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Reaping the Fruits

of an Empowered
Population
Plan of Action for Reaching and Optimizing
the Demographic Dividend
Chapter 13, Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022
Reaping the Fruits
of an Empowered
Population
Plan of Action for Reaching and Optimizing
the Demographic Dividend
Chapter 13, Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022

Commission on Population and Development


2018
Contents
Acronyms................................................................................................................................ 5
Foreword................................................................................................................................. 6

1 Demographic Dividend: The Fruits of Population Management..................................................7


Population Transition Creates Opportunity...................................................................................9
What to Gain: Demographic Dividend......................................................................................... 12

2 What’s Keeping Us from Getting the Demographic Dividend: The Challenges ���������������������� 14
Still Too Many Births, Too Many Children................................................................................... 16
People Development Still Lacking............................................................................................... 20
Not Enough Opportunities to Be Productive.............................................................................. 22

3 How to Bring On the Demographic Dividend: Strategies and Programs.................................. 24


A. Population Management..................................................................................................... 27
B. Human Capital Development.............................................................................................. 32
C. Economic Reforms.............................................................................................................. 37
D. Governance Mechanisms for Reaching the Demographic Dividend ���������������������������� 43
Putting the Plan to Work..................................................................................................... 44

4 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


Acronyms

AHD ����������������������������������������������Adolescent Health and Development LEP ����������������������������������������������������������Ladderized Education Program


ARMM ��������������������������������� Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao LGU �����������������������������������������������������������������������Local Government Unit
ASRH ����������������������������Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health MNCHN ������������������������ Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition
Calabarzon ������������������������������Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon NEDA �������������������������� National Economic and Development Authority
CHED ������������������������������������������������� Commission on Higher Education NIT ����������������������������������������������������������National Implementation Team
CSE ������������������������������������������������ Comprehensive Sexuality Education NNC �����������������������������������������������������������������National Nutrition Council
CWC �������������������������������������������������� Council for the Welfare of Children NYC ��������������������������������������������������������������National Youth Commission
DepEd ����������������������������������������������������������������� Deprtment of Education PDP �������������������������������������������������������������Philippine Development Plan
DILG ������������������������ Department of the Interior and Local Government PESO ��������������������������������������������������Public Employment Service Office
DOH ������������������������������������������������������������������������Department of Health POPCOM �����������������������Commission on Population and Development
DOLE ������������������������������������������Department of Labor and Employment PPMP ����������������������������� Philippine Population Management Program
DSWD ������������������������Department of Social Welfare and Development PSA ������������������������������������������������������������Philippine Statistics Authority
DTI ������������������������������������������������������Department of Trade and Industry PWD ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Person with Disability
ETEEAP �������������������������Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and RA �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Republic Act
Accreditation Program RBIM ���������������������������� Registry of Barangay Inhabitants and Migrants
FP �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Family Planning RH ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� Reproductive Health
GIDA ����������������������� Geographically Isolated and Disadvantaged Areas RPRH ��������������������� Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health
HRH ����������������������������������������������������������� Human Resources for Health SK ������������������������������������������������������������������������� Sangguninag Kabataan
IDP �������������������������������������������������������������� Internally Displaced Persons TESDA ������������ Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
IP ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Indigenous People TVET ������������������������������� Technical-Vocational Education and Training
ISDN ��������������������������������������Information and Service Delivery Network
LCE ���������������������������������������������������������������������������Local Chief Executive

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 5


Foreword
For five decades now, the Philippines has been taking efforts to manage its population.
We have made some progress, although not as fast as we would have wanted, as national
support for the program has not been consistent. But we can, and we will, achieve the
needed population balance that will bring about the fruits of successful population and
development efforts – the demographic dividend.

In the Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022, “reaching the demographic dividend” is


one of the major strategies identified for increasing the country’s potential growth towards
the realization of the long-term vision, AmBisyon Natin 2040. Reaching the demographic
dividend entails a wide range of efforts not only in population management but also in
human resource development, economic reforms, and governance. These efforts need
to be coordinated and synchronously directed at the attainment of national development
goals.

