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KAARTPASSEN

1. CHART FUNDAMENTALS

1.1 What’s a nautical chart?

Paper Charts Traditional nautical charts have been printed on paper. The Britsch Admiralty (UKHO) has over 3000 paper charts covering the world Navigating => to make positions plots on the chart at regular intervals, keeping the vessel on planned track.

ARCS (Admiralty Raster Chart Service) It is produced by digitally scanning a paper chart image. It may than be displayed in an electronic navigation system (ECDIS) where the vessel’s position, derived from electronic position fixing systems, can be shown. The image has the same standards of accuracy and reliability as a paper chart. WHEN USING ARCs => MARINER MUST STIL MAINTAIN PAPER CHARTS

ENCs (Electronic Navigation Charts) EncS are vector charts ( Are the ONLY vector charts that may be used for primary navigation in place of paper charts) ENCs are intelligent: system using them can be set up to give warning of impending danger ( in relation to the vessel’s position and movement) Mandatory carriage of ECDIS begins on 1st July 2012 for new buildings and passenger ships and will be phased in for existing ships from 1st July 2014 till 2018.

1.2 A little history of charts

The earliest maps can be found are clay-maps from the old Babylon (3,500 years ago)

Although established on land, the mariners equivalent, the nautical chart, did not evolve until the end of the thirteenth century. Mariners who plotted coastlines along constant compass bearings created them.

These kinds of charts are called portolan charts; a cartographic revolution named after portolani, the Italian type of sailing direction, which appeared after that the compass was introduced in western navigation at the end of the twelfth century.

Drawing a network of direction lines or ‘rhumbs’ created Portolan charts

In 1759 the British Admiralty became responsible for the Hydrographic Office of its imperial. => thus was the start of modern cartography

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1.3 Geographical Coordinates

The earth can be regarded as a spherical object

It is covered with imaginary lines calles meridians and parallels. All this lines together form a grid which enables us to describe any positions in longitude and latitude

All meridians and the equator form great circles. The remaining parallels form small circles

Prime meridian: 0° or the Greenwich meridian

Date line: The 180° meridian. ( when crossing time and date changes)

Geodesy = a branch of earth sciences that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth.

Geoid= an imaginary surface, which is everywhere perpendicular to the plumb line and on average coincides with the MSL => It will determine the vertical datum of a chart.

The geoid is used as reference surface for heights/depths

Ellipsoid= A horizontal datum is defined by the size and shape of an ellipsoid

It is important to realize that geodetic positions are defined and thus chart projections made respect to a horizontal datum. (also referred to as geodetic datum)

The ellipsoid is used as reference surface for locations

1.4 Chart Projections

1.4.1 Types of projections

Cylindrical Projections

Mercator projections

Oblique Mercator projections

Transverse Mercator projections

Rectangular projections

Conic projections

Simple conic projections

Lambert conformal projections

Polyconic projections

Azimuthal projections

Stereographic projections

Orthographic projections

Gnomonic projections

Azimuthal equidistant projections

Polar projections

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1.4.2 Cylindrical Projections

Mercator projections

If a cylinder is placed around the earth, tangent along the equator, and the planes of the meridians are extended, they intersect the cylinder in a number of vertical lines (See Fig.1). These lines of projection are equidistant from each other, unlike the terrestrial meridians from which they are derived which converge as the latitude increases.

On the earth, parallels of latitude are perpendicular to the meridians, forming circles of progressively smaller diameter as the latitude increases.

On the cylinder they are shown perpendicular to the projected meridians, but because a cylinder is everywhere of the same diameter, the projected parallels are all the same size.

diameter, the projected parallels are all the same size. But where the meridians converge on the

But where the meridians converge on the globe they run parallel in the projection (See chart below), indicating the distortion.

Look, for example, at a high parallel. The length of such a parallel on the globe is much smaller than the equator. Yet, on the chart they have exactly the same length creating a distortion, which gets bigger near to the poles.

a distortion , which gets bigger near to the poles. At the equator, a degree of

At the equator, a degree of longitude is approximately equal in length to a degree of latitude. As the distance from the equator increases, degrees of latitude remain approximately the same, while degrees of longitude become progressively shorter.

In order to have an orthomorphic chart, the distance between successive parallels must be increased by the same amount that the actual length of the parallel has been extended in keeping the meridians the same distance apart on the chart. The expansion is equal to the secant of the latitude, with a small correction for the ellipticity of the earth. Because the meridians on the chart are parallels, the departure

has been stretched on the chart following the formulae:

De . sec l = Dg

Disadvantages

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Sec 90° = infinity , the projections cannot include the poles

Great circle tracks appear as curved lines concave to the equator

Small areas appear in their correct shape but increased size unless they are near the equator

Advantages

The projection is conformal, expansion is the same in all directions and angles are correctly shown!

