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10/9/2019 Graduate Management Admission Test - Wikipedia

Graduate Management Admission Test


The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT (/ˈdʒiːmæt/
Graduate Management
(JEE-mat))) is a computer adaptive test (CAT) intended to assess certain
Admission Test
analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in written
English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as
an MBA program.[4] It requires knowledge of certain specific grammar and
knowledge of certain specific algebra, geometry, and arithmetic. According
to the test-owning company, the Graduate Management Admission Council
(GMAC), the GMAT assesses analytical writing and problem-solving
Acronym GMAT
abilities, while also addressing data sufficiency, logic, and critical reasoning
skills that it believes to be vital to real-world business and management Type Computer-based
success.[5] It can be taken up to five times a year but no more than 8 times standardized test
total. Attempts must be at least 16 days apart.[6] Developer / Graduate
administrator Management
GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission
Admission Council
Council.[7] More than 7,000 programs at approximately 2,300+ graduate
Knowledge / Quantitative
business schools around the world accept the GMAT as part of the selection
skills tested reasoning, verbal
criteria for their programs.[8] Business schools use the test as a criterion
reasoning,
for admission into a wide range of graduate management programs,
integrated
including MBA, Master of Accountancy, Master of Finance programs and
reasoning,
others. The GMAT is administered in standardized test centers in 114
analytical writing.
countries around the world.[5] According to a survey conducted by Kaplan
Test Prep, the GMAT is still the number one choice for MBA aspirants Purpose Admissions in
despite the increasing acceptability of GRE scores.[9] According to GMAC, graduate
it has continually performed validity studies to statistically verify that the management
exam predicts success in business school programs.[10] programs of
business schools.
Year started 1953

Contents Duration 3 hours and 7


minutes[1]
History
Score / grade Quantitative section:
Criticism
range 6-51, in 1 point
Format and timing
increments,
Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA)
Integrated reasoning section Verbal section: 6-
Quantitative section 51, in 1 point
Verbal section increments,
Scoring Integrated
reasoning section: 1
Scheduling and preparing for the exam
to 8, in 1 point
See also
increments,
References
Analytical writing
External links
assessment: 0.0 to
6.0, in 0.5 point
increments.
History Total score (from
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10/9/2019 Graduate Management Admission Test - Wikipedia

In 1953, the organization now called the Graduate Management Admission verbal and
Council (GMAC) began as an association of nine business schools, whose quantitative sections
goal was to develop a standardized test to help business schools select only): 200 to 800.
qualified applicants. In the first year it was offered, the assessment (now Score / grade 5 Years
known as the Graduate Management Admission Test), was taken just over validity
2,000 times; in recent years, it has been taken more than 230,000 times
Offered Multiple times a
annually.[11] Initially used in admissions by 54 schools, the test is now used
year.
by more than 7,000 programs at approximately 2,300 graduate business
schools around the world.[11] On June 5, 2012, GMAC introduced an Countries / 650 test centers in
integrated reasoning section to the exam that aims to measure a test taker's regions 114 countries.[2]
ability to evaluate information presented in multiple formats from multiple Languages English
sources.[12] Annual More than 200,000
number of (2019)[3]
Criticism test takers
Prerequisites No official
The GMAT is intended to assess Verbal Reasoning skill, Quantitative
/ eligibility prerequisite.
Reasoning skill, Integrated Reasoning skill and Analytical Writing skill in
criteria Intended for those
English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as
interested in
an MBA program.[4]
graduate
In 2013, an independent research study considered three full-time MBA management
programs and reported that the GMAT Total score had a 0.29 correlation education. Fluency
with the first-year GPA (Grade Point Average) of the MBA programs while in English assumed.
undergraduate GPA had a 0.35 correlation. When the GMAT Total score Fee US$ 250
was combined with undergraduate GPA, the AACSB score provided the
Scores / More than 7,000
best predictive power (0.45) for the first-year performance on MBA core
grades used programs at
courses.[13]
by approximately 2,300
Another independent research study from 2015 reported that the GMAT graduate business
Total score did not add predictive power after undergraduate GPA and schools around the
work experience had been considered.[14] However, the data used in that world accept the
paper was based on a single MBA program, and the methodology and GMAT exam.
results of the study were not verified. Website mba.com (http://mb
a.com)
In 2017, GMAC conducted a large-scale validity study involving 28
graduate business programs, and the results showed that the median correlation between the GMAT Total score and
graduate GPA was 0.38, the median correlation between the GMAT IR score and graduate GPA was .27, and the
median correlation between undergraduate GPA and graduate GPA was .32. The results also showed that
undergraduate GPA and GMAT scores (i.e., Verbal, Quant, IR, and AWA) jointly had 0.51 correlation with graduate
GPA.[15]

