTORY,
sMi i HSONIAN INSI I i ii j io\
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Natural History begins with a general introduction to life on Earth: the
geological foundations of life, the evolution of life forms, and how organisms Jor easy reference, visual

are classified. The next five chapters form an extensive and accessible catalog contents panels list the


of species and specimens from mineral to mammals interspersed with — subgroups within each section,
and the page number where
each subgroup can be found
fact-filled introductions to each group and in-depth feature profiles.

SECTION INTRODUCTION >


Each chapter is divided into sections
REPTILES
representing major taxonomic groupings. Brpiil^ .irt a MphlMiciMd, dlvone, *"! luccvnTuI group
<. •ihrrmu !• ofa-Mooded) rarfebnto \lih.-u^h obuobI
,

The section introduction highlights


the characteristics and behaviors that
define the group, and discusses their
evolution over time.

PHYLUM CHORDATA
on each introduction, .

(-CLASS REPTHIA :

classification boxes display the


current taxonomic hierarchy:
ORDERS 4

the level of the group under FAMILIES 60


discussion is highlighted SPECIES About 7,700

debate boxes tackle scientific


controversies and taxonomic discussions
arising Jrom new discoveries

u male of I *
1^-
the species

A GROUP INTRODUCTION
Within each section — for example,
reptiles — lower-ranking taxonomic groups,
species-specific
information
such as lizards, are explored. Kev features accompanies
are described, including their distribution, each image
habitat, physical characteristics, life cycle,
behavior, and reproductive habits.

SPECIES CATALOG >


Pictorial galleries profile around
5,000 species, showing the distinctive
visual features of each one. Closely
related species are placed together for
useful comparison, while essential
data highlights unique and interesting
apsects of each organism.
Jj!. 8 m)
mam—mm
deti H Mil 1 \i I ests, swamps, scrub thickets, MEASUREMENTS
lUCA IIUI. jii>I i^kv landst i
sitiniu,
distribution. j/iJ Jirt DISTRIBUTION India to China, Siberia, tin M . itams In this book ara gtvsn In

peninsula, and Sumatra .i nstoi the dimensions used


oil i Mi v houlrd animals, such as deei and
-. Ii smallei mammals and birdi MICROSCOPIC LIFE
. 1 I \1UR1 I'KOI II I

Length
Zooming in on single specimens,
feature profiles um close up PLANTS
photographs to provide in depth Maximum Iwight above ground ; Mm
[Hittrjits .•! some >>l the world's plant Height above water lUBhM
m.»t spectacular species Spread aquaik plants

FUNGI
Width (of widest part) pttoi

Height itlnkhom, dog

INVERTEBRATES
Adultbody length BMCSptfOI
Height onunon hydra, leatftei

' pink iii'.nii'ii hydrokj fire 'coral' Irydrokt, tall

anemones, taHcoi
Diamoter snallfur, blue button, alghl ribbed hydromi

cup !

Diameter, excluding spines W him


Diameter of medusa ii'llylisli

Wmgspan butterflies and moths


Length ol colony liryo/oans
Length of shell mollusks, shelled gasliopods
Spread of tentacles octopuses

FISH, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES


Adult body length from head to tail

BIRDS
Adultbody length from bill to tail

MAMMALS
Adult body length, excluding tail, except lor:

Height to shoulder elephants, apes, even toed ungulates,

odd-toed ungulates

PLANT ICONS
The basic shape ol all trees, shrubs, and woody plants is

described using one of the following symbols Herbaceous


perennials which die back each winter are not given symbols

si \ ini l s I PARROl
lmj/(>nj quildinan TREES SHRUBS
ii. i, idae Broadly columnar Bushy, mound forming

Broadly conical Bushy, suckering


ftnmon name-
hiqhliahted in bold, fdentifii Large weeping Compact, bushy
njnii'i tin- in ituln

casa the familj il


t;

)
in

name
tome
T Small weeping Erect, treelike

Mullistemmed tree Loose, open


is tfiwn
Narrowly columnar, Open, spreading
flame-shaped Rounded, bushy
I Narrowly columnar Spreading, prostrate
Narrowly conical Upright
Rounded, broadly
T Upright, arching
columnar Upright, vigorous,
appropriate measurement Rounded, broadly bushy
for the oraanism diet spreading Sprawling, climl,
mcl. riifht)
Single stemmed palm
Mullistemmed palm,
cycad or similar

ABBREVIATIONS
cies (used where species name is unknown)
mya: million /<:.v:, ago
ral, measured on the Mohs scale
sg: specific gravity > mil >rd by
comparing its weight to that of an equa .
LIVING
EARTT
Our blue planet, spinning in the vastness ol space, is the only
proven homo ol living things. Over nearby lour billion years, life has
evolved from the simplest ol beginnings. Main species have become
extinct, but life itself has flourished and endlessly diversified. The
result is an extraordinary variety ol living things, which scientists

continue to study as they piece together the story ol lite on Earth.


.

WMi •a:

A LIVING PLANET WATER AND


Life
LIFE
depends upon water, which lorms
over 50 percent of all living tissues. Most
Earth uniquely equipped to support a wide diversity of life,
is rainfall is driven bv evaporation from the

both on land and in the seas. Without heat and light from the oceans, which hold 97 percent of Earth's
surface water, and a vital network of
Sun, plentiful supplies of water, the protection provided by rivers flow in all but the world's hottest,
H i+
the atmosphere, and the rocks and minerals that make up the coldest, and driest places.

Z
<
basis of Earth's ecosystems, life would perish. HI
DYNAMIC EARTH »« y*

WTO
\w & ;$f/
Within our Solar System, Earth seems to be uniquely placed to support i

z 1H3
abundant life. The third planet from the Sun, Earth is neither too close to nor
>
-J
too far from the Sun's heat. It therefore retains an outer atmosphere of oxygen
and other gases, and a hydrosphere of plentiful surface water. Together, these V
I .
MM
form a protective, insulating layer that enables life to flourish. In contrast, the
<

other planets in the Solar System are either too hot or too cold, and devoid
of the levels of water and oxygen required to support detectable life.
X Earth has a layered structure, with an extremely hot, solid metallic core at
H
its center, surrounded by an outer molten layer. This, in turn, is surrounded by
< a thick and hot silicate mantle, which rises to a thin, cool, and brittle outer crust.
The mantle is constantly churned by heat rising from the core, and this puts

O pressure on the crust, which is broken


outer
z Over geological

-
into crustal "plates."
time, the drift of these plates, both
toward and away from one another,
has changed Earth's geography
eore

inner
core
mmm
and living environments. Oceans,
mountains, and landscapes
are constantly formed and
destroyed, and life has had
to adapt to these changes. — '«#: '
1
1

EARTH'S STRUCTURE >


The liquid mantle is constantly
stirred by heat rising
J 6 from the core. ,
lower
This moves the plates ol the outer montle
crust, causing earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions on the surface.

SUN AND MOON K


The Sun and the Moon both have a direct

impact on on Earth. Without the Sun's


life

energy, in the form of heat and light, there


would be no life. Solar energy heats the
atmosphere, the oceans, and the land,
producing our varied climate. Because Earth
rotates at an angle while it orbits the Sun, the
Sun's radiant energy is unevenly distributed
over Earth's surface. This results in daily,

seasonal, and annual variations in light, heat, and


living conditions for plants and animals. Even
at the equator, there are marked temperature
changes between day and night. The orbit of
A SOLAR FLARES Earth's satellite moon and its gravitational pull
The Sun's energy is dramatically
raise tides in Earth's oceans and seas. Tidal cycles
released from the surface in periodic-
explosions, which heat its atmosphere are especially influential on coastal life, which
»
/
'fTW Bi
to form solar flares of hot ionized gas. has to adapt to changing conditions. #>
<
' 9
\
;, ''v «.

X .-
FRAGH E ATMOSPHERE
l arth's atmosphere is 75 miles t 1 iOkm) thit k It is made II
up ol several layei s, ea< h with its own temperature and gas
composition, Its density decreases with height, until it

bet omes the sparse, outermost layer, called the ionosphere,


I he ozone layer, in the l» >\\ «.r atmosphere, plays .1 vital role in

protecting life because it absorbs harmful radiation mk li

a- ultra \ iolet light, v* hi< l> damages li\ ing ( ells, Befoi e the
ozone layei formed, lii<- w.is confined to the seas, w hose
waters oHered some prote< tion against ultra
«
iolet light,

rhe majority of water vapor and weathei activity is


* r.i III I'l \\l I
m
w
restri< ted to lowest Id miles li<Lnn
\i • iiuiil t > (In ,ls .
i| I .11 th's mii fa< 1

>
i In | ol atmosphere, is covered with water, which supports
known .1- the troposphere, I arth's surface water and gaseous tin abundant and diversity ! I1I1 1 1

H
atmosphere interat 1 to recycle water from the surface into X
tlu- atmosphere and through 1 louds, rain, and snow
redistribute it over the land
and sea. I rom the land, water
flow s bat k into the sea, othei gases,
im luding carbon
although large quantities dioxide, methane,

are held l>.u k in lakes, i< e, and /


and under the ground. nitrogen s
C.

ATMOSPHERIC GASES •

Nitrogen and oxygen mak< up ovt 1


" I AVI ItS Ol AIMOSIMII HI
99 percent ol 1 arth's atmosphen I .11 ih is sui n tunded bj .1 thin, layered
/
m
.

along with small but important at mi 'sphere, imposed


1 1 >l w at< 1 \ .i| >> 11

volumes ol water vapor, carbon and vai 11 His gasi s, ^^ Im h trap si ilai

dioxide, and several othei gases enei gj and n< .it the sui fat e.

\ ARI1I) ROCKS
I here are around 500 different kinds ol alteration ol existing rocks within Earth's
rorks on Earth, made up ol varying crust, 1 hese differenl t\|)cs ol rock are
combinations ol thousands ol naturalh exposed on the surface l>\ a mixture ol

01 ( urring minerals. All rocks have a specific uplift, driven by Earth's moving (rust , and
composition and properties, and t an be surface prot esses sin h as weathering and
<li\ ided into three main 1 ategories: igneous erosion, Erosion also modifies the rocks to
rot ks \\ t r( originallj molten; sedimentary produce multiple kinds ol landforms, soils,
rot ks are deposited at I arth's surface; and sediments.! hese are the inorganic
and metamorphit rot ks resull from the elements on w hit h life depends.

K,\| Oils HO( Ks Ml I AMORPHIC ROCKS si Dl \»l N I \HV ROCKS


i'l solidi 11 'In al ion ' -I hi al and I ayi rs ol Mini and di ai I
animal
molten rw k pnxlui es < rvstalline in '"' >cisting rocks deep bones t onstanth ettli on sea and
lu rhein omposition M illnii I .11 ill's c rusl 1 .in i. ri 1
I" 'I \ll' 1 null, inn. 1 Inn H d
and texture \,ir\ r.i|>i<l I id, 11 loon and mini ral 1 omposition, undi 1 tin ••-'
ighl ol snl, si qui ni
pnxlui es fine resulting in and that "l thi
mi tamorphii u.iti 1 abo • 'I" in.

anil •>!"« 1 Doling •


dimi m
pr<xl'. hist, < ompai 1 and
and marlili li.il'l' 11 mi.

SAND
ACTIVE EARTH
Earth's surface constantly changing, thanks to dynamic geological processes
is

driven by its internal heat energy. The plates of Earth's brittle outer crust are
always in motion, altering the shape of oceans and continents as they do so.

PLATE TECTONICS
Over geological time, Earth's surface —and the As plates are dragged apart, molten magma from
distribution and size of the continents and the lower mantle forms new crust. This occurs at
oceans — has constantly changed, driven by the divergent boundaries, which are mainly beneath the
process of plate tectonics. The cool and brittle oceans. And, since Earth itself cannot expand, the
rocks of Earth's outermost crust are broken into creation of new oceanic crust requires that the crust
a number of semirigid slabs known as tectonic is shortened elsewhere bv the same amount. This a SAN ANDREAS FAULT
plates. There are seven major continent-sized reduction occurs at convergent boundaries where Stretching some 8 1 miles ( 1 , 300 km)
plates and about a dozen smaller ones. Over time, either one plate overrides the other — a process
through California, this dramatic fault is

these crustal plates have been jostled against one known as subduction — or the plate margins are
the product of a transform boundary
between the Pacific and North American
another by the motion of the underlying mantle. compressed and buckled to form mountains. plates, which slide against one another.

the thinner, denser


ridge appears at site of v PLATE BOUNDARIES MAP KEY plate is forced Johtj
new plate formation I his map shows the main plates — Convergent boundary into Earth's crust

thai form the jigsaw surface of — Divergent boundary plate moving


together
Earth's crust. A stud) of earthquake Deep-sea trench

ilates nun ina


locations worldwide established ^ Transform boundary
where the plate boundaries lie.

DIVERGENT BOUNDARY SUBDUCTION ZONE


As plates are pulled apart they Where two plates converge and
stretch and break, forming one plate is thicker, it pushes the
faulted rilts and volcanically thinner plate beneath it in a

active ridges. process called subduction.

CONVERGENT BOUNDARY
Also known as conservative plate Where two converging plates are of similar
boundaries, these on ur when two plates density and thickness, their leading edges are
slide horizontally past one another, neither crumpled, faulted, and thickened to form
destroying or creating new trust. mountain ranges such as the Himalayas.

< FOLD MOUNTAINS


The intense pressure caused when
MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES
plate margins converge can create One of the major factors controlling the movement and distribution
an incredible folding and faulting
of the crust as the rocks are pushed
on Earth is its varied topography
of life —
its surface features-

upward to form mountains. including the towering mountains and volcanoes on land and under
the sea. On mountains not only hinder the movement of
land,
wildlife but also alter weather, climate, and local plant life, which
in turn impacts animal life. Active volcanoes also affect their

ACTIVEVOLCANOES > surroundings when they erupt — initially by destroying life, but also,

Most vok anoes form at plate margins. in the when the weathering and erosion of erupted
longer term,
Deep down, rocks melt to produce hot new mineral nutrients that fertilize the area.
lava and ash provide
magma which rises and erupts at the

surface. Even dormant volcanoes may one Mountains under the sea affect the movement of marine life, and
day erupt as plates shift beneath them. submarine volcanic eruptions affect the fertility of ocean waters.
g

Iftti

WORN \w V
1
!

Weathering bj wind and \\aur * an


ri>ult in tin significant erosion ol rocks
and the sculpting ol land surfaces, .1*

seen here in thi dramatic landscape


nt Br\n Canyon, Utah.

