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Associate Editor : B. KALYAN KUMAR
Dr. P.K. Shukla, Jt.Commissioner Poultry, G.O.I., New Delhi.
Dr. V. RAMA SUBBA REDDY, Retd. Professor, Agrl. Uni. Hyd. 1. Diagnostic Enzymology – In Domestic Animals
Dr. D. NAGALAKSHMI, Asst. Professor, S.V.V.U. Hyderabad. - Kennady Vijayalakshmy ....................................... 4-5
Dr. S.T. VIROJI RAO, Sr. Scientist, AGB, S.V.V.U. Hyderabad.
2. Cryo-preservation of embryos
Dr. M. KISHAN KUMAR, Sr. Scientist, S.V.V.U. Hyderabad.
Dr. M. KOTESWARA RAO, Vet. Asst. Surgeon, RAHTC, KMNR. - Kennady Vijayalakshmy ........................................ 6-7
Dr. P.K. SINGH, Asst. Prof. (A.N.), Bihar Vet. College Patna. 3. Applications of various ......resources in livestock
Dr. S. NANDI, Sr. Scientist, CADRAD, IVRI, Izatnagar, U.P. - Shweta Sachan .................................................. 8-14
Dr. INDRANIL SAMANTA, Lecturer (Micro), WBUAFS, Kolkata.
Dr. M. KAWATRA, Sr. Manager-Bayer Animal Health, Thane (W), Mumbai. 4. Bovine actinomycosis ......Disease in Livestock
Dr. DEVENDRA S VERMA, Tech. Mgr, Biomin Singapore B'lore. - Madhu Mishra ................................................... 15-16
Dr. R.K.S. BAIS, Sr. Scientist, CARI, Izatnagar, Bareilly.
5. Cat-Scratch Disease: A Bacterial .....Health effects
Dr. VIJAY KUMAR M, Asst. Prof., Vet. College Bidar.
- Dr. Rizwan Khan ............................................... 17-20
Dr. MD MOIN ANSARI, Asst. Prof., SKUAST, Srinagar, J&K.
Dr. AZMAT ALAM KHAN, Asst. Prof., SKUAST, Srinagar, J&K. 6. Vaccines and Vaccination failure
Dr. S K MUKHOPADHAYAY, Asst. Prof., (Vety Pathology) WBUAFS, Kolkata. - S. Tamilarasu .................................................... 25-27
Dr. SUBHA GANGULY, Scientist, AICRP-PHT, Kolkata Centre.
Dr. AIJAZ AHMED DAR, Ph.D. Scholar, IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly. 7. Don’t Cut Corners on Cow Diets
Dr. SARADA PRASANNA SAHOO, Ph.D. Scholar, IVRI, Izatnagar. - Raylene Nickel .................................................. 28-29
Shrikant Katole MVSc, Ph.D.(Ani Nut) Asst. Prof Anand Agricultural University 8. Inherited genetic disorders in Rabbits
DR RAKESH ROY, Ph.D, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalimpong,W.B.
- M.Jeyakumar ..................................................... 30-33
INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS 9. Zoonotic Diseases and One Health Concept
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Diagnostic Enzymology – In Domestic Animals
Kennady Vijayalakshmy1,* and Meenakshi Virmani2
Research Scholar, Department of Veterinary Physiology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Assistant Endocrinologist, Department of Veterinary Physiology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal

Sciences. *Corresponding Author e-Mail: drviji.vet6115@yahoo.com

Clinical enzymology is the discipline that studies liver and in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but it varies
and tests enzyme activity in serum, plasma, urine between species. AST is located in the cytosol but
or other body fluids for the purpose of helping to is in higher concentrationin mitochondria. Half-life
establish the diagnosis and prognosis of disease of AST is 7-8 days in horses and 163 min in dogs.
and to screen for abnormal organ function. There An increase in serum AST activity is observed with
are various factors that affects the serum enzyme both reversible and irreversible injury to
activity like organ specificity, subcellular location of hepatocytes and can be seen following
enzyme, mechanism of enzyme release, hepatocellular injury and cholestasis. Because
clearance from blood, rate of induction of enzyme serum AST activity cannot differentiate between
synthesis. The clinical analysis of certainenzymes hepatocellular or myocyte injury, further testing is
will be highly helpful for differential diagnoses of often required using organ specific enzymes such

various clinical conditions. as sorbitol dehydrogenase or creatinekinase.

Alanine aminotransferase
Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a cytosolic enzyme and
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), formerly known as
also known as iditol dehydrogenase. The highest
glutamic pyruvate transaminase, catalyzes the
activity of SDH activity is in liver followed by kidney.
reversible transamination of L-alanine and 2-
It’s a liver specific enzyme in almost all species.
oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. ALT
Half-life of SDH in cat is 3-4hrs and 5hrs in dogs.
activity is found in several body organs, but the
SDH analysis is essential in dogs in two important
magnitude of activity varies dramatically with the
conditions that includes(i) in dogs with traumatic
species. In dogs, the ALT activity per gram of liver
muscle injury, where there is increased serum ALT
is four times greater than in other organs. In horses,
and CK activity, determination of SDH activity will
cattle and swine, the ALT activity per gram of tissue
quickly rule out whether there is concurrent hepatic
differs little in liver when compared to muscle.
injury and(ii) SDH activity determination in dogs in
ALT,which is found in cytoplasm of hepatocytes is conjunction with ALT activity to determine whether
also found in mitochondria but generally at lower there is persistent hepatocellular injury.Serum SDH
concentration.Half-life of ALT in blood is not clearly activity is of greater value than serum AST activity
defined. in large animals because of its increased specificity
Aspartate aminotransferase for hepatocellular injury.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) formerly known Glutamate dehydrogenase
as glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase catalyzes Glutamate dehydrogenase is a mitochondrial
the transamination of L-aspartate and 2- enzyme and it catalyzes the removal of hydrogen
oxaloglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. AST from L-glutamate to form the corresponding
activity is relatively high and in similar amounts in ketamine acid that then undergoes spontaneous


hydrolysis to 2-osoglutarate. Liver has the highest Amylase
concentrationof GDH activity. In all species, Amylase cleaves the alpha-D-(1-4) glycan linkage
increase in serum GDH activity are considered liver of starch and glycogen. It is found in higher
specific. Because GDH is a mitochondrial enzyme, concentration in the pancreas of cat and dogs. Half-
it is released only with the irreversible cell injury.
life of serum amylase in normal dogs is 1-5hrs.
Gamma glutamyl transferase Serum amylase is routinely used as a screening
Gamma glutamyl transferase functions in the test for acute pancreatitis
gamma glutamyl cycle where it catalyzes the Trypsin and trypsinogen
transfer of gamma glutamyl groups from gamma
Trypsin is a serine proteinase enzyme produced
glutamyl peptidesto other peptides,amino acid and
by the pancreas in the form of proenzyme
water. GGT is found in highest concentrationin
trypsinogen. Pancreas secrete trypsinogen into the
kidney, pancreas, intestine and mammary glands
intestine where it is converted by enterokinase to
of dogs, cattle, goat and sheep but at much lower
trypsin. Species specific immunoassays for trypsin
concentration in mammary gland of horses. Liver
activity are referred as trypsin like immunoreactivity
has lower concentration of GGT as compared to
kidney but varies between species with highest liver (TLI). These immunoassays detect both trypsin

GGT concentration in cattle, horses, sheep and and trypsinogen. Trypsin like immunoreactivity has
goat. GGT is a membrane bound enzyme and most been most useful in the detection of canine
of the serum GGT activity is contributed by liver as exocrinepancreatic insufficiency(EPI).
compared to kidney and pancreas. Creatine Kinase
Alkaline phosphatase Creatine Kinaseis mainly a cytoplasmic enzyme
Alkaline phosphatase, which is a membrane bound that catalyzes the exchange of phosphate moiety
enzyme hydrolyzes the monophosphates or between creatine phosphate and ATP. In myocardial
pyrophosphates at alkaline pH as well as and skeletal muscles, CK allows energy storage
physiological pH and it plays a role in bone as creatine phosphate when demand is low. But
mineralization by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, when energy is needed for muscle contraction, CK
which is a potent inhibitor of mineralization. Cells catalyzes the transfer of high-energy phosphate
of liver, bone, kidney, intestinal mucosa and from creatine phosphate to ADP to form ATP. CK
placenta have greatest ALP activity. An increase in activity is in the greatest concentration in skeletal
serum activity of ALP is mainly contributed by liver muscle followed by heart, diaphragm and smooth
whereas intestinal ALP(IALP) is not found in blood. muscle and then brain.There are two distinct
Lipase subunits of CK, referred to as the M(muscle) and
Lipasehydrolyzes the triglycerides to B(brain) subunits. These combine randomly to form
monoglycerides. It is of interest in the diagnosis of three isoenzymes of CK: CK-MM, CK-BB, CK-MB.
pancreatic disease. Half-life of lipase in dogs is 1- Half-life of CK is 2-3hrs in dogs. In domestic
3hrs. Activity assays for serum lipase is used species, CK activity is mainly used as a marker of
classically for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis skeletal muscle injury associated with trauma,
in dogs.
Cryo-preservation of embryos
Kennady Vijayalakshmy1,* and Meenakshi Virmani2
Research Scholar, Department of Veterinary Physiology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Assistant Endocrinologist, Department of Veterinary Physiology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal
Sciences *Corresponding Author e-Mail: drviji.vet6115@yahoo.com
1. Evaluating Suitability of Embryos for 3. Dehydrating Embryos Prior to
Cryopreservation Cryopreservation
a. Embryos harvested from donor females should a. Embryos should be transferred in a minimal
be placed into an isotonic embryo holding medium volume of isotonic embryo holding medium into a
for 10 minutes prior to evaluation. Be certain to keep hypertonic solution (1.4-1.5 Molar concentration) of
embryos from each donor female separate to a cryoprotective agent (CPA) such as ethylene
enable identification of parentage. glycol or glycerol.
b. Separate groups consisting of unfertilized ova, b. Allow embryos to sit in freezing medium
degenerate embryos, or transferable quality (hypertonic CPA solution) until they reach osmotic
embryos. Only quality grade 1 or 2 embryos at the equilibrium. Because ethylene glycol permeates
compact morula through expanded blastocyst embryonic cells morerapidly than does glycerol,
stages of development are suitable for cryopreser- equilibration times aretypically less for embryos in
vation, and all others should bediscarded. ethylene glycol (5 min) than in glycerol (10 min).
c. Inspect that the zona pellucida of these embryos Part of this equilibration time may be achieved
is intact and that there is no material (e.g., cells, during and after embryos are loaded into straws
mucus) adhering to the zona pellucida. Any embryo (described in next step).
with a cracked or missing zona pellucida or with a 4. Loading Embryos into a 0.25 ml Straw for
zona pellucida having adherent material should be Cryopreservation
discarded a. Attach the cotton plug end of a 0.25 ml plastic
2. Washing Embryos to Reduce Disease straw (11.5 cm length) to an embryo loading device,
Transmission and aspirate appx. 1.3 cm of hypertonic CPA sol.
a. Move embryos in a minimal volume of isotonic into a properly labeled straw.
medium into the first well of embryo washing b. Remove the straw from the CPA solution and
medium (e.g., phosphate buffered saline aspirate approx. 0.15 cm of air to create a tiny air
augmented with antibiotics and bovine serum bubble within the straw.
albumin, newborn calf serum, or polyvinyl alcohol). c. Aspirate a single embryo in approximately 0.8
Do not attempt to wash more than 10 embryos at cm of hypertonic CPA solution into the straw.
one time. Be certain to use sterile embryo handling d. Remove the straw from the CPA solution and
tips that are changed between each successive aspirate approximately 0.15 cm of air to create a
wash. Do four more serial washes. second tiny air bubble within the straw (air bubbles
b. If transmission of viral diseases is of concern, serve to physically isolate the embryo within the
wash embryos two times in a 0.25% trypsin straw).
solution, for a total combined exposure time to e. Aspirate approx. 9.1 cm of CPA solution to
trypsin of no more than 90 seconds. After the two completely fill the straw, being certain to moisten
trypsin washes, wash embryos five times more in the polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder that exists
embryo washing medium as described above in within the cotton plug end of the straw to seal that
(a). end of the straw.
c. After the final embryo wash, place embryos into f. Seal the other end of the straw with PVC powder,
isotonic embryo holding medium. plastic straw sealing plugs, or a heat sealer.