Format and timing


The GMAT exam consists of four sections: an analytical writing assessment, an integrated reasoning section, a
quantitative section, and a verbal section.[16] Total testing time is three hours and seven minutes. Test takers have 30
minutes for the analytical writing assessment and another 30 minutes to work through 12 questions, which often have
multiple parts, on the integrated reasoning section and are given 62 minutes to work through 31 questions in the
quantitative section and another 65 minutes to get through 36 questions in the verbal section.

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Section Duration in minutes Number of questions


Analytical writing assessment 30 1 essay
Integrated reasoning 30 12
Quantitative 62 31
Verbal 65 36

The quantitative and verbal sections of the GMAT exam are both multiple-choice and are administered in the
computer-adaptive format, adjusting to a test taker's level of ability. At the start of the quantitative and verbal
sections, test takers are presented with a question of average difficulty. As questions are answered correctly, the
computer presents the test taker with increasingly difficult questions and as questions are answered incorrectly the
computer presents the test taker with questions of decreasing difficulty. This process continues until test takers
complete each section, at which point the computer will have an accurate assessment of their ability level in that
subject area and come up with a raw score for each section.

On July 11, 2017, the GMAC announced that from now on the order in which the different parts of the GMAT are taken
can be chosen at the beginning of the exam.

Three options will be available at the test center:

Analytical Writing Assessment, Integrated Reasoning, Quantitative, Verbal (original order)


Verbal, Quantitative, Integrated Reasoning, Analytical Writing Assessment
Quantitative, Verbal, Integrated Reasoning, Analytical Writing Assessment[17]
In April 2018, the GMAC officially shortened the test by half an hour, shortening the verbal and quantitative sections
from 75 minutes each to 65 and 62 minutes, respectively, and shortening some of the instruction screens.

Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA)


The AWA consists of a 30-minute writing task—analysis of an argument. It is important to be able to analyze the
reasoning behind a given argument and write a critique of that argument. The essay will be given two independent
ratings and these ratings are averaged together to determine the test taker's AWA score. One rating is given by a
computerized reading evaluation and another is given by a person at GMAC who will read and score the essay
themselves without knowing what the computerized score was. The automated essay-scoring engine is an electronic
system that evaluates more than 50 structural and linguistic features, including organization of ideas, syntactic
variety, and topical analysis. If the two ratings differ by more than one point, another evaluation by an expert reader is
required to resolve the discrepancy and determine the final score.[18]

The analytical writing assessment is graded on a scale of 0 (minimum) to 6 (maximum) in half-point intervals. A score
of 0 indicates that the response was either nonsensical, off-topic, or completely blank.

Essay score Description


1 An essay that is deficient.
2 An essay that is flawed.
3 An essay that is limited.
4 An essay that is adequate.
5 An essay that is strong.
6 An essay that is outstanding.