The Commission on Population and Development, in collaboration with various


stakeholders, has prepared a Plan of Action for Reaching and Optimizing the Demographic
Dividend in the Philippines, laying down the needed strategies, programs and mechanisms
in order to address the key challenges standing in the way of complete demographic
transition, and to create the requisite conditions for the demographic dividend to
materialize.

The following document is a popularized version of this Plan of Action, explaining, in


layman’s terms, the concept of demographic dividend and how we, in the program, can
lead, mobilize, and take the needed actions to enable our country, finally, to reap the fruits
of the demographic dividend.

DR. JUAN ANTONIO A. PEREZ III


Undersecretary, Executive Director
Commission on Population and Development

6 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


1
Demographic Dividend:
The Fruits of Population
Management

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 7


When we invest something, we expect to get a dividend – a profit, or what
we earn from what we put in. In the same way, when we exert an effort to
make something better, we expect, after some time, to reap the fruits of our
efforts, and enjoy the benefits of that situation that we tried to make better.

The Philippines has long been trying to achieve balance in its population.
The reasons, as commonly understood, are many: So that the country’s
resources will be enough for everybody, so that all of the people’s basic
needs will be provided, so that mothers will not be overburdened with so
many births, so that babies will be healthy and children will develop fully, so
that the environment will not be overexploited, and so that the economy will
grow and the nation will be progressive.

These social and economic benefits constitute the demographic dividend


that we should be able to gain if we are successful in our population
management efforts. The process, however, is neither simple nor easy. In the
first place, achieving the balance that will bring about the desired benefits is
not merely a matter of reducing the population. There has to be a transition
that will change the population structure. We can gain the demographic
dividend if we have in our population more working-age people relative to
dependents as a result of declining fertility and mortality.

And even if such a balance is achieved, it does not mean that we will
automatically reap the demographic dividend. In order for economic growth
to happen, the younger population must have access to quality education,
adequate nutrition, and good health care, including access to sexual and
reproductive health.

8 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


Population Transition Creates Opportunity
When too many babies are being born, that is, fertility is high, as what
started happening in the Philippines six or seven decades ago, the
country’s population becomes predominantly young, with children
making up the biggest number.
On the other hand, when fertility is low, that is, few new babies are
being born, and those born before are now becoming grownups, the
shape of the population picture becomes more even – the number of
grown people becomes just about the same as the number of children.
Moreover, with better health and living conditions, mortality, or the
incidence of deaths, also goes down. This means that more people
will live longer and reach old age. So the number of older people will
become even bigger than the number of children.
Having more working-age people than dependents will be favorable
to the country. Why? Because then there will be more people who
will earn and produce than the number of children who will depend
on them for support. This will provide the window of opportunity for
families, and the country, to save and put more resources on higher goals
and grander endeavors. In other words, people, instead of just surviving
and filling their basic life needs, will have the chance to achieve their
dreams and be the best they can be. And so will the nation as a whole.
Let us look at this at the level of the family. In a primary family, there are
the parents and the children. If the mother is having babies one after
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 9
another, then there will be many small children in the family. That is, the
proportion of children to adults will not be balanced. The two adults –
the father and the mother – will have to provide for the needs of all the
children, who all depend on them for food, clothing, schooling, health
care, and everything. There will be little or no money left to save for
extras (like buying a car, or remodeling the house, or taking the kids on
a vacation) because almost all of the parents’ earnings are spent on the
family’s basic daily needs.
Eventually, the children will grow. As some of them reach working age,
the number of adult working-age members of the family will soon be the
same as or bigger than the number of the still small children. If the parents
prepared their growing children well – sent them to school, looked after
10 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
their health, and raised them well – most likely, the grown children will
find gainful work and contribute to the family income. Now there will be
more productive family members than dependent ones. Now the family
will be able to set aside some money for more amenities, and afford to get
more advanced tools and better opportunities (like property, technology,
and skills) which can enable them to achieve bigger dreams and higher
goals. Now the family is able to enjoy greater comfort and fulfillment in life
– in Filipino, this is called ginhawa sa buhay.
This balance that leads to ginhawa can come sooner for some families,
but later for others. If the children are many and very closely spaced, it
will take a longer time before most of the children grow and the grown
children and adults in the family outnumber the small children. But if the
children are few, it will take a shorter time because with only one or two
grown children, the balance will already be tipped in favor of the grown
members.
The same can be said of the nation as a whole. With an overly large
proportion of children in the population, it will take a longer time to
achieve the desired balance between the young dependent and the adult
productive segments of the population. But with persistent population
management efforts (such as continuously advocating for fewer and well-
spaced children, and providing couples the means to achieve their desired
number of children), demographic transition can and will happen, maybe
later, if not sooner.