Directions can be measured directly on the chart

Distance can be measured directly using the vertical scale if the spread of latitude is small

Rhumb lines (= lines of constant heading) appear as straight lines

Transverse Mercator projections

Constructing a chart using mercator principles but with the cylinder tangent along a meridian

(also calles “Lambert’s third projection” and ‘Gauss projection’)

This projection is mainly used for topographic mapping:

representing a small area in an exact shape such as a harbour or anchorage area (large-scale charts).

such as a harbour or anchorage area (large-scale charts). These projections use a fictitious graticule similar

These projections use a fictitious graticule similar to, but

offset

from, the familiar network of meridians and parallels. The tangent great circle is the fictitious equator. Ninety degrees from it are two fictitious poles. A group of great circles through these poles and perpendicular to the tangent great circle are the fictitious meridians, while a series of circles parallel to the plane of the tangent great circle form the fictitious parallels (constant scale along central meridian).

The actual meridians and parallels appear as curved lines.

A straight line on this projection makes the same angle with all

fictitious meridians, but not with the terrestrial meridians.

Oblique Mercator projection

Mercator projection in which the cylinder is tangent along a great circle other than the equator or a meridian is called an oblique Mercator or oblique orthomorphic projection.This projection is used principally to depict an area in the near vicinity of an oblique great circle.

A

is used principally to depict an area in the near vicinity of an oblique great circle.

Rectangular projections

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A cylindrical projection similar to the Mercator, but with uniform spacing of parallel.

The principal navigational use of this projection is for the star chart of the Almanac, where coordinates representing declination and sidereal hour angle plot positions of stars.

1.4.3 Conic Projections

Transferring points from the surface of the earth to a cone or series of cones produce a conic projection. This cone is then cut along an element and spread out flat to form the chart.

Simple Conic Projections

= A conic projection using a single tangent cone

The distance along any meridian between consecutive parallels is in correct relation to the distance on the earth.

A circle represents the pole.

The scale is correct along any meridian and along the standard parallel (= no distortion).

All other parallels are too great in length, with the error increasing with increased distance from the standard parallel.

Thus, this projection is not conformal and not useful for navigation.

It is used for mapping an area covering a large spread of longitude and a narrow band of latitude.

Note: when the axis of the cone is oblique to the plane of the equator, we have an oblique conic projection.

plane of the equator, we have an oblique conic projection . Lambert Conformal Projection (1772) Using

Lambert Conformal Projection (1772)

Using a secant cone intersecting the earth at two standard parallels can increase the useful latitude range of the simple conic projection.

The area between the two standard parallels is compressed, and that beyond is expanded.

Such a projection is called a secant conic projection.

If in such projection the spacing of the parallels is altered, the projections becomes

conformal : each small shape is correctly shown so that all angles are correct about any

given point.

This modification produces the Lambert Conformal Projection

shown so that all angles are correct about any given point. This modification produces the Lambert

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Polyconic Projection

The latitude limitations of the secant conic projection can also be minimized by using a series of cones => poly(more than one)conic projection.

Each parallel is the base of a tangent cone

The scale is correct along any parallel and along the central meridian of the projection. along other meridians the scale increases from the central meridian.

When the number of cones increases to infinity, each strip infinitesimally narrow, the result is a continuous polyconic projection.

Parallels appear as non-concentric circles meridians appear as curved lines converging to the pole and concave to the central meridian.

This projection is the basis for continental maps (atlases). BUT: not conformal => not used in navigation

BUT: not conformal => not used in navigation 1.4.4 Azimuthal Projections If points on the earth

1.4.4 Azimuthal Projections

If points on the earth are projected directly to a plane surface, a map is formed at once.

These projections are called azimuthal/zenithal because all directions of any point of tangency are correctly represented.

The great circle path is shown as a straight line on the map

Gnomonic Projection

is shown as a straight line on the map Gnomonic Projection = A plane tangent to

= A plane tangent to the earth and points are projected geometrically from the centre of the earth (gnomonic or central projection)

In an oblique gnomonic projection the meridians appear asstraight lines converging toward the nearer pole.

The parallels, except the equator, appear as curves.

The distance scale, however, changes rapidly.

