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 References Hu
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 ITU-T G.709/G.707/G.831

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 Development history of optical transport networks: H u
In 1966, Charles K. Kao proposed the
o n theory of optical transmission.
ti equipment began to appear.

 In 1976, commercial transmission


i c a
i f

e rt digital hierarchy (PDH) products were widely used.


In the 1980s, plesiochronous

 C
In the 1990s, synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) emerged and was standardized by
the ITU-T, and& was widely deployed in the world.
g
n in1990s, the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology
In the late
withaai higher rate started to be constructed in large scale. The DWDM technology

T r be used to transmit information of multiple wavelengths at the same time in one


ei fiber, thereby improving the utilization of fiber resources and reducing construction
can

a w investment costs.
H u
 At the beginning of the 21st century, to increase the transmission capacity to Tbit/s
or even more than 10 Tbit/s and implement signal processing (such as the adding,
dropping, and multiplexing of optical signals and optical wavelength
conversion/switching) at the optical layer, the optical transport network (OTN)
technology was introduced and applied.

 With the rapid development of data services and the requirements of all-IP networks,
the new packet transport network (PTN) technology that supports powerful data
service transmission has emerged and been applied.
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 Technical background of SDH emergence:
Hu
n
Fiber communications with inexpensive bandwidth features have become the

tio

dominative transmission method for communications networks.

ca
it fi
 The traditional PDH transmission system no longer adapts to development of modern
communications networks.
e r
 Limitations of PDH
C

&
Interface standards:
g

n in series, North American series, and Japanese series definition of signal


Standards for electrical interfaces are regional not worldwide. There are

airate levels. They use different frame structures and multiplexing modes, which
European
r
T hinders interconnection.
ei
a w  Worldwide standards for optical interfaces are absent. Vendors develop their

H u own line modulation formats for devices to monitor transmission performances


on the optical lines. The modulation format and rate of optical interfaces of
different vendors at the same rate are different. As a result, devices of different
vendors cannot be horizontally compatible.
 Multiplexing mode: Low-rate signals are multiplexed into or demultiplexed from
high-rate signals level by level, which damages the signals and degrades transmission
performance.
 OAM: PDH signal frames do not have many overheads for better OAM functions such
as layered management, performance monitoring, real-time service scheduling,
bandwidth control, and alarm analysis and locating.
 Lack of a unified NMS interface: It is difficult to form a unified telecom management
network.
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 The STM-1 rate is 155.520 Mbit/s. Hu
o n
The STM-N rate is N times of STM-1 (N = 4n. 1, 4, 16, 64, or 256).
i

t
Optical interfaces use the scrambledanon-return-to-zero

f i c (NRZ) code according to


international standards.
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H
A rectangular block frame with one byte (8 bits) asua unit. The frame frequency is 8000

n
frames/s, and the frame period is 125 μs. The frame is transmitted row by row.
Payload: it o
ca frame.

f i
ti
 Carries service data in an STM-N
A path overhead (POH)r is added together with data blocks as part of the overhead to

e
detect damages toCservice data (low-rate signals) during transmission. That is, it
& performance monitoring, management, and control over low-rate
performs real-time
signals. n g
n i
i
a (SOH):

r
Section overhead
T used for operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM) to ensure proper
i
e and flexible transport of payload data.
 Bytes
w
H ua Monitors the whole STM-N signal flow.

 Administration unit (AU-PTR):


 It is used to locate low-rate signals in an STM-N frame (payload), that is, to make the
position of the low-rate signals predictable.
 For E1 and E3 signals, level-2 pointer positioning is required. A TU-PTR locates a
small-sized package in a medium-sized package. An AU-PTR locates a medium-sized
package in a large-sized package.
 STM-0 is an information structure that is used to support the section layer connection in
the SDH and is equivalent to AU-3. Its rate is 51.84 Mbit/s, which is the SDH (SONET)
equivalent of OC-1.
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 Payload: carries service data in an STM-N frame. H u
A payload contains encapsulated PDH
o n signals (for example, 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, and
140 Mbit/s), ATM signals, and IPtipackets. It is carried by an STM-N signal and

f i ca Comparing an STM-N frame to a truck, the


i
transmitted over the SDH network.
payload is the carriage.rt
e
A POH is added in C every package when low-rate signals are encapsulated to monitor
&

g
goods during transportation.
n whole STM-N signal flow. This means, section overheads monitor all
n ithe
ai in an STM-N carriage.
 SOH: monitors

T r
goods packed

e i Regeneration section overhead (RSOH): monitors the whole STM-N information


w

ua
structure.
H  Multiplex section overhead (MSOH): monitors the information structure at the
multiplex section layer in an STM-N signal.

 RSOH, MSOH, and POH implement monitoring functions in the descending order of
monitoring scope.
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 AU-PTR: Hu
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 It is used to locate low-rate signals in an STM-N frame (payload), that is, to make the

a
position of the low-rate signals predictable.
c

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When packing the signal into an STM-N payload, the transmit end adds AU-PTR to
e
indicate the position of the signal package in the payload. This is, the goods package
C
to be loaded into the carriage is given a position coordinate value.
&

ing
The receive end splits the required low-rate tributary signal from the STM-N frame

in
payload according to the AU pointer value. That is, according to the position
a
Tr
coordinates of the goods package, the required package is directly obtained from the

ei carriage.

a w The goods package in the carriage is placed in a certain rule, byte-interleaved


u

H multiplexing. Therefore, you only need to locate the first goods package in the
carriage.

 Tributary unit pointer (TU-PTR):

 If the rate of the multiplexed low-speed signal is low, that is, the package after
packing is too small, such as 2M and 34M, level-2 pointer positioning is required. A
TU-PTR locates a small-sized package in a medium-sized package. An AU-PTR locates
a medium-sized package in a large-sized package.
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Multiplexing proceeds according to a specific multiplexing route selected by a country or

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region from several routes specified by ITU-T.
it o
ca
 G.707 – VC Type and Capacity

f i
VC Type
r ti VC Bandwidth VC Payload
e
C 1664 kbit/s
VC-11 1600 kbit/s
&
VC-12
i ng 2240 kbit/s 2176 kbit/s

VC-2 in
ra 6848 kbit/s 6784 kbit/s

i T
e
VC-3 48 960 kbit/s 48 384 kbit/s

a w VC-4 150 3 36 kbit/s 149 760 kbit/s


H u
VC-4-4c 601 344 kbit/s 599 040 kbit/s

VC-4-16c 2 405 376 kbit/s 2 396 160 kbit/s

VC-4-64c 9 621 504 kbit/s 9 584 640 kbit/s

VC-4-256c 38 486 016 kbit/s 38 338 560 kbit/s


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ua corresponding to 140M and
C-4 – container 4. It is the standard informationHstructure
implements the rate adaptation function.
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it o information structure corresponding to C-4 and
ca 140M signals in real time.
 VC-4 – virtual container 4. It is the standard
monitors the performance of the iloaded
ti f
AU-4 – administration unit e 4.rIt is the information structure corresponding to VC-4.
C


&
The multiplexing route is 140M – C-4 – VC-4 – AU-4 – STM-1. Therefore, only one 140M

ng into an STM-1.
signal can be multiplexed
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ua corresponding to 34M and
C-3 – container 3. It is the standard informationHstructure
implements the rate adaptation function.
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it o information structure corresponding to C-3 and
ca 34M signals in real time.
 VC-3 – virtual container 3. It is the standard
monitors the performance of the iloaded
f
rtistandard information structure corresponding to VC-3 and
TU-3 – tributary unit 3. It isethe
C positioning.

implements level-1 pointer


&
TUG-3 – tributaryg

i n unit group 3. It is the standard information structure corresponding to
TU-3.
a in
T r routes are 34M – C-3 – VC-3 – TU-3 – TUG-3 and 3 x TUG-3 – VC-4 – STM-1.
Multiplexing
ei three 34M signals can be multiplexed into an STM-1.