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 11


What to Gain: Demographic Dividend
The benefits that we can gain after the demographic transition has
happened are what constitute the demographic dividend. This is the
ginhawa that we will enjoy – the bonus entitlements, the added perks,

the windfall that comes – after we have succeeded in our efforts to


bring down births and deaths, and reached that desired balance in our
population.
On a national scale, this comes about when the government no longer
needs to spend so much in feeding the hungry and sheltering the
12 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
homeless because everyone is already well-nourished and protected, or
in building more classrooms and health centers because there are already
more than enough of them to serve everyone. Instead, the government
can now invest more resources in modernizing facilities, in improving the
quality of services, in revitalizing the environment, in boosting business
and spurring economic growth, and so on. And there is enough to share
for everybody to enjoy the fruits of development.
But before we get to that point when we can enjoy those benefits and
live that life of ease, there are several conditions that must be met. One,
have we achieved the needed population transition, when we have more
people who can potentially work than those who would depend on them
for their needs?
Two, have we prepared ourselves, in terms of human skills and
capabilities, so that we can be employed or contribute effectively to
production and income?
The third question is, have we created the opportunities for, and the
conditions conducive to, greater production? Because even if the
people are capacitated, if there are no opportunities for them to apply
their knowledge and skills, then there will be no resulting increase in
productivity.
The answer to these three questions, at this point in our country, is – Not quite
yet. In the next section, we will see what are keeping us from getting there.

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 13


2
What’s Keeping Us from
Getting the Demographic
Dividend: The Challenges

14 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


There are important requirements for us to be able to claim the demographic
dividend. One is that we have more working-age people than dependents.
The second is that we have people who are skilled or employable. And
the third is we have available opportunities and a conducive environment
for high productivity. These conditions are needed for us to expect
any demographic dividend. Unfortunately, we are still short of these
requirements.

Children still make up the biggest portion of the country’s population. And
the population is still growing at a considerable pace, which means that more
are still being added to the young dependent population. And the young
girls added will soon grow and bear more children, resulting in even more
additions to the young population. For demographic transition to happen,
couples and individuals should have just the number of children that they can
adequately support for better quality life.

The health and education situation in the country today is such that there
are still so many people who have no access to quality health care and
educational opportunities. Many children are still malnourished, out of
school, and unable to get a higher education. So, even if and when the time
comes that the awaited demographic transition has happened, the quality
of our human resources then may not be up to the standards needed to
produce the coveted demographic dividend.

Opportunities for employment and income generation are also still grossly
lacking. Thus, even if we have a lot more grown working-age people than
children in the population, if they are not skilled, capable and healthy, then
they cannot contribute much to production. And even if people have the
capability, if there are no opportunities for them to work and be productive,
then we still cannot get hold of the demographic dividend.