5. Placing Embryos into a Controlled Rate b. Locate the cane, and quickly and carefully
Embryo Freezing Machine remove the straw from the goblet, being certain not
a. Either methanol bath or liquid nitrogen vapor to warm other straws in the goblet.
freezing machines may be programmed for c. Hold the straw in air for 3-5 seconds (to reduce
cryopreservation of pre-implantation embryos. the incidence of a cracked zona pellucida), and then
b. Load the straws containing the embryos into a submerge into a 37°C water bath for an additional
freezing machine whose temperature has been 25-30 seconds.
cooled from ambient temperature to -6°C. Load d. Remove the straw from the water bath, wipe the
straws cotton plug end up (unless plastic straw straw, snip off the non-cotton plug end of the straw.
sealing plugs or straw adapters are being used, in Load the straw into an embryo transfer device and
which case cotton plug end is placed down). transfer as quickly as possible to a synchronous
c. Allow embryos to sit at this temperature for at embryo recipient.
least 2 minutes before proceeding. 9. Representative Results
6. Seeding A variety of factors may influence the pregnancy
a. Once embryos have cooled to -6°C, use a pair and live birth rates resulting from the transfer of
of tongs super-cooled in liquid nitrogen (or a cotton- frozen-thawed pre-implantation embryos to
tipped stick immersed in liquid nitrogen) to induce synchronous recipient females.
ice crystal formation in the CPA solution inside the 1. Embryos at developmental stages less
straw by touching the tongs (or cotton tipped advanced than compact morula or more advanced
stick) to the column of solution either above or below than expanded blastocyst often do not survive the
the embryo. cryopreservation process.
b. The water in the CPA solution will crystallize in 2. Embryos of quality grade 1 and 2 yield higher
the region exposed to liquid nitrogen, and ice post-thaw pregnancy rates than do quality
crystals will spread to the column of CPA solution grade 3 embryos.
immediately surrounding the embryo. 3. Embryos mishandled during the embryo freezing
c. Hold embryos at seeding temperature for 10 or embryo thawing procedures are likely to exhibit
minutes before further cooling. reduced pregnancy rates.
7. Continuing Dehydration of Embryos 4. Embryos transferred to recipient females whose
a. Cool embryos at a rate of 0.5°C/min down to a estrous cycles are not synchronized with that of
temperature of -34°C. This cooling rate is important the donor female typically produce lower pregnancy
to ensure continued dehydration of the embryo. rates.
b. Hold embryos at -34°C for 10 minutes before 5. Embryos produced in vitro or manipulated in
plunging embryos into liquid nitrogen (-196°C). some manner (e.g., biopsied or bisected) usually
yield lower pregnancy rates.
c. Place cryo-preserved embryos into an
appropriately labeled goblet (filled with liquid 6. Under optimal conditions, pregnancy rates
nitrogen) attached to an appropriately labeled obtained after transfer of frozen-thawed in vivo
cane and place the cane into a canister of a liquid derived embryos is typically 60-70% in cattle, 65-
nitrogen container for short- or long-term storage. 75% in sheep, and 60-70% in goats.
8. Thawing Cryo-preserved Embryos 7. Similarly, pregnancy rates obtained after transfer
of frozen-thawed in vitro produced embryos is
a. Pull the canister to the neck of the liquid nitrogen
typically 40-50% in cattle, 25-35% in sheep, and
container, so that the canister remains below the
30-40% in goats.
frost line in the container.
Applications of various approaches for
conservation of genetic resources in livestock
Shweta Sachan* and Pushpendra Kumar
Animal Genetics and Breeding Division
ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author: shwetagb24@gmail.com
Introduction management of biosphere for the benefit of
The indigenous livestock genetic resource mankind of present generation while maintaining
represents a unique resource to respond to the its potential to meet the future needs. Thus
present and future needs of livestock production. conservation refers to all human activities including
The “World Watch List for Domestic Animal strategies, plans, policies and actions undertaken
Diversity” report of FAO documents more than 8800 to ensure that the diversity of animal genetic
breeds of livestock belonging to 38 domestic resources being maintained to contribute to food
species. Among the domesticated populations, it and agricultural production and productivity, or to
is estimated that 1 to 2 breeds are lost every week maintain other values of these resources
and the impact of these losses on global or local (ecological, cultural) now and in the future.
diversity remains undocumented. As FAO states The most critical process in conservation is to
because of a lack of comprehensive information identify breed at risk. The extent of the risk of a
on population fragmentations or substructures and population can be expressed in terms of the rate of
geographical distributions, many animal inbreeding (ÄF) in the population. The rate of
populations in the developing regions of the world inbreeding is a measure of the expected changes
are commonly referred to as “non-descript” or in gene frequencies in the population due to genetic
“traditional”. drift. The rate of inbreeding is often inferred from
Table 1. Current scenario of animal genetic the effective population size (Ne). If effective
resources (AnGR) in India population size increases ÄF decreases, or the
effective population size and the rate of inbreeding
are inversely related, Ne = 1/ (2 ÄF). In livestock
breeds/ populations this assumption is rarely
applicable because some individuals contribute
unequal numbers of progeny to the next generation.
When Ne is small (below 100) the rate of loss of
There are many causes for genetic erosion or loss genetic diversity increases dramatically.
of animal genetic resources like use of exotic Classification of breeds at risk
germplasm by crossbreeding, changes in 1. Threatened
production systems by geographical A term used to describe an animal genetic resource
reorganization, purpose based farming system, population which is subject to some force of
changes in producer preference because of change, affecting the likelihood of it continuing
socioeconomic factors and natural discalamities indefinitely, either to exist, or to retain sufficient
like drought, famine, disease epidemics etc. So numbers to preserve the genetic characteristics
there is need for immediate action for systematic which distinguish it from other populations.
conservation, genetic enhancement and Threatened is a generic term embracing more
sustainable utilization of indigenous breeds. precise descriptions such as Endangered or
Conservation of AnGR is generally defined as Vulnerable.


2. Extinct Table 2. Classification of breeds at risk as per NBAGR
A breed is categorized as
extinct if: It is no longer possible
to recreate the breed
population. This situation
becomes absolute when there
are no breeding males or
breeding females remaining.
3. Critical
A breed is categorized as
critical if: The total number of
breeding females is less than or equal to 100 or
Threatened species of domestic animal in India
the total number of breeding males is less than or
Cattle and buffalo
equal to five; or the overall population size is less
than or equal to 120. India has rich and diverse genetic resources with
41 well defined breeds of cattle reported by
4. Endangered
NBAGR. The cattle and buffalo genetic resources
A breed is categorized as endangered if the total with vast population of 190.9 million and comprising
number of breeding females is greater than 100 large population of exotic/crossbred, indigenous
and less than or equal to 1000 or the total number and non-descript cattle are widely distributed in
of breeding males is less than or equal to 20 and diverse agro-ecological regions of the country (19th
greater than five. livestock census, 2012). 75% of the cattle are
5. Vulnerable referred to as nondescript and are generally named
When the population is rapidly declining numerically after the region they come from. Buffaloes are
or its security is under threat. indigenous animals having thirteen breeds besides
non-descript in the country these 13 breeds are
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of
recognized by NBAGR. India ranked 1st position in
the United Nations’s Global Databank for Animal
buffalo with a population size of 108.7 million (19th
Genetic Resources predicts the status of breeds
livestock census, 2012).
with help of Domestic Animal Diversity Information
Table 3. Current population of endangered
Systems (DAD-IS) Web. The Indian Council of
Indian cattle and buffalo breeds
Agricultural Research (ICAR), India has established
a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources
(NBAGR) at Karnal to take up description,
evaluation and conservation of the livestock genetic
resources and suggest strategies for their long
term conservation. Efforts are being made at
NBAGR to determine the latest status by compiling
information on characteristics of indigenous breeds
of livestock through surveys on native tracts. The
population size in thousands for consideration of
endangered status of a breed under Indian
conditions for different species have been
suggested as under by NBAGR.


Goat Table 5. Current population of Indian
India is a rich repository of goat genetic resources endangered sheep breed
having 28 well-recognized goat breeds and ranking
1st in the world. These breeds have evolved with
respect to different geographical and climatic
situation. As per 19th Livestock census, India
possesses 135.04 millions of Indigenous Goats
including Non-descript breeds. Many attempts have
been made to characterize and register the breeds
of goats in different regions of India still 61% of goat
population categorized as non-descript although
they have certain unique characters.

Table 4. Current population of Indian

endangered goat breed

Methods of conservation
Three major strategies should normally be followed
in conservation of farm animal genetic resources.
The first involves conservation of living population,
i.e. in situ conservation as well as ex situ in vivo.
The second encompasses conservation of living
ova, embryo, semen, somatic cell or other animal
tissue, DNA etc. stored cryogenically in liquid
nitrogen. However, there is no single method of
Sheep conservation/preservation which is optimal for all
The sheep population in India is estimated to be
about 65.07 million and ranking second in the world 1. In situ conservation
(BAHS, 2017). Indian sheep are of two types 1) The in situ conservation involves the maintenance
Exotic/Crossbred and 2) indigenous sheep of live populations of animals in their adaptive
including non-descript breeds. According to the environment, and animal populations continue to
FAO World Watch List, there are 60 breeds of evolve and develop for more sustainable use. The
sheep in India. Whereas NBAGR documented a active in situ conservation is equivalent to breed
total number of 42 indigenous sheep breeds in development by conducting well designed animal
India. These defined breeds cover 55.5% of the total breeding programmes, while the passive in situ
sheep population in India. conservation is concerned with the maintenance