The projection is neither conformal nor equal area.

appear as curves. The distance scale, however, changes rapidly. The projection is neither conformal nor equal

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Stereographic Projections

It results from projecting points on the surface of the earth onto a tangent plane, from a point on the surface of the earth opposite the point of tangency.

on the surface of the earth opposite the point of tangency.  Not all the world

Not all the world can be shown

Also called azimuthal orthomorphic projection

Conformal

The scale increases with distance from the point of tangency (more slowly than gnomic)

Can show an entire hemisphere without excessive distortion

Used for charts of the polar region

Orthographic Projection

Terrestrial points are projected from infinity to an tangent plane

Not conformal

Doesn’t result in an equal area representation

Used in navigational astronomy, useful for illustrating and solving the navigational triangle, illustrating celestial bodies

If the plane is tangent at a point on the equator, it becomes an equational orthographic projections

Equator an parallels appear as straight lines

 Equator an parallels appear as straight lines 1.4.5 Polar Projections  Conformality: when the

1.4.5 Polar Projections

parallels appear as straight lines 1.4.5 Polar Projections  Conformality: when the projection represents angles

Conformality: when the projection represents angles correctly, the navigator can plot directly on the chart.

Great circle representation: they are more useful than rhumb lines at high latitudes, project GC as straight lines.

Scale variation: constant scale over the entire chart

Meridian representation: shows straight meridians to facilitate plotting

Limits: small area

meridians to facilitate plotting  Limits: small area The most useful projections for marine charts: Mercator

The most useful projections for marine charts:

Mercator charts Gnomonic Projections Polar Stereographic

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2 CHART INFORMATION

2.1 Chart scales

Scale of a chart= ratio of a given distance on the chart to the actual distance on the earth.

A chart covering a large area -> small-scale chart

A chart covering a small area -> large-scale chart

Chart Classification by scale

Small-scale charts are used for route planning and for offshore navigation. Large-scale charts are used as the vessel approaches land.

Sailing charts: smallest scale charts used for planning/fixing position at sea/plotting the dead reckoning while proceeding on a long voyage. Scale < 1:600,000

General charts: intended for coastwise navigation outside of outlying reefs and shoals. Scale 1:150,000 to 1:600,000

Coastal charts: intended for inshore coastwise navigation, for entering or leaving bays and for navigating large inland waterways. Scale 1:50,000 to 1:150,000

Harbor charts: intended for navigation and anchorage in harbors and small waterways Scale > 1:50,000

On small-scaled charts -> accurate within one minute/naut mile On larger scaled charts -> accurate within a tenth of a mile

2.2 Factors relating to accurarcy

Accurarcy of a chart depends upon the accurarcy of the hydrographic surveys used to compile it and the suitability of its scale for its intended use.

Based upon very old surveys => use with caution

The navigator should use the largest scale chart available for the area in which he is operating, especially when operating in the vicinity of hazards.

After receiving a chart => user is responsible for keeping it updated.

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2.3

Colours

Minimum 4 colours:

Black

Magenta

Gold

Grey

Blue

Green

Pale gold is used for land areas on a metric Mercator chart Darker gold often used to indicate more urban areas

On a fathom/feet chart the land area will be Grey

areas On a fathom/feet chart the land area will be Grey Black is used for most

Black is used for most symbols and printed information/ also used for all borders

Magenta is used for attracting attention:

• Routeing measures: traffic separation zones,

recommended courses…

• Safety zones

• Ice limits

• Compass roses

• Lights and light ranges To assist in the identification of a lighted buoy of any colour, a magenta disc appears over a portion of its symbol.

• Radio reporting points

• Caution notes

of its symbol. • Radio reporting points • Caution notes Blue is used for water areas

Blue is used for water areas

Water areas that are white are save!

Pale blue is used for shallow water. How darker the blue colour, how shallower the water!

Green is used for drying heights: areas that are submerged during some tidal and not submerged during others.

Green is used for drying heights: areas that are submerged during some tidal and not submerged

stages

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2.4 Shoreline

= the line of contact between land and water at a selected vertical datum.

In areas affected by tidal fluctuations => shoreline is usually the mean high-water line.

Symbolized by a heavy line

Broken line indicates charted position is approximate only

If the low water line differs considerably from the high water line => dotted line represent low water line

If bottom is composed => type of material will be indicated

Composed of coral or rock => appropriate symbol will be used

Area alternately covered and uncovered is shown in green

2.5 Soundings

Charts show soundings in several ways. Numbers denote individual soundings.

in several ways. Numbers denote individual soundings. The depths are indicated by a normal-sized sounding figure

The depths are indicated by a normal-sized sounding figure with a smaller figure below and to the right of it.