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 15


Our neighbors in Asia are already reaping their demographic
dividends – the more developed ones, like Hongkong, Taiwan,
Singapore, South Korea, and even Thailand as early as the 1980s
and 1990s, and others with comparable levels of development
as the Philippines, like Indonesia and Malaysia, in the 2000s.
Why have we lagged behind? When the Philippines began its
family planning program in the late 1960s, these other countries
were also just beginning their programs. Why is it that they have
achieved demographic transition and we haven’t? That is because
the Philippines, unlike the others, had not been persistent in its
population management and family planning efforts, even stopping at
some point due to strong religious opposition.

Still Too Many Births, Too Many Children


The result is a population structure that is still in the shape of a
pyramid, with a wide base (the children) tapering off to the top (the
old people). In contrast, the populations of Thailand and South Korea
are already in the shape of a jar or vase, with a bulging middle (the
working age population).
The situation has improved a bit though than in the 1970s, when
the pyramid was flatter, with the base of the young population much
wider. Today, the pyramid has become taller and narrower, with
the population under 15 years old occupying roughly one-third of
the pyramid (33.4 percent), and the 15-64 age brackets occupying
almost two-thirds (60.3 percent). The 65 and over are still a small
16 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
4.2 percent, but are expected to get bigger as we shift, very slowly, to
an older population.

We are actually already in the first phase of the demographic transition.


And we are moving, no doubt, towards its completion, but very slowly
because fertility is still high. There are still too many babies being
conceived and born. Ideally, a couple should have only two children,
just to replace their number. But as of the latest survey, Filipino women
still bear, on the average, three children each during their childbearing
years. More girls are also getting pregnant at a younger age, which
prolongs their period of childbearing, and increases the chances that
they will bear more children in their lifetime.
Most women really want less children, but many, especially the poor
and less educated, are unable to limit their children to just how many
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 17
they want, and when to have them. Mainly it is because they do not
have access to the means, specifically, the more effective modern
methods of family planning. Only 33 percent of poor women and 16
percent of uneducated women are using modern family planning
methods. A considerable number have unmet need for family
planning, that is, they need to and want to practice family planning,
but are not practicing.
At the moment,
dependency,
computed by age,
is still high, with
about 61 dependents
(below age 15 and
65 and over) to
every 100 persons
of working age.
Note, however, that
in reality, there
are many people
of working age who are not working or are not earning enough for
themselves. On the other hand, there are also some young people who
are already working, and a few old people who are still earning. Most
likely, the actual economic dependency ratio is higher than the age
dependency ratio.
As a whole, the population of the Philippines has grown immensely –
18 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
more than tenfold – over the past hundred years. It grew a bit more
slowly in recent years, but still, 2 million people are added to the
country’s population every year. The Philippine population as of the
last count has reached 101 million, and still growing at the rate of 1.7
percent
The size of the population, the rate it is growing, and its structure
vary across the country’s 17 regions. The variation appears to have
something to do with the differences in social and economic conditions
and opportunities among the regions. There is a big gap in the level
of development, and therefore in the opportunities for advancement
for the people, among the regions, with the less developed regions
like the Autonomous
Region in Muslim
Mindanao (ARMM)
paling in comparison
to the more
urbanized regions
like Calabarzon.
This brings us to the
matter of availability
of and access to
people development
programs and services
– another must if our
demographic dividend
is to materialize.
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 19
People Development Still Lacking
Although there have been considerable improvements in the country’s
health delivery system as a result of government-instituted health
reforms, quality health services are still not yet universally available
and accessible to all Filipinos in all parts of the country. In many areas,
especially in the remote and conflicted areas, health services hardly
reach some people, and the health centers and hospitals are too far from
the people’s homes. The few health facilities that are located in the town
centers are often inadequate to serve all the people in the area needing

20 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


medical attention – there are not enough hospital beds that patients
sometimes have to lie on the corridors, there are not enough medicines
and clinic supplies, even health personnel are lacking such that sick
people have to wait a long time before being served.
As a result, many people are still getting sick and dying from health-
related causes, especially among children and the poor. Many children
are still malnourished and underweight.
Similarly, not everyone is able to get an education, much less higher
education. While school enrolment is high, not all children who enrolled

stay in school. The latest count showed that 11.5 million school-age
children are not in school for various reasons, including marriage,
inability to afford school-related expenses, need to work, among other
reasons. Of the country’s total population, only one-fifth (20 percent)
have finished high school.
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 21
These figures do not speak well for the quality of the country’s
human resources – their physical robustness, intellectual ability, and
possession of knowledge and skills – needed for them to achieve the
level of productivity that will bring the demographic dividend.