of live animal populations of breeds at risk of loss only on improvement of productivity by
within their agro-environment. Therefore, a well laid- crossbreeding. There are some pure breeding
out national action plan has to be prepared not only herds also; however, the population size is too small
to preserve the live animals within their native to carry out effective selection for improvement.
environment but also to make them self sustainable These institutional herds need to be strengthened
under the given agro-ecosystem. In situ or live both in terms of superior germplasm as well as
animal conservation has several advantages as the modern tools and techniques.
breeds can gradually adapt to changing
environmental conditions besides improvement by
selective breeding may be approached through
genetic improvement and sustainable
management, institutional flocks, farmer’s flocks,
pastoralists flocks, and through stack-holder’s
involvement. Improvement of the breed through
selection and breeding can help in making it self-
sustainable. There are a number of
biotechnological tools (MOET and embryo transfer
technology), which can help in development of a
highly productive population of animal genetic
resources, capable of sustaining the economic Fig 1. In situ conservation model involving
pressures. The rules for replacement are given institutional herds
In situ conservation model for Gaushalas
i. Every breeding animal must be replaced by his/
The Gaushalas of India are institutional self-
her progeny.
contained cow shelters with their own land and
ii. The percentage of the known or visible housing facilities. There are currently more than
characteristics must be kept approximately 4000 Gaushalas across India. Most of these
around the foundation frequency. primarily cater to the needs of non-lactating, weak,
iii. Possibly the immunogenetics characteristics unproductive and stray cattle, but it is estimated
and DNA levels polymorphism data should also that more than a quarter of Gaushalas have the
be taken into consideration to the extent potential to be used for in vivo conservation. Many
possible. Gaushalas in India maintain pure-bred animals of
iv. The generation interval must be kept as long different locally adapted breeds, often in greater
as possible according to the breed or species. concentrations than can be found in surrounding
v. The number of males in consecutive years must herds belonging to local livestock keepers. A few
be as many as possible. progressive Gaushalas are repositories of well-
described locally adapted cattle breeds, and
In situ conservation model for institutional
produce quality males. They thereby contribute
directly to the conservation and improvement of
In India, a large network of infrastructural and these breeds. However, they do not have sufficient
facilities exists in Research Institutes/Universities/ resources and technical support to conserve and
Central and State Animal Breeding Farms and improve the breeds in the most effective manner.
Artificial Insemination (AI) centers. They have The following actions could allow these progressive
population of some important indigenous breeds. Gaushalas to be utilized more effectively for in vivo
However, until recently their main emphasis was conservation:


i. Identify Gaushalas with a large number of pure- In situ conservation model involving farmer’s
bred animals belonging to breeds at risk. flocks
ii. Support the development of the infrastructure Involvement of the farmers who have been keeping
needed to transform these Gaushalas from a particular breed for years may be desirable. The
rehabilitation centers into genetic resource most important case against preservation is the
centers. cost and the modern society may be reluctant to
fund project like conservation from which little
iii. Within each Gaushala, group the pure-bred and
economic or financial return can be expected in
non-pure-bred animals and house them
near future. Under Indian farming system a number
separately – choose the pure-bred animals
of indigenous breeds are to stay in for long run due
selectively if population sizes permit. to zero input requirement and disease resistance
iv. Implement identification, performance etc. Progressive farmers need to be identified and
recording and breeding programmes to improve encouraged to conserve these breeds and
the pure-bred stock through selective breeding. compensate them for the low returns, as a national
v. Distribute excess pure-bred stock to the local obligation for maintenance of animal biodiversity.
community, targeting livestock keepers that are
willing to continue pure-breeding the animals.
vi. An agreement should be made with the
participating Gaushalas not to resort to cross-
breeding or other such practices that may dilute
the genetic purity of the breed. In return, the
Gaushalas could be provided with scientific and
technical support and, if necessary, with
financial assistance.
vii. The Gaushalas should be encouraged and
supported in identifying unique and value-added
products that can help to increase their
economic value of the breeds they keep.

Fig 3. In situ conservation model involving

In India, animals are raised by farmers and no data
recording system is followed in field. Therefore,
proper evaluation of indigenous animals for further
improvement is not feasible at present. It may be
very important to form the Breed Societies in India
for the conservation of indigenous breeds.
Fig 2. In situ conservation model involving Moreover, the improvement of animal breeds
Gaushalas through selection of outstanding animals true to


their breed types from the larger population ii. In vitro methods
maintained in the breeding tract can be Cryo-conservation of wide variety of living cells or
simultaneously taken up in collaboration with these tissues for long periods of time viz., sperms,
Breed Societies. Dairy co-operative network in India oocytes, embryos and DNA etc. comprises in vitro
has greatly helped in making large number of ex situ conservation. The basic objectives of in vitro
animals for initiating breed improvement conservation are regeneration of endangered
programmes in cattle and buffaloes for milk, breed, new breed development, supporting the in
besides marketing their products at reasonable vivo populations and research for determining the
costs. effect of single major gene, DNA studies and
2. Ex situ conservation genome mapping.
Ex situ conservation involves conservation of 1. The semen should be stored in frozen
genetic material out of the environment in which it conditions at least in two locations to avoid any
developed. There are various ex situ approaches risk. It has been documented in several studies
of conservation of genetic resources. that many animal oocytes can be stored and
i. In vivo methods fertilized in vitro after thawing as usual.

Ex situ conservation of live animals in the form of 2. Embryos which are an excellent tool of
organized herd maintained in a research institution, conservation as all the genetic information is
state owned animal farm, zoo and breed safari stored in one diploid zygote, which can give,
comprises in vivo conservation. Keeping of large rise to a new progeny. Embryos are usually
flock, especially of relatively less productive breeds frozen between 30 and 120-cell stage in 0.25
is not feasible on economic grounds. In small ml straws. These straws can be stored at -
populations, animals suffer from inbreeding and 198°C for long term storage and can be
appearance of deleterious genetic defects. In such implanted successfully in the recipients. With
cases, it is very important to maintain the breeding limited resources in terms of facilities and
population in such a manner that the inbreeding trained manpower at some places this
rate is kept at minimal level and production technique can be utilized for the ex situ
performance can be improved over the years to conservation of only endangered breeds of
make the breed self sustaining. The effective animal.
population size of breeding females and males 3. Currently cloning has created revolutionary
either through natural mating or through AI can be opportunities in both animal breeding and
maintained either under scientifically managed research by development of procedure for
farms of organized sector or with the farmers in nuclear transfer in animal, where unlimited
their native breeding tract or under breed safari or number of cloned animals is bred by nuclear
parks. The biggest limitation of conservation of transfer, using somatic cells cultured in vitro.
breeds outside their home-tract is the population This technology shall hold for conservation of
size avoiding the ill effects due to inbreeding. The available genetic diversity of threatened genetic
effective population size is very important resources. Cloning can be used to produce
consideration and depends upon the ratio of male identical copies of elite stud males or females,
and females under different systems of selection. more rapidly than conventional breeding.


4. A new method of preservation now emerging is emphasis on diseases resist-ance and adaptability
the preservation of sequences of catalogued to harsh environments is essential. Properly
DNA in perpetuity. Storage of DNA for designed selection experiments should be carried
conservation of breeds though has the out for important indigenous breeds which are not
advantage of disease free transportation across involved in genetic improvement experiments
the countries, but it too has problems, which through crossbreeding. Since sizeable populations
are preventing it from becoming the normal of different crossbreds are available around a
method of preservation. One is the fact that number of milk shed areas, such populations
genome maps are not yet available to identify should be utilized for performance recording and
which sequences of DNA are responsible for progeny testing of crossbred sires, in order to take
specific traits in the live animal. The second is full advantage of crossbreeding, progeny tested
that the use of stored DNA to recreate an animal half bred bulls should be used for the development
with specific traits is not yet possible as DNA
of new breeds/strains adapted to the given
reinsertion techniques with animal cells still
environment. The present evaluation of different
produce random results.
breeds and breed crosses is being done only under
5. A few new methods of conservation now intensive management system. Such evaluation
emerging include establishment of embryonic should be done under intensive, medium and low
stem cell lines and conservation of somatic
input so that the most efficient genotypes for each
cells. These techniques will offer an alternative
of these management levels could be identified. A
approach to the preservation of genetic variation
number of native breeds may be, in danger of
of endangered breeds in developing countries.
genetic dilution through indiscriminate
The other important aspects of conservation of
crossbreeding with exotic breeds. Such native
animal genetic resources involve
breeds should be identified, so that they can be
establishment/strengthening of National Animal
evaluated before this process leads to their
Data Bank, National Gene Bank, National Animal
essential loss.
Conservation Board and Global Data Bank.
Conclusions and recommendations
19th Livestock Census. 2012. Ministry of Agriculture
Precise and reliable estimates of different genetic
Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and
components of variability of important economic
Fisheries, New Delhi, Government of India.
traits of indigenous breeds of livestock should be
obtained. This would be needed for evolving BAHS. 2017. Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics,

appropriate breeding plans for their improvement. Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and

A more reliable and objective assess-ment of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of

performance of indigenous breeds with special India.

Bovine actinomycosis / Lumpy jaw Disease in Livestock
Madhu Mishra1 and Deepak Upadhyay2
Veterinary Assistant Surgeon, Govt. of M.P., 2 Scientist, ICAR-IGFRI, Jhansi
Authors email: vetmadhu03@gmail.com
Introduction: Actinomycosis is chronic, • After a week or two, infection gets settle in
progressive, pyogranulomatous rarefying bone, enlargement becomes more hard,
osteomyelitis of the maxillae, mandible, or any other painful and soft tissue oedemabecomes
bony tissues of head. The mass will be slow in less apparent.
growth, firm in consistency, painless and attached
• Untreated cases results to
to the mandible. The alveoli of the roots of the cheek pyogranulomatous infection of bone and
teeth are involved and results to loose teeth which associated soft tissues, which ultimately
makes chewing difficult and painful. Painful develop to granulomas.
chewingresults to evidentweight loss.Ulceration
• Draining tracts forms through the skin or
occurs with or without tracts draining purulent
into the oral cavity. These tracts discharge
material. These organisms are part of normal flora
copious quantities of serous or
of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, they enter
mucopurulent pus that can be source of
inside tissues following trauma to mucosa through
infection to other animals.
abrasions and penetrating wounds may be from
wire, sharp branches, coarse hay or sticks. Bacteria
may also invade tissue through dental alveoli during
tooth eruption.
Causative agent: Actinomyces bovis is
responsible for actinomycosis/lumpy jaw, which is
a gram-positive, non-spore forming, non-motile,
non-acid fast, facultative anaerobic pleomorphic
coccobacillary bacterium in the genus
Host: Cattle are mainly affected. Pigs, sheep and
goats are affected occasionally.
Zoonotic importance: Actinomyces bovis is a
zoonotic organism, causes granulomas,
abscesses, skin lesions, and bronchopneumonia
in humans.
Clinical signs:
• Initially Actinomyces bovis infection of the
mandible or maxilla appear as warm, painful
swellings consisting of distinct oedema
overlapping a firm, painful, bony swelling • Radiographs of skull confirm severe
which can easily be mistaken as traumatic osteomyelitis with multifocal radiolucency
injury. caused by rarefaction of bone.