The marked depths, known traditionally as soundings, are reduced to the lowest mean low tides experienced in the area. Thus, it is safe to say that with only rare exceptions, the soundings on the chart indicate the least water over the sea bottom that will be experienced in a normal tidal cycle.

Or, to put it more practically, there will rarely be less water than that indicated by the soundings. Large block letters at the top and bottom of the chart indicate the unit of measurement used for soundings.

DEPTH IN FATHOMS indicates soundings are in fathoms or fathoms and fractions.

DEPTH IN FATHOMS AND FEET indicates the soundings are in fathoms and feet.

A similar convention is followed when the soundings are in meters

or meters and tenths. (DEPTH IN METERS)

Soundings are supplemented by depth contours => lines connecting points of equal depth

depth contours => lines connecting points of equal depth Solid line depth contours are derived from

Solid line depth contours are derived from intensively developed hydrographic surveys.

A broken or indefinite contour is substituted for a solid depth contour whenever the reliability of the

contour is questionable.

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All depths indicated on charts are reckoned from a selected level of the water => chart(-sounding) datum

Chart datum is always a level so low that the tide will not freq fall below it

On charts of BA this level is LAT (lowest astronomical tide)

charts of BA this level is LAT (lowest astronomical tide) Observed depth = charted depth +

Observed depth = charted depth + tide

Since the chart datum is generally a computed mean or average height at some state of the tide, the depth of water at any particular moment may be less than shown on the chart. For example, if the chart datum is mean lower low water, the depth of water at lower low water will be less than the charted depth about as often as it is greater.

A lower depth is indicated in the tide tables by a minus sign ().

2.6 Dredged channels

Side limits are indicated by broken lines

Project depth and the date of dredging are shown by a statement in or along the channel

In selection of soundings, least depths are shown first

2.7 Drying heights

soundings, least depths are shown first 2.7 Drying heights  Heights above chart datum (=low water)

Heights above chart datum (=low water) of features that are periodically covered and exposed by the rise and fall of the tide.

above chart datum (=low water) of features that are periodically covered and exposed by the rise

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2.8 Heights

Shoreline shown on charts is generally mean high water

Heights of lights and overhanging obstruction are usually reckoned from mean high water

A high-water reference gives the mariner the minimum vertical clearance expected. = height above the datum of the highest part of the underside of the span of a bridge or the lowest part of an overhead cable.

Therefore if the existing height of tide is below MHW, there will be greater clearance. If the existing height of tide is greater than MHW, there will be less clearance.

of tide is greater than MHW, there will be less clearance. Since heights are usually reckoned

Since heights are usually reckoned from high water and depths from some form of low water, the reference levels are seldom the same. The reference levels are always mentioned on the chart and should therefore always be checked!

2.9 Title Block

Schould bet he first thing a navigator looks at when reading a chart

Underneath the title you wil find:

o

The title itself tells what area the chart covers

o

The limits/boundaries of the area

o

The Authority: publisher responsible for the information in the chart

o

Chart’s scale

o

Projection used

o

Chart (sounding) datum

o

Reference for heights

o

Horizontal (geodetic) datum

o Reference for heights o Horizontal (geodetic) datum o Source notes or other diagrams will list

o

Source notes or other diagrams will list the date of surveys

o

Other relevant information

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2.10 Information on the chart

International chart number

Title

Scale

Type of projection

The compass rose

Date of publication

New edition: same area, same Nr., but important corrections are made (previous edition is cancelled)

New Chart: new area or metric/fathoms conversion (previous edition is cancelled)

Reimpression: chart out of stock, reimpression with only small corrections made (previous edition is still valid).

Dimension of the chart

Method & date of impression

e.g. Z 8 02 => Z = zinc, 8th month of the year 2002

C = copper

A = aluminium

Corrections of the chart

Weekly

News sheet: Notices to Mariners

Small corrections: done o/b in ink e.g. 2011 - 103 - 1224 - 3454 - 2012 - 54 - 457

Year

Nr. Corr.

Temporary & Preliminary corrections: underneath the small corrections, done o/b in pencil e.g. 2012 - 345(T) - 1260(P) 2376

2.11 Chart symbols

SEE NP 5011: Symbols & Abbreviations used on Admiralty Charts

Geographical Positions

• Tides & Currents

• Depths & Depth Contours

• Intertidal Areas

• Rocks, Wrecks & Obstructions

• Submarine Cables

• Routeing Measures

• Radio Reporting

• Areas & Limits

• Pilotage

• International Abbreviations (see annex page 120)

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3 PLOTTING AND PILOTING

3.1 Introduction

Coordinates and positions

Use nautical dividers twice to get longitude and latitude

Distance

Use nautical dividers

Use only vertical scale!