Not Enough Opportunities to Be Productive


Granting that a good number of Filipinos have received the needed
preparation to become productive (they are healthy, well-educated,
skilled, and highly motivated) and to contribute to development; still, one
question remains. Are there enough opportunities for people to work, to
be productive, to invest, and earn a bigger income? Again, the answer is –
No, it doesn’t seem so.
In the first place, there seems to be a mismatch between the educational
training of most people
and the local economic
sectors’ needs. This
often results in two
things: the skilled
Filipinos go to other
countries where their
skills are needed,
and those who stay
remain unemployed
or underemployed.
22 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
Unemployment has lessened in recent years, but remains high among
the young working-age population (15-24 years old). This is important
in attaining the demographic dividend, because it is only if these
young members of the labor force are employed can they be added to
the productive segment of the population, and be removed from the
dependent segments.
Underemployment is also high at all ages, which means a lot of working-
age Filipinos, even if they do work sometimes, are not being productive
to the best of their capacity.
Another factor that affects our being able to get and maximize the
demographic dividend is the ability of Filipinos to save. Savings
represent an individual’s or a family’s excess income – what they do not
have to spend for their basic needs, something they can set aside for
future needs, invest in a business, or use to acquire something that can
further increase their ability to earn, like higher education or material
assets. If kept in a bank, savings can finance big investments and help
boost the productivity of the nation’s economy in general.
Saving, however, is not a widespread behavior among Filipinos. Either
they have no extra money to save, or they do not like to save, preferring
to spend their money on short-term unnecessary consumables (like
throwing a party or buying expensive signature clothes) that will not
make them more productive in the future. Only 22 percent of Filipinos
have bank savings accounts, according to the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 23
3
How to Bring On the
Demographic Dividend:
Strategies and Programs

24 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


To repeat, there are critical conditions that must be satisfied for the
demographic dividend to materialize: (1) the demographic transition is
complete, resulting in more people of working age than dependents in the
population; (2) the people have been capacitated; and (3) the opportunities
for productivity are there. The strategies that need to be implemented to
obtain the demographic dividend must therefore be aimed at creating these
conditions.

The Strategic Plan of Action that concerned national agencies have


formulated consists of four main parts, each laying down the needed
strategies to achieve the three preconditions, and lastly the governance
mechanisms for getting hold of the demographic dividend.

A. Population Management, which includes family planning in the


context of reproductive health

B. Human Capital Development, including health and education

C. Economic Reforms, which include the creation of an environment


favorable to economic productivity

D. Governance Mechanisms for Reaching the Demographic Dividend,


which include positive actions of government to create the
conditions that will bring the demographic dividend

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 25


The following strategic framework shows how the strategies in
the different areas work together, leading to the attainment of the
demographic dividend.
First in the framework are the strategies for family planning and
reproductive health, which are necessary in order to achieve the
needed population transition from one that is predominantly young
and dependent to one made up mostly of working-age productive
members.

26 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


Next are the strategies for health and education so that the people will
be highly skilled and capable, mentally and physically, to work and
contribute to production. At the same time, economic reforms need
to be instituted so that there will be opportunities and a conducive
environment for people to be productive. Good governance then
should see to it that government systems and structures fully support
population management and integrate demographic dividend targets
in government plans and programs.
And finally, with all these strategies successfully implemented, we can
reap our demographic dividend.

A. POPULATION MANAGEMENT
The strategies under population management will be directed at the
following indicators and targets.