*>

WEATHERING AND EROSION


SOIL FORMATION
Mam rocks are formed below 1 arth's surface, .\m\ dissolved, and transported awa) is known as erosion.

when the) arc exposed In pressure - in I arth's I In i ombinatii »n ol weathering and erosion wears The production of a soil requires the

crust orb\ retreating seas or rivers, the) read in down 1 arth's roc k\ surfaces, layer b) layer. Exposed initial weathering and erosion of the

mans ways with the atmosphere, water, and living rocks on mountain tops and on the exterior ol parent rock, which is broken down into

organisms. The physical and chemical pro< esse - buildings, for example, are subject to chemical small, mineral-bearing particles known

acid rain and to physical weathering


as regolith. The addition of humus
resulting Irorn the interae tion ol roc ks and minerals weathering l>\

organic matter formed from the


with the atmosphere are known as we athering. b) temperature c hange and the splintering freeze
remains of plants and animals
The pro* esses bj whi< h ro< k matt rial is loosened, thaw effee t ol u e formation. Bare rot k surfae es ma)
forms the basis for a soil. The
also be physie all) eroded b) sand parti* les e arried l>\
soil In turn becomes the bed
the wind. The combined effect ol weathering and in which more life flourishes.

1 rosion dissolve s some roe ks, and re due ( s others


to fragments. Vs roe Ic debris is broken down and flourish

transported b) wind, wate 1, and ice, the sedimenl


1 reated bee omes in< reasingl) available to life
humus n: li

forms, provieiing importanl mineral nutrients


and a new surface for anchoragi and growth.
1 1/ rich

- I tNDSI 11)1 . RIO Dl J


\M IRO
II deve lop 'I planl covi r, thi

impact ol high rainfall "|» -

has ihi potential to cause landscap altci pan hi rot k

and even life thi

and lawl-L
'

CHANGING CLIMATES
The features of our seasons —
example, hot, dry summers and cold, icy
for
winters —
make up the climate of each region. Earth's climate has always
C/3
changed from place to place and over time, and this variation in conditions
has considerable and continuing impact upon the evolution of life.
H
<
s WHAT IS CLIMATE?
Climate is a region's average weather over a long in different regions of the world.
u period of time, produced by all the atmospheric For instance there is a major

a conditions such as temperature, rainfall, wind difference between climates ARCTIC H>X
IN SUMMFR
z strength, and pressure. The climate of any given of polar regions, which receive
o place is also partly controlled by a number of other the least light and heat, and
z factors such as its height above sea level, local of tropical regions around the
< topography, proximity to seas and oceans — with equator, which receive the most.
their prevailing winds and
U
water currents — most
and, CHANGING CONDITIONS
importantly, its latitudinal Global climates are generally classified according
position between the to the average temperature and the amount of
equator and pole. Latitude rainfall each area receives, and their combined ARCTIC FOX
IN VVINTFR
< controls the amount of effect on plant growth. For instance, equatorial
— solar radiation received regions at present are hot and wet because oceans
a SEASONAL ADAPTATION
dominate there, whereas deserts are dry and polar Annual climate change can bring acutely

z < CHANGINGTREE LINE regions are cold. However, this has not always been different living conditions from one season
As the air temperature declines to the next. Animals and plants have various
the case. Factors controlling weather conditions over
with increasing altitude, plant life means of adapting to these changes; for
changes. Broadleaved trees are
geological time have affected the climate of the example, the Arctic fox grows a thick coat

replaced by conifers, then shru planet, from ice ages through to global warming. in winter, which it sheds in summer.

•. dfc
• I \ 11)1 NCI oi CI IM Ml CH W(.l
Studies of polai ic< con samples have revealed
details of past climat< chang< ["h< chemical analysis
.in apped ^.iv bubbles helps providi an approximate
measun .>i tlu temperatun oftht atmosphen at

V ' tli> time ilu- i< . v\.iv foi iiu .1

r-

<

• Id COR] O
s WlIM 1 m
I Ins is .i close u|> «'l
>
.111 i( ( l IHI S.1I|||)K'
SO
i e< ovei ed li om I .ike
H
Bonncy, \ni.n in a,
w In. has permanent li .i
.

X
lit i < tvei li show s

trapped bubbles "I ail

and sediment pai i( les


n
x
I

from ill*' l.ikr luil


>
z
CI IM All OVI 1 S SCIENCE a
STUDYING STOMATA v
rhere is clear evidence from rocks and fossils supercontinents. The sj/e ol these huge landmasses
c.
that 1 arth's climate has changed significantl) over .ilk i ted regional climates. In addition, the changing Plant growth depends upon an

time and that this lias, affected the evolution and shape ol ocean basins has altered water circulation, exchange of gases between the n
distribution <>t life, and led to the extin< tion ol which in turn changes the temperature mu\ humidift atmosphere and the plant tissue,

through special gaps between the


mam species, rhere are a number <>t causes oi this ol the atmosphere above, and so affects climate.
leaves' cells called stomata. The 3>
natural climate change, including volcanic a< tn u\,
stomata open and close to take in H
which pollutes the- atmosphere w ith eje< ted gas GREENHOUS1 \M) It I .U.I s
carbon dioxide for photosynthesis m
and dust, and changes in in ean c urrents, \\ hi< h 1 ong term i hanges in climate are di\ ided into cold
and allow waste water and oxygen to
on

move heat around the globe. Change is also driven periods ice ages, when there were long lasting
escape. In general, plants adapt to high
In the orbital and rotational c y< les oJ the plaint, ice duets ,u the poles mu\ warmer, greenhouse levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide,
which affect tlu- amount oi solar radiation that periods with largeh ic e free poles. Warm phases associated with warm "greenhouse"
reaches Earth's surface. This influences the planets are linked to the release' ol pjeenhouse pases, such climates, by evolving high densities of

temperature and climate, and triggc rs 1 arth s as t arbon dioxide. In plants into the atmosphere. stomata on the leaf surface. Fossil

atmosphere and evidence of changes in the stomatal


cycles ot in- ages ami greenhouse periods. I hese trapped heat in 1 arth's
density of certain plants tracks changes
produced huge, shallow seas, arid /ones, and lush
in atmospheric carbon dioxide over time.
t ii \\(.i\(, (,i o(,r \pin forests that, in the time ol the dinosaurs, pro> ided
Over time, continents have been displac ed as them w ith plentiful food. Ice ages, lasting millions
oceans have expanded and contracted due to n| years, can be traced from the impact that
plate tectonk s. \s< ontinents moved from one glaciation has hit on the landscape, lossils show
hemisphere to another they passed through how rapid c limate change associated with ice ages
dilierent c limatic /ones and, at times, formed had a dramatic impact upon life on a global scale.

. c IRBON DIOXID1
AND 1 1 MI'I RATURl
Gas bubbles trapped in polai ic( cores indicate
tin flui tual ins ti mpi ratur< i il tin plane! the
ill. .mi. .urn ..I . ,n I" .n dii .\nl. .1. in ted
in tin I., core, thi higher th( atmospherii mi. ILYPTUS STOMATA
temperatun would hav< been at that timi

CO, (purple) Temperature


l)l\()\| \N ( OK M Rill
Earth'* c hanging i iimat. is illustrate <l In this lim.
400.000 350.000 300.000 250.000 200.000 150.000 100,000 50,000
Kimh»-rie%s. W. st, rn \ustraha. In the Devonian Period (400 million
. the area was under water and th< i htl was a li.irrn r i YEARS AGO
HABITATS FOR LIFE KEY
Polar region Coniferous forest
Earth's uniquely varied habitats enable an abundantly it to support
rich diversity of animal and plant life from the extreme depths of — Desert
Grassland
Mountains
Coral reef
the ocean floors to the highest mountains, and from arid deserts I
Tropical forest Rivers and wetland
U- and grasslands to the warm, wet tropics. Temperate forest Oceans

O
Each form has its preferred habitat the
life —
u.
one to which it has adapted over thousands
ARCTIC
H
or even millions ot years. However, Earth's
varied environments allow many different
OCEAN
< kinds of animals and plants to live in the
same habitat — a phenomenon known as GREENLAND
biodiversity. As life evolved and diversified
< over geological time, it was able to extend
X
beyond the seas and colonize more and more Arctic Circle
of Earth's different land habitats. The presence
X of these pioneering organisms in turn
H produced changes in the environments they NORTH
PC
<

'Jo
colonized, by forming soils for instance, and
these modifications encouraged further
'
AMERICA
A EUR(

z
colonization by

many
above sea
factors, ranging

equator, and
shape). Some
new

level, its distance

its
life

Differences in habitats are produced by


forms.

from an

topography (or physical


areas of the globe are
area's height
from the
Tropic of
Cancer
w r

t-
A F R C /

PACIFIC
I

biodiversity "hotspots," rich in animal am\


plant life —most notably tropical reels and
rain forests — while other areas with more
Equator
() C E A N
O
extreme conditions support only a lew,
though often heavily populated, species.
SOUTHERN SOUTH
AMERICA o
SCIENCE Tropic ot
() C E A N &
LEVELS OF LIFE Capricorn

-2-
Organisms rarely exist entirely on their own, even
in the remotest places on Earth. The interactions

between wildlife create different levels — from the MAP OF BIOMES


individual organism to the overall ecosystem that A biome unites ecosystems that have
it inhabits and shares with others. developed under similar climatic and
soil conditions in different parts of the

INDIVIDUAL world. Biomes are defined by a variety

of factors such as plant types, climate,


A single, usually independent
geology, and topography.
and habitat-restricted member
of a population.

POPULATION
Antarctic Circle
A group of individuals of the same
species that occupy the same area
and interbreed.

COMMUNITY
A naturally occurring collection of GRASSLAND
The evolution of grass plants some 20
plant and animal populations living
million years ago, and the colonization by
within the same area.
grazing mammals, transformed Earth's
landscapes. Temperate grasslands are
ECOSYSTEM generally treeless and have extremely
A biological community and its
fertile soils. Savanna grasslands, as shown
physical surroundings, which here, are more like open woodland,
support one another. featuring scatterings ot trees and scrubs.
DESER1 rROPICAl FORES!
1xtreme Luk. oi rain and soils foi sustained I In i i< hi si \n ildlife habitats oi
plant growth creates desei is. which it pi land Found the
.ii i in foi ests "I
account for about a third ol I arth's landscapes, the tropi< s I .ii th's hotti si
19
although this proportion is in< reasing 1 he ii v .is, « hi( h lie \\\ die
lai g< st desert is the equatoi I
heii numi i i ius
\!i ican Sahara

,^N& e< os) villus


\i

biodivei
i in, 1
1 asingl)
sit)
.ii

hotspots
. impi
vulm able
'i

i
i.iin
v 1 R \\\ HI
I'M!
K R1 PI IISON
I IK, ,.

RUIIhSUI

II M I
*
I l(\l I FOREST
I, mpei .it, un n onments lie I" i w » , n
ill, Ii opi( v .111,1 ill, pi 'I. II :'i. hi
O C 1 \ \
I Ii, influi ii, , of both tri ipi< al
i , s

and |" 'I. ii .in masses pi i un, it< s

\ .1^1 i, ,i ( sis wn 1 1 1 1 msidei able


hi, i, In ei sil\ I low e> , i . , I, .u in;;

In humans has gi < ath i


edu< ed
then extenl
HI II 111 I It

CONIF1 ROUS FOREST


C mill, i , His I, n , s| ii eeS, siu Ii .is

dwoods, sprui e, and in. belong


ASIA i,

in .in .in, nut plant gi lup .iikI the i .ii i

world's toughest trees

il,l ,n
vergreen w nli
sin, ill leaves, the) thrive w Inn few

other tuts .in, in .is and i , i


I

t
&v
in in, nun. un i anges.

Hit, IU N III \ It

MOUNTAINS

£, Reaching as high
above sea
are
em ironmi
home
level,

to
nis. \ single mountain
man)
!
as
arth's
5!

diffei enl
i miles (9 km)
mountains

P A C/ I 1 1 C , .in i is, from temperate woodland


C E \ \ up to an tH i oinliliiiiis ,is ilu

i limate t hanges w ith altitude.

PEREGRIN! I \ I i I is

INDIAN AND WETLAND


O C E W N Jtar L RIVERS
\ \\ ide range ol animal and planl
life thrives in I arth's rivers and lakes.
amlsi apes saturated w
AUSTRALIA I ith water, eithei
permanentl) i ir seasonally, Foi m
ilisiin, iim wetlands, w here
.in .is ol open water mix w ith

dense vegetation

I ) H \l.n\l I \

SO. UTHERN O C 1 AN
CORAL R] IT
( oral reefs develop from thi

skeleti his • ,1 in.ii ini i irganisms


in shallow, sunlil tropi< ,il

wati is Suppi H ting an


mum nsi \.n iet) ol

life, ilu \ .in ilu

rain Ion sis ol


ANTARCTICA .ltm.ilii world.
tin

i I I I n« I \M. I ISH

POI \R RIMONs <)( I \\s


The Aritn andAntaretii experii I ill iii oceans is found .it all Ii v< Is, from thi sunlil
extreme seasons, with 24-hour daylight siiil.n i
to ilu Hi i
p. st di pths. < om i ing two third
in summer and perpetual darkness in ol tin plani i. oi i .ins foi in thi lai jest o intinuous
winter. Thev an- dominated b\ large li.ilm.it on I -ii ill and iuddi n I
1

amounts ol snow anil n e, l>ut also very vai ii 'I hi, foi ms
contain vast, drv areas ol polar <li
from mil ro* opii planl ton
which receive little annual rainfall to thi lai gi si living mammal
tin hlllt wli.il.
R<>( KIKlpPlR PI N
w -.-? -

HUMAN IMPACT
The rapid growth of the human population has had an
enormous impact upon Earth's natural environments,
affecting the climate and countless species of plant
and animal life. Some of these changes are irreversible.

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
kty Earth has a long history of climate change, which has ranged from
glacial "ice ages" to warm "greenhouse" climates with widespread
forestation and no ice in polar regions. Global warming is known to

X A SCARRED LANDSCAPE be linked to high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such
X The growth of industry has required as carbon dioxide and methane, which trap incoming solar energy
the exploitation of raw materials. Their and raise the temperature of the oceans, land, and air. In the past,
extraction, such as at this copper mine
natural increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide have been balanced
X has changed global landscapes forever.
by the development of forests on land and lime-rich sediments in the

seas, which eventually became coal and limestone and stored excess
< carbon dioxide effectively. Since the industrial revolution of the
— nineteenth century, human activity has released huge amounts of
carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases back into the atmosphere
z through
o the mining o and burningo of fossil fuels, the
> clearing of forests, and the rearing of cattle.