Take a distance -> walking with deviders -> small part left

Are measured in naut miles= 1’ on the vertical scale = 1852 metres

Tracks, courses and bearings from graduated parallel rules

Tracks, courses and bearings from graduated parallel rules  Track from A to B -> need

Track from A to B -> need parallel rules

Line between A/B = track or course (Rv)

Move parallel rules to the true compass rose

Bearings (↗v) can be drawn by the same method

3.2 Dead Reckoning

( ↗v) can be drawn by the same method 3.2 Dead Reckoning  Technique to determine

Technique to determine a ship’s approximate position by applying to the last established charted position a vector (or series) representing true courses and speed.

Crucial! It can provide us an approximate position in the future

DR position will be plotted:

o

Every hour on the hour

o

At the time of every course change or speed change

o

For the time at which a fix is obtained, also a new course line will be plotted

o

For the time at which a single LOP is obtained

o

Never draw a new course line from an estimated position!

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3.3 Lines of Position (LOP)

A line drawn on a chart somewhere on which the vessel is situated.

They may be obtained in a variety of ways and may be straight lines (bearings) or curved lines (distances)

Any bearing that can be plotted is necessarily a position line since the observer must be situated somewhere along the bearing.

the observer must be situated somewhere along the bearing . A precise way to obtain a

A precise way to obtain a LOP (and without a compass) is to locate two navigational aids in line. The image above shows us four examples of LOP’s, each consisting of two navigational aids.

One of the four consists of two lights that are intentionally placed to provide a LOP. These pairs of lights are called Range lights or Leading lights.

3.4 The Postion Fix

Fix= ship’s position on the earth at some given point in time

To construct our position we need minimum two of these lines

Fixed objects are preferred over floating objects

A fic may be obtained from:

o

Cross bearings

o

Bearing and angle

o

Bearing and distance

o

Two or more ranges

o

Horizontal angles

o

Astronomical observation

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Example: position by cross bearings

16 Norio Pétré Example: position by cross bearings  A&B are two fixed objects ashore 

A&B are two fixed objects ashore

DA & EB are the respective bearings (observer)

Point C will be the TRUE POSITION

Note that:

o

More distance between A&B enhances accuracy

o

Perfect angle is 90°

o

Less distance between the vessel and the closest navigational aid also enhances accurarcy

o

If the LOP’s do not intersect at one point

A triangle occurs ‘cocked hat’

There is than at least one mistake (bearing)!

If the cocked hat is small, the ship’s position is taken as the centre

There is than at least one mistake (bearing)! If the cocked hat is small, the ship’s

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3.5 Chart Principles

In still water a vessel will make good the course she is steering

When there is wind/current a force will push the vessel. Thus the track made good (Rv) may differ from the course steered (Cv)

is wind/current a force will push the vessel. Thus the track made good (Rv) may differ
is wind/current a force will push the vessel. Thus the track made good (Rv) may differ
is wind/current a force will push the vessel. Thus the track made good (Rv) may differ
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3.6 Running Fix (Transfer of a Position Line)

Under some circumstances (low visability), only one position line can be obtained. In this event, a line of position obtained at an earlier time may be advanced to the time of the later LOP. These two LOP's should not be parallel to each other, remember that the optimal angular spread is 90°.

later LOP. These two LOP's should not be parallel to each other, remember that the optimal

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3.7 The Estimated Position

Sometimes possible to obtain more than one LOP To determine the ship’s position using only one navigation aid, we can use a running fix However if a running fix is not possible, we can determine an estimated position

fix is not possible, we can determine an estimated position  An estimated position is based

An estimated position is based upon whatever incomplete navigational information is

available, such as a single LOP…

This is done by drawing a line from the DR at the time of the LOP perpendicular to the LOP

Do NOT rely on an EP as much as a fix!

the scale of reliability (best -> worst)

o

Fix

o

Running Fix

o

EP

o

DR position

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3.8 Relative Bearing

A bearing expressed as an angular distance from the heading

Interconversion of relative and true bearings is accomplished by means of heading

and true bearings is accomplished by means of heading 3.9 Danger Bearing  Important tool to

3.9 Danger Bearing

Important tool to keep the ship out of trouble

First, the navigator identifies the limits of safe water and determines a bearing that is marked as “No More Than” (NMT) or “No Less Than” (NLT)

When a distance instead of a direction is used a danger range is plotted much the same way as the danger bearing.