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Integrated reasoning section


Integrated Reasoning (IR) is a section introduced in June 2012 and is designed to measure a test taker's ability to
evaluate data presented in multiple formats from multiple sources. The skills being tested by the integrated reasoning
section were identified in a survey of 740 management faculty worldwide as important for today's incoming
students.[19] The integrated reasoning section consists of 12 questions (which often consist of multiple parts
themselves) in four different formats: graphics interpretation, two-part analysis, table analysis, and multi-source
reasoning. Integrated reasoning scores range from 1 to 8. Like the Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA), this section
is scored separately from the quantitative and verbal section. Performance on the IR and AWA sections do not
contribute to the total GMAT score.

The integrated reasoning section includes four question types: table analysis, graphics interpretation, multi-source
reasoning, and two-part analysis.[19] In the table analysis section, test takers are presented with a sortable table of
information, similar to a spreadsheet, which has to be analyzed. Each question will have several statements with
opposite-answer options (e.g., true/false, yes/no), and test takers click on the correct option. Graphics interpretation
questions ask test takers to interpret a graph or graphical image. Each question has fill-in-the-blank statements with
pull-down menus; test takers must choose the options that make the statements accurate. Multi-source reasoning
questions are accompanied by two to three sources of information presented on tabbed pages. Test takers click on the
tabs and examine all the relevant information, which may be a combination of text, charts, and tables to answer either
traditional multiple-choice or opposite-answer (e.g., yes/no, true/false) questions. Two-part analysis questions involve
two components for a solution. Possible answers are given in a table format with a column for each component and
rows with possible options. Test takers have to choose one response per column.

Quantitative section
The quantitative section of the GMAT seeks to measure the ability to reason quantitatively, solve quantitative
problems, interpret graphic data, and analyze and use information given in a problem. Questions require knowledge of
certain algebra, geometry, and arithmetic. There are two types of quantitative questions: problem solving and data
sufficiency. The use of calculators is not allowed on the quantitative section of the GMAT. Test takers must do their
math work out by hand using a wet erase pen and laminated graph paper which are given to them at the testing center.
Scores range from 0 to 60, although GMAC only reports scores between 6 and 51.[20]

Problem solving questions are designed to test the ability to reason quantitatively and to solve quantitative problems.
Data sufficiency is a question type unique to the GMAT designed to measure the ability to understand and analyze a
quantitative problem, recognize what information is relevant or irrelevant and determine at what point there is
enough information to solve a problem or recognize the fact that there is insufficient information given to solve a
particular problem.[21]

Verbal section
The verbal section of the GMAT exam includes the following question types: reading comprehension, critical
reasoning, and sentence correction. Each question type gives five answer options from which to select. Verbal scores
range from 0 to 60; however, scores below 9 or above 44 are rare.[21]

According to GMAC, the reading comprehension question type tests ability to analyze information and draw a
conclusion. Reading comprehension passages can be anywhere from one to several paragraphs long.[22] According to
GMAC, the critical reasoning question type assesses reasoning skills.[21][23] According to GMAC, the sentence
correction question type tests grammar and effective communication skills. From the available answer options, the
test taker should select the most effective construction that best expresses the intent of the sentence.[24][25]
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Scoring
The total GMAT score ranges from 200 to 800 and measures performance on the quantitative and verbal sections
together (performance on the AWA and IR sections do not count toward the total score, those sections are scored
separately). Scores are given in increments of 10 (e.g. 540, 550, 560, 570, etc.).

The score distribution conforms to a bell curve with a standard deviation of approximately 120 points, meaning that
about 68% of examinees score between 430 and 670.[21] More precisely, over the three-year period 2014–2017 the
mean score was 556.04 with a standard deviation of 120.45 points.[26]

The final score is not based solely on the last question the examinee answers (i.e. the level of difficulty of questions
reached through the computer adaptive presentation of questions). The algorithm used to build a score is more
complicated than that. The examinee can make a mistake and answer incorrectly and the computer will recognize that
item as an anomaly. If the examinee misses the first question his score will not necessarily fall in the bottom half of the
range.[27]