-
THE OCEANS
The health of Earth's oceans is vital to

all life. Marine life depends upon the


circulation of oceanic waters that contain
enough oxygen and nutrients to support
the food chain from plankton and
shellfish to all the other animals that
A ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION depend upon them for food. Fossil
Slash-and-burn forest clearing for
records show that when the oceanic
agriculture not only releases atmospheric
pollutants hut also diminishes the capture environment deteriorated in the past, it

of carbon dioxide bv tin- plant life. led to extinctions of life. Today, human a OIL SLICK VICTIM
( )il spills, which float on water,
activities such as over-fishing
J. some energy cause havoc when they reach
is absorbed by 2. some energy
and pollution are affecting land. They saturate coastlines
qreenhouse gases. is released back the condition of the seas. and devastate coastal wildlife.
trapping heal out to space

THE ATMOSPHERE
l.the
For thousands of years human activity has affected the

c
"s*^
* |k
Sun
energy
absorbed
by Earth
's

is
atmosphere. Initially, it was restricted to the release of
pollutants from domestic fires and forest clearance. In
Roman times metal production released the
pollutants into the atmosphere, leaving traces that can be
first industrial

3 /

1 K-
.AW
\ r,
seen in polar ice cores. Over the last

by gases and particulates has risen steeply. This has


200 years, pollution

k*KJI
4 ft
f( produced acid rain and smog, and greenhouse gases that
3
3"
are linked to global warming and depletion of the ozone
c
layer, which helps screen out harmful ultraviolet radiation.

/ THE LAND
Since settlements and agriculture became widespread
8,000 years ago, humans have had a growing impact upon
4. an excess of Earth's landscapes. With worldwide population growth,
greenhouse gases
a GREENHOUSE EFFECT many regions are now densely settled, with few or no A POLAR ICE SHELF COLLAPSE
traps too much oj
An excess of greenhouse gases in the
the Sun 's energy, untouched landscapes in between. Greater awareness of
Rising temperatures are leading to the
atmosphere creates a shield which collapse of the polar ice shelves. The release
leading to a steep
prevents some of the Sun's energy rise in Earth
the impact of human activity on the environment is now of such large volumes of water is raising sea
!s

from radiating back into space. temperature leading to efforts to conserve natural habitats. levels, which in turn threatens coastlines.
AGRICULTURE
Natural lands< apes arc i adu .iii\

altered In intensive farming, such


.is the < ultivation ol ri( e in ii i igated
terraces thri >ughout ^sia su< h

methods support big populations,


mi require large amounts <>l water,

SCIENCE
1 XTINCTION
Thi- inabilin of
ha> led to a huge turnover
mam organisms to adapl to environmental change
<>l sp< i ies throughout geological time.
MAMMOTHS NO MORE
Woolly mammoths were elephants that
1
In fait, thi sa->t majority <>l nature s spe< ies are now extinct. were adapted to the cold. They migrated
< )nl\ the titn-st organisms survive, usually through gradual across ice-age Europe and Asia in vast

change, but sometimes l>\ tin- sudden elimination ol herds. Archaeological evidence such as

competitors, lor example, when a hum asteroid hit cave paintings shows that they were

arth 65 million \car> ago, motion a chain actively hunted by humans around
I it sel in

main 30,000 years ago, which may have


ol events that led to tin demise <>l lid
' l)K l\l Ol Nil contributed to the extinction of most
tormv, ox luditvj thi- dinosaurs on land and I

CREST1 I) Mils woolly mammoths by 11,000 years ago.


thr ammonites in th«. M-as. Hut it also -a\\ the
.-. idi jpn ad in \ ia huntu
»ur\i\al ol mammal species that led to th< habitat loss has restrii ted thi <

human ran. More recently, thi- arri\al ol ibis i" .i small w il<l population in

China. Captivi bn •
ding has allowi 'I
modi-rn human> in different regions around
it to l» n inn odui i .1 to japan
thi- world ha-- contributed to th« extin< tion ol
partiiular spe< ies, vui h aN th< wool!) mammoth - PI Kl l)W ID'S Dl I l<

\tinc in ilir wild, ilii-- east tsian di


in Europe and A- •
righl |. Today, a^ tin I i 1

lus -urn i hi rds bn 'I

human population expands, our ,n tions are


1
900 Some i i|>ti\<

placing a growing numUr ot spe< ies, ^m I


• ,tl-| r< introdui ed i" naturi ( \\ I PAIN I IM., PI c II Ml RLE, Ft
thi- tiai-r, in imminent danger ol extinction. i
hina in iIm 1
'
ORIGINS OF LIFE EARLY
The very
LIFE
earliest forms of life evolved
The fossil record shows thatappeared on Earth at least life first in the seas,and evidence of this comes
from two main sources: living primitive
3.8 billion years ago, and that all complex life has evolved from these
organisms and the fossil record. The most
first simple forms. Today, diverse life forms range from single-celled
primitive life forms today are single-
organisms to mammals with complex anatomies, such as giant whales.
celled prokaryotes, which can survive
even in extreme temperatures and acidic

c
WHAT IS LIFE? conditions. Such microorganisms may be

There are several features that define life and similar to those that first evolved in the

distinguish an active, organic organism from extreme environments of early Earth.


z Fossil evidence for early life on
inanimate, inorganic matter. These include
a an ability to take in and expend energy, to Earth consists of the remains of organims
dating from around 3.8 billion years ago.
at grow and change, to reproduce, to adapt
O to its environment, and — in more complex They may have originated as microscopic

living organisms — to communicate. prokaryotes that lived


Some
in the first oceans.

of the most ancient records of life


X The cell is the fundamental unit of life,

and carrying are layered, mound-shaped stromatolites


H capable of replicating itself
(see right).
out all Even the smallest
living processes.
< a PHOTOSYNTHESIS
independent organisms are made up of at
u Plants use the pigment chlorophyll to capture light energy
least one cell, and almost every cell of every and convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and
a living organism has its own set of molecular oxygen. This benefits odier life forms that feed on die
z instructions. Within each the threadlike
plants and breadie in oxygen.
M cell,

chromosomes carry hereditary information the particular characteristics of an organism.

- in the form of genes that are responsible for The set of instructions in a gene are
mainly recorded in the form of a

molecule called chromosomal


deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
The DNA of an organism carries
information from one generation to another,
allowing certain characteristics to be passed
on from parent to offspring.

A VITAL ENERGY DIVISIONS OF LIFE


To sustain itself, must obtain energy from the
lite
The hu^e array of life on Earth is divided into
environment. Energy flows through a food chain from
photosynthesis in plants to the animals that feed upon three domains or superkingdoms — Archaea,
them and are, in turn, eaten by other animals. Bacteria, and Eukarvota — which encompass
all life forms from plants and fungi to animals.
IENCE The first two domains are formed of
VIRUSES prokaryotes — primitive organisms that were
probablv the earliest form of life on Earth. The
Viruses are the most abundant biological entity on

Earth, and they lie at the boundary between living and


more advanced eukaryotes are distinguished

nonliving. While they have features in common with from the prokaryotes by having a cell nucleus,

living organisms — they are made of genetic material which contains the cell's

and are protected by a protein coat — viruses are jenetic material, DNA.
parasitic and can only reproduce within the living cells Eukarvotes vary
of other organisms. They are packets of chemicals that
enormously in shape
copy themselves, without truly being alive.
and size, ranging
from single-celled
organisms to complex,
multicelled plants
and animals.

< GROWTH
A capacity to grow and repair
is a one of the key defining
eatures of life. All organisms,
rom simple fungi to mammals,
HIV-I VIRUS grow bv means of increase in
cell size and cell division.
- MKUM Mitl Ills
For bilhons of vears these layered structures haw built up
m shallow tropical seas l>\ allei nating layers of sediment
'
c and sheets
(blue green
ol mi< roorganisms, including
aim
( yanobat terij

By about JO > SO million years ago, the first

sponges with ( olonies ol cells had evolved,


growing to 4in (10cm) high with spin)
skeletons foi support and protection Bj
the beginning ol the Cambrian period, 545
million years ago, numerous multicelled
* lUlltt.ISS Ml \l 1

I li> fossils i 'I thi Km gi nn Shale


marine oi ganisms li.nl evolved, int luding in Canada Jim" that mai inc
I rom the first appearance ol simple life, it lun row ing worms ami a variet) ol small, hi. divi i mih J rapidh in

took another 2. ^ billion years before complex shelled mollusks, whose bodies li.nl must i ambi in inn, v. from spi
i. ingi
le
ami iIh opods to vertebi
.ii ati s
life forms appeared. I lu fossil ol a mi< roscopit tissues and organs su< li as gills for respiration.
and mufticelled red algae called Bangiomorpha Ground 1 10 million years ago, the first \\l\\\\l\ •

pro> ides the first c\ iden< e ol the existent e ol ui tebi at< - appeared, w uh m\ internal skeletal I ound .ii iln Km :> ss Shah .

s[x\ ialized cells, rhese ells evolved lor sexual support for the body. Bj
ii in, mm was .i ! in loni i,
>.
late 1 )evonian times, i

in illllskllk. 51 .il " 'I ' I . i


w 1.

reproduction, and also for tin- development ol around $80 million years ago, vertebrates had wiili spini s and si all s, ani I
>

a holillaot to attach tlu- algae to tlu sea Root begun to emerge from tlu m-.is onto l.uul. s, .ll lllhli I Mil l.l. I
EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY
Until the nineteenth century, when a number of theories were proposed, was a matter it

of speculation as to how such remarkably diverse life forms had developed on Earth. Today,
the theory of evolution and diversification, alongside geological evidence for changes in the
distribution of continents, give a fascinating insight into the ever-changing life on our planet.

EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
CHANGE OVERTIME Comparison of the anatomy of vertebrate limb bones trom different
All living things have the capacity to change and adapt to species show that, despite different appearances and functions, they
derive from the same basic developmental plan and the same genes.
their surroundings. Tiny, subtle changes that are passed down
from generation to generation are hard to see, but over FROG upper arm

time —sometimes thousands or even millions of years they — fhe frog's leg, arm, and
fingerbones are modified
bone

can alter the way a certain species looks or behaves. This finger
forswimming. Large bone
process is known as evolution. muscles enable it to jump
The study of fossils to unravel the history of life was in powerfully — essential
for catching prey and
its early stages in Charles Darwin's day (see p. 2 5), and since
escaping from predators.
then a vast amount of information supporting the theory of
evolution has emerged. We now know that life evolved in the
bond bone
oceans some 3.8 billion years ago, and that it was from these OWL upper arm
The wing of a bird bone
early simple life forms that all current life on Earth is powered bv

evolved —
including plants, fungi, and animals. muscles attached to
the upper arm and
flight

finger
bone
As forms became more complex and moved from sea
life
bones of the wrist, lower
to land, the first forests and land diving invertebrates evolved. with greatly modified
The Mesozoic era, around 250 millions years ago, with its and extended fingers.

successions of evolving plants and animals, produced the


dominant dinosaur reptiles and their bird descendents. These CHIMPANZEE upper
finger
were largely replaced by mammals both in the seas arm bone
reptiles
and on land in Cenozoic times — from 65 million years ago
fhe
is
arm of a

anatomically very
chimpanzee bone
/
to the present — when flowering plants and their pollinating
similar to our own,
but has slightly difilerent
insects also became abundant and diverse. proportions, with
elongated fingers
and a short thumb.

DOLPHIN
< GIANT SALAMANDER The arm bones of
This extremely rare tossil whales and dolphins
skeleton of an Andrias (giant form a flipper — with
salamander) was mistaken for shortened, flattened, and
a human victim of the biblical strengthened arm bones
Flood until French anatomist and greatlv lengthened
Georges Cuvier identified it as second and third fingers. \er arm bone
'l-Ju an amphibian in 1812.

LAMARCK LEADS THE WAY


The eighteenth-century French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
developed the first comprehensive evolutionary theory that
higher forms of life had "evolved" from simpler organisms. Based
on his extensive research of invertebrates in particular, Lamarck
argued that necessary characteristics could be acquired during an
organism's lifetime —
through the desire to gain food, shelter, and
mates —and those not needed could be lost, with the resulting
transformation passed on to its offspring. Although modern
genetics disproves this theory of "soft inheritance," Lamarck's < a INNER STRIVING
concepts were an important starting point, and were developed Lamarck believed that evolution
further by the Scottish anatomist Robert Grant, who tutored worked through a process oi
"inner striving."Thus the girafle
Charles Darwin in Edinburgh. Darwin himself did not entirely
developed a long neck to reach
rule out a Lamarckian mechanism, which he thought might be the leaves of trees, and the heron
supplementary to natural selection. grew long legs in order to wade.
r-

<
V
o.

m
>

m
<
C

C
/
>

*
(,\l U'At.OS I INC Ills
butterflj
m
( >n lit— voyagi -. 1 >arwin colle< ted
/
man) different spec imens i il < Jala

i iiu hes « liii 1) lu believed ma) have H


I. -> . tided hum .1 < ommon an< esti n

DARWIN AND WALLACE


In themid nineteenth century, British naturalists bis explanations for the geographic al distribution
Charles Darwin ami Alfred Russel WalUu e ol organisms biogeograph) and realized the
independent!) came up with the theor) <>l evolution role ol natural selection in evolution. Meanwhile,
In natural selection. Thej both had experieno ol 1 )arw in's five year voyage on // l/.s Beagle around
fieldwork in the tropio an emironmenl boasting the Southern lemisphere as a gentleman naturalist I

high biodiversity, competition For resources, and pio\ ided him v\ ith mu< h material to Formulate Ins A
COLLECT ION BOX
marked differences in die organisms living in own theon ol evolution. In 858, Wallac e and 1
Both Darwin and Wallace were fascinated
separate areas. The) both wondered hov» and win Darwin produced a joint publication on natural l>\ insi i 1 diversity, espe< iall) as fi pund in

tin Iniiin s. .mil wei i kirn i nlli I. us.


su^h natural phenomena had tion, and the follow ing year )arvt in expanded
i

arisen. ( )n his travels -i K i I

Wallace collected specimens tor stud) ,in<l sale, and tin theon to produ< e Ins famous and influential
it was in the Mala\ Archipelago that h< Formulated hook, ( >n the Origin of Spi

< BIOGEOGRAPHY
I ht distribution ol i ei tain

n ptili and plant Fossils ai ross

th< southi i n i ontinents


shows thai the) wen
l vnogruthu- I \stri>s.iurus joini 'I as i nipi ro mtini til

repttli ret i
i alii 'I Gondwana
the Thank Period from the \i

Maoiaunu
reptile

AUSTRALIA
' I I K SI 15 IK I)
I In 'lis, overy of the fo il Arci

Oliiwiptc-ri* in 1861 revi all d i hai ai ti ristii that


prot ill. il an • '.liiiii.ii.ii j linl bi i

two pups n ptili and birds.