 When a distance instead of a direction is used a danger range is plotted much

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3.10 Turn Bearing

Is constructed in the chart in advance

Used as a means of anticipation for sailing out of safe waters TB

As you pass the object its bearing will slowly change. When it reaches the Turn bearing turn the vessel on her new course. This type of bearing is also used for selecting an anchorage position.

3.11 Double Angle Fix

Method of obtaining a running fix by measuring the distance a vessel travels on a steady course while the relative bearing of a fixed object doubles.

Distance from the object at the time of the second bearing = the run between bearings, neglecting drift.

second bearing = the run between bearings, neglecting drift. 3.12 Four- Point Fix  If the

3.12 Four- Point Fix

If the first angle on the bow is 45° (45° = 4 points on the compass)

neglecting drift. 3.12 Four- Point Fix  If the first angle on the bow is 45°
neglecting drift. 3.12 Four- Point Fix  If the first angle on the bow is 45°

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3.13 Special Angle Fix

A construction using special pairs of relative angles that give the distance travelled between two bearings as equal to the navigation aids’ range abeam

Know the distance a vessel will pass abeam of an object before it is bearing abeam.

navigation aids’ range abeam  Know the distance a vessel will pass abeam of an object
navigation aids’ range abeam  Know the distance a vessel will pass abeam of an object

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4 NP 131 CATALOGUE OF ADMIRALTY CHARTS AND PUBLICATIONS

4.1 The Paper Catalogue

The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) had built up a global reputation for providing safe and accurate marine navigational information across the world

Why?

 

o

Global coverage

o

Information

o

Language

o

Organization

o

Uniformity

o

Supply

Full range of charts and publications by HO is listed in “the catalogue of admiralty charts and publications”

Updated/published annually

UKHO also developing digital charts

4.1.1 Part 1: General Information

Arrangement of Catalogue

Products and services

List of Admiralty Authorized Chart Agents (locations, contact & products)

ENC Software Suppliers

Index Chart for the world

Admiralty collection

International Admiralty Chart Agents IACAs

o

Maintain a comprehensive and worldwide stock of Admiralty charts and publications

o

Provide a range of services based on Admiralty series of products

Immediate supply of both digital and paper Admiralty products from an extensive stock

Assurance that your ship has all the correction

Ensuring all charts are fully corrected at time of dispatch to you

Supplying correction-tracing sets each week

Assurance that you are aware of the latest Admiralty products

Supplying weekly lists of appropriate corrections specific to those Admiralty products held on board.

Control and inspection routines for ships owners and operators

Admiralty Chart Agents/Distributors hold in stock a broad range of digital and/or paper products. All are corrected for the latest NTM

Admiralty Retailers: stock a small selection of local charts (uncorrected) and have a full range of

Admiralty Leisure products appropriate to their area

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4.1.2 Part 2: Digital products

Admiralty e-Navigator

AVCS- Service

ARCS- Service

ECDIS-Service

Digital Catalogue

Digital Publications: DLL, ALRS vol 6 & Total Tide

4.1.3 Part 3: Nautical Charts, paper & digital

World is divided into zones A-W, each zone contains chart numbers for the area concerned

A-W, each zone contains chart numbers for the area concerned  Means that a chart also

Means that a chart also exists in digital version (ARCs)

o

General charts of oceans

o

Planning charts

o

Admiralty chart Folios

4.1.4 Part 4: Thematic Charts

Routeing charts (Pilot Charts)

Essential for use in Passage Planning and ocean voyages

Include routes and distances between major ports, ocean currents, ice limits, load lines and wind roses, with expected meteorological and oceanographic conditions for each month of the year.

Five Routeing Charts cover the oceans of the world; North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Time Zone Chart  Any mariner could

Time Zone Chart

Any mariner could relate their local time to GMT

Planning Charts

Ideal as planning tools and can also be used for educational, travel and decorative purposes.