Indicators Baseline Target Level by Year 2022


(2013)
Actual total fertility rate (children 3 2.1
per woman)
Wanted fertility rate (children per 3 2.4
woman)
Proportion of adolescents who 10.1 6
have begun childbearing (%)
Contraceptive prevalence rate for 37.6 65
modern FP methods (%)
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 27
Key Strategy 1: Accelerate the achievement of the third
phase of the demographic transition.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Intensified promotion and implementation of the Responsible
Parenthood and Reproductive Health (RPRH) Law and Executive
Order No. 12: Attaining and Sustaining Zero Unmet Need for
Modern Family Planning.
o Generating demand for family planning and reproductive
health through aggressive and innovative strategies.
o Mobilization of the integrated Family Planning/Maternal,
Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (FP/MNCHN) Service
Delivery Network.
o Improving the availability and accessibility of modern FP
methods in health facilities.
o Increasing the participation of the private sector and civil
society organizations in demand generation and service
delivery.
o Continuously building the capacity of community volunteers
for generating demand and providing services.
o Intensified advocacy with local government units (LGUs)
for them to increase and sustain their investments in
institutionalizing the FP program.
28 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
o More focused and more aggressive leadership and management
of the national FP program.
o Improving the database and knowledge base to help in
program planning, generating demand, and delivering services.
Lead agencies: Department of Health (DOH), POPCOM, and LGUs

Key Strategy 2: Rapidly reduce adolescent pregnancies.


Specific Programs and Activities
• Promotion and institutionalization of Comprehensive Sexuality
Education (CSE) in both the formal curriculum and in informal or
alternative learning.
• Continuous capacity building of adult partners (teachers, parents,
guardians, youth leaders, civil society organizations) for CSE.
• Organization and mobilization of the Information and Service
Delivery Network (ISDN) for Adolescent Health and Development
(AHD) at the local level.
• Continuing implementation of innovative and interactive
communication strategies for different adolescents.
• Optimizing the use of online media platforms (like social media) to
reach young people.
• Improving the effectiveness of peer education programs.

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 29


• Building the capacity of and mobilizing the Sangguniang Kabataan
(SK) in promoting adolescent sexuality and reproductive health
(ASRH).
• Improving the health-seeking behavior of adolescents, particularly
for reproductive health and family planning.
• Improving the
database and
knowledge base
for ASRH.
Lead agencies:
National Youth
Commission (NYC),
DOH, POPCOM,
Council for the
Welfare of Children
(CWC), Department
of Social Welfare
and Development
(DSWD),
Department of
Education (DepEd),
Commission on
Higher Education
(CHED), LGUs
30 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
Key Strategy 3: Improve the database on internal
migration for more effective urban planning.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Establishment, maintenance and utilization of Local Migration
Database such as Registry of Barangay Inhabitants and Migrants
(RBIM), especially in urban areas.
• Conducting a demographic analysis of the characteristics of urban
residents and migrants in order to help in urban development
planning.
Lead agencies: POPCOM, Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), LGUs