EVOLUTION
IN PROGRESS
Darwin and Wallace proposed the theory of natural selection,
but it was the discovery of the gene that gave scientists the
mechanism by which selection takes place. Understanding the
gene has since become the key to understanding evolution.

NATURAL SELECTION
A key evolutionary mechanism, natural
selection favours the survival of the
fittest. In other words, individuals that
possess characteristics best adapted to
w % to
their current environment have a better
chance of surviving to reproduce and
pass on those favorable traits to

generation. Natural genetic variation


another
A
ft©/*
INDIVIDUALVARIATION
within populations produces differences Litters of domestic cats commonly include
individuals with varied coloration, especially
such as size, shape, and color, and some
where the parents' colors differ.
of these may help promote survival.
For instance, a particular body a different coloration might be more
coloration may provide a camouflage beneficial, and so natural selection will

that better hides the animal from ensure another change. A split into two
predators than other colors would. populations may even occur after
If this leads to the survival of that a geographic rift, with each new
animal and to its reproduction, that population becoming adapted to slightly
same improved coloration will be different conditions. Eventually, this
passed on to some of its offspring. If the mav lead to one species becoming two,
environment were to change over time, in a process known as speciation.

< v SEXUAL DIMORPHISM

c e n c Emmmmmmmmm
In main species, there are marked

differences between males and females. i

Male trieatehirds use their inllatablc CREATIONISM: BELIEF VERSUS SCIENCE


throat pouch to attract tin females.
Most of the world's religions provide a theory of creation, which
gives an explanation for the formation of Earth and life. Many
of these creation stories originated long before scientific data
and theories were available to offer alternative explanations and
understanding. Some believers in the Western Judeo-Christian
tradition maintain that the complexity of "design" in many organisms
implies that there must have been a "designer" — God — behind their

creation, and for this reason they dispute the theory of evolution.

GENES AND CHANCE


GENES AND INHERITANCE a forest fire ivipes out large
pop
opulations of butterflies
v
Sometimes individuals are eliminated at random,
Particular traits pass from parents to offspring through with the result that their genes are not passed on
to the next generation.
the transmission of genetic material. Genes preserve,
encoded in their DNA, all the information necessary
for the replication of a cell's structure and its

maintenance. Genes are therefore the basic units


of heredity. Individual chromosomes — the thread-
like part of a cell — hold thousands of genes on tJ
long strands of DNA. During sexual reproduction,
the fusion of sperm and egg cells produces two by chance, the
survivors are only the genes next j
I
a chance event
complete sets of gene-bearing chromosomes: jew pu leads to total loss
mostly yellow of the survivors es

one copy from the father and one from the mother. butterflies are passe* butterflies oj purple butterflies
s

[SI AM) EVOLUTION ARTIFICIAL SELECTION


Isolated islands provide natural laboratories l<>r unusually last ( )ver millennia, humans have domesticated main different kinds
evolution, \\ ith intense competition for limited resoun es leading ol animals and plants, Irom dogs and cattle to fruit trees and cereal
ti> rapid spe< iation. In 1835, Darw ins visit t<> tin- Galapas 1 nips. Before the discover) ol the gene, this was a< hieved simply
Islands allowed him to collect man\ bird specimens, particularly In selectively interbreeding organisms bearing the desired
finches. Hi- noted slight variations between the spe< imens from 1 hara< teristics such as the ability to run last or prod in e more
island t<> island. IK- also heard about the differences between the sui 1 uh nt fruit over man) generations, until the selected traits

giant tortoises on separato islands, and subsequent \ isits to other became dominant. Today, biote< hnologj a< hieves the same result
Pacific islands made him wonder aboul tin possibility "I new much faster bj directl) manipulating genes, both to enhance
evoh ing from a ommon an<
spe< ies i estor. The ornithologist John hi in lu ial tr.iits .mil to remove problematu oiks.
Gould was able to identify Darw in - fin< hes as .1 ru w group ol

parate species, rathi-r than just varieties ol tin sam< sp< ( ies.

I his persuade d I )arw in

that sp< cies< ould ( hange


under < ertain ( onditions
Mil h as island isolation.

Island wildlife continues


to be an important
1 for mod* rn
1 \olutionar\ biologists.

' II l(,H II I ss HIKDs '


(,l \l l K VIODII l( \l K)\ '
( I (AIM,
*vv \lii ration to thi g< m tii male up 1 li 111 tii all idi ntii al indh idual
ol "i in n movi undi -I In 1I1, ii.it mcleu
lll'l .nl'l II information fi

HH ritil humane an ini 1 to di •


an ailuli i , II into .it cell.

**
CLASSIFICATION Known as the
"DOG ROSE"
dog
witches' briar, dogberry, eglantine
and die hip tree, diis plant lias onl\
rose, wild briar,
gall,
>

Global diversity is estimated to range from two to 100 million species. Only one latin name, Rosa canina, which
1.4 million have been described, but many new species are added each year, identities it tor everyone everywhere.

All are named and classified using a system devised over 250 years ago.
z
o
For centuries people have studied the science of morphology, along with

< natural world. Initially theywere limited to other criteria such as behavior and
what they could find locally and to reports modern genetics, forms the basis
trom travelers because it was impossible to of classification today. In 1758 the
< "PUMA"
I he puma is also known
preserve and send specimens any distance. tenth edition of Systema Naturae was as tile cougar or mountain
C/3

Later, as travel became easier, explorers published. It was written by the ion. Its Latin name,
< were paid to collect plants and animals and Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus. Puma concolor, alludes
-J to its uniform eolor.
u would draw them. By the early
ship's artists He and his friend Peter Artedi had decided
1600s natural history collections in Europe to divide the natural world between them method for identifying different organisms to
were substantial, and many specimens had and classify everything in it, fitting the 7,300 replace the arbitrary descriptions that existed
X been described, but there was no formal described species into the same hierarchical previously.The new method put an end to
H
oi
arrangement that made these specimens or framework. Although Artedi died before his confusion caused by the same name being
< accounts of them easily accessible. book was finished, Linnaeus completed the given to several species, or to single species
The aim of the early taxonomists, or work and published it along with his own. being know by several names.
a scientists who describe and classify species, Within a species, distinct subspecies
z was simple — to organize living things so LATIN NAMES can sometimes be recognized in different

that they reflected God's plan of creation. All living things now have a unique Latin locations. In the 1 800s Elliot Coues and
Between 1660 and 1713 John Rav published name — such as Panthera leo for the lion Walter Rothschild adopted a trinomial
works on plants, insects, birds, fish, and which is made up of the genus name, starting Latin system to accommodate them. This
mammals, forming his groups on the basis of with a capital letter, and a descriptive species convention for naming species and
morphological (structural) similarities. The name. 1 innaeus devised this binomial subspecies is still used today.

TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION
V i\

^^H

* *
-~**
^ ^k

W fci

DOMAIN KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS


Eukaryota Animalia Chordata Mammalia
the latest taxonomie unit to be In recent years, the traditional A phylum (known as a division in Introduced b\ Carl I innaeus,
created is the domain. It is based kingdoms of plants and animals plants) major subdivision of a
is a a class contains one or more
on whether organisms possess have been further subdivided. kingdom and is made up of one or orders. Class Mammalia includes
cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes: Kingdom Animalia now includes more classes that share certain only animals that are warm-
protoctists, plants, tungi, and only multicellular organisms that features. Members of the phylum blooded, have fur, a single jaw-

animals) or not (prokarvotes: must eat other species in order Chordata have a notochord — the bone, and that suckle their
Arthaea and Bacteria). to survive. precursor ol the backbone. voung on milk.

> CONTRIBUTING TO
CLASSIFICATION CHAOS
Over the years many scientists have
MALS AND PLANTS
attempted to organize the natural
Aristotle was the first person to classify John Ray classified organisms based on
world, combining earlier ideas with
living things, and he introduced the term their overall morphology rather than just
new research, culminating in the
traditional system of classification shown genos (meaning race, stock, kin) — genus a part of it. In doing so he could establish

above and the use of bi- and trinomial in Latin. He separated animals into those relationships between species more easily

Latin names. Some scientists were with blood and those without, not realizing and organize them into groups more
particularly influential, making He also divided the flowering
blood need not be red. This division is very effectively.
significant contributions to taxonomy.
close to the modern classification of plants into two major groups of orders

vertebrates and invertebrates. monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

ARISTOTLE, 384 BCE-3 2 2 BCE JOHN RAY, 1627-170C


17J

h
OKI)! R
C.irni\(ir.i
<

in
htkn an
I
th> next level
mnacus s hierarchy, and
down
I

is
\
\M11.Y
anidae
subdivision ol an order,
made up ol gi nera and the
.1 family
(.1

in
I
m
iilpes
\ iii in In

\
\us

1 1«
m used
hni Greece,
l>\

a gi
\ristotle
nus
SPECIES
Vulpes
I In

pedes
basic
>

.in
ulpes
unit i>l

populations
taxi inomy,
ol

mntain one nr more lannlii S -|h 1 i< v « ithin tin in I In I.11111K id. Iltllll s slll>lll\ Islulls ill .1 I.IIIIlK imilai onh nals that breed
I hi t arm\i>ra ha\c modified i anidae ha-. \~->
livinp spi 1 ii s, all Vulpi is 1
g( nus v\ illiin th( l.imiK w uli mi .mi ither. Vulpes nine,
1 1

cheek teeth uarnassialsi and with nonretra< tile 1 laws and two ( lai \ll fi ix« s havi lai gi know tin us In ighi red fur,
11

large canine teeth ^u ialized lor fused wrist bones. Ml but one 1I.11 1 .11 s and .i long, breeds 1 »nlj w nli 1 ither
biting an<l shearing. s|>. 1 1. s have long, bush) tails. 11.11 row, point< d snout - I hi '
ipean red \< >x< s.

IMAL. VEGETABLE. OR MINERAL NEW KINGDOM INTRODUCING THE ARCHAEA

Linnaeus divided the natural world Historically organisms were classed Recognized by Carl Woese and
into three kingdoms animals, as being either animals or plants, George Fox in 1977, the Archaea

plants, and minerals. He then but in 1866 Ernst Haeckel argued are microscopic organisms that

devised a hierarchical system of that microscopic organisms formed live in very extreme environments.

>T classification based on class, order, a separate group, which he called Initially grouped with the Bacteria,
family, genus, and species, and Protista (now Protoctista). There their DNA turned out to be so

established the convention of giving were now three kingdoms of life: unique that a new three-domain
species binomial Latin names. Animalia, Plantae, and Protista. taxonomic system was introduced.

CAR I I INN \ Mis, 1707 I


1 1 1 m 1 1 . 18)4 1 .
IAUI WOI SI , III
30
ANIMAL GENEALOGY SCIENC
0UTGR0UPS
In the 1950s a revolutionary new way of classifying organisms was proposed. The first step in doing cladistic analysis

of a group is to choose a closely


Called phylogenetics, allowed taxonomists to investigate evolutionary
it
related but more primitive species (the

>-
relationships between species by placing them in hierarchical groups called clades. outgroup) for comparison. This allows

o derived characters to be distinguished

c Phylogenetics, also known as cladistics, is based they are more closely related to each other than to from primitive ones. For example, to

on the work Hennig (1913—


of entomologist Willi groups without flippers. Characters that are unique work out a phylogenetic tree of birds,
< a crocodile might be chosen as the
UJ
1976). He assumed that organisms with the same to one group are useful for recognition purposes
outgroup, as both birds and crocodiles
z morphological characters must be more closely but say nothing about relationships. So cladistic
belong to the clade Archosauria.
UJ related to each other than to those that lacked analysis is based entirely on the identification of
O them. Therefore, these organisms must also share synapomorphic characters.
the same evolutionary history and have a more
< recent ancestor in common. Like the traditional UNDERSTANDING ANCESTRY
taxonomy of Linnaeus, this method of classifying The more derived characters organisms have in
z organisms is hierarchical, but due to the volume of common, the closer their relationship is assumed to
< data involved, computers are used to generate the be. For instance, brothers and sisters look more alike
family trees, known as cladograms. than other children —
they may have the same eyes,
X For a morphological feature to be useful in the same chin, and so on. This is because in terms of
H cladistic analysis, it must have altered in some way common ancestry they have the same parents but
from the so-called "primitive" ancestral condition to are only distantly related to other people.
A PRIMITIVI- BIRll Rl 1 \ I I V 1-

— a "derived" one.For example, the legs and paws of Cladistics is now most commonly based on

a
most carnivores are considered primitive in the genetics — except in the study of fossils —and has
V CLOSE RELATIONS
cladogram on the opposite page, compared to the exposed some unexpected shared ancestry. For
z The uirarles and kudus arc both even-toed
derived condition of flippers in the seals, fur seals example, a genetic cladogram surprisingly revealed ungulates, mi are more closely related to
each other than to the odd-toed zebras.
and sea lions, and walruses. This derived character, that the whalemost closely linked to the land-
is

called a synapomorphy, is useful because it is shared dwelling hippopotamus —


a relationship that
As fur-bearing mammals,
more closely related to each other than
all three are

between at least two taxonomic groups, suggesting Linnaeus would certainly not have expected. to the feathered birds living around them.
LOOKING AT CI ADOGRAMS -

\ll
.Mil Ki Dll
mammals possess
I

To il>> a cladisti( analyisis, the different groups ol organisms are scored on iii.nnni.il \ glands l Inique
to thi ( lass Mammalia, ilu
a set of «. hara< ters that are either primitive or derived I heir distribution is
featui i in s) napomorpnic
not alv» a\ s ,b straightforv* ard .in is show n in the diagi ams below ( >ften the .ii iIhn taxi mi imi( level,

resulting cladogram can be constructed in numbei "I different w .\\ s and .> In hiiil i hi Hi, familial
elalionships w ithin the
taxonomists have to choose between them I" >l>' tins the) adopt the
i

! lass, i li.n at t< i s thai are


principle >>t parsimon) the) hoose the ladogi am invoh n^ tlu K ast t >.

S\ ii.iik niiiM i'Iiii .11 l.imili.il

number ol steps or character transformations i>> explain tlu obsei \e«l level an used
relationships between the groups.