• Because of distortionof teeth, eating • Sodium iodide (treatment of choice in
becomes more difficult for severely affected ruminant) @ 70 mg/kg of a 10%–20%
cows. solution, IV) is given once and repeated

• Salivation, reduced appetite, hesitant several times at 7to 10day intervals.

attempts to chew, and dropping food from If any kind of Iodine toxicity (dandruff,
the mouth may be observed. diarrhoea, anorexia, flaky skin coughing, and
• Oral mucosal or tongue lacerations may be excessive lacrimation) is observed, Iodine
apparent. administration should be discontinued or
given at long intervals

• Based on clinical signs, location of lesion • Prolonged therapy with penicillin or

and species involved penicillin-streptomycin (22,000 U/kg once

daily), parenterallyfor at least 7 days
• Radiographs of head (determines degree
of bone destruction) • Isoniazid per os for 30 days is also
• Isolation and identification of Actinomyces
bovis in laboratory (specimen: exudates, • When lesions are small and circumscribed,
aspirates, tissue samples). Actinomyces surgery is the treatment of choice
bovis shows MZN (modified Zeil-Neelsen)
• Surgical debulking or removal of large
negative staining and non-haemolytic
pyogranulomas projecting from the skin of
growth on media.
advanced cases may reduce the size of the
• Histopathological examination of lesion.
specimens from lesions reveals aggregates
• Loose teeth may require extraction, and
of filamentous organisms surrounded by
fistulous tracts may be flushed with iodine
typical eosinophilic club-shaped structures
• Differential diagnosis should be done from
actinobacillosis which also involve soft Control strategy: As the Actinomyces bovis is

tissue of head (wooden tongue). consisting normal flora of GIT and oropharynx in
cattle, control of lumpy jaw focuses on avoiding
Treatment: Purpose of the treatment is to kill
coarse, poor quality stemmy feeds/hay or feeds
bacteria and stop its transmission to other body
with plant awns that might damage the mucosal
tissue and animals.Duration of therapy is dependent
epithelium and allow entry of bacteria to soft tissue.
on the severity of the lesion and response to therapy

Cat-Scratch Disease: A Bacterial Zoonoses &
its Public Health effects
Dr. Rizwan Khan1 Dr. S. Shakya2
1 MVSc 2 Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, Anjora, Durg (C.G.)
Introduction: Cat scratch fever is a mild to severe experimentally by intravenous or intramuscular
disease that can affect humans. It is most often injection of feline blood, suggesting that iatrogenic
caused by bacteria called Bartonella henselae .The spread (including transmission through blood
bacteria may infect cats and be spread to humans transfusions) might be possible.
by bites or scratches. Cats rarely show signs of Transmission was not observed when cats were
illness but humans can develop skin lesions, fever in contact, but fleas were absent, indicating that
or in severe cases, systemic (whole body) infection. casual contact and the sharing of food or water
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a clinical syndrome dishes are not significant sources of exposure. In
that usually presents as a self-limiting one experiment, B. henselae was not spread by
lymphadenopathy associated with a cat scratch or sexual contact (bacteremic females and uninfected
bite. Commonly affecting children and young adults, males) or vertically to kittens. Once a cat has been
it has a worldwide distribution. In temperate infected, bacteremia can last for weeks to months,
climates, higher rates are reported in the autumn and the number of bacteria in the blood can fluctuate
and winter, which can be attributed to the seasonal greatly during this time. Intermittent B henselae or
breeding of the domestic cat. B clarridgeiae bacteremia was reported to persist
Epidemiology: CSD has a worldwide distribution, for almost 15 months in some experimentally
having been reported in the United States, Japan, infected cats, and for as long as 3 years in naturally
Israel and Australia. In the UK, very few cases were infected cats (although it is possible that these cats
reported after the late 1970s, and this can be were reinfected).
attributed directly to the withdrawal of the skin In Humans more than 90% of clinical cases occur
antigen test because of concerns about its safety. in people who have been in contact with cats, most
In temperate climates, a higher rate of CSD cases often kittens, and the majority of these patients
has been reported in the autumn and winter months. report having been scratched, bitten or licked. In
Bass and co-workers considered many variables most cases, B. henselae probably enters the body
that might affect the prevalence of CSD, including through a scratch contaminated by flea feces.
geographical location, climate and season, and cat- Organisms in feline saliva may be transmitted to
associated variables such as density, age, people in bites, or abrasions that are licked by the
exposure, and degree of flea infestation. cat. It is still unproven whether the bacteria in feline
Transmission: saliva come from the cat’s blood, or from flea feces
ingested while grooming. However it is also found
Bartonella henselae is transmitted between cats
that Bartonella DNA was more likely to occur in
by cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), probably via
oral swabs from bacteremic than nonbacteremic
flea feces. This organism is reported to survive for
3 days in flea feces. Cats can also be infected


• The characteristic solitary lymphadenopathy or
(less frequent) regional lymphadenopathy
usually develops within a few weeks of
exposure. Affected lymph nodes are often
painful or tender, and the skin over the nodes
can be warm, reddened and indurated. Cellulitis
is, however, rare. Occasionally, the nodes may
suppurate, especially when they are large.
Lymphadenopathy usually lasts for a few weeks
to a few months, occasionally up to a year, and
rarely longer. Cat scratch disease without
lymphadenopathy seems to be unusual in
young, healthy patients, but it is reported to be
more common in elderly individuals and
(Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]). transplant patients.
Zoonoses and communicable diseases
• Other common symptoms in cat scratch
common to man and animals. Volume 1.
disease are a low grade fever, malaise and
Bacterioses and mycoses. 3rd ed. Washington
fatigue. The fever usually disappears within 1-2
DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific and Technical
weeks but fatigue may persist for weeks or
Publication No. 580. Cat-scratch disease; p. 78-
months. Less often, there may be other
nonspecific signs such as headache, anorexia,
Clinical Signs: vomiting, nausea, weight loss, generalized pain
Humans: or a sore throat.

In cat scratch disease, cutaneous lesions usually • Complications may occur in some patients, with
develop at the inoculation site within 7 to 15 days an increased incidence in the elderly and
after exposure, and lymphadenopathy is typically people who are immunocompromised.
seen after 1-3 weeks. However, clinical signs have Encephalitis has been reported in as many as
been reported as soon as 3 days and up to 50 days 4-5% of patients in some case series. It typically
after exposure. occurs 1-6 weeks after the classic symptoms,
but cases without lymph node involvement, as
• In many cases, the first sign of cat scratch
well as cases preceding lymphadenopathy,
disease is the development of one or more
have been reported.
small, reddish-brown, erythematous papules,
pustules, macules, vesicles or ulcers at the • An atypical form of cat scratch disease, called
inoculation site. These lesions disappear in 1-3 Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, is
weeks, and may be mistaken for insect bites; thought to result from inoculation of the
however, they are not usually pruritic. organism into the eye. This syndrome is


characterized by no purulent unilateral but also for febrile lymphadenitis, liver disease, joint
conjunctivitis and/or conjunctival granuloma, involvement and other diverse conditions.
together with preauricular, submandibular, or Diagnosis:
cervical lymphadenopathy. It usually resolves
Culture of blood or other tissues is the most
in several weeks without permanent damage.
definitive method to detect Bartonella infections;
(Davis CP. Cat scratch disease (CSD or cat however, these organisms cannot always be
scratch fever). eMedicine.com; 2009. Available isolated from infected animals.
at: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/
They may be easier to culture from some hosts
cat_scratch_disease/article_ em.htm. Accessed
(e.g., B. henselae in cats) than others. Even in cats,
Jan 2012.
several attempts may be needed to detect bacteria
In Animals: in the blood, as bacteremia can be intermittent.
Cats: Bartonella spp. are fastidious, and isolation requires
Naturally-infected cats with B. henselae bacteremia specialized media such as fresh chocolate agar or
are usually asymptomatic. In experimental studies, brain–heart infusion agar enriched with blood.
most cats inoculated with this organism remained Visible colonies of B. henselae usually develop in 9
asymptomatic or had only mild clinical signs such days to 6-8 weeks. Some new media introduced in
as inoculation site reactions, mild nonspecific research laboratories or reported in the literature
febrile illness, transient mild behavioral or may improve isolation of Bartonella spp., especially
neurological signs, mild transient anemia, in species other than the reservoir hosts.
eosinophilia or reproductive disorders. PCR assays are commonly used to detect
In a recent study, fever and inappetence occurred Bartonella spp. in research, and may be available
in some cats exposed to B. henselae-infected fleas, in some laboratories. One sensitive technique
but not in cats inoculated intravenously with B. employs isolation in a Bartonella á- Proteobacteria
henselae. One flea-exposed cat, which may not growth medium (BAPGM) based enrichment
have mounted an adequate immune response to culture, followed by multiplex real-time PCR.
the infection, became severely ill and myocarditis Serological tests for B. henselae include
was found at necropsy. immunofluorescent antibody, ELISA and
Dogs: immunoblotting (Western blotting). The

No clinical signs other than transient fever were demonstration of intraocular Bartonella-specific

reported in dogs inoculated with B. vinsonii subsp. antibody helps substantiate the involvement of this

berkhoffii. Two dogs inoculated with B. rochalimae organism in cases of uveitis.

also remained asymptomatic, other than False positive test results appear to be common in
inflammation at the inoculation site. Bartonella spp. all serological assays, and it is recommend with
have been suggested as possible etiologic agents the use of serology in conjunction with blood culture
in some case reports, particularly for endocarditis, or PCR testing.


Treatment: HIV-infected Adults and Adolescents note
that there is no evidence that routine culture
Treatment is usually recommended only for
or serological testing of healthy cats for
animals that are ill, although it may be considered
Bartonella provides any benefit for owners.
in other circumstances (e.g., in a young,
bacteremic cat living with a highly susceptible • Flea control decreases the risk that
individual). household cats will acquire B. henselae or
transmit it to other cats.
Antibiotic resistant isolates of Bartonella spp. have
occasionally been reported. Routine treatment of (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
asymptomatic, bacteremic cats is not (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/
recommended as a method of zoonosis prevention. diseases/catscratch.htm)
No treatment regimen is proven to be consistently References:
effective in eliminating B. henselae bacteremia in
• (Pan American Health Organization
cats, although some antibiotics have apparently [PAHO]). Zoonoses and communicable
been successful in individual animals. diseases common to man and animals.
Prevention & Control: Volume 1. Bacterioses and mycoses. 3rd
ed. Washington DC: PAHO; 2003. Scientific
• Bites and scratches from cats, particularly
and Technical Publication No. 580. Cat-
kittens, should be avoided.
scratch disease; p. 78-81.
• Rough play with kittens is inadvisable, and
• August, J.R. Cat-scratch disease. Zoonosis
any bites or scratches should immediately
update. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:312–315,
be washed with soap and water.
• Declawing does not appear to affect
• Benenson, A.S., ed. Control of
transmission, but keeping the nails clipped
Communicable Diseases in Man. 15th ed.
has been suggested by some sources.
An official report of the American Public
• Cats should be discouraged from licking a Health Association. Washington, D.C.:
person’s skin, particularly eyes, mucous American Public Health Association; 1990.
membranes and broken skin. Hand washing • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
after contact with a cat might be helpful. (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/
• The ability of cats to transmit B. henselae diseases/catscratch.htm.
is transient, and authorities do not • Davis CP. Cat scratch disease (CSD or cat
recommend removing them from the scratch fever). eMedicine.com; 2009.
household. The efficacy of antibiotics in Available at: http://
eliminating B. henselae bacteremia in cats w w w. e m e d i c i n e h e a l t h . c o m /
is uncertain. The 2009 Guidelines for cat_scratch_disease/article_ em.htm.
Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among Accessed Jan 2012

Alltech India pledges 1,000 trees to the Isha

Foundation for Make a Difference Day

[BENGALURU, India] – Alltech India celebrated the where it flows. Itbrings wellbeing and prosperity and
life and legacy of its founder, Dr. Pearse Lyons on is the very source of life for these lands. However,
his 75th birthday by visiting the Isha Foundation for over the last few years,the river has beendry apart
Make a Difference Day. from monsoon season, not reaching the sea. A
The Isha Foundation is a leading and renowned forest-fed perennial river is fast becoming a
NGO, working on various social causes. Alltech,in seasonal stream. This is due to losing 87% of its
keeping with aPlanet of Plenty™ and its tree cover in the last 50 years.As the trees
commitment to the UN Sustainable Development disappear,the soil erodes, the Cauvery dries up and
Goals, decided to helpthe foundationby pledging the farmers suffer. Cauvery Calling is trying to
1,000 tree saplings to their Cauvery Calling reverse this effect by planting more trees.
campaign. The Alltech India team also took part in an Upa Yoga
Cauvery Calling is a first-of-its-kind campaign in session, which helped to rejuvenate the employees’
India, setting the standard for how the country’s bodies, minds, and souls.
rivers can be revitalised.The initiative does this by
Elsewhere, the Alltech Pune Facility team
planting trees, helpingwith water retention and
visited Zilla Parishad School inSavardari village and
reviving river ecology and climatic conditions.
spent quality time with them, as children are the
The current water crisis is a growing concern future of any nation.The team hosted an interactive
across India. The Cauvery river is one of the key session with the school’s 175 students and
sources of water to Bengaluru city and millions of donated essential notebooks and stationery
farmers in the Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states materials.