After previewing his/her unofficial GMAT score, a GMAT test taker has two minutes to decide whether to keep or
cancel a GMAT score at the test center. A test taker can also cancel a score online within the 72 hours after the
scheduled exam start time. A cancelled score can be reinstated for 4 years and 11 months after the date of the test for a
fee of $50.[28]

Scheduling and preparing for the exam


Test takers may register for the GMAT either online at mba.com or by calling one of the test centers.[29] To schedule
an exam, an appointment must be made at one of the designated test centers. The GMAT may not be taken more than
once within 16 days but no more than five times in a rolling 12-month period and no more than eight times total, even
if the scores are canceled. Official GMAT exam study materials are available on the mba.com online store and through
third-party vendors. The cost of the exam is $250. All applicants are required to present valid ID when taking the
test.[30] Upon completion of the test, test takers have the option of canceling or reporting their scores. As of July 2014,
test takers were allowed to view their score before making this decision.[31]

There are test preparation companies that offer GMAT courses. Other available test preparation resources include
university text books, GMAT preparation books and online material, sample tests, and free web resources.[32]

See also
Business school
Master of Accountancy
Master of Business Administration
List of admissions tests

References
1. "The GMAT Exam Advantage" (https://www.gmac.com/gmat-other-assessments/about-the-gmat-exam/the-gmat-a
dvantage). The Official GMAT Web Site.
2. "GMAC Statistics" (https://web.archive.org/web/20120504061935/http://www.gmac.com/why-gmac/gmac-interacti
ve-map/gmac-statistics-video.aspx). gmac.com. Archived from the original (http://www.gmac.com/why-gmac/gma
c-interactive-map/gmac-statistics-video.aspx) on May 4, 2012.
3. "The GMAT Advantage" (https://www.gmac.com/gmat-other-assessments/about-the-gmat-exam/the-gmat-advant
age).
4. "The GMAT Advantage" (http://www.gmac.com/gmat/the-gmat-advantage.aspx).

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5. "Learn About the GMAT Exam" (http://www.gmac.com/gmat/learn-about-the-gmat-exam.aspx). Graduate