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 31


B. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT
Indicators Baseline (2013) Target Level by Year 2022
Prevalence of stunting in 33.4 21.4
under-five children (%)
Elementary completion 83.4 90
rate (%)
Junior high school 74 78.5
completion rate (%)
32 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
Key Strategy 1: Improve educational processes and
outcomes to enhance the quality of the labor force.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Full implementation of the K to 12 system.
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 33
o Timely delivery of adequate education inputs (such as school
buildings, classrooms, equipment, and learning materials).
o Continuous hiring and capacity building of teachers.
o Effective and transparent monitoring and evaluation of
learners (especially those from the marginalized sectors),
including the maintenance of a database for tracking them.
o Regularly reviewing and continuously enhancing the K to 12
program to improve the employability of graduates.
Lead agencies: DepEd, LGUs
• Intensified and continuing improvement of alternative learning
systems.
Lead agencies: DepEd, LGUs
• Increasing access to educational services by marginalized sectors
– people from geographically isolated and disadvantaged areas
(GIDA), indigenous peoples (IPs), persons with disability (PWDs),
and internally displaced persons (IDPs).
Lead agencies: LGUs
• Improving access to quality, relevant and globally competitive
technical-vocational education and training (TVET) programs.
Lead agency: Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
(TESDA)
• Continuous implementation of integrated programs to keep children
in school:
34 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
o Nutrition program
o Scholarship programs
o Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in school curriculum
o Responsible parenthood and CSE training for parents
o Continuing implementation of the Conditional Cash Transfer
for Education
Lead agencies: National Nutrition Council (NNC), LGUs, private sector,
DepEd, POPCOM, DSWD
• Expanding access to higher education.
o Full implementation of Republic Act 10687: Unified Financial
Assistance System for Tertiary Education.
o Promotion of Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and
Accreditation Program (ETEEAP), Ladderized Education
Program (LEP), and Distance Education Program.
o Integration of 21st century competencies in higher education
curriculum.
Lead agency: CHED

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 35


Key Strategy 2: Improve the health conditions of the
present and future human resource.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Provision of quality health care and nutrition at all life stages.
o Comprehensive health care during the first 1000 days of life of
babies.
o Adolescent health services, including sexual and reproductive
health care.
o Health services for older persons.

36 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


o Continuing implementation of the Conditional Cash Transfer for
MNCHN Services
• Full implementation of the RPRH Law, particularly in eliminating
unmet need for family planning.
• Prevention and treatment of noncommunicable and lifestyle
diseases.
• Setting up and mobilizing service delivery networks for health care.
• Equipping and upgrading health facilities.
• Improving human resources for health (HRH).
• Expanding health insurance coverage and improving health benefits
packages.
• Investing in e-health and electronic data collection mechanisms for
better networking and decision-making.
Lead agencies: DOH, NNC, LGUs, PhilHealth
C. ECONOMIC REFORMS
Indicators Baseline (2013) Target Level by Year 2022
Youth unemployment 11 8
rate (%)

Labor force 83.4 90


participation rate of
women (%)
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 37
Key Strategy 1: Improve the employability of the young
labor force.

38 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


Specific Programs and Activities
• Continuing skills enhancement and retooling of the labor force,
especially youth with no education, employment and training.
• Strengthening employment facilitation services.
o Assisting new entrants to the labor force through coaching, career
advocacy, and counseling.
o Setting up online services for overseas Filipinos.
o Strengthening the Public Employment Service Office (PESO)
programs of LGUs.
o Setting up an accessible public system for job search, matching, and
job referral portals.
• Strengthening and expanding internship, apprenticeship, and dual
training programs that facilitate the school-to-work transition of the
youth.
o Government internship program for youth planning to enter the
public service.
o JobStart program to enhance the employability of “at-risk” youth.
o Apprenticeship and learnership program.
o Intensification of quality Technical, Vocational Education Training
(TVET)
• Improvement of the database and knowledge base on employment for
planning and programming.
Lead agencies: Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Department
of Trade and Industry (DTI), LGUs, TESDA, DSWD
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 39
Key Strategy 2: Improve the productivity of the labor
force.

Specific Programs and Activities


• Strengthening the two-tiered wage system.
o Formulation of productivity incentive schemes.
o Setting and regulation of a mandatory minimum wage policy.
40 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
• Ensuring health and safety in the workplace.
• Promotion of work-life balance.
• Provision of reproductive health and modern family planning
services to workers.
• Setting up an enabling policy and program environment for gainful
participation of women in the labor force.
o Improving women’s access to reproductive health and family
planning services.
o Improving access to child health care services.
o Setting up daycare programs for working women.
o Promotion of men’s involvement in responsible parenthood
and family planning.
o Continuous skills enhancement of women.
o Facilitating women’s access to employment and economic
activities.
Lead agencies: DOLE, DTI, LGUs