Therefore,
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H
C-12 – container 12. It is the standard information ustructure corresponding to 2M and

n
implements rate adaptation. Four base frames form a multiframe.
it o information structure corresponding to 2M
ca
 VC-12 – virtual container 12. It is a standard

f i
ti
and monitors a 2M signal in real time.

TU-12 – tributary unit 12. Iteisr the standard information structure corresponding to VC-12
and locates the first-levelCpointer of the VC-12.

&
TUG-2 – tributaryg

i n unit group 2; TUG-3 – tributary unit group 3.
n
Multiplexingi routes are 2M – C-12 – VC-12 – TU-12, 3 x TU-12 – TUG-2, 7 x TUG-2 – TUG-

3, and T
a
3 rx TUG-3 – VC-4 – STM-1.
ei sixty three (= 3 x 7 x 3) 2 Mbit/s signals can be multiplexed into an STM-1. The

a w multiplexing structure is 3-7-3.


Therefore,

H u 2M
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 Answer: (B) Hu
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 The overhead function is used to monitor and manageu
H SDH signals layer by layer. The
n
monitoring can be classified into section-layer monitoring and path-layer monitoring.
it oregenerator section (RS) layer monitoring and
Section-layer monitoring is classified into

i ca and path-layer monitoring is classified into higher-


multiplex section (MS) layer monitoring,
f
r
order path layer monitoring and ti lower-order path layer monitoring. In this way, STM-N
C e by layer. For example, for the monitoring of a 2.5G system,
signals can be monitored layer

&
RSOH monitors the entire STM-16 signal, MSOH monitors any of the 16 STM-1 signals in
the STM-16, HPOH g monitors VC-4s in each STM-1, and LPOH further monitors any of the

n in way, multi-layer monitoring is implemented from 2.5 Gbit/s to 2 Mbit/s.


ai
63 VC-12s. In this

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 Section overhead (SOH) Hu
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 A1 and A2 are framing bytes. These bytes are used to separate STM-N frames in a
signal flow.
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J0 is a regenerator section trace byte. This byte is used to repeatedly transmit a
e
section access point identifier, so that the receive end can verify its continuous
C
connection to the specified transmit end.
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ng
B1 is bit interleaved parity-8 (BIP-8). This byte is used to monitor bit errors at the
ni

i
regenerator section layer.
a
Trand E2 are orderwire bytes. These bytes are used to provide a voice channel for
E1
ei orderwire connections.

a w
H u  F1 is a user channel byte.

 D1 to D12 are data communication channel (DDC) bytes for OAM message
transmission.

 B2 is a bit interleaved parity check Nx24 (BIP-N %24) byte, used for monitoring bit
errors at the multiplex section layer.

 K1 and K2 (b1 to b5) are automatic protection switching (APS) channel bytes. These
bytes are used to transmit APS signaling.
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 The receive end locates and separates STM-N frames u
H from the information flow through A1
n
and A2, and then locates a low-rate signal in the frame through the pointer to find the
it o
frame header of the continuous signal flow.

f i caare fixed bit patterns. A1: 11110110 (f6H); A2:


ti end, each byte in the signal flow is detected. When 3N
 A1 and A2 have fixed values, which
r
Ce3N consecutive 28H bytes are detected (there are three A1 bytes
00101000 (28H). At the receive
consecutive f6H bytes and
and three A2 bytes in&an STM-1 frame), it is determined that an STM-N frame is received.
g
n different STM-N frames are distinguished by positioning the start point
i
At the receive end,

a in frame, so as to separate different frames. When N is 1, STM-1 frames are


of each STM-N

T r
distinguished.
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 The NMS and gateway NE (GNE) are connectedH ua Ethernet cables and communicate
through

communicate with each other over theiECC o n protocol or DCC channel.


with each other over the TCP/IP protocol. NEs are connected through optical fibers and

a t
c
The D1 to D12 bytes provide the igeneral data communication channel that can be accessed
f of the embedded control channel (ECC), this channel
i

r t
e
by all SDH NEs. As the physical layer
C
transmits operation, administration and maintenance (OAM) information between NEs to
form the transmission&channel of an SDH management network (SMN).
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Regenerator section bit error monitoring byte B1: u

H Monitors the regenerator section signal

n
flow in BIP8 even parity check mode.
Mechanism of the BIP8 even parity it ocheck: Check the corresponding bit column (bit
ca byte). If the number of "1"s is even in corresponding

f i
block) in the unit of 8 bits (one
column, the check result iis 0. If the number of "1"s is odd in corresponding column,
the check result is 1,e
t
asr shown in the following figure.
C
 The working mechanism& of the B1 byte is described as follows:
i ngend performs a BIP-8 even parity check for the last scrambled frame
The transmit
in and places the check result in the B1 byte of the current frame (2#STM-

(1#STM-N),
N).ra
i T
e receive end performs a BIP-8 even parity check for the current unscrambled
The
w

ua
frame (1#STM-N), and performs the logical operation exclusive OR between the
H check result (B1') and the B1 byte in the next scrambled frame (2#STM-N).
 If the obtained value is 0, no bit error block is generated. If the obtained value is not
0, the number of "1"s indicates the number of bit error blocks.
 If the receive end detects B1 bit error blocks, it is reflected in the RS-BBE
performance event.

Example: One frame of a A1 00110011


signal has four bytes. The A2 11001100
BIP8 even parity check is BIP-8 A3 10101010
performed on the signal, A4 00001111
as shown in this figure.
B 01011010
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H u
Multiplex section bit error monitoring byte B2: Monitors the multiplex section signal flow in

n
BIP24 even parity check mode.
Mechanism of the BIP24 even parity it o check: In the unit of 24 bits (3 bytes; each STM-
a

1 frame has 3 B2 bytes), theccorresponding


f i bit column (bit block) is checked, as

r ti
shown in the following figure.
 The working mechanismC ofethe B2 byte is described as follows:
The transmit end& performs a BIP-24 even parity check for all the bytes but the RSOH
g

in the lastnunscrambled frame, and places the check result in the three consecutive
i
B2 bytesniof the current frame.
T rareceive end performs a BIP-24 even parity check for all the bytes except the
ei RSOH in the current scrambled frame, and performs the logical operation exclusive
 The

a w OR between the check result (B2') and the B2 byte in the next scrambled frame.
H u  If the obtained value is 0, no bit error block is generated.
 If the obtained value is not 0, the number of "1"s indicates the number of bit error
blocks.
 If the receive end detects B2 bit error blocks, it is reflected in the MS-BBE
performance event.