Management Admission Council(GMAC).
6. "Retake the GMAT Exam" (https://www.mba.com/exams/gmat/after-the-exam/retake-the-gmat-exam). MBA.com.
GMAC. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
7. "GMAC Copyrights, Trademarks and Logos" (http://www.gmac.com/about-us/trademarks-and-copyrights).
Graduate Management Admission Council. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
8. "GMAT™ Accepting Universities & Schools" (http://www.gmac.com/gmat-other-assessments/about-the-gmat-exa
m/gmat-using-programs-schools). Graduate Management Admission Council. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
9. Alison Damast (April 26, 2012). "Study: Few MBA Applicants Consider Taking the GRE" (http://www.businesswee
k.com/articles/2012-04-26/study-few-mba-applicants-consider-taking-the-gre). Businessweek. Retrieved July 12,
2014.
10. "Validity, Reliability and Fairness" (http://www.gmac.com/gmat/about-the-gmat-exam/validity-reliability-fairness.as
px). Graduate Management Admission Council(GMAC).
11. "GMAC Statistics Video" (https://web.archive.org/web/20120504061935/http://www.gmac.com/why-gmac/gmac-in
teractive-map/gmac-statistics-video.aspx). Graduate Management Admission Council. Archived from the original
(http://www.gmac.com/why-gmac/gmac-interactive-map/gmac-statistics-video.aspx) on May 4, 2012.
12. "Integrated Reasoning Section" (https://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/gmat-exam-format-timing/integrated-rea
soning.aspx). MBA.com. GMAC. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
13. Bedsole, Charles B. (December 2013). "Apples to Apples?: Comparing the Predictive Validity of the GMAT and
GRE for Business Schools and Building a Better Admissions Formula" (https://getd.libs.uga.edu/pdfs/bedsole_ch
arles_b_201312_edd.pdf) (PDF). University of Georgia.
14. Pratt, William R. (2015). "Predicting MBA Student Success and Streamlining the Admissions Process". Journal of
Education for Business. 90 (5): 247–254. doi:10.1080/08832323.2015.1027164 (https://doi.org/10.1080%2F0883
2323.2015.1027164).
15. Talento-Miller, Eileen. "Differential Validity and Differential Prediction of the GMAT Exam" (https://www.gmac.com/
-/media/files/gmac/research/validity-and-testing/rr-17-01-differential-validity-talento-miller-web-release-2.pdf)
(PDF). gmac.com.
16. Guttenplan, D. d. (May 17, 2012). "GMAT Adds New Thinking Cap" (https://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/18/us/gma
t-adds-new-thinking-cap.html?_r=1&ref=education). New York Times.
17. "GMAT changes order of sections" (https://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/gmat-exam-format-timing.aspx).
GMAT Exam Format and Timing.
18. "How to use the Analytical Writing Assessment Score" (http://www.gmac.com/gmat/understand-gmat-exam-score
s/how-to-use-the-analyical-writing-assessment-score.aspx). Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC).
19. "The GMAT gets put to the Test" (http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-05-21/the-new-gmat-gets-put-to-the
-test). Business Week.
20. Lawrence, Rudner. "Demystifying the GMAT: Scale Scores" (http://www.gmac.com/~/media/Files/gmac/Research/
validity-and-testing/demystifyingthegmat_scalescores.pdf) (PDF). GMAC. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
21. "Understanding Your Score Report" (http://www.mba.com/the-gmat/gmat-scores-and-score-reports/understanding
-your-score-report.aspx).
22. "Sample Reading Comprehension Question" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/gmat-exam-format-timing/v
erbal/sample-reading-comprehension-question.aspx). MBA.com. Graduate Management Admission Council.
Retrieved March 23, 2016.
23. "Sample Critical Reasoning Question" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/gmat-exam-format-timing/verbal/s
ample-critical-reasoning-question.aspx). MBA.com. Graduate Management Admission Council. Retrieved
March 23, 2016.
24. "Idioms, Sentence Correction, and the GMAT Exam" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-blog-hub/the-official-gmat-
blog/2011/sep/idioms-sentence-correction-and-the-gmat-exam.aspx). The Official GMAT Blog.
25. "Sample Sentence Correction Question" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/gmat-exam-format-timing/verba
l/sample-sentence-correction-question.aspx). The Official GMAT Web Site.
26. "What Your Percentile Ranking Means. Retrieved October 5th, 2017" (http://www.mba.com/the-gmat/gmat-scores-
and-score-reports/what-your-percentile-ranking-means.aspx).

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27. Talento-Miller, Eileen. "The CAT in the GMAT" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-blog-hub/the-official-gmat-blog/2


010/jan/the-cat-in-the-gmat.aspx). MBA.com. Graduate Management Admission Council. Retrieved November 26,
2014.
28. "GMAT Scores and Score Reports" (http://www.mba.com/us/frequently-asked-questions/gmat-scores-and-score-r
eports.aspx). MBA.com.
29. "Scheduling Information" (http://www.mba.com/the-gmat/schedule-a-gmat-appointment/scheduling-information.as
px). Graduate Management Admission Council(GMAC).
30. "Presenting proper Identification" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/prepare-for-the-gmat-exam/plan-for-tes
t-day/presenting-proper-identification.aspx).
31. "Preview Your GMAT Score" (http://www.mba.com/us/the-gmat-exam/gmat-exam-scoring/your-score-report/previe
w-your-gmat-score.aspx). Graduate Management Admission Council. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
32. "Prepare to Perform Your Best on Test Day" (https://www.mba.com/exams/gmat/before-the-exam/perform-your-be
st-on-test-day). Graduate Management Admission Council. Retrieved May 1, 2019.

External links
Official website (http://www.mba.com)

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