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DESIGN WIND PRESSURE

(Standard Method)
Reference : BS 6399 - 2; 1997, BS 8118 - 1; 1991, ASTM E - 1300 - 04

Material Properties
A.) Glass
Eg = 72,000 MPa modulus of elasticity
Gg = 30,000 MPa shear modulus
ν = 0.22 poisson's ratio
αg = 0.0000083 per oC coefficient of thermal expansion
γg = 2,500 kg/m3 density

B.) Aluminum Mullion and Transom (6063 - T6), Bracket (6061 - T6)
Po = 160 MPa limiting stress for bending and overall yielding
Pa = 175 MPa limiting stress for local capacity (tension and compression)
Pv = 95 MPa limiting stress for shear
γa = 2,710 kg/m3 density
Ea = 70,000 MPa modulus of elasticity
Ga = 26,600 MPa modulus of rigidity
αa = 0.0000023 per oC coefficient of thermal expansion
γm = 1.2 kg/m3 material factors (bolted connection)
Po = 160 MPa limiting stress for bending and overall yielding
Pa = 175 MPa limiting stress for local capacity (tension and compression)
Pv = 95 MPa limiting stress for shear

Dynamic Wind Pressure


qs = 0.613 Ve2
qs = 6,505.54 N/m2 dynamic pressure of standard method

Vb = 50.00 m/s basic wind speed

Ve = Vs Sb
Ve = 103.02 m/s effective wind speed
Vs = 50.15 m/s site wind speed
Sb = 2.054 terrain and building factor

Altitiude factor and roughness categories


* topography is not considered
Sa = 1 + 0.001 Δs
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is not considered
Δs = 2.9443 m site altitude; above mean sea level
* topography is considered
case 1
Sa = 1 + 0.001 Δs
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is not considered
Δs = - m site altitude; above mean sea level
case 2
Sa = 1 + 0.001 ΔT + 1.2 Ψe
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is considered
ΔT = - altitude of the upwind base of significant topography
Ψe = - effective slope of the topographic feature
s = - topographic location factor

Sa = 1.00 (whichever is greater between 2 condition)

Sd = 1.00 direction factor


Ss = 1.00 seasonal factor
Sp = 1.00 probability factor
Δs = 2.9443 m site altitude; above mean sea level

Building Parameter
W = 61.85 m building width
L = 68.75 m building length; breadth
H = 147.35 m building height
Xo = 34.47 m separation distance between building
Hr = 147.35 m reference height; maximum height of building
above ground level
b 43.80 m scaling length (b = B or b = 2H) whichever is smaller
B = 43.80 m building breadth
2H = 294.70 m height of the wall, including any parapet or gable
Bldg. Exposure : -
Ho = 145.00 m obstruction height
* displacement height conditions
a.) Hd = 0.8 Ho for Xo ≤ 2 Ho
Xo ≤ 2 Ho
2 Ho = 290.00 m
Xo = 34.47 m < 290.00 m satisfy
Hd = 116.00 m

b.) Hd = 1.2 Ho - 0.2 Ho for 2 Ho < Xo < 6 Ho


2 Ho < Xo < 6 Ho
Xo = 34.47 m
2 Ho = 290.00 m
6 Ho = 870.00 m
2 Ho = 290.00 m > 34.47 m not satisfy
Xo = 34.47 m < 870.00 m satisfy
2 Ho > Xo not satisfy
Hd = - m

c.) Hd = 0 for Xo ≥ 6 Ho
6 Ho < Xo
Xo = 34.47 m
6 Ho = 870.00 m
6 Ho > Xo not satisfy
Hd = - m displacement height

Hd = 116.00 m "GOVERNS"
* effective height conditions
a.) He = Hr - Hd
He = 31.35 m
b.) He = 0.4 Hr
Hr = 147.35 m reference height; maximum height of building
above ground level
He = 58.94 m

He = 58.94 m (whichever is greater)

D = 43.80 m inward building depth


D/H = 0.30 span ratio

Wind Load
External Surface Pressures
Pe = ± qs Cpe Ca
Cpe (windward) = 0.85 (front)
Cpe (leeward) = -0.50 (rear)