Example: One frame of a 11001100 11001100 11001100


signal has nine bytes. The 01011101 01011101 01011101
BIP24 even parity check is BIP24
11110000 11110000 11110000
performed on the signal,
as shown in this figure. 01100001 01100001 01100001
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 The M1 byte is used to transmit the number of H bituerror blocks detected by the BIP-Nx24

n
(B2) at the receive end, so that the transmit end can learn the bit error status at the receive
end. it o
i a For STM-4, the value range is (0, 96). For STM-16,
c24).
 For STM-0/1, the value range is (0,
f
tithe signals with higher rates, the M0 and M1 bytes are used
r
e value range is (0, 1536). For STM-256, the value range is (0,
the value range is (0, 255). For
for counting. For STM-64, Cthe
6144). &
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 E1 bytes are used as orderwire bytes to implement u
H orderwire communication between
the

n
NEs A, B, C, and D. Because the terminal multiplexer (TM) processes RSOH and MSOH, the
regenerator REG regenerates signals and it oprocesses only the RSOH. Therefore, the E1 bytes
enable the orderwire communication
f i cabetween NEs A, B, C, and D.
ti orderwire byte, only NEs A and D can communicate with
If only the E2 byte is used as rthe
Be

each other, because NEsC and C do not process the MSOH or E2 byte.
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 Automatic protection switching (APS) channel bytes:u
H K1 and K2 (b1 to b5)
o
Transmits APS signaling, enabling networkn self-healing.
ti

 Used for MSP switching


i c a
i f
The K2 (b6 to b8) byte can betused to indicate the multiplex section alarm.

e r
 C end generates the MS-AIS alarm when the received
b6 to b8 = 111: The local
& signal is all "1"s.
multiplex section
g
b6 to b8in

i n = 110: MS-RDI is received, indicating that the received signals at the

ra end are invalid (such as R-LOS, R-LOF, and MS-AIS).


opposite

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 In an SDH optical transmission system, the S1 byte u
H used to transmit the quality and usage
is

n
information of clock sources. By using the byte information, the synchronization timing unit
can implement the automatic switchingio
a
table lists the information codes ofcthe
t S1 byte (b5 to b8).
protection function on clock sources. The following

t i fi
S1 (b5 to b8) S1 Byte r
e
SDH Synchronization Quality Level
C Synchronization quality unknown (existing
0000
&
0x00
synchronous network)
g
n 0x01
0001
i Reserved
0010
a in 0x02 G.811-recommended clock signal
0011T
r
e i 0x03 Reserved

a w0100 0x04 G.812-recommended transit clock signal

H u 0101 0x04 Reserved


0110 0x06 Reserved
0111 0x07 Reserved
1000 0x08 G.812-recommended local clock signal
1001 0x09 Reserved
1010 0x0A Reserved
1011 0x0B SDH equipment timing source (SETS) signal
1100 0x0C Reserved
1101 0x0D Reserved
1110 0x0E Reserved
1111 0x0F Not used for synchronization
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 VC-4/VC-3 HPOH Hu
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 J1: path trace byte

B3: path BIP-8 byte


ca
it fi

 C2: signal label byte


e r
 C
G1: path status byte
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ng
 F2 and F3: path user channel bytes. These bytes are used to provide (payload-related)

ni
orderwire communications between paths.
i
a

Tr tributary unit (TU) position indication byte
H4:

ei K3 (b1 to b4): APS channel byte


aw

Hu
 K3 (b5 to b8): reserved byte

 N1: network operator byte. This byte is used for a specified management purpose.
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 When J1 byte mismatch occurs, an HP_TIM alarm u
H generated. In this case, services may be
is

n
interrupted. The processing mechanisms of different devices are different.
it oequipment is HuaWei SBS.
cathe channel access point identifier may be a 16-byte
 The default J1 byte value of Huawei SDH

f i

ti
During network application in China,
E.164 numbering format orear64-byte free format code stream recommended by the CCITT.
C
At the border of an international network, only the 16-byte E.164 numbering format is
&
ng16-byte format will be repeated four times.
allowed. If the 16-byte format is transferred to the area with the 64-byte format for
i
inframe (that is, the path trace identification multiplexing frame PT) that
transmission, the

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T
 The 16-byte

e i the E.164 number contains 16 J1 bytes, which have the same coding method as
transmits

a w of J0 bytes.
that

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H
The B3 byte is used to monitor the bit error performance u of VC-4 transmission in STM-N

n
frames. The monitoring mechanism of B3 is similar to those of B1 and B2. However, B3
performs the BIP-8 check on VC-4 frames. it o
f i careceive end, the local performance monitoring event
ti
 If a bit error block is detected at the

e r
HP-BBE (higher-order path background block error) displays the number of bit error blocks.
C
At the same time, the performance monitoring event HP-REI (higher-order path remote
error indication) of the&VC-4 path at the transmit end displays the number of bit error
blocks received n g
i at the receive end.
in of bit errors at the receive end exceeds a certain limit, the device reports
When theanumber

T rindicating that bit errors exceed the threshold (B3-OVER).


ei
an alarm

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u
H the multiplexing structure of the VC
C2 is the signal label byte, which is used to indicate

n
frames and the payload property. The transmitted C2 byte must match the C2 byte to be
received. When a C2 mismatch is detected, it o the corresponding VC-4 path at the local end
generates an HP_SLM alarm.
f i ca
i
Mapping between the servicerttypes and values of C2 bytes
Ce

&
g
Parameter Setting of the
Type of the Input Service
i n C2 Byte (Hexadecimal)

a in
TUG structure 02
r
T asynchronously mapped into a C-3
e i
34M/45M 04

a w140M asynchronously mapped into a C-4 12

H u Not loaded 00
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 Bits 6 to 8 of the G1 byte are not used temporarily.u
H The value range of b1 to b4 in the G1
n
byte is 0 to 15. However, B3 can only detect a maximum of eight bit error blocks in a
frame. That is, values 0 to 8 of b1 to b4io
a
blocks are detected, and the othercseven
t values (9 to 15) are considered as bit-error-free
in the G1 byte indicate that only 0 to 8 bit error

t i fi
blocks.
e r
 C when the AIS alarm indication signal or AU-AIS/HP-TIM/HP-
The HP-RDI alarm is reported
SLM/HP-UNEQ alarm& is generated.
g
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 LPOH
Hu
V5: path status and signal label byte
n
tio

J2: VC-12 path trace byte. This byte is used to repeatedly transmit a lower order path
a

c
it fi
access point identifier so that a sink can verify its continuous connection to a source
on a path. A 16-byte frame is defined in international specifications to transmit
e r
access path identifiers with the frame format identical to that of J0 byte.
C
N2: network operator byte. This byte is used for a specified management purpose.
&

ng
For example, it can provide tandem connection monitor (TCM) for lower-order paths,
i
which is similar to the function of N1 bytes on higher-order path overheads.

a in
K4: b1 to b4 are used to transmit the lower order path APS protocol. b5 to b7 are
Tr

used to transmit the enhanced RDI on lower order paths. Bit 8 is reserved.
ei
V5: path status and signal label byte (similar to G1 or C2 byte). It is the first byte located by
w

u a a TU-PTR in a multiframe and performs VC-12 bit error monitoring, VC-12 remote fault and

H
defect indication, and signal labeling.
 Bits 1 to 2: allocated for lower-order path background block error (LP-BBE)
monitoring using the BIP-2 scheme
 Bit 3: used for lower-order path remote error indication, LP-REI
 Bit 4: used for lower-order path remote failure indication, LP-RFI. This bit is set to 1 if
a failure is declared. For V5 bytes in VC-12 and VC-2, this bit has not been defined.
 Bits 5 to 7: signal label indicating path information. For example, it indicates whether
the path is loaded. If yes, it indicates the used mapping mode. If bits 5 to 7 are set to
000, an LP-UNEQ alarm is reported on the associated path.
 Bit 8: used to return an LP-RDI alarm signal to the source with the bit value being set
to 1 when the local end receives a TU-AIS, an LP-TIM, or an LP-SLM alarm signal.
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 The pointer is used for alignment and indicatesH theustart position of VC-n in the

n
corresponding AU or TU frame. In this way, the receive end can correctly remove the
corresponding VC from the STM-N, andio
a
low-rate signals, such as PDH. Thatcis,
tlow-rate tributary signals can be directly dropped
then split the VC and C encapsulation to separate

t i fi
er the position of the VC-4 in an AU-4.
from the STM-N signal.

