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SMOKING BEHAVIOUR EFFECT ON

ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA

By : Aditya Mulia Pratama, Gusti Aspia Apkarina, Laili Akrami,

Muhammad Iqbal Maulana

Introduction :

Smoking well known generally as cause problem health and


responsibility to many problem health in many people in the world, smoking
behaviour also become cause of early dead and decrease quality and
quantity of life. In many developed country prevalence of smoker have
significant decrease, but in Indonesia number of smokers increase in every
year. (Ngu Ling Yee, 2015).

Number of adult smoker (>20 years) in indonesia have increase


every years since two last decade, counted 27% (1995), 31.5% (2001),
34.4% (2004), 34.2% (2007), and 34.7% (2010). Ministry of Health also
found that more than 62% smokers in Indonesia started smoke before 20
years old. The first experience with tobacco commonly started from age
group 15-19 years old, then followed by child with range age 10-14 years
old and 5-9 years old (Wahyu Septiono, 2014). According to Riskesdas
percentage of smoking behavior in adolescents in Indonesia increase every
years. In Riskesdas 2007 (34,2%), Riskesdas 2010 (34,7%), In Riskesdas
2013 (36,3%) (Fathin, 2015).

Many factors that cause adolescents being smoker, that factor


divided become 2 main factor that is intrinsic factor and ekstrinsic factor.
Intrinsic factor included gender, personality, occupation, and religion and
ekstrinsic factor include family and environmental influences, peer group,
advertisement about cigarette, and regulation for getting cigarette (Fathin,
2015).

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Main Body :

Mostly adolescents with smoking behaviour have member of


family that have smoking behaviour. Adolescents that exposed by
environment that smoking is a generally common and because of that the
risk for adolescents become smokers is high compared with adolescents that
not exposed that behaviour. Based on that, smoking behaviour can
categorized as a social learning process, and control from family and
approvement of that behaviour from family about consumtion of tobacco
also become reinforsement for adolescents become smokers in early age.
(Wahyu Septiono, 2014).

Beside good communication in family, social economy status or


parents income also give a effect to smoking behaviour on adolescents. The
high income that parents have indirectly support children to use they money
pocket to buy cigarette. The lack of supervision from parents about using
money pocket causes that problem (Ardiansyah Pandayu,2017).

Smoking behaviour on adolescents happens also because easy


access to get cigarette. Many facilities in many palce that give easy access
to get cigarette and smoking behaviour already become a lifestyle in
nowadays. (Ardiansyah Pandayu,2017).

Influences from peer group also become cause smoking behaviour.


This is supported by previous studies that other smokers can trigger other
people that clean to become smoker. Bandura Social Cognitive Theory
(SCT) stated that environment, individual and interaction behaviour
somebody will give effect to somebody else. Smoking behaviour not also
cause by self but also from social environment such as family and peer
group that supported (Ardiansyah Pandayu,2017).

Teenagers feel insecure about how peer group think about them and
want to be same with the others so they feel not to be left out from peer
group. Teenagers spent their time mostly in school with their peer group and
this is become crucial because they interaction with each other in mostly

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daily activity every days. Influences of peer group caused smoking
behaviour on adolescents more give big impact and hard to anticipated and
without realized already become their life stlye in peer group (Ngu Ling
Yee, 2015).

For adolescents specifically male gender smoking behavior indicate


for symbol of maturity and masculine. Every day they exposed by smoking
behavior in their environment (Yuyud Wahyudi,2018). Smoking behaviour
on adolescents is a symbolizing behaviour. The symbolizing of mature,
strength, leadership, and attractions for opposite gender (Muzakkir, 2017).

Marketing activities also contributed to smoking behaviour on


adolescents. Marketing activities is activities to create, promote, and
distributed product to consumers. Coalition for Indonesian Health said that
half of adolescents respondent said that majority of their activities like
sports and concert sponsored by tobacco company. Marketing campaign
give indirectly effect to adolescents to have a courages to smoke. Although
a lot of demarketing done by Indonesian government but tobacco producers
still can advertise their product. The advertising can aired in TV after 10 pm
oclock whithout showing cigarrete or the pack of cigarrete. Nielsen
Audience Measurement Data stated that advertising about cigarrete get
second placed with profit around IDR 1,790 billion (US $ 162.7 million) in
2011 increased 14% from 2009. Billboard and shop brand very easy to be
found in the streets. Many placed that displayed about cigarrete. A lot of
smokers that can be found smoking in public area. This thing can be one of
reason researchers stated that marketing activities could be main contributor
to smoking behaviour (Alhapen Ruslin Chandra,2014).