(positive value); windward


Pe = 5,218.01 N/m2 external pressure
Cpe = 0.85 external pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures
External Surface Pressures
(negative value); leeward
Pe = (3,069.42) N/m2 external pressure
Cpe = (0.50) external pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures
Internal Surface Pressures
Pi = ± qs Cpi Ca
(positive value)
Pi = 1,227.77 N/m2 internal pressure
Cpi = 0.20 internal pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures
Internal Surface Pressures
(negative value)
Pi = (1,841.65) N/m2 internal pressure
Cpi = (0.30) internal pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures

Net Surface Pressures


a.) enclosed building
p = Pe - P i
p(+) = 3,990.24 N/m2 net surface pressure (positive value)
p(-) = (1,227.77) N/m2 net surface pressure (negative value)
P = 3,990.24 N/m 2
governing net surface pressure (whichever is higher)
b.) free-standing canopies and building elements
p = ± qs Cp Ca
Cp = - net surface pressure for the canopy surface or element
Ca = - size effect factor for external pressures
p = - N/m2 governing net surface pressure (whichever is higher)

Surface Loads
P = pA N
p = N/m2 net pressure across the surface
A = m 2
loaded area
P = - N

Overall Loads
P = 0.85 (Σfront - Σrear) (1 + Cr)
Σfront = - N horizontal component of surface load summed over the
windward walls and roofs
Σrear = - N horizontal component of surface load summed over the
leeward walls and roofs
Cr = dynamic augmentation factor
P = - N
ND PRESSURE
d Method)

(ASTM E - 1300 - 04)

(BS 8118 - 1; 1991)


erall yielding (Section 4.3, 6063 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
ension and compression) (Section 4.3, 6063 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
(Section 4.3, 6063 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
(Section 2.3, Table 2.5; page 22)

(Section 3.3, Table 3.3; page 31)


erall yielding (Section 4.3, 6061 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
ension and compression) (Section 4.3, 6061 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
(Section 4.3, 6061 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)

(BS 6399 - 2; 1997)


(Section 2.1.2, cl. 2.1.2.1, eq.1, page 13 and Table 2; page 14)

(Section 2.2.3, eq. 12; page 27)

(Section 2.2.2)
(Section 2.2.2, Table 4; page 27 and 28)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2, eq.10 ; page 20)


(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2, eq. 10 ; page 21)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2, eq. 11 ; page 21)

nificant topography

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.3, Table 3; page 27)


(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.4; page 27)
(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.5; page 27)

(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)


t of building (Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.1; page 9)

ichever is smaller

arapet or gable

(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)


(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)
(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.2; page 9)

t of building

(Section 2.1; eq. 2, page 13)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)
(Section 2.1; eq. 3, page 13)

e building surface (Section 2.6; page 53 , Table 16; page 54)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

(Section 2.1; eq. 4, page 14)

whichever is higher)

(Section 2.1; eq. 4, page 14)


y surface or element (Section 2.5.9 and 2.7; page 14)
(Section 2.1; eq. 4, page 14)
whichever is higher)

(Section 2.1.3.5; eq. 6, page 14)

(Section 2.1.3.6; eq.7 , page 14)


oad summed over the

oad summed over the

(Section 1.6.1, page 9, fig. 3 page 10)


DESIGN WIND PRESSURE
(Main Wind Force Resisting System ; MWF
Reference : ASCE 7 - 10 Directional Procedure (Buildings of all Height)

Input Data
Wind direction = normal or parallel to building ridge
V = mph wind speed

Kd = directionality factor
Exposure Category =
Kzt = topographic factor

Ve = Vs Sb
Ve = - m/s effective wind speed
Vs = - m/s site wind speed
Sb = 2.054 terrain and building factor

Altitiude factor and roughness categories


* topography is not considered
Sa = 1 + 0.001 Δs
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is not considered
Δs = 2.9443 m site altitude; above mean sea level
* topography is considered
case 1
Sa = 1 + 0.001 Δs
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is not considered
Δs = - m site altitude; above mean sea level
case 2
Sa = 1 + 0.001 ΔT + 1.2 Ψe
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is considered
ΔT = - altitude of the upwind base of significant topography
Ψe = - effective slope of the topographic feature
s = - topographic location factor

Sa = 1.00 (whichever is greater between 2 condition)

Sd = 1.00 direction factor


Ss = 1.00 seasonal factor
Sp = 1.00 probability factor
Δs = 2.9443 m site altitude; above mean sea level