 AU-PTR is used to Clocate

TU-PTR is used&
g to locate the position of the VC-12 in a TU-12.
inwith the framing bytes A1 and A2, pointers are used to directly drop low-

n
ai signals from high-speed STM-N signals.
 Together

T r
speed
i
e the network is in the synchronous working state, the pointer is used to calibrate the
When
w

ua
phases between synchronization signals.
H  When network synchronization fails, the pointer is used for frequency and phase
calibration.

 When the network works asynchronously, the pointer is used for frequency tracking
calibration.

 The pointer can also be used to accommodate the frequency jitter and drifting in the
network.
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 Answer: Hu
n
tio
1. B1 for regenerator section bit error monitoring, B2 for multiplex section bit error

a
monitoring, B3 for higher-order path bit error monitoring, and V5 for lower-order
c
it fi
path bit error monitoring

e r
2. AIS alarm or BBE performance event generated at the receive end and sent back to
the transmit end C
&
ing
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The names of all functional modules are describeduas follows:

H
n
SPI: SDH physical interface; TTF: transmission terminal function; RST: regenerator
it o

section terminal
a multiplex section terminal; LOI: lower-order
HOI: higher-order interface; cMST:
i
f

interface
r ti

C e protection; HOA: higher-order assembler; MSA: multiplex
MSP: multiplex section
section adaptation
& path connection; PPI: PDH physical interface; OHA: overhead

access in
g
HPC: higher-order

in
LPA:alower-order path adaptation; SEMF: synchronous equipment management

T r LPT: lower-order path terminal


ei MCF: message communication function; LPC: lower-order path connection; SETS:
function;

a w synchronous equipment timing source


H u
 HPA: higher-order path adaptation; SETPI: synchronous equipment timing physical
interface; HPT: higher-order path termination
 The preceding figure shows the functional modules of a TM. The signal flow is as follows:
An STM-N signal on the line enters a device at the reference point A of the device. After
traversing the A→B→C→D→E→F→G→L→M path, the signal is split into 140 Mbit/s PDH
signals. After traversing the A→B→C→D→E→F→G→H→I→J→K path, the signal is split
into 2 Mbit/s or 34 Mbit/s PDH signals (2 Mbit/s signal is used as an example here). This
direction is defined as the receive direction of the device. In the opposite direction, 140
Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, and 2 Mbit/s PDH signals are multiplexed into STM-N signal frames on
the line along the reverse direction of the two paths. The functions of the device are
implemented by all basic functional modules together.
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 Answer: A. SPI Hu
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u
H section between the RSTs of two
A regenerator section (RS) refers to the maintenance

n
devices (including two RSTs and the optical cables between them).
io
A multiplex section (MS) refers to the tmaintenance

devices (including two MSTs and ithe


a section between the MSTs of two
c optical cables between them).
i f
e rt of STM-N frames, and the MS processes both the RSOH
The RS processes only the RSOH
C

and MSOH of STM-N frames.


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H u
TU_AIS is often encountered during network maintenance. By analyzing the TU_AIS alarm

n
generation flow chart, you can easily locate the fault points and causes of TU_AIS and
other related alarms. it o
f i cais another common cause for TU_AIS. If the service
ti making the service timeslots of a path (between the
 During network maintenance, there
r
e mismatch, the TU_AIS alarm will be reported.
timeslot is incorrectly configured,
transmit end and receiveC end)
&
g
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 The preceding figure shows the detailed alarm H ua flowchart of each functional
generation

n
module of an SDH device. You can view the alarm and performance event information
generated by each functional module ofiothe SDH device and the relationship between the
alarms and performance events. ca
t
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 The MS_AIS alarm indicates that the signal at point u
H C is all "1"s. This alarm is caused by
n
R_LOS and R_LOF. When the RST receives R_LOS and R_LOF, the signal at point C is all
"1"s. In this case, the b6 to b8 of the K2it obyte is "111". In addition, the MS_AIS alarm at
the local end may be caused by the
f i caMS_AIS signal sent from the opposite end. That is, the
r
transmitted STM-N frame consists ti of a valid RSOH and other all-"1"s signals.
Ce
&
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H
MSTP is short for Multi-Service Transmission Platform.u
Huawei MSTP devices have two series: OptiX
o n OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500 series and OptiX
ti

OSN 500/550/580 series.


a
ic Intelligent Optical Transmission System is a new-
t
The OptiX OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500 i f
rtransmission

e
generation intelligent optical system developed by Huawei Technologies Co.,
Ctransmits various services, such as SDH, PDH, Ethernet, ATM,
Ltd. The system efficiently
&
ng the system manages the services and bandwidths intelligently.
DDN, and SAN services, from the backbone layer to the access layer. By using intelligent
i
in 500/550/580 is mainly used at the network access layer or in enterprise
network technologies,

ra
T
 The OptiX OSN

ei
private networks.

a w course is intended for engineers who are responsible for device commissioning and
This
u

H network maintenance. It guides engineers through systematically learning the hardware of


MSTP products.
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 An MSTP device has the following functional units:
H u cross-connect unit, line unit (LU),

nbuses, overhead buses, and clock buses, and


tributary unit (TU), system control and communication (SCC) unit, timing unit, and auxiliary
o
unit. These units are connected by service
i
tNG-SDH device.
comprise the hardware system of the
i c a
TU: It can be a PDH unit,tiaf PCM unit, an Ethernet unit, or an ATM unit. It is used to

e r at different rates and to receive/transmit and process


C
provide ports for signals

&
different services.

n g unit. It provides optical/electrical ports to receive/transmit high-rate



i
LU: It is an SDH
in(STM-1/STM-4/STM-16/STM-64) and processes these signals.
signals
a
T r
i
 Cross-connect unit: It flexibly grooms services and functions as the core of the MSTP
e device. It only routes VC-4/VC-3/VC-12 services, but does not process signals.
w
H ua Timing unit: It provides clock signals for each functional unit of the system. It works

as the clock source for the whole system by receiving external clock signals through
external clock ports or for other devices by outputting the processed clock signals.
Alternatively, it traces clock signals extracted from an SDH unit or a PDH unit to
provide timing for other functional units in the system.
 Auxiliary unit: It provides ports for orderwire phones or serial data, connects to and
processes power supplies, and amplifies optical power.
 SCC unit: It controls the whole system and communicates with the NMS. It also
reports alarms and performance data collected from each functional unit through
NMS ports to an NMS operating terminal, and receives configuration commands
delivered by the NMS.
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 The MSTP device subrack or chassis can be installed u
H in a standard 300 mm or 600 mm ETSI
n
cabinet or a 19-inch cabinet. The OSN 1500/2500 can also be installed in an access
network cabinet, and the OSN 500/550io
or installed in an outdoor cabinet. ca
t can also be mounted on the wall or on the desktop

i f i
t
The 300 mm ETSI cabinet hasr two models: T63 and N63E. The 600 mm ETSI cabinet is
e supports the back-to-back installation of NG-SDH

N66T. The 600 mm ETSI C cabinet


& is shown on the slide.
subracks. The N63E cabinet
g
n in consists of the cabinet, cabinet door, DC power distribution box,
The entire device
i fixing frame, subracks, boards, and cables. The number of OSN subracks

orderwireaphone
r
T be installed in a cabinet varies depending on the cabinet height. For example, only
i
that can
oneeOSN 3500 subrack can be installed in a cabinet with a height of 2 m, and a maximum
a w
H u of two OSN 3500 subracks can be installed in a cabinet with a height of 2.2 m or 2.6 m. In
addition to subracks, the DC power distribution box and cabinet indicators are usually
configured on the top of a cabinet.