Contact:Dr. Manish Chaurasia, Together, with our more than 5,000 talented team
Marketing manager, Poultry (South Asia) members worldwide, we believe in “Working
mchaurasia@alltech.com; +91 8130890989 Together for a Planet of Plenty™.”With the adoption
About Alltech: of new technologies, the adaptation of better farm

Founded in 1980 by Irish entrepreneur and scientist management practices and the ingenuity inherent
Dr. Pearse Lyons, Alltech is a cutting-edge in the human spirit, we believe a world of abundance
technology company in a traditional industry, could be ours.
agriculture. Our products improve the health and Alltech is a private, family-owned company, which
nutrition of plants and animals, resulting in more
allows us to adapt quickly to our customers’ needs
nutritious products for people as well as less impact
and stay focused on advanced innovation.
on the environment.
Headquartered just outside of Lexington, Kentucky,
With expertise in yeast fermentation, solid state USA, Alltech has a strong presence in all regions
fermentation and the sciences of nutrigenomics of the world. For further information, visit
and metabolomics, Alltech is a leading producer of
www.alltech.com/news. Join us in conversation on
yeast additives, organic trace minerals, feed
Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.
ingredients, premix and feed.

Vaccines and Vaccination failure
S. Tamilarasu, V. M. Vivek Srinivas*, V. Jayalakshmi, P. X. Antony, H. K. Mukhopadhyay
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, RIVER, Kurumbapet, Puducherry – 605 009
*Corresponding author – Dr. V. M. Vivek Srinivas, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, RIVER, Kurumbapet,
Puducherry – 605 009, Ph: +91 97428 91992; E-mail: vivekvet24@gmail.com
Vaccines: Vaccine is a biological preparation that corticosteroid therapy, it will be under
improves immunity to a particular disease. immunosuppression state. During this period when
Vaccines are broadly classified into two types: we administer vaccine, the animal’s immune
1.Traditional vaccine and 2.New generation system cannot actively participate in antigen
vaccines. Currently in India, all the available recognition and processing that may leads to
veterinary vaccines are comes under traditional vaccination failure.
vaccine, which includes live attenuated vaccine, Sometimes Immunosuppression caused by
inactivated / killed vaccine, toxoid vaccine. The new infectious agents like Retrovirus also. These virus
generation vaccines constructed using targets CD4+ T lymphocytes that are responsible
recombinant DNA technology includes subunit for production of cell mediated immunity. Due to
vaccine, gene deleted vaccine, DNA vaccine, virus sharp decline of these cells leads to
like particle vaccine, synthetic peptide vaccine and immunosuppression followed by vaccination failure.
chimeric vaccines are still under development in
(iii) Passive protection by maternally derived
the field of veterinary.
antibodies (MDA):
Vaccination failure
Newborn have the inherent capacity to respond
Failure to stimulate a protective immune response
immunologically to numerous antigens at birth, but
in a host which may be due to animal related factors
this response is slower and inferior compared with
and/or vaccine related factors.
that of older animals. As described earlier,
1. Animal related factors: protection against infection during these early weeks
(i) Infection (Incubating the disease): of life is provided primarily by passive transfer of
If the animal is already incubating the disease prior immunoglobulins and small amounts of cellular
to inoculation of the vaccine, the vaccine material from the dam’s colostrum.
candidates doesn’t have an enough time to stimulate However, only up to 18% of the serum antibody
the immune response to prevent/ control the received by the neonate from its dam is transferred
disease. Any kind of vaccine doesn’t produce in utero. This small amount of antibody protects
immediate effect as like of drugs which are colostrum-deprived young ones but makes them
commonly used to treat diseases/ illness. To resistant to immunization for a variable period. The
stimulate a protective immune response, Vaccine immunoglobulin absorbed systemically from
take minimum a period of 14-21 days. colostrum can give the neonate a titer that can be
(ii) Immunosuppression equal or exceed that of the dam in some instances.
Immunosuppression is a most common side effect Over time, the MDA declines at a characteristic half-
when use corticosteroids like prednisolone, life that is specific for each disease-producing
dexamethasone. When an animal under continuous agent.


Antibody class is also important with respect to titer may lost. Administration of such kind of vaccine may
loss. In neonates, serum contains maternally leads to vaccination failure.
derived IgA, IgM, and IgG that are usually lost in the (b) Improper storage conditions:
order given. The absolute titer of MDA in the serum Most of the traditional vaccines are heat labile. It
of a neonate depends on the quantity of requires cold chain maintenance in order to maintain
immunoglobulin received during nursing and the the efficacy of the vaccine. Cold chain maintenance
absolute titer of the dam. The amount is also is not a responsibility of the single person. It involves
inversely proportional to the size of the litter. serious of persons from vaccine manufacturing unit
(iv) Immunodeficient state: to the door step level where the animals are there.
Partial or complete impairment in the normal Improper storage or frequent freezing and thawing
function of the immune system is called as results in degradation of vaccine substance or
immunodeficiency, which can be classified as death of the vaccine antigen in live attenuated
primary immunodeficiency and secondary vaccine occur.
immunodeficiency. Primary immunodeficiency is (c) Ineffective vaccine:
an inherited immune disorder, which is caused by Vaccine antigen having incapable of inducing
single gene mutation. These are very rarely seen. protective immunity leads to vaccination failure.
Secondary immunodeficiencies are more common
(d) Wrong strain or serotype of pathogen:
than primary immunodeficiency, which is the result
Choosing of wrong strain or serotype while vaccine
of primary illness/ external illness.
manufacturing causes vaccination failure. For
These kinds of immunodeficiency due to incapable
example FMD ‘O’ serotype vaccine can protect the
of immune cells to recognize a vaccine antigen that
animal from the disease caused by FMD ‘O’
leads to vaccination failure.
serotype virus. There is cross protection in-between
(v) Expose to heavy challenge dose of serotypes of the FMD virus.
infectious agent shortly after vaccination:
Any kind of vaccine does not produce immediate
effect as like of drugs that are commonly used to
treat diseases/ illness. To stimulate a protective
immune response, Vaccine take minimum a period
of 14-21 days. Until the development of protective
immune response, animal should be away from
contact with infectious agents.
2. Vaccine related factors:
(i) Characteristics of vaccine:
(a) Out of date:
It is the responsibility of the veterinarian to check (e) Death of live virus:
the expiry date of the vaccine. If the expiry date
In case of the live attenuated vaccines, death of
exceeds, the potency of the vaccine candidates
the live virus leads to vaccine failure because the


vaccine antigen should be live in order to stimulate (c) Aerosolized vaccine:
protective immune response.
If the aerosolized vaccines are used in a farm
(ii) Vaccine reconstitution and administration: especially poultry farms, we have to ensure that all

(a) Inappropriate diluents: the birds in the farm should receive the
recommended quantity of vaccine in order to obtain
Diluent contains chemicals needed for dilution of
adequate immune response.
lyophilised vaccine, preservatives, bactericides and
buffers to maintain the pH. The diluents must be (d) Using of non sterile equipments:
sterile. Some of the field veterinarians using normal Multidose container are frequently contaminated by
saline or other intravenous fluids as diluents that the use of non sterile syringe and needle which will
will leads to reduction of potency and efficiency of leads to adverse effects in vaccinated animals.
inducing immune response.
(b) Incorrect route of administration:
1. Heininger U , Bachtiar NS , Bahri P , Dana A ,
While manufacturing the vaccine, the scientists
Dodoo A , Gidudu J , Santos EM (2012). The
inject vaccine into laboratory animals at various
concept of Vaccination Failure. Vaccine,
routes and different dose level in order to access
the ability the vaccine to induce immune response
and antibody titre level at different routes and finally 2. Wiedermann U, Garner- Spitze E and Wagner
recommend a route of administration of a particular A (2016). Primary vaccine failure to outine
vaccine. vaccines: Why and What to do?. Hum Vaccin
Immunother. 12(1): 239-43.
We have to follow the recommended route of
vaccine administration in order to obtain maximum 3. Copier J and Dalgleish A (2010). “Whole-Cell
antibody titre. Vaccines: A Failure or a Success Waiting to
Happen?” Current Opinion in Molecular
Therapeutics, 12(1): 14-20.

4. Frederick A. murphy, Paul J. Gibbs, Marian C.

Horzinek and Michael J. Studdert. Veterinary
Virology .Third edition. Page No.225-
244.Academic Press Publisher

5. Quinn P J, Markey B K, Leonard F C,

FitzPatrick E S, Fanning S and Hartigan P J.
Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease.
Second Edition. Page No.80-93 .Wiley-
Blackwell Publisher.
Don’t Cut Corners on Cow Diets
What a cow eats during pregnancy influences the performance of her calf.
By Raylene Nickel
Cutting corners on cow nutrition may save on feed
costs in the short term, but the long-range
consequences could be more costly and more far
reaching than expected.
Research has shown that calves born to cows whose
diets were nutritionally restricted during gestation
experience long-term losses in performance, as
compared with progeny born to cows receiving 100%
of their nutritional requirements throughout
“Studies reported instances of compromised
maternal nutrition during gestation resulting in
increased neonatal mortality, intestinal and
respiratory dysfunction, metabolic disorders, Mitch Kezar
decreased postnatal growth rates, and reduced meat
quality,” says Rick Funston, University of Nebraska Fetal programming causes the fetus to adjust to the
reproductive physiologist. nutritional restriction. The developmental process
Nutrition is important at every stage under way in the fetus at the time of the restriction
may affect the ability of the fetus to reach its full
Identifying the stage of gestation most nutritionally
genetic potential.
critical for the fullest development of the fetus is more
elusive than nutritionists earlier thought. “Different “Because muscle fiber numbers do not increase after
systems develop at different times in the fetus, so birth, the fetal stage is crucial for skeletal muscle
there’s the potential for these different systems to development,” says Funston. “Because skeletal
be affected by the dam’s nutrition at different times muscle is a lower priority in nutrient partitioning
during gestation,” says Funston. compared with the brain, heart, or other organ
systems, it’s vulnerable to nutrient deficiency.”
Limb development, for instance, begins as early as
day 25. Sequential development of other organs As a result, the calf may be born with reduced muscle
soon follows, including the pancreas, liver, lungs, mass, thus, expressing reduced performance in
thyroid, spleen, brain, and kidneys. growth and carcass development. The accumulation
of intramuscular fat can be reduced, as well.
“Testicle development begins by day 45 in male
calves, and ovarian development begins in female The fetal stage most nutritionally important to the
calves between day 50 and 60,” he says. “Another development of muscle mass is the second to
important event in female gonadal development seventh months of gestation. The third trimester is
occurs about day 80 of gestation, when follicles are the most critical for the development of marbling in
formed that after puberty affect what’s known as the the offspring.
ovarian reserve. This can influence a heifer’s One study compared the performance of calves born
reproductive lifespan.” to cows grazing native range during the fourth to
If the cow experiences a nutritional deficiency at any sixth months of gestation with the performance of
point in the gestational period, the fetus receives a calves from cows grazing improved pasture during
metabolic signal through blood flow to the placenta. the same period.