Building Parameter
W = 61.85 m building width
L = 68.75 m building length; breadth
H = 147.35 m building height
Xo = 34.47 m separation distance between building
Hr = 147.35 m reference height; maximum height of building
above ground level
b 43.80 m scaling length (b = B or b = 2H) whichever is smaller
B = 43.80 m building breadth
2H = 294.70 m height of the wall, including any parapet or gable
Bldg. Exposure : -
Ho = 145.00 m obstruction height
* displacement height conditions
a.) Hd = 0.8 Ho for Xo ≤ 2 Ho
Xo ≤ 2 Ho
2 Ho = 290.00 m
Xo = 34.47 m < 290.00 m satisfy
Hd = 116.00 m

b.) Hd = 1.2 Ho - 0.2 Ho for 2 Ho < Xo < 6 Ho


2 Ho < Xo < 6 Ho
Xo = 34.47 m
2 Ho = 290.00 m
6 Ho = 870.00 m
2 Ho = 290.00 m > 34.47 m not satisfy
Xo = 34.47 m < 870.00 m satisfy
2 Ho > Xo not satisfy
Hd = - m

c.) Hd = 0 for Xo ≥ 6 Ho
6 Ho < Xo
Xo = 34.47 m
6 Ho = 870.00 m
6 Ho > Xo not satisfy
Hd = - m displacement height

Hd = 116.00 m "GOVERNS"

* effective height conditions


a.) He = Hr - Hd
He = 31.35 m
b.) He = 0.4 Hr
Hr = 147.35 m reference height; maximum height of building
above ground level
He = 58.94 m

He = 58.94 m (whichever is greater)

D = 43.80 m inward building depth


D/H = 0.30 span ratio
Wind Load
External Surface Pressures
Pe = ± qs Cpe Ca
Cpe (windward) = 0.85 (front)
Cpe (leeward) = -0.50 (rear)

(positive value); windward


Pe = - N/m2 external pressure
Cpe = 0.85 external pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures
External Surface Pressures
(negative value); leeward
Pe = - N/m2 external pressure
Cpe = (0.50) external pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures

Internal Surface Pressures


Pi = ± qs Cpi Ca
(positive value)
Pi = - N/m2 internal pressure
Cpi = 0.20 internal pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures
Internal Surface Pressures
(negative value)
Pi = - N/m2 internal pressure
Cpi = (0.30) internal pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = 0.94 size effect factor for external pressures

Net Surface Pressures


a.) enclosed building
p = Pe - P i
p(+) = - N/m2 net surface pressure (positive value)
p(-) = - N/m2 net surface pressure (negative value)
P = - N/m2 governing net surface pressure (whichever is higher)
b.) free-standing canopies and building elements
p = ± qs Cp Ca
Cp = - net surface pressure for the canopy surface or element
Ca = - size effect factor for external pressures
p = - N/m 2
governing net surface pressure (whichever is higher)

Surface Loads
P = pA N
p = N/m2 net pressure across the surface
A = m2 loaded area
P = - N

Overall Loads
P = 0.85 (Σfront - Σrear) (1 + Cr)
Σfront = - N horizontal component of surface load summed over the
windward walls and roofs
Σrear = - N horizontal component of surface load summed over the
leeward walls and roofs
Cr = dynamic augmentation factor
P = - N
D PRESSURE
sting System ; MWFRS)

ASCE 7 - 10

(Section 26.5.1; page 256, figure 26.5.1A, B and C; pages 247a-


249b)
(Section 26.6; page 246, Table 26.6-1; page 250)
(Section 26.7; page 246 & 251)

(Section 2.2.3, eq. 12; page 27)

(Section 2.2.2)
(Section 2.2.2, Table 4; page 27 and 28)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2, eq.10 ; page 20)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2, eq. 10 ; page 21)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2, eq. 11 ; page 21)

nificant topography

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.3, Table 3; page 27)


(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.4; page 27)
(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.5; page 27)
(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)
t of building (Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.1; page 9)

ichever is smaller

arapet or gable

(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)


(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)

(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.2; page 9)

t of building
(Section 2.1; eq. 2, page 13)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

(Section 2.1; eq. 3, page 13)

e building surface (Section 2.6; page 53 , Table 16; page 54)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

(Section 2.1; eq. 4, page 14)

whichever is higher)

(Section 2.1; eq. 4, page 14)


y surface or element (Section 2.5.9 and 2.7; page 14)
(Section 2.1; eq. 4, page 14)
whichever is higher)

(Section 2.1.3.5; eq. 6, page 14)