 External case-shaped devices other than subracks can be installed in a cabinet as required.

 Uninterruptible power module (UPM)

 Case-shaped optical amplifier (COA)

 Fiber management tray, which is used to spool redundant fibers inside the cabinet
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 Cabinet indicators are installed on the top of a H ua to indicate the power supply status
cabinet

on
and alarm status of the entire cabinet.

The green indicator is the powertisupply indicator. If the green indicator is on, it
ca to the device. If the green indicator is off, it indicates

f i
ti to the device.
indicates that power is supplied

e r
that power is not supplied

The red indicator isCthe critical alarm indicator, the orange indicator is the major
&and the yellow indicator is the minor alarm indicator.

g
alarm indicator,

n inindicator is on, alarms of the corresponding severity occur in one or more


ai in the cabinet. If all alarm indicators are off, no alarm occurs.
If an alarm

T r
subracks

e i When an alarm occurs, the corresponding alarm indicator is on, but does not blink.
w

H ua Cabinet indicators are driven by subracks. The cabinet indicators can work properly

only after the subracks are powered on and power cables are correctly connected.
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The DC power distribution unit (PDU), TN51PDU, u

H is installed at the top of a cabinet, and
can be divided into two parts, namely, part A and part B that back up each other.
Currently, each part receives four –48 Vo n supplies. The power supply connections are
t i power
as follows:
c a
t i fi supplies are connected to RTN(+) and NEG(-).
For part A, two primary power
r power supplies are connected to RTN(+) and NEG(-).


C e
For part B, two standby
Power supply output& area: On both sides of the DC PDU, there are respectively four output
ng are used to connect to the power cables of subracks.

i
terminal blocks that

a
Power supply ininput area: The TN51PDU board provides corresponding power supply input
r based on the power supply capacity of the equipment room.

T
capabilities
ei When the equipment room provides four power supply inputs not less than 63 A,
w part A and part B can respectively be connected to four –48 V DC power cables and

u a
H four power supply ground cables, that is, eight –48 V DC power cables and eight
power supply ground cables in total.
 When the equipment room provides two power supply inputs not less than 125 A,
part A and part B can be respectively connected to two –48 V DC power cables and
two power supply ground cables through the installation of copper fittings, that is,
four –48 V DC power cables and four power supply ground cables in total.
 Power supply switch area: On both sides of the DC PDU, there are respectively four power
supply output switches that correspond to the output terminal blocks. The power supply
output switches control power supply to corresponding subracks.
 There are many types of DC PDUs. This course uses TN51PDU as an example.
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 The maximum power consumption per subrackH ua to the maximum power consumption
refers

n
configuration that a subrack can support and the maximum heat dissipation capability that
it o power consumption of the typical configuration
the subrack has. In actual application, the
is far less than the maximum power
f i caconsumption.
r ti by the device cause higher power consumption. To
Ce of the device, the internal power supply system provides
 The increasing features supported
ensure the normal operation
& of power consumption according to different power
different mapping policies
g
in
consumption requirements.
n
i
The poweraconsumption

r of the device depends on the number and types of boards
T in the subrack. For details about the power consumption of each board, see the
i
configured
e Description in the corresponding product manual.
w
Hardware

H uaThe preceding table lists the maximum power consumption and cabinet fuse capacity of a

common subrack. For details about the specifications of an enhanced subrack, see the
corresponding product manual.
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 The OptiX OSN 1500 has two models: OSN 1500A u
H OSN 1500B. The OSN 1500A has a
and

n
single-layer subrack structure, and the OSN 1500B has a two-layer subrack structure. This
slide shows the subrack structure of theio
a t OSN 1500B, which is referred to as the OptiX OSN
1500.
f i c
t i
r 1500 subrack has a two-layer subrack structure. The upper
e
 As shown in the figure, the OSN
layer accesses signals andCpower supplies, and the lower layer processes signals. The entire
subrack can be divided&into the following functional parts:
g
n in
Service processing board slots: They are used to house the line, tributary, and
i

r a processing boards.
Ethernet

i T
e interface boards.
 Interface board slots: They are used to house tributary interface boards and Ethernet
w
H ua  SCC, cross-connect, timing, and line board slots: They are used to house the PCXLN
boards, which are SCC, cross-connect, timing, and line boards.

 AUX board slots: They are used to provide alarm interfaces, management and
maintenance interfaces, and 120-ohm clock interfaces.

 PIU slots: Two PIU boards are installed to supply power to the subrack and provide
75-ohm clock ports.

 Fan unit area: This area houses one fan module to dissipate heat generated by the
device.
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 The OptiX OSN 2500 subrack has a single-layerH ua structure. The entire subrack can
subrack

n
be divided into the following functional parts:
it o are used to house the line, tributary, and

Ethernet processing boards.ic


a
Service processing board slots: They

f
rti are used to house tributary interface boards and Ethernet
Interface board slots:eThey
interface boards. C

&
n g
SCC, cross-connect, timing, and line board slots: They are used to house the
i

i n boards, which are SCC, cross-connect, timing, and line boards.


CXL1/4/16

T ra auxiliary processing board slot


System
ei Extended signal interface area: This area is used to provide alarm interfaces,

a w orderwire phone interfaces, management and maintenance interfaces, and clock


H u
interfaces.

 PIU slots: They are used to house two PIU boards to supply power to the subrack.

 Fan unit area: This area houses two fan modules to dissipate heat generated by the
device.
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H u
The OptiX OSN 3500 has a two-layer subrack structure. The entire subrack can be divided
into the following functional parts:
n
it o are used to house various service processing
ca Ethernet, and ATM processing boards.
 Service processing board slots: They

f i
rti are used to house the interface boards corresponding to
boards, such as the line, tributary,

Interface board slots:eThey


C processing boards.

PDH, SDH, and Ethernet


&
n
Cross-connectg board slots: They are used to house the active and standby cross-
i

i
connect n boards.
T raboard slots: They are used to house the active and standby SCC boards.
SCC
ei AUX board slot: It can be used to house an auxiliary interface board AUX to

a w implement the access of orderwire phone, clock, alarm, and NMS signals.

H u
 PIU slots: They are used to house two PIU boards to supply power to the subrack.

 Fan unit area: This area houses three fan modules to dissipate heat generated by the
device.
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 The OptiX OSN 3500 subrack consists of 37 slots u
H the upper and lower layers. The upper
at

n
layer, where 19 slots are present, is the slot area for interface boards. The lower layer,
it o for processing boards.
where 18 slots are present, is the slot area

i a
csubrack
f
rtito 18
 Slot layout of the OptiX OSN 3500

SCC board slots: slotse17


C


&
Cross-connect and timing board slots: slots 9 to 10
g slots: slots 1 to 8, slots 11 to 17
nboard
i
Processing
in board slots: slots 19 to 26, slots 29 to 36

r a
Interface
T

ei Auxiliary interface board slot: slot 37


a w PIU board slots: slots 27 to 28


H u 

 This table lists the slot relationship between the service processing boards and interface
boards of the OptiX OSN 3500.

 The paired slots of the OptiX OSN 3500 are symmetrical with cross-connect board slots in
the middle. As shown in the figure, slots 8 and 11 are paired slots, slots 7 and 12 are
paired slots, and so on. The boards in two directions of an ADM site must be installed in
paired slots.
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 The OptiX OSN 3500 II has a two-layer subrackH ua The entire subrack can be divided
structure.
into the following functional parts:
n
it o are used to house various service processing
ca Ethernet, and ATM processing boards.
 Service processing board slots: They

f i
rti are used to house the interface boards corresponding to
boards, such as the line, tributary,

Interface board slots:eThey


C processing boards.