Calves born to the cows grazing native range had a rate of heifers born to cows grazing dormant range
weaning weight of 534 pounds, a hot carcass weight during the last third of gestation was only 80%.
(HCW) of 726 pounds, and a marbling score of 420. Conversely, heifers born to cows supplemented with
Calves born to cows on improved pasture had a protein under the same conditions had a pregnancy
weaning weight of 564 pounds, a HCW of 768 rate of 93%.
pounds, and a marbling score of 455.
Cows appear to meet the nutritional needs of the
Like steer performance, the conception rate of fetus when they are maintained in a body condition
heifers suffered, too, from nutritional restriction of score of 5, says Funsto
dams, according to another study. The pregnancy
Courtesy: agriculture.com
Genetic and phenotypic trends for milk fatty acids in a
Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions
Eula ReginaCarraraa1Leila de GenovaGayaaJulianaPetrinib2José Teodoro
dePaiva MayaraSalvianbGregori AlbertoRovadosckibPaulo FernandoMachadobGerson BarretoMourãob

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of São João del-Rei, São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazi

Highlights The pedigree file contained 7963 animals of seven

generations. Genetic and phenotypic trends were
• There are no direct selection programs for milk
obtained by linear regression of breeding values or
fatty acid profile.
phenotypic values, respectively, over generations.
• Fatty acids composition has been slightly Single-trait analyses were performed and the
genetically modified with the generations. breeding values were estimated using Bayesian
• There seems to be a correlated response of approach. All traits showed negative phenotype
small magnitude in the fatty acid profile. trend (H0.02723/ g/100/ g of milk to H0.00395/ g/
100/ g of milk), indicating reduction of the phenotypic
• Genetic and phenotypic gains for fatty acids value over generations. According to the genetic
profile should be monitored. trends for MUFA and PUFA (H0.00023 and H0.00005,
• It is suggested to investigate the causes of respectively, in g/100/ g of milk) the breeding values
correlated responses. of the animals were reduced throughout the
generations, while for SFA, C16:0 and C18:0 the
Abstract genetic trends (0.00134, 0.00052 and 0.00013,
Evaluation of genetic and phenotypic trends is respectively, in g/100/ g of milk) showed an increase
important to monitor the evolution of dairy cattle in breeding values, possibly due to correlated effects
breeding programs. Traits that are not commonly originated from selection protocols applied to the
included as selection goals should also be herd. The linear regression coefficients of the
monitored, especially when they have some effect genetic values in the generations were not significant
on consumer health, such as milk fatty acids profile. for UFA and C18:1 (p-value > 0.6226 and p-
Thus, the aim was to evaluate the genetic and value > 0.9708, respectively). Significant genetic
phenotypic trends of the milk fatty acids composition and phenotypic trends of small magnitude were
on a Holstein dairy cattle population, from three obtained, which may be a consequence of the
farms, reared in a tropical environment. Monthly absence of direct selection for these traits in these
records of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic populations. Genetic and phenotypic gains for fatty
(C18:1), total saturated (SFA), unsaturated (UFA), acids profile in milk should be monitored to guide
monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated breeding programs in their selection objectives. It is
(PUFA) fatty acids content in milk (g/100/ g of milk), suggested to investigate the causes of possible
were collected of 2047 Holstein cows from three correlated response in the studied populations.
Brazilian farms between May and December of 2012.
Courtesy: sciencedirect.com
Inherited genetic disorders in Rabbits
M.Jeyakumar and R.Saravanan
Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding Veterinary college and research institute, Namakkal-637002.
Introduction 2. Adrenal Hyperplasia
The rabbit possess a number of advantages as It can be observed from the 19th day of gestation.
high growth and reproductive rate, early sexual Due to the hyper secretion of adrenalin causes
maturity and ability to rebreed shortly after kindling, death right after parturition. The adrenal hyperplasia
do to their fast recovering endometrium. Rabbits disorder is caused by a fully penetrant autosomal
are one of the most efficient cellulose converter recessive gene noted ah, a mutant maintained in
species, ensuring high production of low-cost meat, strain IIIVO/ahJ. The absence of the cholesterol
do to their herbivore nature, and not at least they side-chain cleavage enzyme cytochrome P450
are not in competition with humans regarding diet. (P450scc) expression in rabbits affected with
The main product, rabbit meat has several nutrition congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were
qualities as high protein level, low fat and low reported.
cholesterol .These qualities of the species, beside
3. Hypotrichosis
more others, make rabbits breeding one of the
solutions for protein deficiency countries. Also the It is caused by an autosomal recessive gene. The
rabbit is a valuable material in scientific research, mutation can be identified from the age of two
in histology, virology. This paper aims to discuss weeks, when the unaffected individuals are normally
the main genetic problems in domestic rabbits covered by down, and the affected ones present a
very poor pilosity on the neck and ears. The
anomaly is accompanied by tooth defects, which
1.Diaphragmatic Hernia can lead to their loss, the rabbits become more
It leads to newborns death do to respiratory failure. and more debilitated and die at the age of 1 month,
There arecases when diaphragm hernia is when there are weaned and are enable to consume
accompanied by phenotypic disorders, or the solid forage.
diaphragm can partially missing, more often on the 4. Achondroplasia
left and postero lateral, when the abdominal content
It is a recessive autosomal trait results from
(spleen and the stomach) moves in to the thoracic
mutation in an FGR receptor gene, FGFR-3, where
cavity. The recessive genes which causing
the synthesis of cartilaginous ECM is reduced and
diaphragm hernia are located on an autosomal
there is much cell death and necrosis, especially
locus, carrying an dh noted gene with a penetrance
of 30 %, or on two autosomal loci, genes dh-1 and in the center of the cartilaginous primordial which
dh-2 on the same chromosome but not very close. suggest the involvement of the vascularity isolation.
The etiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia The abnormality can be noticed since birth through
(CDH) is unknown although clinical, genetic and clinical signs as size reduction, disproportion of
experimental evidence points to disturbances in the body parts, most marked in the extremities, and
retinoid-signaling pathway during organogenesis, have an invariably lethal effect. Affected individuals
with an occurrence of <5 in 10,000 live-births. are still-born or die very shortly post-partum.


5.Chondrodystrophy 9. Hypogonadia

It is associated with a fully penetrant autosomal It is an autosomal recessive gene noted hg. Affected
recessive gene symbolized cd. The mutant is viable males present smaller seminiferous tubules and a
prenatally but does not survive post-partum. single Sertoli cell line, and females have smaller
Chondrodystrophy can be associated with errors ovaries and no follicles.
in mineral metabolization do to abnormality in the 10.Buphtalmia (Hydroftalmia or Congenital
specific mineral binding protein, and function of the Glaucoma)
anomaly type is characterized by cerebral
It is an autosomal recessive gene action, which
degeneration, short stature, hemolytic anemia, hair
leads to loss of function of a gene(s) required for
changes, hepato lenticular degeneration, cirrhosis
the differentiation of the trabecular meshwork.
of the liver, and excessive mineral accumulation in
It is caused by a single autosomal recessive gene
6. Paralytic tremor
(mst), with incomplete penetrance (30 – 35 %),
It is caused by lymph node lesions, and controlled seems to be a fourth linkage group gene beside
by an autosomal recessive. This anomaly results Dw and w genes and is manifested externally by
from a point mutation in a PLP gene and manifests the presence of papillae at the corners of the mouth,
itself by a broad range of neurological signs and internally the effect is on the zygomatic complex
this anomaly is X-linked. The disorder can be and is extremely variable.
observed in a few days post parturition as shake 12. Mandibular Prognathism (Maxillary
movements and this genetic disorder has an Brachygnathism).
incomplete penetrance, and shows a variable
The lower jaw was appears to be relatively too long.
This hereditary disease is most common in dwarf
7. Left Ostium Straightness rabbits, caused by an autosomal recessive gene
(mp) which causing differential growth of dorsal and
Left ostium straightness is caused by a recessive
basal skull bones, with resultant anterior
autosomal gene (los) with incomplete penetrance.
displacement of the mandible.
The oviduct remains straight, as a result of an
abnormal embryogenesis. Opening of the uterine 13. Locomotor Abnormalities

tube is not rounded in order to set the ovary, which Locomotor abnormalities are caused by sex linked
is also migrated in an unnatural place. recessive genes namely gene S which is
responsible for abnormal gait. Gene S carrier
8. Cortical Renal Cysts
rabbits show an abnormal rising of the posterior
It is caused by an autosomal recessive gene (rc) body part, or an acrobatic walk on the forelimbs.
with a penetrance of about 70 % Cortical renal cysts Mutant rabbits appear normal at rest or when they
however it does not affect kidneys function (Fox et covering short distances, “but when they are
al 1971). Analysis of serum and urine will show no running longer distances the hind part of the body
pathological changes. is raised in the air and the animals go along on


their forefeet like an acrobat walking on his hands”. 4. Coloboma
The Affected individuals were called “jumping
It is an ocular abnormality caused by a
dominant gene. The coloboma takes the form
II. DOMINANT GENETIC DISORDERS of a hole in one of the structures of the eye,
such as retina, choroid, or optic disc. The hole
1. Intrauterine Lethality
is present from birth and can be caused when
It is caused by a dominant gene Pg, These
a gap called the choroid fissure present during
anomalies are namely: cephalodysplasia,
early stages of prenatal development, fails to
cranioschisis, and dyostosis mandibularis.
close up completely before birth. A coloboma
a. Cephalodysplasia consists in almost a can occur in one eye (unilateral) or both eyes
total lack of skull. The skull is limited to a (bilateral).
diminished cavity bordered by the
5. Bent ears
rudiments of the occipital bone and the
It is an abnormal wearing of ears in an angle of
front jaw has teeth facing down, completely
absent brain, abnormally shaped lower jaw
with front teeth bending downward, greatly 6. Abnormal Mouth Closing
reduced occipital bones, very small
It is caused by overgrowth teeth, wolf teeth,
posterior cavity of neuro cranium and fairly
walrus teeth or irregular growth and show
normally developed tongue
changes in dental formula but doesn’t elucidate
b. Cranioschisis is a developmental birth the genetic control.
defect involving the skull, where the
7. Paralysis of the Hindquarter.
cranium fails
The paralysis of the hindquarters at the age of
to close completely, without affecting the facial
3 weeks and leads to death at age of 2 - 4
skeleton but missing the parietal bones,
and a diminished the occipital region and
8. Lethal Dwarfism
frontal bones. Commonly a part of the brain
ismissing. The presumed incomplete recessive mutant
homozygote newborns had the half weight of
c. Dyostosis mandibularis consist ia a such
heterozygote individuals and third of the
severe reduction of the jaw that the front
teeth disappears
2. Congenital Absence of Incisors
In rabbit species the most of occurred genetic
It is induced by an autosomal dominant with
disorders appear according to Mendelian laws,
lethal effect.
namely the occurrence is based on one or more
3. Prognathism
gene absence or presence. Most of the inherited
It is a dominant gene Non-proper alignment of disorders in rabbits are due to recessive genes
incisors bring about they were exaggerated which are carefully tracked by breeders following
growth, lead to animals death by starvation their own lines to remove unwanted defects. It is a


fact that nowadays genetic disorders have a mandibulofacial dysostosis. J Hered
descendent evolution due to the elimination of 70(6):369-372.
individuals which bear such inherited 6. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., 1978 Genetics and
abnormalities. Scrapping breeding stock is easier pathology of hereditary adrenal hyperplasia in
and less economically burden in a case of dominant the rabbit: a model for congenital lipoid adrenal
disorders, where just the affected individuals are hyperplasia. J Hered 69(4):251-4.
removed, toward recessive disorders where the
7. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., 1975 Hereditary
whole family is need to be eliminated from further
chondrodystrophy in the rabbit. Genetics and
breeding. The most complicated forms of
pathology of a new mutant, a model for
inheritance are shown by the disease which is
metatropic dwarfism. J Hered 66(5):271-6.
represented by the inheritance of occasional
tendency or susceptibility, where a very significant 8. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., 1973 Hereditary
role is attributed to the environment, particularly to diaphragmatic hernia in rabbit. J Hered
the possibility of contamination. 64(6):333-336.