(Section 2.1.3.6; eq.7 , page 14)
oad summed over the

oad summed over the

(Section 1.6.1, page 9, fig. 3 page 10)


(Sb) Terrain and Building factor
Site in country or up to 2 km into town
EFFECTIVE HEIGHT CLOSEST DISTANCE TO SEA UPWIND
He km
m ≤ 0.1 2 10 ≥ 100
≤2 1.48 1.40 1.35 1.26
3 1.54 1.47 1.42 1.32
4 1.59 1.55 1.50 1.39
5 1.65 1.62 1.57 1.45
6 1.68 1.65 1.60 1.48
7 1.70 1.68 1.63 1.52
8 1.73 1.72 1.67 1.55
9 1.75 1.75 1.70 1.59
10 1.78 1.78 1.73 1.62
11 1.79 1.79 1.75 1.64
12 1.81 1.81 1.77 1.66
13 1.82 1.82 1.78 1.67
14 1.84 1.84 1.80 1.69
15 1.85 1.85 1.82 1.71
16 1.85 1.85 1.83 1.72
17 1.87 1.87 1.85 1.73
18 1.88 1.88 1.86 1.75
19 1.89 1.89 1.88 1.76
20 1.90 1.90 1.89 1.77
21 1.91 1.91 1.90 1.78
22 1.91 1.91 1.90 1.79
23 1.92 1.92 1.91 1.79
24 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.80
25 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.81
26 1.94 1.94 1.93 1.82
27 1.94 1.94 1.94 1.83
28 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.83
29 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.84
30 1.96 1.96 1.96 1.85
31 1.96 1.96 1.96 1.86
32 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.86
33 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.87
34 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.87
35 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.88
36 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.88
37 1.99 1.99 1.99 1.89
38 1.99 1.99 1.99 1.89
39 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.90
40 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.90
41 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.91
42 2.01 2.01 2.01 1.91
43 2.01 2.01 2.01 1.92
44 2.02 2.02 2.02 1.92
45 2.02 2.02 2.02 1.93
46 2.02 2.02 2.02 1.93
47 2.03 2.03 2.03 1.94
48 2.03 2.03 2.03 1.94
49 2.04 2.04 2.04 1.95
50 2.04 2.04 2.04 1.95
51 2.04 2.04 2.04 1.95
52 2.04 2.04 2.04 1.96
53 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.96
54 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.96
55 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.96
56 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.96
57 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.97
58 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.97
59 2.05 2.05 2.05 1.97
60 2.06 2.06 2.06 1.97
61 2.06 2.06 2.06 1.98
62 2.06 2.06 2.06 1.98
63 2.06 2.06 2.06 1.98
64 2.06 2.06 2.06 1.98
65 2.06 2.06 2.06 1.99
66 2.07 2.07 2.07 1.99
67 2.07 2.07 2.07 1.99
68 2.07 2.07 2.07 1.99
69 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.00
70 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.00
71 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.00
72 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.00
73 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.01
74 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.01
75 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.01
76 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.01
77 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.02
78 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.02
79 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.02
80 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.02
81 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.02
82 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.03
83 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.03
84 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.03
85 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.03
86 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.04
87 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.04
88 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.04
89 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.04
90 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.05
91 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.05
92 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.05
93 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.05
94 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.06
95 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.06
96 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.06
97 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.06
98 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.07
99 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.07
100 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.07
Site in country or up to 2 km into town
EFFECTIVE HEIGHT CLOSEST DISTANCE TO SEA UPWIND
He km
m ≤ 0.1 2 10 ≥ 100
≤2 1.18 1.15 1.07
3 1.33 1.29 1.20
4 1.47 1.43 1.32
5 1.62 1.57 1.45
6 1.65 1.60 1.48
7 1.68 1.63 1.52
8 1.72 1.67 1.55
9 1.75 1.70 1.59
10 1.78 1.73 1.62
11 1.79 1.75 1.64
12 1.81 1.77 1.66
13 1.82 1.78 1.67
14 1.84 1.80 1.69 5
15 1.85 1.82 1.71 6
16 1.85 1.83 1.72 10
17 1.87 1.85 1.73
18 1.88 1.86 1.75 x
19 1.89 1.88 1.76
20 1.90 1.89 1.77
21 1.91 1.90 1.78
22 1.91 1.90 1.79
23 1.92 1.91 1.79
24 1.92 1.92 1.80
25 1.93 1.93 1.81
26 1.94 1.93 1.82
27 1.94 1.94 1.83
28 1.95 1.95 1.83
29 1.95 1.95 1.84
30 1.96 1.96 1.85
31 1.96 1.96 1.86
32 1.97 1.97 1.86
33 1.97 1.97 1.87
34 1.98 1.98 1.87
35 1.98 1.98 1.88
36 1.98 1.98 1.88
37 1.99 1.99 1.89
38 1.99 1.99 1.89
39 2.00 2.00 1.90
40 2.00 2.00 1.90
41 2.00 2.00 1.91
42 2.01 2.01 1.91
43 2.01 2.01 1.92
44 2.02 2.02 1.92
45 2.02 2.02 1.93
46 2.02 2.02 1.93
47 2.03 2.03 1.94
48 2.03 2.03 1.94
49 2.04 2.04 1.95
50 2.04 2.04 1.95
51 2.04 2.04 1.95
52 2.04 2.04 1.96
53 2.05 2.05 1.96
54 2.05 2.05 1.96
55 2.05 2.05 1.96
56 2.05 2.05 1.96
57 2.05 2.05 1.97
58 2.05 2.05 1.97
59 2.05 2.05 1.97
60 2.06 2.06 1.97
61 2.06 2.06 1.98
62 2.06 2.06 1.98
63 2.06 2.06 1.98
64 2.06 2.06 1.98
65 2.06 2.06 1.99
66 2.07 2.07 1.99
67 2.07 2.07 1.99
68 2.07 2.07 1.99
69 2.07 2.07 2.00
70 2.07 2.07 2.00
71 2.07 2.07 2.00
72 2.08 2.08 2.00
73 2.08 2.08 2.01
74 2.08 2.08 2.01
75 2.08 2.08 2.01
76 2.08 2.08 2.01
77 2.08 2.08 2.02
78 2.09 2.09 2.02
79 2.09 2.09 2.02
80 2.09 2.09 2.02
81 2.09 2.09 2.02
82 2.09 2.09 2.03
83 2.09 2.09 2.03
84 2.09 2.09 2.03
85 2.10 2.10 2.03
86 2.10 2.10 2.04
87 2.10 2.10 2.04
88 2.10 2.10 2.04
89 2.10 2.10 2.04
90 2.10 2.10 2.05
91 2.11 2.11 2.05
92 2.11 2.11 2.05
93 2.11 2.11 2.05
94 2.11 2.11 2.06
95 2.11 2.11 2.06
96 2.11 2.11 2.06
97 2.12 2.12 2.06
98 2.12 2.12 2.07
99 2.12 2.12 2.07
100 2.12 2.12 2.07
1.62
x
1.78