CHARA< UK CANID III \K 51 VI 1 UK S| \| \\ M Klls


< III Mt MM R si 1

&SEAI ION \li ist modern i ladi igi ams ai e based on


.inn. using DNA codes I In •
< i ides thai
Feeding voung on null. l 1 l l

wen ii' d to gi in i ati the i ladi igi am beli iw

1 tail 1 1 1 have been replaced with more familial


nun phologii al il' si i iptions in this ( harai ti i

1 . irelimbs modified into flippei s (1 1 1


set, lilt • 'in i Ii.h.h ii i, ii i
ding y< iung on
\in Bexibk spine (1 1 1
milk, in shared b) .ill the groups shown;
n, >mi characters an found in only some ol
Mind limbs turn forwards under bod) (1 i) 1

Hi, groups; .mil one i harai ter, the prt si ni i

Presence ol tusks (1 ii il tusks, in unique to the wall us,

. ( 1 UMH.K \M M 1

In thiN ladogram the canids are considered tlu most primitive group, known
i (I pi imitivi , li.n.i, i, i C.
in tlu outgroup, and tlu- walrus is the most derived \ll Karat tea s on the *
m
di ived i Ii.h.h I,
/
I i i

gram arc shared b\ tlu group to the right "i eat Ii number for example,

a short tail in shared l>\ the bears, seals, tin scab and sealions, and the wall us m
>
I UK SI \1 S r-

c wins Ml \Ks si VI s AND si A l ions WALRUS C


C

rue character* differentiate the


the outjre-.. tab and sea lions, onl\ the jur seals and sea lions, walrus ii the mo I

and walruses from the hear* and the walruses share chara / niu in this , ladogram

SHOR1 l Ml II ll'I'l Ks I I I Mill I SIMM SUPPORT ING I IMBS IUSKS


Bears, seals, tur m j|« an
'

\niong carnivores, tin t harai ii i I (flexible spin, i In both iIh liu n, .ils .mil I Ins in ,i iiinijii. , li.n act i

lions, and the walrus all have modified limf>s ol seals, lur opt r.iii n at the sami Ii vel .in lioiiN and the walrus, the (autapomorph) i ol thi wah u

short tails 1 1 harai tir I i sealsand s« a lions, and thr i har.n ter I, further supp p, Ivii girdli i -in I" int. ii, d to thai revi al nothing about its

Canids. however. <lispla\ the walrus are unique. ( liai tin n lationship indii .it «
<l b> allow tin hind limb to aid I
lationship to othei in.niim.il
primitive lomlition ami have 2 i
forehmbs modified into ion ol lli|i|n i - I In .in in mi land I Ihn I. inn! I In i 1 1 n, ol

j hush\ tails Character 1 Nippers i is then rnapomoi pln< in the) shan a ilu i li.n acta "Ii • il M iung on
re a sv napomorphit s\napomorphn al this level, tll.il ,I|1|M .11 .it 1 ' I , III I Olllllloll .Mil i nIoi w llll mill present in .ill thi

charaiter share il h\ all the this, thn j in ul.ir level, il , ai Ii "'In i than thi \ do w ith groups, ii providi •
no i lui a

carnivore tamdies shown


'
ilu n, aJs, whii Ii in fai Ii ss to how lln '. ml' l n I. lie, no il is

r>t the i an. one another than to the I n lationship beo mobile win n oul ol wati i not plotti 'I mi tin '
ladi igram
TREE OF LIFE READING THE TREE
This diagram shows
such as the Archaea
how life evolved from simple organisms,
— which appeared about 3.4 billion years
Using a branching tree as a way of showing the diversity
of life was first suggested by the German naturalist Peter
ago — to complex life forms, such as animals, which appeared
540 million years ago. It also shows the diversity of the
Pallas in 1766. Since then many such trees have been vertebrates (see pp. 34-5), which have a disproportionate
constructed. Initially treelike, complete with bark and representation here. The circles indicate points where two or
leaves, they later became more diagrammatic, and took more groups of organisms have branched from a common
account of evolutionary theories. Modern, computer- ancestor at about the same time. Only extant species are shown.

generated trees of life present many different ideas of


how living organisms are related.
Pi
The first person to produce a tree of life that

reflected the concept of evolution was Charles


X Darwin. He sketched the first of his ten
H evolutionary trees of life in 1837.
simple branching diagram, which he developed
It was a
LIFE
< ARCHAEA
UJ
further before publishing
Species in
it in the Origin oj

1859. The lettered branches show


BEGINS
o
z
how he thought his theory might work — the
PROKARYOTES o
more branch points separating an organism
> from its ancestor (numbered 1 ), the more
different the organism will be. In 1879, Ernst
Hacckel took the idea further, with a tree that
DARWIN S HUM TREE
showed animals evolving from single-celled
organisms. Today DNA and protein analyses as well as morphology are
used to construct evolutionary trees and establish the genetic relationships
between organisms. Vast data sets require computers to generate the trees,
which are continually refined as new species and information are discovered.
Trees of life inevitably place most emphasis on vertebrate groups within
chordates because their relationships are well known. The many
microscopic prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria) and protists (those
eukaryotes not classified as plants, animals or fungi) are often under-
represented because flieir relationships are more problematic. As more is

learned about microscopic life, the trees change.

MASS EXTINCTIONS STRUCTURE OF LIFE


Mapping all life forms that have ever existed on a tree is difficult because,
All forms of life arc cither prokaryotic or cukaryotic. Prokaryotes lack
over time, more than 95 percent of all species have become extinct. A a cell nucleus and are usually unicellular. Eukaryotic organisms tend to
mass extinction occurs when a large number of species dies off at the same be multicellular; each cell contains a nucleus, within which DNA is
stored. This tabic shows which of these two groups the six kingdoms
time. This has happened five times in the past. The best-known extinction,
belong to. Despite appearances, most organisms are prokaryotic. The
which wiped out the dinosaurs, occurred at the end of the Cretaceous

I
Archaea and Bacteria are the largest groups- -although only about 10,000
Period; it is thought to have been caused by a meteor impact combined species have been described, estimates exceed 10 million species. Among

human eukaryotes, the phyla that make up the protists and invertebrates are far
with volcanic activity. Because habitats are rapidly destroyed by
more numerous in terms of species than vertebrate groups.
activity, it is likely that there will be another extinction event in the future.
PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES
EXTINCTION TIMELINE ARCHAEA PROTISTS
BACTERIA PLANTS
I1VERWORTS
MOSSES
FERNS AND RELATIVES
CYCADS, GINKGOS,
GNETOPHYTES
FLOWERING PLANTS
FUNGI
mass
MUSHROOMS
extinction
SAC FUNGI
event
LICHENS

ANIMALS
r INVERTEBRATES
400 300 200 100
CYANOBACTERIA CHORDATES
MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO
—y—
*0 S U I US(.I.\

O
1 \Ms
-£?
GLOMKROMYCI
**|&
un iKiniOMH I lis
«U&
NEO< ^LLIMASTIGOMYCliTES

ICHENS \m
O
Lichk

ihi partnership
I

MINERS
ROCKS.
FOSSILS
Life Oil Earth is shaped by the rocks
that lie beneath our feet. Made of different
combinations ot minerals, they have a

far-reaching influence on the landscape,


on vegetation, and on the soil. Preserved within
these rocks, lossils form a highly detailed
) record of lite in the distant past, showing the
path that evolution has followed over hundreds
ot millions ot years.

» J 8 »<S2 »74
MINERALS ROCKS FOSSILS
1 1m building blo< ks ol Classify <l aci ording t<> Most Fossils presi i \(

roc ks. mm< rals w pit all) how tin \ formed, ro< ks hard i< mains, SU< h as
haw ,1 ( rystalline .in . onstantl) l>r<.l i n t< i
th and bones. 1 he) < an
-t r in tun S( '.' r.il (low ii .iihI r< fol mi <l also iim hi'li tr.K is sin h

thousand exisl in 1 arth's 1 In oldi -i rocks date as footpi nits, and 1 al lion
( rust, but 1. w( r than li.u k J. 8 billion y< ars, impressions in ro< k,

50 minerals .in i ommon will II 1 .lltl whi< Ii M veal tin |>asi

and \\ idespn ad first solidifii <\ existeno of lh ing thing


MINERALS
Minerals are the materials from which rocks are made. More than 4,000 different
kinds exist, each one a single chemical substance found naturally on Earth.
Most minerals are hard and crystalline, and, while some are extremely abundant,
<
a:
others —
including diamond are very rare, and highly prized. —
z -
jmr_^«^^iM—»;« : jr.i
Minerals are of great economic significance. IDENTIFYING MINERALS
They provide us with countless useful materials, With experience, many minerals can be
from metals to industrial catalysts, and they identified by their appearance and texture
also include objects of great intrinsic beauty, alone. Important clues include their color, their
C/3



particularly when cut and polished as gems. But luster — way the light reflects from their
on an even broader scale, minerals are essential surface — and above all, their habit, or crystal
for life itself. In soil and in water, soluble types form. Crystals are grouped into six systems
O Copper often appears in a dendritic release a steady stream of chemical nutrients according to their symmetry (see panel, below).

form, branching like a tree. It is a very that plants and other organisms need to grow. In addition, the crystals themselves can be
Q important economic mineral.
Without them, the world's ecosystems would
Z arranged in different ways: many are parallel,

< no longer operate. but they can be dendritic (branching), or even


Minerals are classified according to their botryoidal (like a bunch of grapes).


chemistry. A few, such as gold, silver, and Minerals also differ in density, or specific
U sulfur, can exist in a native state, meaning gravity (SG) — measured by comparing the
o that they contain a pure chemical element and weight of a mineral to that of an equal volume
nothing else. All other minerals are chemical of water — and in their hardness (H). On the
compounds. Quartz, for example, contains two 10-point Mohs scale, which measures hardness,
-J

<
Malachite
small,
can be botryoidal, with
rounded shapes, or massive,
elements — silicon and oxygen —which are talc is rated 1, whereas diamond, the hardest
with no definite shape.
bound together very tightly, giving quartz its mineral, is rated 10. A fingernail (hardness 2),
w exceptional hardness and strength. Quartz copper coin (3.5), and steel knife blade (6) all
Z belongs to the silicate group of minerals, which make useful benchmarks for testing hardness.
makes up about 75 percent of the Earth's crust. Surprisingly, size is a less useful clue. Gypsum
Other common mineral groups include halides, crystals, for example, are usually less than 3/sin
such as halite, or common salt, and phosphates (1 cm) long, but the largest specimens ever
and carbonates. These last two groups are discovered are the size ol a two-story house.
particularly important to animals, which use
phosphate and carbonate minerals — for
Crocoite, which is lead chromate,
frequently occurs as slender, elongated
example, calcite — to construct hard body The ground at
VOLCANIC MINERALS >
Dallol in Ethiopia's Danakil Desert is pockmarked
prismatic crystals. parts, such as teeth, bones, and shells. by volcanic vents and covered in sulfur, a native element.

DEBATE
MINERALS OR NOT? CRYSTAL SYSTEMS
Minerals are traditionally considered
Cubic systems are Hexagonal and Tetragonal svstems
to be inorganic. Although some
common and easily trigonal svstems are have three axes of
organic materials are used as gemstones recognized. Such each
very similar to ea symmetry, all at right
and for other decorative purposes, and crystals have three _ other, with four a I angles and two ot equal

some of these axes at right angles; of symmetry. The length. In a tall prism
have a similar chemical
composition to minerals, they are not
shapes include the
-
crvstals are often (left), the vertical axis

true minerals.

resin
Amber
from trees; much amber
is

Cretaceous, Palaeogene, and Neogene

age and can contain


the hardened

fossilized insects.
is of
cube and the eight
faced octahedron.
-

r six-sided prisms with


pyramidal tops (left).
is longer. Squat prisms
are also common.

Jet, a soft black rock, is a type of Monoclinic systems Orthorhombic Triclinic systems
impure coal, and became highly have three unequal systems are similar have a low degree ot
axes of symmetry, to the monoclinic symmetry, because the
fashionable for jewelry in Victorian
only two at right system, but all three three axes are unequal
times. Shell, pearl, and coral (the use
angles. Tabular axes are at right in length and none ot
of which is not sustainable) are rich in
them are at right
(flattened, left) and angles; the usual habits
calcite and are used decoratively. prismatic habits are tabular and angles. Prismatic

are common. prismatic (left). habits are common.


NATIVE ELEMENTS
Ol the 88 natural elements, only about 20 are found in
is, uncombined with other elements.
the native state; that
They are divided into three groups. The metals rarely form
as distinct crystals, tend to have a high specific gravity,
and are soft. Semimetals, such
antimony and arsenic,
as
commonly occur in rounded masses. Nonmetals, including
sultur and carbon, usually form as crystals.

ANTIMONY GRAPHITE
Hexagonal /trigonal Hexagonal H 1-2 SG
• • 2.1 2.3
H 3 3'% • SG 6.6-6.7 A lorm ot pure carbon common
This rare semimetal occurs in in metamorphic rocks, graphite
hydrothermal veins, often with is dark, soft, and greasv, and
arsenic and silver minerals. The makes ideal pencil leads.
silvery gray masses are coated
white when oxidized.
dendritic
habit

COPPER
Cubic- H 2'/2-3 SG • 8.9
Native copper occurs mainly as
irregular masses or branching or
wirelike forms. It is most notably
associated with basaltic lava. It is

a good conductor and is \\ ideh


used in the electrical industry.