References 9. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., 1971a Mandibular

prognathism in the rabbit. J Hered 62(1):23-
1. Botha M., Petrescu-Mag I. V., Hettig A., 2014
Genetic disorders in domestic rabbits
(Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbit Gen 4(1):7- 10. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., 1971b Hypogonadia in
47. the rabbit. J Hered 62(3):163-169. Fox R. R.,
Krinsky W. L., Crary D. D., 1971 Hereditary
2. Botha M., Petrescu-Mag I. V., Hettig A., 2013
cortical renal cysts in the rabbit. J Hered
The first full morphological description of the 62(2):105-109.
Cluj Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). North-
11. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., Babino E. J., et al.,
West J Zool 9(2):441-442.
1969 Buphtalmia in the rabbit: pleiotropic
3. Botha M., Hettig A., Petrescu-Mag I. V., 2011 effects of the (bu) gene and a possible
The Rabbit of Cluj: a new phenotype obtained, explanation of mode of gene action. J Hered
maintained and improved in Cluj-Napoca 60:206-212.
(Transylvania), Romania. ABAH Bioflux
12. http://forums.rabbitrehome.org.uk
13. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/bilateral-adrenal-
4. Fox R. R., 1979 Cystic disorders of the kidney.
enlargement retrieved at 17 Oct 2018
In: Spontaneous animal models of human
disease. Andrews E. J., Ward B. C., Altman 14. http://www.medirabbit.com retrieved at 18 Feb
N. H. (eds), p. 271, American College of 2019
Laboratory Animal Medicine Series, Academic 15. www.nei.nih.gov/health/resourceSearch.asp
Press Inc., New York. retrieved at 30 January 2019.
5. Fox R. R., Crary D. D., 1979 Hereditary 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
macrostomus in the rabbit: a model for Aberrant_subclavian_artery retrieved at 07
Treacher Collins syndrome, one form of Feb 2019.
Zoonotic Diseases and One Health Concept
Rajendra Yadav1, Davinder Singh1, Amit Sangwan1 and Pankaj Kumar2
Haryana Pashu Vigyan Kendra (HPVK), Mahendergarh
Disease Investigation Laboratory, Rohtak
Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS), Hisar (Haryana)
Zoonotic diseases and their importance - fever) lead to a economic loss around US$ 80 billion
Zoonotic disease is defined as any disease or excluding indirect costs from 1997 – 2009.
infection caused by all types of agents (bacteria, Economic impacts exist beyond the cost of control,
parasites, fungi, viruses and unconventional including direct decreases in household income
agents) transmissible from vertebrate animals to due to reduction in livestock/product sales,
humans & vice-versa”. The term “Zoonoses” was consumption impacts due to reduced food security,
coined and first used by Rudolf Wirchow, who increased household vulnerability where livestock
defined it for communicable diseases. Every year is used as a risk-coping mechanism and affects
6th July is observed as “World Zoonoses Day”, on household wealth which influences savings and
which commemorates July 6, 1885, when Louis gender equality. Nearly, 70% of the world’s rural poor
Pasteur successfully administered the first vaccine depend on livestock and working animals for their
against, a zoonotic disease, to Joseph Meister after livelihoods, animals can not be left out of the
he had been mauled by a rabid dog. Zoonotic solutions.
diseases are important because they may create
Factors affecting infectious zoonotic disease
public health problems, prevent efficient production
emergence - Emerging disease is a new infection
of food of animal origin and obstacles to
resulting from the evolution or change of an existing
international trade in animal and animal products.
pathogen or parasite resulting in a change of host
There is a very long list of zoonotic diseases,
range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the
important ones are Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Severe
occurrence of a previously unrecognised infection
Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East
or disease. Re-emerging disease is an already
Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), West Nile virus,
known disease that either shifts its geographical
Avian Influenza, Japanese Encephalitis (JE),
setting or expands its host range, or significantly
Brucellosis, Rabies, Bovine tuberculosis etc.
increases its prevalence. Important factors leading
Epidemiology and economic importance of to zoonotic disease emergence and re-emergence
zoonotic diseases - About 61% of human includes Ecological changes (climate change,
pathogens are zoonotic in origin and of which 13% changes in water ecosystems, deforestation,
species regarded as emerging or re-emerging reforestation, flood, drought, famine etc.),
diseases. About 75% of emerging infectious Technology and industry food developments
diseases are zoonotic in nature and originate mainly (globalization of food supplies, changes in food
from wildlife. Five new human diseases appear processing and packaging etc.), Technology and
every year and 3 of which are animal origin. Nearly health care industry developments (new medical
80% of agents with potential bioterrorist use are devices, organ or tissue transplantation, drugs
zoonotic pathogens. Economically, direct cost of causing immunosuppression, widespread use of
zoonotic diseases over the last decade has been antibiotics etc.), Human behaviour, international
estimated to be more than $20 billion with over travel and commerce (war, population migration,
$200 billion indirect losses to affected economies economic impoverishment, urban decay, worldwide
as a whole. Apart from loss of human lives and movement of goods & people, air travel, factors in
livestock, 6 major zoonotic epidemics (Nipah virus, human behaviour like commercial sex trade,
West Nile fever, SARS, HPAI, BSE and Rift Valley outdoor recreation & activities etc.), Microbial


adaptation and change (microbial evolution as a embraces the idea that complex problems at the
response to selection in the environment etc.), human-animal-environmental interface can best be
Breakdown of the host’s defenses solved through multidisciplinary communication,
(immunodepression, imunnodeficiency resulting cooperation and collaboration. One health approach
from HIV infection etc.) and Breakdown in public obviously includes the human health professionals,
health or control measures (lack of or inadequate but it also includes veterinarians, wildlife specialists,
sanitation and vector control measures etc.). anthropologists, economists, environmentalists,
One health concept - Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) behavioural scientists and sociologists. Sampling
stated that “between the medicine of animals and humans and animals simultaneously in an
humans there is no dividing line - nor should there integrated study design decreases detection time
be.” The term “One health” evolved from “One for zoonotic disease. A one health approach is also
medicine,” a term coined by veterinary important because 6 out of every 10 infectious
epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe in the 1960s to diseases in humans are spread from animals. Food
demonstrate that there is no paradigm difference safety and antibiotic resistance are areas in which
between human and veterinary medicine thus one health approach is particularly relevant. It has
allowing for integrated work. ”One health concept” also been reported that some infectious diseases
was first introduced in beginning of 21st century with such as those caused by Nipah virus and Hendra
the theme that human health and animal health are virus arise due to destruction of habitat and changes
interdependent and bound to the health of the in land use. Maximizing of the well-being of people
ecosystems in which they exist (OIE). It is a through maximising the well-being of animals as
collaborative, multi-sectoral and trans-disciplinary well as ecosystems is the key point behind one
approach which includes working at local, regional, health approach.
national and global levels with the goal of achieving
optimal health outcomes recognizing the Recent developments in one health concept –
interconnection between people, animals, plants In the year 2004, wildlife conservation society
and their shared environment. There are number established an interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral
of examples which explains why “One medicine – approach to preventing epidemic or epizootic
one health” and integrated working is so much disease and for maintaining ecosystem integrity.
important. In 1893, a physician (Theobald Smith) In the year 2008, FAO, WHO, OIE, UNICEF, World
and veterinarian (F.L. Kilbourne) discovered that the Bank and United Nations System Influenza
cause of cattle fever (Babesia bigemina) was Coordination (UNSIC) developed a strategic
transmitted by an arthropod vector (ticks), and their framework entitled “Contributing to One World, One
work helped and set the stage for the discovery by Health” for reducing risks of infectious diseases at
Walter Reed and his colleagues of the transmission the animal-human-ecosystems interface in New
of yellow fever. Likewise, a physician (Rolf Delhi. In the year 2010, UN and World Bank
Zinkernagel) and veterinarian (Peter C. Doherty) recommended adoption of one health approaches
discovered how the immune system distinguishes in “5 th global progress report on animal and
normal cells from virus-infected cells and they pandemic influenza.” In the year 2011, 1 st
received the Nobel Prize in 1996. Initiated in 2016, International One Health Congress was held in
“International One Health Day” is celebrated around Melbourne (Australia). In the year 2012, 1st One
the world every year on 3rd November. Health Summit was held in Davos (Switzerland).
One health: Why and how - “You can’t have good In the year 2016, “The One Health Act of 2016”
public health unless you have good animal health introduced in USA parliament to create a
and you can’t have good animal health unless you comprehensive strategy for national one health
have good public health”- James H. Steel. It framework to address zoonotic diseases.


Benefits of the one health concept – It helps in biosecurity and bio-containment measures;
improving animal and human health globally through compensation strategies to indemnify animal
collaboration among all the health sciences, owners hit by outbreaks; and vaccination, as
especially between veterinary and human medical appropriate.
professions to address critical needs. It helps in
Agencies / control programmes for zoonoses
meeting new global challenges head-on through
in India - National Standing Committee on
collaboration among multiple professions -
Zoonoses (SCZ) – Govt. of India, National Centre
veterinary medicine, human medicine,
for Communicable Diseases (NCDC), Indian
environmental, wildlife and public health. Idea of one
Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department
health also leads to development of centres of
of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
excellence for education and training in specific
(DADF) – Govt. of India, Wildlife Institute of India
areas through enhanced collaboration among
(WII), Indian Council of Agricultural Research
faculties of veterinary medicine, human medicine
(ICAR), National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology
and public health. It also helps in increasing
and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Outreach
professional opportunities. It also helps in gaining
programme on zoonoses led by Indian Veterinary
scientific knowledge to create innovative
Research Institute (IVRI), International Development
programmes to improve health.
Research Centre (IDRC), World Health
One health concept: Holistic approach – One Organization (WHO), International Livestock
health mission require - relationship between man Research Institute (ILRI), Road Map to Combat
and animals including wildlife needs to be Zoonoses in India (RCZI), Public Health Foundation
understood; judicious use of land and water; wildlife of India (PHFI) etc.
health science is crucial for global disease
Important constraints in one health concept –
management and requires attention, generating
In Asian veterinary colleges – undergraduate course
approaches towards the management of emerging
curriculum constitute an estimated 0.6%, 4.2%,
and re-emerging diseases accounting for the
5.8%, 13.0% & 10.0% (average 6.7%) of the total
complex interconnections among species;
content taught in years 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5, respectively
biodiversity conservation perspectives, human and
regarding zoonoses, food borne diseases and food
domestic animals needs must be fully integrated
hygiene (OIE). Majority (>80%) of medical
when developing solutions to infectious disease
graduates are illiterate about the emerging
threats; wildlife population impose an important and
zoonoses, neglected zoonoses and pet related
urgent threat to humans and at the same time to
zoonoses. Developed nations have authorities like
food security for which multidisciplinary efforts and
CDC (United States), MedVetNet (European Union)
scientific concerns to restrict culling of wild species
for enforcing programmes on zoonoses, whereas
are required; increased investment in the global
in India these are lacking. Data regarding one health
human and animal health infrastructure;
approach is not well formatted in India. Important
collaborative efforts by both public and private
factors in India which are conducive for emergence
sectors are needed to ensure conservation of global
of infectious agents includes - uncontrolled
health and biodiversity; and common people need
population, unhygienic living conditions, poor
to be made aware and educated regarding the
personal hygiene, sharing workforce on farming by
close contact with the domestic animals and poultry,
Performance of veterinary services (PVS) Indian subcontinent is congenial for the outbreak
pathway for one health as per the OIE – It of infectious diseases and also proven zoonoses
includes early detection of disease incursions, are prevalent to the subcontinent due to the suitable
transparency and notification; rapid response to host factors, prevalence of vectors, and
animal disease outbreaks and implementation of environmental factors.