= 1.652
Project: Wind Loading Cal
Client: Made By:
LOGO
Description:
Checked:

DESIGN WIND PRESSURE


Reference : BS 6399 - 2; 1997, BS 8118 - 1; 1991, ASTM E - 1300 - 04

Overall Building Loads


WIND NORMAL TO: LONG FACE SHORT FACE Building Dimensio
Dynamic Pressure, qs (N/m2) Length
Breadth, B (m) 68.75 61.85 L (m)
Inwind depth, D (m) 0 0 68.75
Span Ratio, D/H 0 0
Scaling length, b 68.75 61.85 Dynamic Augmenta

Standard Prsseure Coefficients Kb


External pressure coefficients Cpe for vertical walls
Windward (front) face
Leeward (rear face)

Standard Pressure Coefficients


Size effect factor for external pressures, Ca
Effective height, He (m) 58.94
Distance to sea (km)
Terrain
Site exposure type
Diagonal dimension (m)
Ca

Standard Pressure Coefficients


Overall horizontal loads Pe P Pe P
on building (N/m2) (kN) (N/m2) (kN)
Front face, Σ Pfront
Rear face, Σ Prear
Overall load, P
Note: -ve sign indicates suction
Frictional Drag on side walls
Is depth D>b ?
Zone length C (m)
Area, As (m2/m height)
Frictional drag coefficients, Cf
Ca
Pf (kN/m height)

Frictional Drag on roof


Is depth D>b/2 ?
Zone length D (m)
Area, As (m2/m width)
Frictional drag coefficients, Cf
Site exposure type
Diagonal dim. (m)
Ca
Pf (kN/m height)
Wind Loading Calculations
Date: Job No.

Revision: Page No.