NICKEL-IRON
Cubic
COPPER ON H4- 5 •SG 7.3-8.2
GOETHI1 I
Iron is invariably alloyed to
GROUNDMASS
nickel. The mineral kamacite
can have up to 7.5 percent
nickel, and taenite up to
50 percent.

distinct, isolated
diamond crystal

DIAMOND
Cubic- H 10. SG 3.52
The hardest of all minerals,
diamond, a valuable form
of carbon, occurs in igneous
rock rocks called kimberlites, which
oroundnia\* originate in deep volcanic pipes.
resinous lu\ter

uneven surface

ARSENIC
Hexagonal/trigonal H • 3
1
2 • SG 5.7
Highly poisonous arsenic usuallv forms as
pale gray, rounded masses in hydrothermal
veins. It heated, it smells of garlic. PLATINUM NUGGET
PLATINUM
SULFUR Cubic • H 4-4' 2 • SG 21.4
Orthorhombic • H 1' : 2'A • SG 2.0-2.1 A rare metal, native platinum forms as scales,
Native sulfur forms striking yellow crystals and grains,and nuggets in igneous rocks and in alluvia
powdery crusts around volcanic vents. It is mined for sands. Its high melting point means it is useful in

use in sulfuric acid, dyes, insecticides, and fertilizers. industry, for example in aircraft spark plugs. Pi ATINUM
SULFIDES I
lexagonal
l INN \lt
1 1
\K
igi mal

1 he sulfides are a large group of minerals,


ii '
! . SG8.0 8.2
Kill * oloi ed mi mi
in which sulfur is < ombined with one oi
1 1

Miliiili has bi i n iln


moii nu't.ilv Mam sulfides have .» high in. mi SOUl i i i >l nil ii in \

specific gravity and a metallit lustei I lu\ tin i


lugh ilii 1 1 Mini us
often form as excellent Ii i ii i in n .ii . mn.
rystals. Sulfides
I

Imt n|h ings .mil


occui in man} geological situations, but
volcanii vents
frequent!) in hydrothei mal veins 1 he group
iikludes tlii- majorit) <>t the economicall) z
impoi tant metal ore minerals
m

GOl I) long, ainxJ


>
SI MINI I I
r-
Cubfc • H 2 l.SG .iw.il' n i
h ili, ii hombii • H 2 • SG 4.63 I
66
I'll/Ill (til Un COlOl Jllll
\ nii It nli il antimony, this tl.uk grav mini ral
\
i

malleability, forms in s;i>l>l


in ihi in. mi hi .intiiii. .in ,M gi
i . il l .1, posil
bydrothermal veins and often \"»n .' in in in ili, u, is, Inn. .mil
i -.1 , i i i i i
Japan
weathers out to be found
a
js nuggets in i ivei sands
V * j-

*<*** III »K \
D
i in n i
I

\
I

i
I

s m
/
COB \l 1 1 1 Indistinguishable
Oi thorhombit • ii - »SG 6.3 i a stals form
l ohallite in .in mi. ,.|1 large masses

Nllllllll III .11 Nl iik .lllll l llll.lll II |N

.in iiiip. .i t.ini i nh.ili ore iii. foi


i xampli .
sui .Ii n and Noi way HORN I I I

[i H i
,ll • II ( • S(, I
II ,1
I IllN I H|l|ll I Nllllllll IN .1

IRON i oppei i nili oli ii. t.n nishinp


Cut* • II I. St
ii i nIiiihiih i in,., |uii pie and blue.
M \nn|\ | in iliMlj Ii in .in imp H t.mt ijijn
The majority ttl natin- iron in found in tbe i • i i ii i

I irth'N eon. ana at thi surface it readiN


rrMitniittj with other dements

B1SMU1 II
IK (agonal trigonal
H2-2Vi«Si GALENA
NatIM blMUUth In (. Ill, I, • II ' • N(,

rtlati.rl. ran HanlK 1 1 .nl Nultuli in one nl iln ninii


ever tound a> distinct abundant ami widely iIinihI.ui, il

ir\NljK. it more often nuIihI, minerals Ii in mined


ha> a granular or i \ii iinu, u as leado
brarikhini; form.

mcrvuri
globules w
rod . ..

I I i\l \1( IS.


M \nn|\ I I ohm <ll
< II \l ( OP1 Kill
MERCURl I.RI I Not Kl II
Hi a _,>nal 1 1, \at;onal
CHAI.COI'YRI I I

H Liquid' 4.4 II - • si, I 7


i.ii-

ii I
i . ,

ThiN is the onl\ metal that in liquid at Named alter I <>r<l Grec nm k.
normal temprraturvv In liquid Form, on whose s, ottiah prop rt\
A Nllllllll ,,| |
.,|,|„ 1 ,|1„|

mercurv appear- a» silvery globules. ion, .!,


it »a> discovi red in
- ,
,

thiN ran cadmium nuIIm


ii. i
|. brass) yellov a <h n

Il llJN 1 .Ii lllll


be yellow, red, or or u
oppei

ii-.ii \i . I II \l ( MI'l Kill IIIIMlh


RYSTA LLI N
Ioh M OI
Nl-H tllKIII
AC A N I 1 1 1 I I

H 2 2 • si.

\ ulfidi

SPHALERIT1
SILVER mthiti
Cubn • II
"
• • ni, ||
A sulfide ol /ini with \arial>le in hi, ,
m
WhIcI\ ii-trihutni but rarch found in prop,

abundance, native silver occur* mainlv is


twisted wire*. v:a)e<, and branching maw* Nl-HM t HIT! »
» SULFIDES MOLYBDENITE
Hexagonal / trigonal
H I ';.SG 4.62-5. 06
1

42 Molybdenum sulfide is

lead -gray in color. It has an


oily feel, which is due to
weak bonds within a layered

tn
w
; crystal structure.

Q •#,
"™ —-*<**^aij^ granite

ORPIMENT
3 Monoclinic
GLAUCODOT
X H l'/a 2 • SG 3.4-3.5 REALGAR
Named from the Latin for "golden Monoclinic • H 1
' 2-2 • SG 3.56 Orthorhombic • H 5 • SG S. 9-6.1

paint," this arsenic sulfide oc( urs A bright orange-red sulfide of This sulfide of cobalt, iron, and arsenic thin hexagonal

as foliated, columnar masses arsenic, realgar was historically occurs as silver-white brittle masses, cr\ stals in layers
c/3
around hot springs. used as a pigment. w bub have no external crystal form.
-J

<
PC
— MARCASITE slender
Orthorhombic prismatic
H 6-6'/2 • SG4.92 t rj stals

A sulfide of iron that is

lighter and more brittle than

pyrite, marcasite frequently


occurs as cockscombs and
spear-shaped "twin

COVELLI I I

Hexagonal • H 1 'A 2 • SG 4.6 4.8

i oi
Covellite is

n non copper sulfide.


i
a not particularly
Its shining
I
indigo-blue color makes it attractive
to mineral collectors.

HAUERITE
Cubic • H 4 • SG 3.46
1 lauerite is a verj rare sulfide

of manganese. The brown


octahedral crystals can form when
certain minerals are altered in
ARSENOPYRITE domes
the caps ol salt
Monoclinic
H 5' 2-6 -SG 5.9-6.2
Silver) (.olored
arsenopyrite is a sulfide PENTLANDITE
of arsenic and iron. Witl Cubic
almost 50 percent arseni STANNITE H iVi 4 -SG 4.6-5.0
content, it is a principa Tetragonal • II 4 • SG 4.4 This nickel and iron
ore of arsenic which is Stannite Is a sulfide ol tin, sulfide is found in

poisonous to humans. copper, and iron mined for basic igneous rocks.
the tin. Its name comes from It is an important
the 1 atin for tin, ^umnum. source ol im kel.

calcite
nJnuvs
PYRITE
Cubic
H 6-6V2 SG • 5 MILLERITE
Nicknamed "fools gold" Hexagonal/trigonal
>ecause of its light goldish
H 3-3 r 2.SG 5.3-S.6
color, this iron sulfide is This sulfide of nickel occurs in
the most common oi .ill limestones and ultramafic rocks.
sulfide minerals. It is sought alter as a nickel ore.

/ i

PYRRHOTITE CHALCOCITE
Monoclinic • H 3' 4':-NG4.53
2 4.77 Monoclinic H 2' 3 SG
• 2 • 5.5-5.8

An iron sulfide yyith variable iron content, Dark gray to black, copper sulfide has
pyrrhotitc has a magnetism that increases been mined for centuries. It is one of
as the iron content decreases. the most profitable copper ores.
'r. s
SULFOSALTS
Sulfosahsart agroupof about ?00mainl\
rare minerals, <.ti u< turall) related t>> standard
sulfides and with man) >>l the samt properties
In these compounds sulfur is combined \\ ith
a metallic element commonh silver, copper,
lead, »'i nun and .i semimetal, often antimom
01 arsenit Sulfosalts frequent!) occui in
BISMUTHIN1TI
l )rthorh>iml>iv • II ! • m. hydrothei mal veins, usualb in small amounts
I his sulfide nl bismuth is an important
!v Mix h oJ th. hismutli
II lllrdk III. - PI K IRG1 Kl I I l'«)l 1 K \M 1 i: wi.l Kl I I

1 1, luminal ti igonal Vtimoi 1 1 m. Mom ii linii


s,
II '
. j ii ii •
I.SG S.8 6.2 in
Mso called i ul>\ silver, Son ion, \ bluish :'i.i\ sulfidi i
il Ii id
ilnv sulfide •! silvi .in.l palybasiti
i
Is .i sulfidi ol silvei and .inn \, In ml in-
,iihiiii..ii\ is red bla< k. but I H|l|l. I, .1111 II IIS. III. Is mi. I
'I I. m nlh.l. /
llllll >|>lllll. I
v .l|l|H .11 It . iii v i. Id ii.. i
thwhili icral to form fini C
.1. ,
p i
ub) i. .1 quantities ol silvci lo< .ilK hah liki .Mill r~
-n

/
>

IN \IU.III BOURNONITI
thorbombii • SC
• il ( • ii '

l«SG S.7-S.9
ilorcd lulfidc ol i
oppcr and
id nl l< .ill, < oppi i. and antimony,
tabulai in |n iMii.iin
a

PEROVSKITE
OXIDES Orthorhombic
H5'i . SG4.01
Oxides are compounds of oxygen and other Discovered in Russia in

elements. Some oxides are very hard and 18 39, this dark-colored

many :ide of calcium and titanium


ha\ i- a high specific gravity, and are
iorms in igneous and
brightly colored. The group includes the
metamorphic rocks.
chief ores of iron, manganese, aluminum,
C/j

PJ tin,and chromium. Some oxide minerals


Q are sought-after gems. Oxides can occur
in hydrothermal veins, igneous and
X metamorphic rocks, and also, because
O they can be resistant to weathering and
transportation, in layers of sediment.

C/j

-
< ahcdral franklinite crystal
OS
— FRANKLINITE ILMENITE
Cubic 1 lexagonal/trigonal
H 5'/2-6'^SG 5.07-5.22 H 5-6. SG 4.72
This black or brown zinc Iron titanium oxide is the principal ore of
manganese iron oxide is titanium, a high strength, low density metal
found in metamorphosed used in aircraft and rocket construction.
limestones, notably those in
Franklin, New Jersey.

striated
URANIN1TE rystaljace .

Cubic • H 5 -6 • SG 6.5 10.0


Highly radioactive, black- CASSITERITE
Tetragonal • H 6—7 • SG 7
brown-colored uranium oxide
>r

is the main ore of uranium,


Almost the sole source of the world's tin

which is used in nuclear reactors this tin oxide is mainly found as small
to produce electricity, and grains among river gravels.

in the construction of
nuclear weapons.

i itreous
* -tr^ '<* ;
.
•'
Iu-.Il!

f- #y-. '
\ ... ."\
r

SAMARSKITE
Orthorhombic
H 5-6. SG 5. 15-5. 69
Minerals known as samarskite —
radioactive oxide of various metals
including yttrium, iron, tantalum,
and niobium — occur in igneous
rocks and alluvial sands.

GAHNITE
Cubic H7'/2-8 .SG4.6
A rare oxide of aluminum
and zinc found mainly in

metamorphic rocks, gahnite


can form dark green or blue
to black crystals.

CORUNDUM
Hexagonal/ trigonal
H 9 • SG4. 0-4.1
Corundum is an aluminum
oxide, second only in
hardness to diamond.
Ruby-red and sapphire-
i blue varieties are used
i gemstones.

CHROMITE
Cubic- H 5 "2 • SG 4.5-4.8
This iron chromium oxide is the only
important source of chromium, an element
used in making chrome- and stainless-steel.
HYDROXIDES
Hydroxide minerals an compounds of a
metal li< element .m>l i lu hydroxyl radical
it >l 1 1 l Id \ .in . ommon mini i
als and
often form through a chemical reaction
between an existing oxidi and fluids rich
in water, seeping through th< Earth's
i I USl \l.in\ li\ilm\lili nun, i
als in
IATITI
. -,. quite -"it I lydroxides tend to
I tnd abundant, i>i i in in iiu alii i i'il pai i- "I
mined \ti nsiw K
i

hvdrothei mal veins and in


.lis fol 111- .

mi iiu ulli.
iiu 't.inii 'i jiliu rocks
an In i

GIBBSITI
Mi linii

ii .SG 2.4 X
i iiu. STIBICON1 1
«<
essential alumin i ubi< -iM \'A »SG 3.3 •

In. Ii. ixidi in ihe \n hi.. ,


.mi i
hydi . ixidi ..I mi mi,
FERGUSONI aluminum on bauxite stibii .null iv ii Ini. or yi II. i« Ish brow n, »<
Ii also mi in - in .in.l I.. i in- 1. 1 tin ..Ii. i .in. i ..il>. i

hvdrothei mal v< Ins .111I1111..IH nun. i als, .


Spi . i.iIK -III. ml. X
nam- i

nuin metals, including


ini, lanthanum

niobium, ami cerium.

l*i KOI UMII


l>onal

I I I'IDOt H(K I I I

•nnuin < ihIk.iI Iii, .it , . \(, 1.9


man, ll i- I., relatively ran i hydroxidi
(hr primary on ui.ii ... . in ii nli gi .. ilni Ii is

rain; i
reddish brow n and t an I. ii m
rli mrnt in irri ul .i and fibi i m. shapi -

production.

1)1 \sl'()KI
Orthorhombu «H6' .
• SG ! i

Diaspon and its variety bohmiti an essential


aluminum hydroxides in bauxiti Dia o |
I

occurs in marble and alti n d igneous rocks.

V I'll I II I

igonal
SG4.23
lliHUMl III
ll •
• M imh i
I I

tanhim, thi- i."i i in i i


KO.M AMI III I I

tiunium often forms im| i ii ih. .ii.., ml. i. .11 , 6 • SG 4.7


<li-pla\- >il thin, translu I
. ipaqui ,
iln oji i.l. ..I

Hi - in ijuart/ crystals. ithl n.ilK


I I
assive
fot in- t i ystals an ran

GOl I III 1

Orthorh bii • n . i »SG 3.3 I l

\ i .
.

yellow brown coloi to soil and roi ks thai

Ii \ll\l I I

phi iu mixtun
II I «SG 2.7
CHKiNOBIKil /IM I II I In p
nabh • ll
• HKIK III nil, ill
i alurmnun •It ... I, III I

mstonr. kno» n t unal man. ii. I, and


in uV U> o idi
H A LI DES
When metallic elements combine with halogen
elements, halides are formed. The halogens
are iodine, fluorine, chlorine, and bromine.
Ualide minerals are commonly very soit and

v:
of low specific gravity, often having crystals
UJ classified in the cubic system. Many of these
Q minerals, such as halite and sylvite, torm in
evaporite sequences by the drying out oi

< saline waters. Other halides — for example,

X iluorite — occur in hydrothermal veins.