PDH, SDH, and Ethernet


&
n g
SCC, cross-connect, and timing board slots: They are used to house the active and
i

i
standby n SCC, cross-connect, and timing boards.
T ra interface board slots: They are used to house AUX boards to implement the
Auxiliary
ei access of orderwire phone, clock, alarm, and NMS signals.

a w Fan unit area: This area houses three fan modules to dissipate heat generated by the
H u 

device.
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 The OptiX OSN 3500 II subrack consists of 39 slots u
H the upper and lower layers. The
at

n
upper layer, where 20 slots are present, is the slot area for interface boards. The lower
layer, where 19 slots are present, is theio
a t slot area for processing boards, including PIU,
EOW, and AUX.
f i c
t i
r OSN 3500 II subrack
e
 Slot layout of the OptiX
C1 and slot 41
PIU board slots: slot
&

i ng
SCC, cross-connect, and timing board slots: slots 9 to 10

a in board slots: slots 2 to 8, slots 11 to 16


Processing
r board slots: slots 21 to 40

T
ei Auxiliary interface boards: slots 42 and 43
 Interface

a w 

H u
 This table lists the slot relationship between the service processing boards and interface
boards of the OptiX OSN 3500 II.

 The paired slots of the OptiX OSN 3500 II are symmetrical with cross-connect board slots in
the middle. As shown in the figure, slots 9 and 10 are paired slots, slots 8 and 11 are
paired slots, and so on. The boards in two directions of an ADM site must be installed in
paired slots.
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 The OptiX OSN 7500 has a two-layer subrack structure.H u The entire subrack can be divided
into the following functional parts:
n
it oused to house various service processing boards,
caand ATM processing boards.
 Service processing board slots: They are

i f
such as the line, tributary, Ethernet,i
Interface board slots: They e rtused
are to house the interface boards corresponding to PDH,
C boards.

SDH, and Ethernet processing


&
n
Cross-connect board g slots: They are used to house the active and standby cross-connect
i

boards.
a in
T
SCC boardr slots: They are used to house the active and standby SCC boards.
eiboard slot: It can be used to house an auxiliary interface board AUX to implement the

a w of orderwire phone, clock, alarm, and NMS signals.


AUX

H u access

 PIU slots: They are used to house two PIU boards to supply power to the subrack.

 Fan unit area: This area houses three fan modules to dissipate heat generated by the
device.

 Note: Compared with the OSN 3500, the SCC boards of the OSN 7500 are moved to the
upper layer of the subrack, and therefore the OSN 7500 provides more service processing
board slots and a larger access capacity.
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 The OptiX OSN 7500 subrack consists of 38 slots, u
H slots at the upper layer and 18 slots at
20
the lower layer.
n
it osubrack
ic25a
Slot layout of the OptiX OSN 7500

SCC board slots: slots 24 ito


t f
r


C e
Cross-connect and timing boards: slots 9 to 10

& slots: slots 1 to 8, slots 11 to 18, slots 26 to 31


Processing board
g

Interfacein
in
 board slots: slots 19 to 22, slots 35 to 38
a
r interface board slot: slot 34

T
Auxiliary

ei PIU board slots: slots 32 to 33


w

a
u table lists the slot relationship between the processing boards and interface boards of
This
H

the OptiX OSN 7500.

 The paired slots of the OptiX OSN 7500 are symmetrical with cross-connect board slots in
the middle. As shown in the figure, slots 8 and 11 are paired slots, slots 7 and 12 are
paired slots, and so on. The boards in two directions of an ADM site must be installed in
paired slots.
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 The OptiX OSN 7500 II subrack consists of the H ualayer and lower layer, wherein 40
upper

n
slots are available. There are 20 slots at the upper layer, 18 slots at the lower layer, and
two slots for the fan modules. it o
f i ca
ti slots 26 to 33, slots 34 to 41
 Interface board slots:

e
Service interface board rslots:
C


&
Processing board slots:

n g
i
Service processing board slots: slots 1 to 8 and slots 11 to 18
in and timing board slots: slots 9 to 10

r a
Cross-connect
T

ei PIU board slots: slots 22 to 23


a w SCC board slots: slots 24 to 25


H u 

 Paired slots are two slots between which overhead bytes can pass through the backplane
bus. Paired slots implement automatic transparent transmission of overhead bytes, such as
K bytes, D bytes, and E1 bytes. This improves MSP switching performance and protects
DCC communication with other NEs even if the SCC board on the local NE is offline.
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 The ISU slot houses a functional board integrating u
H SCC unit, cross-connect unit, timing
the

n
unit, tributary unit, line unit, and transparent data transmission unit. The ISU board is
available in multiple types depending on it othe functions and access capacity provided by the
i
OptiX OSN 500. The ISU board is mandatory.
f ca
r tiline unit, tributary unit, and data unit.
Ce
 The extended slots support the

&
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 Power supply area: This area houses DC powerH ua modules for the DC power input and
supply
output of the device.
n
it owhich dissipates heat generated by the device. The
cafor locked-rotor and rotating speed, status query, and
 Fan area: This area houses a fan board,

f i
ti
fan board supports the status checks
fault reporting.
e r
Extended board slot area:CThis area houses various extended boards and AC power supply
&

g
board APIU of the OptiX OSN 550. It can provide line, tributary, and data units.
n
Slot area for n i

the OptiXra
i the SCC, cross-connect, and timing board: This area houses the CXL board of

T
OSN 550. The CXL slot houses a functional board integrating the SCC unit, cross-

e i unit, and timing unit. The functional board is available in multiple types depending
connect

a w the functions and access capacity provided by the OptiX OSN 550.
on

H u
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 Device dimensions: Hu
221 mm x 442 mm x 224 mm (H x W x D)
o n
i

a t slots:

c
The OptiX OSN 580 provides the following
i to house packet processing boards, tributary boards,
fused
t i
r multiplexer (OADM) boards, and auxiliary boards.
Slots 1 to 14: They can be
e

C
line boards, optical add/drop

Slots 15 and 16:&They can be used to house UCX boards.


g

Slots 17,in
in is DC powered. Slots 17 and 19 are dedicated for housing the APIU
 18, and 19: Slots 17 and 18 are dedicated for housing the PIU boards when
the a
T r when the chassis is AC powered.
chassis

ei Slot 20: It is dedicated for housing the FAN board.


boards

a w 

H u
 Note:

 Slot 19 cannot be used to house a packet processing board, tributary board, or line
board because this slot does not have any cross-connect bus.
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 An APIU board occupies two slots. The pins onH theuboard are located on the lower part of

n
the board. Therefore, the board is inserted in the lower slot of the two occupied slots. Its
it o lower slot of the two occupied slots. For
logical slot on the NMS is the same as the

i
example, if an APIU board is inserted
f cain slot 17, it occupies slots 1 and 17, and its logical
r ti 17.
slot displayed on the NMS is slot

Ce
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 Answer to question 1: The maximum access capacity u
H of the OSN 1500B is 15 Gbit/s before
n
and after slot splitting. The maximum access capacity of the OSN 2500 slot is 17.5 Gbit/s
it o slot splitting. The maximum access capacity of
before slot splitting and 18.75 Gbit/s after
the OSN 3500 is 35 Gbit/s when the
f i caGXCS cross-connect board is configured, 58.75 Gbit/s
r
when the EXCS/UXCS cross-connect ti board is configured, or 155 Gbit/s when the
C
SXCS/IXCS cross-connect boarde is configured. The maximum access capacity of the OSN
&
3500 II is 40 Gbit/s when the Q5CXL board is configured or 90 Gbit/s when the Q6CXL
board is configured.
n g The maximum access capacity of the OSN 7500 subrack can reach 200
i
in board is configured.
Gbit/s when the GXCS or EXCS board is configured or 280 Gbit/s when the SXCS, UXCS, or
a
r
IXCS cross-connect
T
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H
Different boards have different appearances and u
dimensions.

o n by MSTP devices can be classified into the


In terms of appearance, the boards supported
ti

following types:
a
ic interfaces that can access and process service signals,
Service processing boardsifwith
rt

such as SL16.
C e

&
Service processing boards that can only process service signals, such as PQ1.