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Load Line Regulations Chart

Cover the draught to which vessels subject to SOLAS regulations may be loaded in designated

zones across the world.

may be loaded in designated zones across the world. Astronomical Charts  Used for traditional navigation

Astronomical Charts

Used for traditional navigation

Facilitate the accurate plotting of a ship’s position from Astronimical observations

Gnomonic Charts

Used in Passage Planning to plot great circle routes as a straight line

Useful for devising composite rhumb line courses

15 charts over the world at scales 1:13,500,000 and 1:26,500,000

Magnetic Variation Charts

Show the variation of Magnetic fields

This series provides more detailed coverage on a worldwide level

Meteorological Charts and Diagrams

Form a series of 27 Meteorological working charts

Used to plot weather information

Bathymetric Charts

Bathymetric = science of the measurement of marine depths

Show Ocean Floor data

Instructional Charts

depths  Show Ocean Floor data Instructional Charts  Collection of navigational charts selected for training

Collection of navigational charts selected for training school use

NEVER be used for navigation!

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Ships’ Boats’ Charts

The oceans of the world are covered by a set of 6 small-plasticized charts for use in lifeboats.

Each chart shows the coastline, the approximate strengths of and directions of prevailing winds and currents, limits of ice and isogonic lines. On the reverse of each are directions for the use of the chart and general remarks on lifeboats and weather.

Plotting Sheets

Radar Plotting Diagram

Ocean Plotting Sheets: 6 Mercator graduated sheets with compass roses printed on and 2 Polar Regions on a stereographic projection

Climatic Charts

Show average conditions for elements such as pressure, winds, currents, temperature, ice, fog and rainfall

4.1.5 Part 5: Nautical Publications, paper

Tidal Publications

Sailing Directions

ALL & FS: Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals

ALRS: Admiralty List of Radio Signals

4.1.6 Part 6: Admiralty Notices to Mariners and Update Services

Leisure Products

These are Standard Admiralty Charts adopted for the benefit of leisure Craft Users

The Folios contain charts covering popular sailing areas

Each Folio includes useful symbols, abbreviations, local marine & tidal information such as harbours, anchorages water depths, aids to navigation

Designed for use on smaller chart tables

Reprinted annually

4.1.7 Part 7: Countries with established Hydrographical Offices

4.1.8 Part 8: Index of Advertisers

4.1.9 Part 9: Numeric Index & Price List

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4.2 The Admiralty Digital Catalogue

Provides a comprehensive and up to date reference in graphical and textual form of the range of Admiralty products and services. Including:

o

Standard Navigational Charts and Publications

o

AVCS

o

ARCS

o

Admiralty ECDIS Services

Features comprehensive search functionality by product type, scale or user defined route with weekly updates available online to keep you fully up to date.

Simplifies the Passage Planning process by displaying all the charts and publications relevant to the intended voyage.

Allows T&P (temporary) Notice to Mariners to be displayed geographically and viewed, saved and printed

5 TIDES AND CURRENTS

5.1 Origin of the Tides

Tide= vertical rise and fall of the sea lever surface caused primarily by the change in gravitational attraction of the moon, and to lesser extent the sun, and centrifugal effect

The moon exerts twice the gravitational attraction force as the Sun because the Moon is closer

Equilibrium Theory of Tides (Newton)

exerts twice the gravitational attraction force as the Sun because the Moon is closer Equilibrium Theory
exerts twice the gravitational attraction force as the Sun because the Moon is closer Equilibrium Theory

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30 Norio Pétré  Sun produces own tide wave  When Moon between Sun and earth

Sun produces own tide wave

When Moon between Sun and earth ( new/full moon) the two gravitational forces work together to make high high tides and low low tides -> SPRING TIDE

Moon in 1 st /last quarter, the Sun’s gravitational pull is in perpendicular direction to that of the Moon resulting in lower high tides a nd higher lox tides -> NEAP TIDE

in lower high tides a nd higher lox tides -> NEAP TIDE  Moon and/or Sun

Moon and/or Sun not in equatorial plane

The moon does not rotate around the earths equator, but follows an orbit that is inclined in relation to the earths axis -> 3 types of tides

o

o

o

to the earth ’ s axis -> 3 types of tides o o o Semi-diurnal tide:

Semi-diurnal tide: two highs/lows each day, with minimal variation in the height of successive high or low waters -> more likely to occur when moon is over equator

Diurnal tide: single high/low during each tidal day -> occur in certain areas when the moon is at its furthest from the equator

Mixed tide: wide variations in heights of successive high and low waters, and by longer tidal cycles than semi-diurnal -> occur as the moon furthest north/south of the equator

and low waters, and by longer tidal cycles than semi-diurnal -> occur as the moon furthest

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5.2 Chart Datums

A plane of reference for depths and heights in the chart

Depths are usually described to low water reference planes Chance that the observed depth is smaller than the charted depth is rather small

Heights are shown to high water reference planes Chance that vertical clearance beneath a bridge is smaller than the height is rather small