Key Strategy 3: Increase the productivity and savings of


older persons.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Implementation of and monitoring the compliance of companies
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 41
and institutions to Republic Act 10911: Anti-Age Discrimination in
Employment Act.
• Implementation of programs to increase the productivity and
engagement of older persons in economic activities.
• Development of a comprehensive national policy for active aging
and provision of social protection of older persons.
• Improving older persons’ access to their benefits from other
existing laws.
Lead agencies: DSWD, DOLE, DA, Cooperative Development Authority
(CDA)

42 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


D. GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS FOR REACHING
THE DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND
Key Strategy 1: Support and mobilize LGUs in the full
implementation of the RPRH Law and the Population
Management Program.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Expansion of the bridging leadership program on reproductive
health, family planning, and population management to all local
chief executives (LCEs).
• Monitoring compliance of LGUs to the Department of the Interior
and Local Government (DILG) circular reiterating the LGUs’ role in
the full implementation of the RPRH Law.
• Mobilization of national, regional and local implementation teams
for the sustained operationalization of the RPRH Law.
• Integration of demographic variables in regional and local
development planning.
• Continuing advocacy with LCEs for institutionalizing FP, RH and
population management policies and programs.
• Continuous generation and mobilization of resources for FP, RH
and population management programs.
Lead agencies: POPCOM, DOH, National Implementation Team (NIT)
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 43
Key Strategy 2: Increase national agencies’ awareness of
the need to integrate demographic dividend objectives
in their respective programs.
Specific Programs and Activities
• Conduct of continuing interagency dialogues for joint
implementation of strategies to achieve the demographic dividend.
Lead agencies: POPCOM, National Economic and Development Authority
(NEDA)
Putting the Plan to Work
To ensure the smooth operationalization of the Strategic Action Plan,
the Commission on Population and Development will undertake the
following:
1. Mobilize the POPCOM Board of Commissioners as the lead
agency body for coordinating and monitoring this Plan
of Action. The POPCOM Board, the members of which come
from different government agencies and the private sector, will
provide policy and technical direction in the implementation
and coordination of the Plan of Action. It will continuously
dialogue, advocate and partner with the concerned agencies for
carrying out the strategies laid down in the plan.

44 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population


2. Develop a monitoring and evaluation system to track
the implementation of the Plan of Action. The progress of
implementation will be checked against the stated indicators
and targets for each key strategy. There will be a periodic
assessment and review of the Plan of Action to generate data
for monitoring, planning and programming, which will also
serve as inputs to the overall assessment of the Philippine
Development Plan (PDP) and the Philippine Population
Management Program (PPMP) Directional Plan.

Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 45


Project Team
Dr. Juan Antonio A. Perez III
Undersecretary, Executive Director

Mr. Lolito R. Tacardon


Deputy Executive Director

Ms. Aileen T. Serrano


Project Evaluation Officer V, Policy Analysis and Development Division

Ms. Lilibeth S. Jacinto


Project Evaluation Officer IV, Policy Analysis and Development Division

Ms. Rolagenia G. Reyes


Project Evaluation Officer III, Policy Analysis and Development Division
46 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population
Ms. Sarah B. Jalilul
Project Evaluation Officer II, Policy Analysis and Development Division
Mr. Gary Lord Corton
Project Evaluation Officer II, Policy Analysis and Development Division
Mr. Kenette Jay Labarinto
Project Evaluation Officer I, Policy Analysis and Development Division
Ms. Rizalina Raga
Project Assistant, Project Management Unit
Special Thanks to:
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population 47
Commission on Population and Development
Acacia Lane Ext., Welfareville Compound
Brgy. Addition Hills, Mandaluyong City
Phone Nos. 5316978, 5317051, 5316805
Facsimile: 5335122
Email: mainmail@popcom.gov.ph
Website: http://www.popcom.gov.ph
: commissiononpopulation

48 Reaping the Fruits of an Empowered Population