Interface n g that can only access service signals, such as D75S.


i boards
in

ra
T
ei
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 In terms of functionality, boards can be classified u
H SDH units, PDH units, EOS units, and
into
auxiliary units.
n
it o
f i ca
r ti
Ce
&
g
n in
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 The meanings of SDH unit names are as follows: H u
The first character S indicates an SDH
o n unit.
tia line unit (F indicates the FEC function).

 The second character L indicates


i c a
i f

e rt character are as follows:


Possible values of the third

 -: 1 x STM-NCsignal
&
g
D: 2 x STM-N signals
i4nx STM-N signals

n
aiO: 8 x STM-N signals
 Q:

T r
i

e
a w  T: 12 x STM-N signals

H u  H: 16 x STM-N signals

 The fourth character indicates the signal rate level.

 SL64 indicates an SDH line unit that can access and process one STM-64 signal.

 SF64 is a special SDH unit that has the forward error correction (FEC) function (represented
by F). FEC is a technology that improves the reliability of data transmission. It can increase
the transmission distance of signals and improve network performance.
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 The interface type determines the transmission H ua rate, and wavelength of signals.
distance,

on
For details, see the following slides.

The optical ports that can output fixedtiwavelengths can be directly interconnected with
ca

WDM devices.
i f i
r tsupport
 The OSN 1500/2500 does not e
C 1500/2500.
STM-64 optical boards. Therefore, the SL64 board
cannot be used in the OSN
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 The SL64/SF64/SL16 board uses fixed and unpluggable u
H optical modules, but does not
support pluggable SFP optical modules.
n
it o
f i ca
r ti

C e (ESD) label is used to identify an electrostatic sensitive device.
Electrostatic discharge

&
Pay attention to ESD when performing operations.
g
in
CLASS 1
n
ai
LASER

r
PRODUCT

i T
e  Laser safety class label is used to identify the class of the laser source.
w
H ua
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 The working mechanism of an SDH unit is as follows: u
H Take the SL64 board as an example.
n
An STM-64 optical signal is sent to an optical board through the optical port. The optical
it o on the STM-64 optical signal, demultiplexes
board performs optical/electrical conversion

i
the high-rate electrical signal into 64
f caVC-4 electrical signals, recovers the line clock, extracts
r i
SDH overhead bytes from the treceived multiple low-rate electrical signals, and processes

C e signals are sent to the cross-connect unit through the


the pointers. Then, the 64 VC-4

& adds overheads to the signals, and forms an STM-64 line optical
backplane bus. In addition, the board receives 64 VC-4 signals from the cross-connect unit,
g
multiplexes the signals,

n in entire process, the SDH unit collects alarms and performance events
abyi the local board and sends them to the SCC unit for processing.
signal. During the
generated
T r
e i
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 The STM-16/64 board supports the output of fixed u
H wavelengths, and can be directly
n
connected to the multiplexer board of a DWDM device. For example, if the optical port
specifications of an STM-16 optical boardit o support the output of standard wavelengths
compliant with ITU-T G.692 and no
f i cawavelength conversion unit is required for converting
r
wavelengths, the STM-16 optical ti board can be directly connected to a multiplexer board of
Ce (WDM) device to achieve long-haul transmission.
a wavelength division multiplexing

& VC-12, VC-3, VC-4, VC-4-4c, VC-4-8c, VC-4-16c, and VC-4-64c


The SDH unit also supports
g

i
services (VC-4-4c,n VC-4-8c, VC-4-16c, and VC-4-64c services are concatenation services).
a insupports the automatic laser shutdown (ALS) function. When no optical signal

T r the ALS function automatically shuts down the corresponding optical module to
The SDH unit

ei onsite maintenance personnel.


is received,

a w
protect

H u The SDH unit supports the loopback function to help maintenance personnel locate faults.

 Pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS): It is used for network self-check and maintenance.
You can determine whether the working path towards a tributary port, towards the line
direction, or towards the cross-connect direction is normal, depending on whether bit
errors are detected in a PRBS test.
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 The following uses SL64 and SF64 boards as examples u
H to describe the technical
specifications of SDH units.
n
it o are different, because the SF64 board has the
caof the SL64 board is 9.95 Gbit/s, and that of the SF64
 The line rates of the SL64 and SF64 boards

f i
ti the two boards cannot be interconnected.
outband FEC function. The port rate

e
board is 10.71 Gbit/s. Therefore,r
The preceding table lists C the optical port types, including I-64.1, S-64.2b, and L-64.2b.
&follows:

Their meanings are as


g
n of the code indicates the application scenario.
n iletter
aiI indicates intra-office communication, S indicates short-haul inter-office
 The first

T r
i

e communication, L indicates long-haul inter-office communication, V indicates


w
ua
very-long haul inter-office communication, and U indicates ultra-long haul
H inter-office communication.

 The first number after the hyphen indicates the STM rate level.

 The number "1/4/16/64" indicates STM-1/4/16/64.


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 Common boards (The OptiX OSN 500 supportsH ua the OptiX OSN 550 supports SL1D,
SL1D,

n
SL1Q, and SL4D, and the OptiX OSN 580 supports SL1Q, SL4D, SL16Q, SL64S, and SL64D.)
o
t i
Board Description
c a Port Type Connector
2 x STM-1 opticalfi
SL1D
r ti S-1.1, L-1.1, L-1.2
e
interface board
4 x STM-1Coptical
SL1Q
& board S-1.1, L-1.1, L-1.2
g
interface

SL4D n i n
2 x STM-4 optical
i S-4.1, L-4.1, L-4.2
ra 4 x STM-16 optical
interface board
T LC

eiSL16Q interface board S-16.1, L-16.1, L-16.2

a w
H u SL64S
1 x STM-64 optical
interface board
I-4.1, S-64.2b, P1L1-2D2

2 x STM-64 optical
SL64D I-4.1, S-64.2b, P1L1-2D2
interface board
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 The working mechanism of an SDH unit is as follows: u
H The SL1D board is used as an
example.
n
it o signals are sent to an optical board through

a
In the receive direction: STM-1 optical
the optical port. The opticalicboard performs optical/electrical conversion on the STM-
f
ti the high-rate electrical signals into two VC-4 electrical
r
Celine clock, extracts SDH overhead bytes from the received
1 optical signals, demultiplexes
signals, recovers the
& electrical signals, and processes the pointers. Then, the two VC-4
multiple low-rate
g
nsent to the cross-connect unit through the backplane bus.
i
signals are

a intransmit direction: The board receives two VC-4 signals from the cross-connect

T r multiplexes the signals, adds overheads to the signals, and forms STM-1 line
In the

ei optical signals.
unit,

a w
H u  During the entire process, the SDH unit collects alarms and performance events
generated by the local board and sends them to the SCC unit for processing.
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 The following uses the SL1D board as an example. u
H functional specifications are as
The
follows:
n
it o 2 x STM-1 optical signals.
caAll optical ports comply with ITU-T G.957, and
 Basic functions: Transmits and receives

f i

r ti L-1.2 optical ports are available.