Conclusions – Due to latest trends in globalization Dhama, K., Chakraborty, S., Kapoor, S., Tiwari, R.,
and industrialization the size of the entire world has Kumar, A., Deb, R., Rajagunalan, S., Singh, R.,
shrunken into a global village especially in facets Vora, K. and Natesan, S. (2013). One World, One
of health and diseases. Recent challenges do not Health – Veterinary Perspectives. Adv. Anim. Vet.
fit the globe entirely into a single compartment; Sci. 1(1): 5-13.
rather a collaborative approach is required. “Health
Kakkar, M. (2011). Developing one health
for All” should be the slogan that came out from the
approaches in India. http://zoonoses.phfi.org/pdf/
society to cater the needs of today. One health
program emerge from the interconnectedness
between physicians, veterinarians, McConnell, I. (2014). One health in the context of
environmentalists and even comparative medical and veterinary education. Sci. Tech. Rev.
pathologists and public health officials. Since 33(2): 651-657.
veterinarians are well versed with the comparative Nabarro, D. and Wannous, C. (2014). The potential
medicine and preventive medicine, it is the duty from contribution of livestock to food and nutrition
part of the professionals to infuse the “One health security: the application of the one health approach
Concept” to the community in equality with in livestock policy and practice. Rev. Sci.
physicians as well as environmentalists. It is well Tech. 33(2): 475-485.
said that solving today’s threats and tomorrow’s
Rabozzi, G., Bonizzi, L., Crespi, E., Somaruga, C.,
problems cannot be accomplished with yesterday’s
Sokooti, M., Tabibi, R., Vellere, F., Brambilla, G.
approaches, so foreseeable envisionary ideas
and Colosio, C. (2012). Emerging zoonoses: the
should come up with particular regard to apply the
“One Health Approach.” Saf. Health Work. 3(1): 77–
concept of “One health” into action.
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Ruminant Abortion Requires Diagnostics
to Fight Disease
Repeated abortions in a herd can
have a severe economic impact on
farming operations, writes Laurent
Delooz, Regional Association for
Animal Health and Identification
(ARSIA) based in Belgium.
Industry experts estimate that the cost associated
with abortions typically range between •500-1,000.
Such incidences can lead to decreased milk
production and decreased number of herd
Eradication program
replacements, while also increasing costs
associated with feed, medical treatment, and In 1978, Belgium issued a royal decree and funded
artificial insemination. the Brucellosis Eradication Program. Brucellosis
is a notifiable, infectious bacterial disease which
A wide range of pathogens – some with zoonotic mainly infects cattle and is transmitted by the
potential – may be the cause. Accurate identification bacterium Brucella abortus. The disease is
of the abortive agent is key to establishing a extremely contagious among cattle, and the
successful treatment program. However, the large economic impact, in the case of an epidemic, can
number of potential infectious agents makes fast be devastating. The program proved to be
and accurate diagnosis a challenge. Abortion is a
very unspecific sign, so it is very difficult to know By 2003, Belgium was declared officially free of
for which cause we have to perform an analysis. brucellosis. Given that the country has maintained
this official status for six consecutive years, the
We systematically use a panel of diagnostic tests monitoring program, according to European
for the 15 most frequently occurring abortive Community Directive 64/432/EEC on animal health
pathogens to screen the samples (Table 1). Without problems affecting intracommunity trade in bovine
diagnostic testing, it is impossible to find the animals and swine, could be reviewed and relaxed
aetiology and fight the disease. so that as of 2009 all animals no longer need to be
tested pre-movement and pre-export, which
A success story on this front can be found in drastically reduces the number of tests.
Belgium, where government and industry officials
To keep the brucellosis-free status, reporting of
worked together to establish a comprehensive
miscarriages remains mandatory. Increasing the
program to proactively monitor causes for ruminant number of abortions that were investigated was
abortion and to control the diseases in infected necessary to confirm absence of brucellosis with
herds. statistical certainty.


full farm survey, then calls ARSIA, who retrieves
and brings the material to the laboratory. The
analysis is free for the farmer, and the veterinarian
receives between •25-40, depending on whether
or not the foetus is present.

Diagnostic testing crucial

ARSIA does the pathology and uses diagnostic tests

to determine the cause of the abortion for many
samples, including foetus, placenta, maternal
serum and bulk milk, while some are sent to the
National Reference Laboratory in Brussels. The
tests have been extended to screen for a wide array
of potential pathogens and need to be regularly
evaluated to reflect new knowledge, new methods
and the emergence of new pathogens.

A PCR multi-pathogen kit, such as the LSI VetMAX

Screening Pack real-time PCR kit from Thermo
Fisher Scientific that screens for eight different
pathogens, is very useful and enables the search
The challenge was to motivate the animal holders for a wide range of abortive pathogens.
and veterinarians to submit material for
With support from the company, we were able to
investigation to rule out Brucella sp. infection in a
extend our screening, which enabled us to detect
country that had been deemed officially free of
new pathogens early so counter measures could
brucellosis. This is why the Scientific Committee
be taken immediately. Ultimately, individual
of the Belgian Food Safety Agency approved the
producers receive advice on how to reduce
proposal by ARSIA to extend the differential
abortions on their farms, which further increases
diagnosis of abortions in cattle as part of an abortion
protocol, expected to make an aetiological
diagnosis in the majority of cases. It was a win-win To help limit abortion numbers, farmers and
for the whole industry: The veterinarian and animal veterinarians are advised to perform the diagnosis
holder received free aetiologic diagnosis, and the at the onset of the very first case. The longer the
authorities were provided access to monitor for farmer waits, the more cases appear. They should
brucellosis. perform the entire panel because abortion is a
A key to the success of the program was that clinical sign of many diseases. Some diseases are
veterinarians and farmers were compensated for zoonoses and can cause clinical disease in
notifying ARSIA of an abortion, and the agency has humans. Other cases can be highly infectious and
supported the process to make it possible. After then it is important to isolate the mother from the
an abortion, the farmer has to call the veterinarian rest of the herd.
without delay. The veterinarian comes and does a Courtesy: The Cattle Site

Making a difference: Alltech initiative in India

supports children’s nutritional needs

As part of its commitment to serve people and to percent of the entire population of the world.
improve the nutritional status of children, Alltech Unfortunately, India is no exception to the global
initiated its Nutri Milk Project in November 2017, struggle to feed its younger generations a nutrient-
partnering with the Thribhuvandas Foundation in dense diet. Around 73 percent of all Indian diets are
Anand, Gujarat, to supply milk to young students protein-deficient, and the shortfall is even more
in the region. alarming among vegetarians (IMRB survey, 2017).
“If we could give every individual the right The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
amount of nourishment and exercise, not too recommends a daily intake of 200–300 grams of
little and not too much, we would have the milk for children, and many states are still striving
safest way to health.” – Hippocrates to achieve this goal. India is a leading producer of
[Bangalore,India]- India is the second-most milk, but, in many regions, elevated agricultural
populous country on the earth and is home to more performance does not necessarily equate to an
than 400 million children, who account for 37 improved diet.


As part of its commitment to serve people and to schools, 98.5 percent of school children can be
improve the nutritional status of children, Alltech categorized as undernourished on the body mass
initiated its Nutri Milk Project in November 2017, index (BMI) scale.
partnering with the Thribhuvandas Foundation in Five schools in the Tarapur cluster were selected
Anand, Gujarat, to supply milk to young students in for the program, as children in this region were noted
the region. to be especially malnourished. Alltech began
“It is an absolute honor to be associated with providing 150 ml each of flavored, fortified milk every
Thribhuvandas Foundation in this project,” said Dr. day to around 1,200 children, aged 5 to 13, as well
Aman Sayed, managing director of Alltech India and as a weekly supplement of iron. The sole aim of
regional director of Alltech South Asia. “As a nutrition this is to improve the nutritional status of these
company, we feel it is our responsibility to provide children — and, by doing so, to build a healthier
practical and proven solutions to enhance the India. On its journey to nourish the children of
nutrition level of children, who are tomorrow’s Tarapur, Alltech has delivered 1,78,754 milk
future.” pouches in the project’s first year alone.
Alltech initiated the project in Gujarat, a mostly Along with a 5.45-percent average improvement in
vegetarian state where milk is the main source of the BMI of their students, the schools involved in
animal protein. Milk, a whole food that provides many this program have also experienced a considerable
essential nutrients, is a crucial part of the diet of increase in attendance. These results inspired
growing children in this region. In the selected Alltech to expand the project, and in 2018, six more


schools were added. Alltech plans to expand the About Alltech:
program even further. Founded in 1980 by Irish entrepreneur and scientist
“Childhood is a critical time in the growth and Dr. Pearse Lyons, Alltech is a cutting-edge
development of a person and is a key stage in the technology company in a traditional industry,
establishment of their physical and mental abilities,” agriculture. Our products improve the health and
said Sayed. “We are proud to see the positive nutrition of plants and animals, resulting in more
impact Alltech is having on the lives of children in nutritious products for people as well as less impact
the program. These children are benefiting daily on the environment.
from Nutri Milk, not just by improving their nutrition With expertise in yeast fermentation, solid state
but by increasing their attendance and education, fermentation and the sciences of nutrigenomics
and this is a proud moment for Alltech.” and metabolomics, Alltech is a leading producer of
Alltech is committed to improving the health and yeast additives, organic trace minerals, feed
performance of people, animals and plants around ingredients, premix and feed.
the world through natural nutrition and scientific
Together, with our more than 5,000 talented team
innovation. At a global level, Alltech works extensively
members worldwide, we believe in “Working
with local schools to build science labs and
Together for a Planet of Plenty™.”With the adoption
encourages students to pursue science with a
of new technologies, the adaptation of better farm
greater curiosity about the world around them.
management practices and the ingenuity inherent
To know more details about the program, please
in the human spirit, we believe a world of abundance
write to Ms. Vinny Madhuri vmadhuri@alltech.com
could be ours.
and you can view the video of the initiative at https:/
Alltech is a private, family-owned company, which
allows us to adapt quickly to our customers’ needs
needs andstay focused on advanced innovation.
Headquartered just outside of Lexington, Kentucky,
USA, Alltech has a strong presence in all regions
Contact:Dr. Manish Chaurasia
of the world. For further information, visit
Marketing Manager, Poultry (South Asia) www.alltech.com/news. Join us in conversation on
mchaurasia@alltech.com; +91 8130890989 Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.