MOST important level of reference is the sounding datum shown on charts

is smaller than the height is rather small  MOST important level of reference is the
is smaller than the height is rather small  MOST important level of reference is the
is smaller than the height is rather small  MOST important level of reference is the

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Mean low water (MLW) = average height of all low waters at a given place

Mean low water springs (MLWS)= average level of the low waters that occur at the times of spring tides

Mean lower low water (MLLW)= average height of the lower low water of each tidal day

Mean lower low water springs (MLLWS)= average level of the lower of the two low waters on the days of spring tides

Mean sea level (MSL)= used as chart datum in some areas where there is little or no tide

Mean high water (MHW)= average height of all high waters over a 19-year period

Mean high water springs (MHWS)= average level of the high waters that occur at the time of spring tides

Mean higher high water (MHHW)= average height of the higher high waters of each tidal day

5.3 Tides and Tidal Prediction

5.3.1 Information from the chart

Tides and Tidal Prediction 5.3.1 Information from the chart  Tide tables called chart diamond. 

Tide tables called chart diamond.

Use this table to find height tide at a particular place/time

To interpolate between h/l water heights -> Rule of Twelve

interpolate between h/l water heights -> Rule of Twelve  To interpolate between spring/neap tides ->

To interpolate between spring/neap tides -> Rule of Seven

Daily change in range = (Spring range neap range)/7

EX in Sylabus

5.3.2 Information from Admiralty Tide Tables (ATT)

A Tide Table provides us each day with the times of h/l water for a part. Place

Part 1 of these tables gives us daily predictions of the times and heights of high and low water at selected numbers of standard ports

Part 2 gives data for prediction (secondary ports)

Heights in METER/ Time in STANDARD TIME kept at the place

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5.3.3 Information from Tidal Curves

33 Norio Pétré 5.3.3 Information from Tidal Curves  Tides can be characterized by a tidal

Tides can be characterized by a tidal curve

Substitutes the rule of 12

Left side -> water heights/ chart datum

Bottom -> low water height

Top -> high water height

area under the curve will be marked with the time information

find the water height at a specific time we need to know first how many hours before or after the HW this is.

to know first how many hours before or after the HW this is. 5.4 Tidal Stream

5.4 Tidal Stream versus Current

5.4.1 Tidal Streams

Are related to the tide

Tide -> vertical movement Tidal stream -> horizontal motion

Set or direction is given true

Rate (force) always given in knots

Flood stream is the flow of water toward the land (high tide)

Ebb stream is the flow of water away from the land (low tide)

Tidal stream is changing direction -> slack water = a period of negligible horizontal movement

Tidal Atlases

Show the tidal currents for each hour of the tidal cycle

13 tidal charts, 6 hours before/after HW

Direction is shown by arrows , heavier = stronger arrow

Example : a mean neap rate of 2.1 kn and a mean spring rate of 4.6 kn

a mean neap rate of 2.1 kn and a mean spring rate of 4.6 kn 

On certain charts ARROWS are used to give tidal informations

neap rate of 2.1 kn and a mean spring rate of 4.6 kn  On certain

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5.4.2

Currents

Horizontal movement is primarily caused by friction between the wind and surface of the water -> drift current

Other factors:

o

Coriolis force

o

Difference in water temperatures

o

Difference in salinity caused by rain

o

Difference in specific gravity

Pressure gradients in the water -> generate gradient current

When drift current meets obstruction -> stream current formed

Sailing Directions or Pilot books -> reference predicting dir/speed currents

Syntax -> horizontal movement of water defined by:

o

Tidal stream (gravitational)

o

Stream current (wind, rivers)

5.5 Co-tidal/Co-range Charts

Stream current (wind, rivers) 5.5 Co-tidal/Co-range Charts  Movement of tides across ocean basins is deflected

Movement of tides across ocean basins is deflected by Coriolis

A rotary wave is part of an amphidromic system in which the wave progresses about a node (no amplitude) with the antinode (max amplitude) rotating about the basins edges

Co-tidal chart is a chart combining co-ranges lines with co-tidal lines:

o

o

o

o

Co-tidal lines connect points on the rotary wave

Co-range circles are lines connecting points which experience the same tidal range

Amphidromic systems rotate CW in S and CCW in N

Irregular coastlines distort the rotary motion

and CCW in N Irregular coastlines distort the rotary motion  Co-tidal lines radiate from an

Co-tidal lines radiate from an amphidromic point and co-range lines encircle it

coastlines distort the rotary motion  Co-tidal lines radiate from an amphidromic point and co-range lines