FLUORITE
- ( iiI.k • H 4« sg 3.18
Calcium fluoride often
< forms transparent to
translucent crystals
- ol various colors.
z Large quantities are
used for making
hydrofluoric acid.

GREEN
11 iiokiti

DIABOLEITE BOLEITE
Tetragonal • H 2'/a • SG 5. Cubic • H 3-3' i • SG 5.0-5.1
I copper chloride nyaroxicN wit Deep blue boleite is a rare hydroxide ol lead
a light to dark blue color, diaboleite silver, copper, and chlorine. It occurs where

I
s l'\ the alteration oi other minerals. lead and copper deposits have been altered.
JARL1TI
v link
( \KIU) NATES
H4-4 • SC 8
Carbonate minerals are compounds of metallic
UmuIK white, larliti- i-

found in iohi v>n. mimetallit elements combined \\ ith tht


It in a rare sodium carbonate radical (COi). Ovei 0< arbonati
strontium magnesium minerals are know bm
n, * alt it< . dolomiti
aluminum Dual
and siderite account foimost of tht carbonate
hvdrox
in ihe 1 ai th's * i usi Carbonatt - usuall) form
u
iod crystals with regulai shapes and no
foreign substances enclosed within them
z
tn
Many carbonates art palt colored, but 30
some, sue h as rhodochrosite, smithsonitc, SMITHSONITI
Hexag hi >onal
and malachite, are bright!) colored
III I . si.
I

I i II,
r
\ III' I
II I
'
I I 111 ill'

llll(IR\Kl,) Kl II uppi i oxidized zoni s "I zlni

on deposit ,
I
li I

;>Kjll\ also mini d Ibi zint


>
(Tl il.l/i

^-*

S VII III \|i


SPAR V
>
-
m

• Willi
I li xagonal ti ii al

ii li \lti lot Al t I II
( )m "l ilu hum abundanl mini i lis, mosl M 1 • H I si. I 66 V7I
in i arbonatc is massivi , occun I Ins barium i all ai bi in iti i

DOGTOOI II
Imu stoni oi m. n Mi li i an alsi i li » m « Ini. i" ii How ish, and ofti n li iund in
SPAR outstanding 1 1 ystals. hydrothei mal veins « ithin limi i

curved
• I fat a

DOLOMI I I

1 1> xagi mal


IM • • SG
I lolomitl is i I .ili mm
I
ii li.in.il.

« idespn ad in altered
\l U Willi him stoni s. lolomiti

sfih
I

rock, foi un 'I exi lusivel)


>n 41 j. jm ii ( i» copper chioi oi massive dolomiti . is

us< 'I is .i building stone.


IKON \
Monoi Imu . H > . SG 2.1

Hydrated -odium carbonatt .

yellowish, nr brown. It forms


un dn arth's surfai
I ~|» 1.1IK .
1

t \ I C > N\ I I
in -alim- desert invimnmi i

HI
KareK found, thi-
u-\ chloridi
»hn< • rnwn
mineral. It- color

t<> I
!

I RVH III
w I I III Kl II M M.MSIII STRON 1 1 \M II
h : • nal • H 3 • VI < irthorhon I
• 1 1 . SG t.7K
* aluminum walium • '

\ i
trontium i

found m hydrothi i mil vi ini and


an irrlilu- appci Kind
»
1

» CARBONATES (is EERRII I

("l-LOWERS OF IRON")
ARAGONITE

BOTRYOIDAI SIDERITE
ARAGONITE
Orthorhombic SIDERITE
H V i-4. SG 2. 94-2. 95 Hexagonal /trigonal
Aragonite is calcium carbonate, H4«SG 3.96
heroically identical to calcite, but A brown-colored carbonate of iron,
« ith a different crystal structure named from the Greek for iron, sidaos,
and much less common. siderite occurs in a variety ol forms.

UHOMIIOIII I)R
SIDERITE

':•

pnsmLitu
crystal

PHOSGENITE ARTINITE
ARAGONITI Tetragonal • H 2 '/4-3 • SG 6. Monoclinic • H 2 • SG ' 2 2
TWINNED CRYSTALS
This rare lead carbonate chloride is A hydrated magnesium
formed close to the Earth's surface by the carbonate hydroxide, artinite has
glasslike
reaction <>l lead-rich minerals with water. a distinctive habit, with sprays
sheen
ol white, needle-shaped crystals.
HYDROZINCITE It occurs in serpentine rocks.
Monoclinic
H 2-2'/j.SG4
Hydrozincite, or zinc
i .lrbon.iti li\(lni\nlr, is pale
gray, white, pink, or yellow isl

It fluoresces bluish u hue


under ultraviolet light.

patch cj ,/j, en
malat lute
around margins

limonite matri*

AZURITE
Monoclinic • H 3 "2 -4 • SG 3.77-3.78
Azurite is a hydrous copper carbonate. Its

rich blue color and frequent association hotryoidal


with green malachite in hydrothermal habit

veins are distinctive features.

LEADHILLITE
Monoclinic • H 2 Vi— 3 • SG 6.55
This lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide
usually occurs as well-formed crystals
in the oxidized /ours ol lead deposits.
BOR \T 1 s
IUM1RUI Boi ates occui w lun metallit elements combine
rwiNNED
with the borate radical (BO
49
rhereareovei >

\oo borate minerals, the most common being


v 1 KllsM I I
borax, kernite, ulexite, and colemanite Borates
tend to bi pale* olored, relative!) soft, and have
low specific gravit) Mam occui inevaporite
sequ< nces " Ii, u saline waters have >li ied <>ui
KUnsI
i. I I I

and minerals
y
M ai e then |>i ipitated among layers
OrlhorfuMiihi,. • * ; • -, > ,
m
A carbonali 'I lead occurring where <>l sedimentai \ i <>. kv M KM 1
73
lead bearing \. m> ha\e ken ahen \1 Inn, • ii " I •SG 1.9
i\ the most common lead .»r. after galena \ , oloi Ii s\ .u w ha. sodium >
BORACIT1 borate huh ate, kei nite has less
< 'i thoi hombit watei ili. in boi .i\ I
he two
H »SG3 minerals oc< in toeethei
Magni slum boi He
rtk'tnh
• I'l' ii i.l. . i
ystals .11 . pali Z
-.•I. en 01 « Kite, and
glass) l*"i .1. ii» < >, , in s in H
salt ,1, posits, notabl) in 73
Gi i inn i\ and Polani >
H

w
m

\NM Kl II
Hexagonal trigonal
H 3 ; . m.
\nkerite is .1 carbonati ol \
calcium with lessei iron,
magnesium, and manganesi
Ii i~ sometimes found
in
m>lil bearing quai 1/ veins
COl 1 MAN] 1
111 I XI 1

M , Inn. -II f • S(, I | ! Moii,., Inn, • II I !


. S(, I
>l(,

I
his bydrati nun borate hydroxidi foi mv h hen
.1 . al( \ hydrated sodium i -il, ium
saline watei evaporates Ii was the main source ol urate hydroxide, ulexite 'a
boron until iln disi ovei \ ol kernite white, fibrous , rystals transmit
ighl down theii length Ii has
uses similai to borax

KHOIMK HKOMI1
J'Hl'i 4 • SG i.l
,|uah^ crystals i.ilhis manganese
ale. in sha ,>ink, can be
found in the U\ N.uth Africa, and IVru

iiunchxiktu « ;

characteristic
UIRK'II \l CI I I

toriaa
Monodinic -HI 2 • sc; 1 s>6

A blue ,,r green colored /im BORAX


, opper , irbonati hydroxidi Vionoi linii H 2—2
• • s(, I 7

aurichalcite l,irm> in the \ , balk) h Im, sodium I.. .1 ati HOWLITE


oxidized zones ..I zinc and In. I. has man) Mono. Inn, • li <' .
. m, '(,

copper deposits. applii in. ins, in. ludin I lovt III, iv i .il, nun borosilil .ili

medicines, laundn detergents, hydroxidi Ii gem rail) foi ms as


M MM Hill "S glasses, and ti xtili i
halky, rounded masses
t HKI 51 il Dl I \
IMI IU1I
MINERAL)

NITRATES
Nitrati s are .i small group ol
i
ompounds whi n metallit
elements i ombine w ith the nitrati
radical | NO i I hese minerals
in usual 1) verj sofl and havi
associated
aiurite
low -p, c it,, gravity. Mam
diuolvi easih in water and the)
<»nl\
-
rareh form as < rystals. I In •,

M\l \( Hill ii, onfim d to and


g< in rail) i

H ..•.,,;
inn •
n gions, forming oatings on tin- t
M I K \ I I 1

rhi« *trik i

PP° r land -ii r l.i. i


thai "hi ncovei w ide
II. xagonal/trigonal • H l'/j ' • s<, .'.27
carbonate."' inded
Sodium nitrati typii all) occui istson
masses. It is used for ornamentation I
' .n i im ii i.j 1 1\. nitrates an
HiiTHWillH I
. i

<ion il

MM
- •
|

and is i <- .per. M III II In iim d ,i* fertilizers .n i xpli in ( hili h it whi
SULFATES i
Sulfates are composed of metals joined to
the sulfate radical(S0 4 ). There are about
200 sulfates and most are rare. Many,
such as the more common gypsum, form
in evaporite deposits where minerals are GYPSUM SATIN SPAR
CO Monoclinic • H 2 • SG 2.32
LU precipitated from drying saline solutions.
A widespread mineral, gypsum, or
H Others form as weathering products, or hydrated calcium sulfate, makes piaster of
< as primary minerals in hvdrothcrmal veins. Paris when heated and mixed with water. THENARDITE
Many are economically important — barite
H
Orthorhomhic
2' 2- 3 • SG 2.66
is used to lubricate drills on oil rigs. IATING
RUM crysl A pale grav or brownish
chalcanthite mineral, thenardite is sodiu
prismatic
sulfate. found on lava
It is
ANGLESITE
(lows and around salt la
Orthorhomhic
H 2' 2-3 • SG 6.3-6.4
This lead sullate comes
in a variety ol colors and CHALCANTHITE
forms. It is an alteration Triclinic

product of galena, the H 2'2-SG 2.28


primary lead ore. Rich blue or green
chalcanthite is hydrated
copper sullate. lorms through
It

the oxidation of chalcopvrite and


other copper sulfites

mass of needle- shaped


W LINARITE
Monoi Unit
brochantite en stah

H 2V, .sg 5.3

Bright blue linarite is

roundrlhiv hydrous i opper lead


sulfati It o< i ins m the
oxidation /ones ol
copper .wi<\ lead ores.

GLAUBER1TE
Monoclinic A1.UNITE
H 2
1

j 3 .SG 2.8 Hexagonal /trigonal


CYANOTRICHITE Glauberite is sodium H 3'2-4-SG 2"6-2.9
( Jrthorhombic • H 3 • SG 2.74 2.95 and calcium sullate. A hydrous sullate of potassium and
This hydrated copper aluminum sulfate is Colorless, gray, or aluminum, alunite may be found at

named alter the Greek for "blue" and "hair," yellowish, it forms where volcanic vents where rocks are

referring to its clusters ol line, blue i rystals saline water evaporates altered by sulfur vapors.

CHROM ATES
RED
CROCOITE Chromate minerals form when metallic elements
joinwith the chromate radical (Cr0 4 ). They are
rare minerals — crocoite is the only reasonably
well-known chromate. They are generally
brightly colored, and highly sought after
by mineral collectors. Chromates often form
when hydrothermal veins are altered by fluids.

slender, elongat
crystals with
\tnations

ORANGE
CROCOITE

CROCOITE
Monoclinic H 2'/i—3 SG
• • 6

Orange or red lead chromate forms


in the oxidized zones ol lead deposits.
Good specimens come from Australia.
Mil \MIKIII
. link • it ! »S(
White, green, or blue
meUnt< rite is hydrated
iri.n sulfate It in used in
purifying water supplies,
ami a» a Urtili

| \KOMII
I li xagunal n igunal
It ' |'4i SG
EPSOMITI
|arosite is .1 hydrous sulfati ol iron an
Orthorhombu
tl
'
• m. potassium, occurring as brow n coj
on pyi Hi and othet iron mini rah
• rmlrjli-vl magnesium
•>ultjtf incurs in anil

cave
lull. It in tiu -

-
m salts
f-
•'
H
CI I I si i\i
C
( Irthorh bit • 11 I I • SG 3 96 I 98 z
Mi ontium sulfate is sough) aftt r, m il onh u a
1 In main source of strontium, but also foi the
bi mi iiul ,
11 .iiis|*.ii 1 Hi . pal* - olored 1 1 \ Btals. H
>
H
m
/

C DIM \|'| I I

rriclinii • 11 '
I • SG 2.08-2.1
\ w lie ih ,.1 green hydrati >l sulfati •!

iron in si >l< s, 1 il>. ,1 from < opi ipi 1,

Chile, 1 1 ipiapitt o< 1 urs when otht 1

minerals are alti red

<
It \KI I I

BROl H \MIII VNHVDRII1 t )i 1I1. 11 hombii

H !

hydroxide, bn
4

forms emerald-green
.

.
linn
si.

sulfate
*, hantite

masses
anhsilnti
but
It

m
Orthorhnmbu
i

in ol

imur>

in
> •

calcium
SG

alongside
noli

humid conditions
sulfate,

It
gypsum
.»lt< r- tO
$ II

I In

bat

bat ni'ii
MllllNM.lIK

pale colon
I

iin
I

nun hum.
>st

III
.

1
S(.

ommon

tilt.it.

.1
.It I

mineral
1
1

al,

|i
in

.1
.

.1
Polyhalite
IniliMi. -II

magnesium
pink, in red,
in

mi. 11 in.
POLYHA1

hydt
\
at<

ulfati

ii in

..1I1
i'/i.SG 2.7S
.1

m idespread
.li
1
III

potassium
1I01 less,

posits.
in
1

white,
.ill

mam
mum

MO I V BDATtS TUNGSTATES HUBNERIT1


1 uart
ndmasi

linn
MoKbslatcs Inrni when metals combine with Tungstatt minerals are 1 ompounds w ith metallit
\I1111111

n I 1 • SG 7.3
the moUklau radical (Mo< >.i These minerals t lements joined to the tungstate radit al 1 Wl 1 1
m tul
I Ins manganese iron tungstati
arc rare and tcnil to he dense and bright!} In s, minerals are rare and iisuall) brittle and
I
in .1 major soun ol tun ten 1

I MnlsKlate minerals tx 1 ur in mineral dense Somt art dark colored and form as fint 1.1I used in ste< I .iIIoin,

\etns that ha\e been altered h\ circulating water. abrasives, and light
crystals. Tungstatt s oc< ur in hydrothermal veins

Wulfcnite is the best-known molybdate mineral and pegmatites verj coarsi grained granitit
It is prized bir its tine >.r\stals and brilliant rocks win r< iii iiit rals form hum Hunk
clliiw inliirs. permeating the rot k.