04

Building Dimensions
Width Height
W (m) H (m)
61.85 147.35

Dynamic Augmentation
Factor (Cr)
H (m) Cr
0
DESIGN WIND PRESSURE
(Standard Method)
Reference : BS 6399 - 2; 1997, BS 8118 - 1; 1991, ASTM E - 1300 - 04

Material Properties
A.) Glass
Eg = 72,000 MPa modulus of elasticity
Gg = 30,000 MPa shear modulus
ν = 0.22 poisson's ratio
αg = 0.0000083 per oC coefficient of thermal expansion
γg = 2,500 kg/m3 density

B.) Aluminum Mullion and Transom (6063 - T6), Bracket (6061 - T6)
Po = 160 MPa limiting stress for bending and overall yielding
Pa = 175 MPa limiting stress for local capacity (tension and compression)
Pv = 95 MPa limiting stress for shear
γa = 2,710 kg/m3 density
Ea = 70,000 MPa modulus of elasticity
Ga = 26,600 MPa modulus of rigidity
αa = 0.0000023 per oC coefficient of thermal expansion
γm = 1.2 kg/m3 material factors (bolted connection)
Po = 160 MPa limiting stress for bending and overall yielding
Pa = 175 MPa limiting stress for local capacity (tension and compression)
Pv = 95 MPa limiting stress for shear

Dynamic Wind Pressure


qs = - N/m2 dynamic pressure of standard method
Vb = m/s basic wind speed
Ve = - m/s effective wind speed
Vs = - m/s site wind speed
Sb = 1.537 terrain and building factor

Altitiude factor and roughness categories


* topography is not considered
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is not considered
Δs = - m/s site altitude; above mean sea level
* topography is considered
case 1
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is not considered
Δs = - m/s site altitude; above mean sea level
case 2
Sa = 1.00 altitude factor; topography is considered
ΔT = - altitude of the upwind base of significant topography
Ψe = - effective slope of the topographic feature
s = - topographic location factor

Sa = - (whichever is greater between 2 condition)

Sd = direction factor
Ss = 1.00 seasonal factor
Sp = 1.00 probability factor
Δs = - m site altitude; above mean sea level

Building Parameter
W = m building width
L = m building length
H = m building height
Xo = m separation distance between building
He = m effective height
Hr = m reference height; maximum height of building
above ground level
Bldg. Exposure =
Ho = m obstruction height
Hd = m displacement height
D = m inward building depth

Wind Load
External Surface Pressures
(positive value)
Pe = - N/m2 external pressure
Cpe = - external pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = - size effect factor for external pressures
External Surface Pressures
(negative value)
Pe = - N/m2 external pressure
Cpe = - external pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = - size effect factor for external pressures
Internal Surface Pressures
(positive value)
Pi = - N/m2 internal pressure
Cpi = - internal pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = - size effect factor for external pressures
Internal Surface Pressures
(negative value)
Pi = - N/m2 internal pressure
Cpi = - internal pressure coefficient for the building surface
Ca = - size effect factor for external pressures

Net Surface Pressures

p(+) = - N/m2 net surface pressure (positive value)


p(-) = - N/m2 net surface pressure (negative value)

p = - N/m2 governing net surface pressure (whichever is higher)


PRESSURE
Method)

(ASTM E - 1300 - 04)

(BS 8118 - 1; 1991)


erall yielding (Section 4.3, 6063 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
ension and compression) (Section 4.3, 6063 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
(Section 4.3, 6063 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
(Section 2.3, Table 2.5; page 22)

(Section 3.3, Table 3.3; page 31)


erall yielding (Section 4.3, 6061 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
ension and compression) (Section 4.3, 6061 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)
(Section 4.3, 6061 - T6, Table 4.1; page 35)

(BS 6399 - 2; 1997)


(Section 2.1.2, cl. 2.1.2.1, page 13 and Table 2; page 14)

(Section 2.2.3; page 13)


(Section 2.2.2)
(Section 2.2.2, Table 4; page 27 and 28)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2; page 20)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2; page 21)

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.2; page 21)


nificant topography

(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.3, Table 3; page 27)


(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.4; page 27)
(Section 2.2, cl. 2.2.2.5; page 27)

(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)


(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.2; page 9)
t of building (Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.1; page 9)

(Section 1.7, cl. 1.7.3.3; page 10)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)
e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)
(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

e building surface (Section 2.3; page 30 , Table 5; page 31)


(Section 2.1, cl. 2.1.3; page 13, figure 4; page 16)

whichever is higher)