Effects of smoking include insomnia, this statement support by


previous studies that smoker have high risk become insomnia. The effect of
nicotine in cigarettes can make a person addicted or dependent on cigarettes.
Teenagers who are addicted to smoking cannot resist the urge to not smoke,
they tend to be sensitive to the effects of nicotine. Nicotine dependence

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causes a smoker to have to smoke cigarettes continuously and cause various
effects on the body, one of which is insomnia (Muthia Vaora, 2014).

KEMENKES 2015 that there are several diseases caused by the


dangers of smoking to health, including:

1. Lung disease
The effect of the first smoker to damage the body's organs due to
cigarette smoke is the lungs. Cigarette smoke is inhaled and enters the
lungs, causing inflammation of the lungs, bronchitis, pneumonia.
2. Impotence and reproductive organs
Another dangerous health effect of smoking is that it can lead to
impotence, cases like this have been experienced by many smokers.
Because the content of these toxic chemicals can reduce sperm
production in men. Not only that, in men cancer can also occur in the
testes.
3. Stomach disease
The thing that looks trivial when smoking a cigarette is the
increased muscle activity under the esophagus. Muscles around the
lower respiratory tract slowly weaken so that the digestion process is
inhibited.
4. Risk of stroke
Active smokers can suffer a stroke, because the side effects of
smoking can cause weakening of blood vessels. When the weakening
occurs and the work of blocked blood vessels can cause inflammation
in the brain attacks.

Conclution :

Smoking problem on adolescents in Indonesia increase every


years. Many factors cause adolescents become smoker such as gender,
personality, occupation, family and environmental influences, peer group,
advertisement about cigarette, and regulation for getting cigarette. Smoking
behaviour on adolescents give many negative impact for theirs like

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insomnia, lung disease, impotence and reproductive organs, stomach
disease, and risk of stroke.

So mentioned in the discussion above the effect of smoking on


adolescent growth is very vulnerable and more and more years more
teenagers are seen smoking. so, the influence of cigarettes can affect the
growth process, especially in vulnerable health which will later be seen an
impact in the age of 30 years and over, a sense of addiction to cigarettes can
not be easily removed so that if someone has been smoking then he is
difficult to stop the habit. in the age of adolescence and in the development
of increasingly advanced times a teenager should do more positive
activities, such as sports, social activities and extracurricular activities at
school without falling into free relations that lead to smoking behavior.

REFFERENCES
Ngu Ling Yee, Deni K.S., R.M Haryadi Karyono. 2015. Factors Related to
the Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Junior High School
Students in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java.

Fathin Faridah. 2015. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Perilaku Merokok


Remaja di SMK “X” Surakarta. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-
Journal) Volume 3, Nomor 3.

Wahyu Septiono, Wolf Meyrowitsch. 2014. Family Role towards Smoking


Behaviour among Children in Jakarta. Kesmas, Jurnal Kesehatan
Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 9, No. 1.

Yuyud Wahyudi. 2018. Survey Perilaku Merokok Pada Remaja SMA di


Malang. Jurnal Keperawatan Muhammadiyah 3 (1)

Alhapen Ruslin Chandra, Afifah, and Willson Gustiawan. 2014. The


Influence of Advertising towards Adolescence Smoking Behavior
in Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. International Conference
on Business, Sociology and Applied Sciences (ICBSAS'14)
March 26-27,

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Muzakkir. 2017. Trend of Smoking Behavior and the Social Impact on
Adolescents at Makassar in Indonesia. Int. J. Curr. Res. Biosci.
Plant Biol. 4(3), 33-40

Muthia Vaora, Febriana Sabrian, Yulia Irvani Dewi. 2014. Hubungan


Kebiasaan Merokok Remaja Dengan Gangguan Pola Tidur.
Jurnal Keperawatan Jiwa . Volume 2, No. 1; 58-6658

Ardiansyah Pandayu, Bhisma Murti, Pawito. 2017. Effect of Personal


Factors, Family Support, Pocket Money, and Peer Group, on
Smoking Behavior in Adolescents in Surakarta, Central Java.
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 2 (2): 98-111

KEMENKES(RI).2015.http://www.depkes.go.id/development/site/depkes/in
dex.php?cid=1-15112500015&id=inilah-4-bahaya-merokok-bagi-
kesehatan-tubuh.html. Di akses pada : Senin 16 September 2019
pukul 20:45 WITA)