S( Ml I I I I I

II • • 6.1

Mini d foi tui

.1I1 nun '

found
III hydi 1

tamorphii and igi

nl alluvial sands

hipjmmiJul
ichccliic '

I I Kill Kl II
Mulioi lllllt

nil. s«. 7.5

' )paque b
Will IIMII ml III

Tetragonal • H2 othi 1 mil


This lead moKbdatr a fount
zones of lead and mobbdenum deposits. is ip mini !
1 minor munr of mobbdenum.
PHOSPHATES 4,
When metals combine with the phosphate radical
(P0 4 ), phosphate minerals are formed. These minerals
form a large group of over 200 —
however, many are \M
very rare. Minerals in this group vary in hardness and
specific gravity, and many are brightly colored. They
TURQUOISE
uu usually form by the alteration of sulfide minerals, but Triclinic • H 5-6 • SG 2.6-2.8
some are primary minerals. A number of phosphates A sought alter gem for thousands of
< are rich in lead; others are radioactive. years, this hydrated phosphate ofcopper
X and aluminum is tound in altered
Oh igneous rocks.
HYDROXYLHERDERITE
Monoclinic • H 5 -5'/2 • SG 2.95-3.01
o Hydroxylherderite is calcium beryllium
a: phosphate. It occurs as pale yellow
cu or greenish crystals, with a glassy
sheen, in granitic pegmatites. M

^w?s
:
*,rr
m^ *^* "*v*

aggregate Hexagonal
PYROMORPHITE
• H 3' 2-4 • SG 6.5-7.1

of xenottme A lead phosphate chloride, variably


colored greenish, orange, yellowish
or brownish, pyromorphite lorms in
the oxidized /ones of lead deposits.

DUFRENITE
Monoclinic • H VA-AVi • SG 3.1

This hydrated phosphate of iron


and calcium mainly occurs as green
to black masses or crusts in altered
veins and iron ores. XENOTIME
Tetragonal • H 4 5 • SG 4.4-5.1
Widely distributed yttrium
phosphate- is yellow-brown, gray,
or greenish, and lorms in ignei >us
anil metamorphic rocks.
APATITE
Hexagonal /monoclinic
H 5 -SG 3.1 3.2

META-AUTUNITE Apatite is the group name used lor three


Tetragona structurally identical calcium phosphate
H 2-2 Vi -SG 3.05-3.2 minerals: lluorapatile, i hlorapatite,
Radioactive meta-autunite and hvdrow lapatite.

lemon-vellow or pale
is a
green hydrated phosphate V
nl calcium and uranium,
ll occurs where uranium
minerals are altered.

WAVELLITE
METATORBERNITE Orthorhombic • H 3' 2 4 • SG 2. 36
Tetragonal H 2-2' • SG 3.22
• 2 Wavellite is a rare aluminum phosphate
This copper uranyl phosphate hydrate is hydroxide hydrate. Colorless, gray, or
related to meta-autunite and occurs in similar greenish, glassy, needlelike crystals form
settings. It is distinguished by its green color. radiating aggregates on altered rock.

translucent
sliced nodule
mass of
amblygomte

luster

oranae wax elhte


VARISCITE
Orthorhombic
H 3
,
2-4 l/2 .SG 2.6-2.9 TRIPLITE AMBLYGONITE
A semiprecious gemstone, this Monoclinic • H 5-5'/j • SG 3.5-3.9 Triclinic • H SVi-6 • SG 3.08

hydrated aluminum phosphate Triplite is a phosphate of manganese, This rare lithium sodium aluminum
usually occurs as green, fine-grained sometimes with iron and magnesium. fluophosphate mainly forms as masses,
masses in nodules, veins, or crusts. It forms in granitic pegmatites. but crystals occur in Zimbabwe and Brazil.
MonochnR
\ i\
VIVIAN IT1

unite
»H
i>
1

hvdrated iron
! «S<
\ WAD \ II S
\ anadates are l< > med l>\ the > ombination ol
phosphate It common!) (arms as
clusters ol Uails pi ismatit crystals
metallic elements and thi vanadate radical
in altered iron deposits i\i> group of minerals contains
i
rhis
mam ran examples, which tend to be dense
and bright!) colored Vanadates often form
w hen li\>li othi mal vi ins an altered b) i

permeating fluids Mosl vanadates have


-•
mi i ommen ial valut , howevi i , i ai notite
iv .in impoi t.uii M "in ce ol m anium,
lunJjt
nrin \MUNI
l \K\t)| I II i >i linn hombii </i

Monoclinii » H 2 • SG A ii '
. m, ; ; (.6

leneralh • > , ui i ing as powdci \ I Inv i .n< hydi ated \. in. ui. n< ni

yellow usts in uranium J. iinu .mil anium Looks similai >


HP . i iii

di p. 'Mis, radioai tivi i ai m ititi to ca i iii . -inil .il vi > in i in v in

iv ,\ hydrati .1 vanadati alt< nil in anium deposits s


potassium and uranium. m
V.
i >i ihoi hombi(
114. >
I ibethenitc iv .i light \ R S 1 \ \ T I S
to dark green > oppei
phosphate hydroxide Vrsenates are mosd) rare minerals composed ol
li foi ms in tin upper metallic elements and tin ars< nat< radi( .il |
\v( )

oxidizi >i oneol "i \vt ) i


["hey generally have a fairly high specific
coppei deposits A )A Mill
gravit) and low hardness, Man) arsenates have brighl I

I >l ill' 'I IliHIlliU


inli'iv adamite is yellow oi green, and clinoclase il 3'/i -SG4.3 II
is gi i en i 'i blw I his group ol minerals <>i i urs in .i
/mi arsenate hydroxide
variet) ui geologic .il situations, I >nt man) arsenates il i ui iii .ill. ii il .ii v. nil .ii i
• I

MO\ \/l 1 I
m i ui iii altered metal deposits.
/iik deposits, sometimes .iv

v,
. • II • • •
• M i |itn>ii.il i rystals
I'hovphau- minerals containing either
cerium, lanthanum, or neodvmium ar<
K mi;
I i I I i i
idiatlng i /" .

all is monazite hi
i I
Monoclinii -ill ' t SG 3.18 (Mi 'i tase i n ttah
mined lor the \anouv elements
ms
I I

pin
lydi ated
pi. pink
i obalt
1 1
ai

ystals ui
senate
i
Foi

oating

Will \. IK ni xamples oi ui in
BR \/ll I
I i i •

:»• H.liniv • II
i .in. nl. i and Mora

red in Hro/il, thi-

sodhan aluminum phosphate

and tormv in canities in nraniuv


pt-gmatit.v

HA VI DOM I I

Monoi Inn.
II 4 • S(, , i, 5.7
I lnv hydi in d i
ni . .1

i opper, Ii .nl. and dm is

umi.iIK l. .nn.l .is grci I. oi

\. II. .u . rusts m altered


hydrothermal vi ins
I \/lll III
linie

H S
1

'. ! I olirenlu OI IVIMII


\ r< lati\el\ ran . semiprei mm ( Irthi .1 hombii
II • v(.4.4
blue gi mstone, thiv iron i

magnesium aluminum phovphate ( )liveniti iv i oppi i

F
h\dr metamorphic in .ii senate hydroxidi Ii

ami igneous n» • ii i nisli. brownish, (I INOCI AM


yellow, hi era) and oi i ui
Mum,, Inn. • H 2'/] t . S(, t ( (

m altered •
ii|i|» i .Ii posits, t'linm l.iv, is a dark blue grei n < oppi i

arsenati hydroxidi that has a variety ol


gonal • H I • SG 6.88
loi ins iii .tit. r < il i oppei Milliil' il' poi il

. RrlatiM'N rare lead tanadate


I < chloridr t its in
L » altered lead deposits. It is an
^^k important source of vanadium .

^k used in steel al

M I Ml I I 1 ( II \l( OI'IIYI I III


Hi xagonal • ll '
1« SG 7. .
. J • 1 1 ' • si ,
'

ilinivu.il. b Brighl I'lui grei n i halt ophylliti


.
i LI., i nl. oppi i aluminum ai em
di in h I'.i i

oxidizi ! i
oppi i di posits,
SI LICATES ANDRADITE
Cubic H6"2-7.SG 3.8
MASSIVE
DUMORTIERITE
Yellowish green, brown, or
Silicates are the most common and largest group
black, andradite garnet is a
ol minerals. The fundamental building blocks are
calcium iron silicate. Cut gems
tetrahedra of silicon and oxygen (Si04) together with are excellent at separating
other elements. They are subdivided into six groups white light into colors.

tSl
based on the arrangement of the silica tetrahedral.
Some form as isolated tetrahedra (nesosilicates), some
occur in pairs (sorosilicates), and others have a three- DUMORTIERITE
< dimensional network of tetrahedra (tectosilicates). Orthorhombic • H 8' 'i • SG 3.41

U Some silicates form as chains of tetrahedra Dumortierite is a silicate of aluminum,


iron, and boron. It usually forms fibrous
(inosilicates), while others form as sheets
aggregates of radiating crystals, but it

(phvllosilicates) or rings (cyclosilicates). EUCLASE can also be massive.


Monoclinic
H7'2-SG
NESOSILICATES Euclase is
3.05-3.10
a beryllium
c/5
aluminum silicate hydroxide.
- It may form white, colorless,

< green, or blue prismatic


OS striated cry:

NORBERGITE
Orthorhombic
HUMITE H6-6V2.SG 3.1 3.2
KYANITE
Orthorhombic • H 6 • SG 3.24 Norbergite mainly oc urs as 1
Triclinic H 5' -7 • SG 1 3.53-3.67
A magnesium iron silicate Huohydroxide, brownish yellow, white, or pink
Kyanite is an aluminum silicate. Its
humite generally occurs as yellow to granular masses inmetamorphic bladed crystals in schist and gneiss
orange granular masses in metamorphose' 1 rocks. It is a magnesium formed at high pressures in the Earth.
limestones and dolomites. silicate Huohydroxide.

DATOLITE PYROPE
Monoclinic Cubic • H 7 7' 2 • SG 3.6
HS-SVJ.SG 2.8-3.0 Pyrope garnet is a dark red magnesium
Datolite is a hydrous calc mm aluminum silicate. It forms at high pressures
boron silicate. Not very common, in metamorphic and some igneous rocks.

it is mainly found in veins or


c.ixities in igneous rocks. rhombii
crystal faces

ALMANDINE
Cubic- H 7-7 '2 -SG4.3
The most common garnet,
pinkish red almandine is an iron
aluminum silicate. It is widely
used as a gem.

green coloring vitreous luster


due 10 vanadium

GROSSULAR
Cubic H 6 2-7-
1

SG 3.6

Grossular garnet is a silicate of

calcium and aluminum that


GREEN
GROSSULAR sometimes torms in marble. It
comes in a wide range of colors RED GROSSULAR
(
Ol i\
trlhorhombit
isi pinkish
SOROSILICATES
Common in igneous •

minei in composition from magnrsium


silicate to iron silical

ropAz
horhomhic • H 8 • SG
is aluminum —1 1 1>. ate fluoi ide hydroxide
is usualh. small, but a giant crystal
weighing 5% lb (271 kg) is known from H
I 111 >i ' l I

Mom ii linii

n ,. .sg 3.35-3 10

1 pldou is an abundant nun. ral

i i \ ^tal- "I i In- hydrous I .ili nun


aluminum Iron illii ati an pi ismatii

n tabulai .""' I' iati 'I

\\l\lll
1 1 1. [inii

ii -
.SG 3.2 1.4

Vxiniti i- .i hydrous
i ili nun iroi n
hoped
aluminum boron
m -

sili< ate, u nli .i\.

shaped
head
i rystals,

n III t till l< til)

Inn. in. linit • II 6 • SG 3.6


III Will iHMin I. sprt ad in in. tamoi phii .m<l

• : Mn
• II

Jdum
IN M\IUI\ i

i
h'iLi.i hlot itiml
k hydrousaluminum silicate
i- ,i dark green
•>!
r
titanium silicate h in exct llcnt , magnesium, .mtl mangan
at dis i iiin better
than ili.nti.'i\.l

prismjn
\M)\IIIMII
< >rth<>rhi>rnl>M.
• SG 3

AndaluMtr i« an aluminum
silicate. It occurs mainl\ in

tde mitamorphi
irn- prismatic crystals iHtfOHr
«ith a xju U linn.

r. tunded crysta
III MIMOKI'lllll
ZIRCON ' >i ili. .1 li.iinl.i.

iA./rr art *- ial • H • -'.


Ill , • S(,
n, oi zirconium silicate,
I In- hydrated silii ati ..I zini
Ktcnsiveh in
in i urs in .Ii. red zini di
Irv It in also tin- main
Ii in vei ) vai iabli both in Hn
ol thr metal zirconium
. ..In i and Ii

! ill nui leal

ir,lll,l.

DANBURIT1
ii

!
itl I .. | ..I- Mil., i

ils re* mbli topaz, bul


'Mil. II

W 1 1 I I M I I I
\ ISIIS I Will
>nal iii. .ii.. i Inn.

H • 19 n-II I |\l Will II r.


7.SG 3
i • H '
d

l-ti-h. and usualh. m . Sillimaniu- is an aluminum silicate »nh I

and Willi lliiiil n -.1


How, ll

metamorpbov-ri lim« but it »


C YCLOSI LICATES I NOSI LICATES ACTINOLITE
Monoclinic
BENITOITE H5 6 «SG 3.0-3.44
Hexagonal Actinolite is a more iron-rich,
H 6-6'/) SG
• 3.64-3.68 darker colored form of the
This usually blue barium titanium amphibole tremolite. It is one
silicate occurs in serpentinite and of the asbestos minerals.
veins in schist. Gem-quality
c i Wals tome from California.

six-sided crystal

TOURMALINE
Hexagonal / trigonal
H7-7'/..SG 3.0-3.2
Tourmaline is the name for
a group of hydrous
1 1

boron silicate minerals with


the same crystal structure
TREMOLITE