Specifications of optical ports:

C e
standard S-1.1, L-1.1, and


&
Specifications of optical modules: Supports the detection and query of optical

n g
module information. The optical ports provide the function of enabling and disabling
i
n and the automatic laser shutdown (ALS) function.
i
the laser

T ra processing: Supports VC-12, VC-3, and VC-4 services.


Service
ei Maintenance features: Supports the inloop and outloop functions on ports and

a w paths, as well as warm and cold resets. The warm reset does not affect services.

H u
 Protection schemes: Supports two-fiber unidirectional MSP ring, linear MSP, and
SNCP.

 Alarms and performance events: Provides various alarms and performance events,
facilitating device management and maintenance.
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H
PDH units process various service signals, includinguE1/T1, E3/DS3, and E4/STM-1.

Naming conventions of PDH units


o n
i

a t
 S indicates SDH.
fi c
t i
er
 P indicates PDH.

 M indicates mixed.C
&
g
The PL3A board provides ports on the front panel and does not require any interface
board. The PL3in

i n board must be used with the C34S interface board.



T ra indicates that the port impedance is 75 ohms, and "12" in D12S indicates
"75" in D75S
that ithe port impedance is 120 ohms.
e
w
H ua
 Difference between D12S and D12B: To configure TPS protection, you must select D12S
rather than D12B.
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 The following uses the PQ1 board as an example u
H describe the working mechanism of
to
PDH units:
n
it ofrom the switch or other devices are first
ca board through the interface board. The PDH
 The 63 x 2 Mbit/s signals accessed

f i
ti
transmitted to the PDH processing

e r
processing board asynchronously maps the 2 Mbit/s signals into C-12 signals, adds
the path overheadsCto the C-12 signals to form VC-12 signals, adds pointers to the
VC-12 signals to&form TU-12 signals, multiplexes the TU-12 signals to form a VC-4
g
n finally sends the VC-4 signal to the cross-connect unit through the
i
signal, and

a in bus. During signal processing, the PQ1 board communicates with the SCC
backplane

T r bidirectionally, reports the alarms and performance events generated by the


unit
ei local board to the SCC unit in real time, and receives the configuration commands
a w issued by the SCC unit. This is the upstream signal flow direction, which is from the
H u PDH port, cross-connect board, to the SDH port. The downstream signal flow
direction of the service is opposite to the preceding direction.
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 PQ1 boards are classified into PQ1A (75-ohm) and H u PQ1B (100-ohm/120-ohm) boards by

n
port impedance. The two boards use different interface boards to receive signals.
it o warm reset and cold reset. The warm reset does
 There are two types of board reset modes:
i a reset affects running services.
ccold
i
not affect running services, but the
f
t(TPS):
e
Tributary protection switchingr TPS protection is a device-level protection scheme. If
the working board fails, C

the accessed signal will be bridged to the protection board for


&
ngand improves device reliability.
protection. TPS protection avoids the application of complex network-level protection, such
i
in
as MSP and SNCP,

The PRBSra
T services. An NE that provides the PRBS function can work as a simple device used
 functional module is equivalent to a simple instrument that transmits and receives
i
eanalyze whether a service path is faulty. The PRBS functional module can be used to
unframed
w
uaanalyze the local NE or the entire network. The PRBS function is a substitute for a test
to

H instrument during a deployment or fault locating.


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 Common boards
Hu
n
tio
Board Description Port Type

ca
it fi
SP3DA 42 x E1 (120-ohm)/T1 (100-ohm) processing board
r
42ex E1 (75-ohm) processing board
Anea 96
SP3DB
C
&
ng
PL3T 3 x E3/T3 processing board SMB
i
PD1
a in 32 x E1/T1 tributary service processing board

Tr
ei
DMS 32 x E1/T1 electrical interface board Anea 96

a w
u
 Indicators on the front panel of the SP3D/PL3T board (the indicator meanings are the same
H as those of the previous SDH units):
 Board hardware status indicator (STAT) – two colors (red and green)
 Service alarm indicator (SRV) – three colors (red, green, and yellow)
 On the front panel of the SP3D board, there are two Anea 96 ports, each of which receives
and transmits 21 E1/T1 services.
 The SP3D board has two functional versions: SP3DA and SP3DB. The differences between
the two board versions lie in whether the T1 interface is supported and that the E1 port
impedances are different.
 There are three pairs of electrical ports on the front panel of the PL3T board. Ports TX1 to
TX3 transmit 1 to 3 channels of E3/T3 signals, and ports RX1 to RX3 receive 1 to 3
channels of E3/T3 signals.
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 The following uses the SP3D board as an example u
H describe the working mechanism of
to
PDH units:
n
it ofrom the switch or other devices are first
ca board through the interface board. The PDH
 The 42 x 2 Mbit/s signals accessed

f i
ti
transmitted to the PDH processing

e r
processing board asynchronously maps the 2 Mbit/s signals into C-12 signals, adds
the path overheadsCto the C-12 signals to form VC-12 signals, adds pointers to the
VC-12 signals to&form TU-12 signals, multiplexes the TU-12 signals to form a VC-4
g
n finally sends the VC-4 signal to the cross-connect unit through the
i
signal, and

a in bus. During signal processing, the SP3D board communicates with the
backplane

T
SCCr unit bidirectionally, reports the alarms and performance events generated by the
ei local board to the SCC unit in real time, and receives the configuration commands
a w issued by the SCC unit. This is the upstream signal flow direction, which is from the
H u PDH port, cross-connect board, to the SDH port. The downstream signal flow
direction of the service is opposite to the preceding direction.
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 Pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) Hu
n
tio
 The PRBS function is used to test and maintain networks. You can analyze whether a

a
service channel is faulty for one NE or multiple NEs. During troubleshooting, you can
c
it fi
use this function to replace the 2M BER tester.

e r
C
&
ing
a in
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H u
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 Naming conventions of EOS units are as follows: Hu
E indicates Ethernet.
o n
i

a t
 F indicates FE interface.
i c
G indicates GE interface.tif

e r
 C
A indicates 10GE interface.
&

n g
S indicates the switching function.
i
n the transparent transmission function.
i
T indicates
ra the RPR function.

RTindicates
ei

a w
H u
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ei
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Hu
n
a tio
c
rit fi
C e
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a in
Tr
ei
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H u
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 Common boards (OSN 580 V100R008C10 supports u
H only EGS4.)
n
Board Description
it o Port Type Connector

f i ca
ti
1 x GE Ethernet transparent
transmissionrboard
EGT1 1000Base-SX/LX LC

Ce
4 x FE/GE&
100Base-

ng board
service processing
EGS4
i BX/FX/LX/VX/ZXX1000 LC

a in
r
Base-SX/LX/VX/ZX

i T
eEFS8 8 x FE switching and
w 100Base-TX RJ-45
ua
processing board

H
 Board indicators

 LINK: connection status indicator

 ACT: data receiving/transmitting indicator

 OPM: optical power indicator

 L/A: physical connection indicator of the port


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 In the transmit direction: Hu
n
tio
 The cross-connect unit transmits signals to the encapsulation and mapping module

a
through the interface converting module for demapping and decapsulation. The
c
it fi
Ethernet processing module determines the service routes according to the

e r
equipment level, classifies service flows according to the service type and
C
configuration requirements, and performs frame delimitation, preamble adding, CRC
&
code computing, and Ethernet performance count. Finally, the interface converting
ng
ni
module converts the parallel signals to serial signals, and transmits the serial signals
i
ra direction:
through an Ethernet interface.

T
ei The interface module accesses the signals from the external Ethernet device such as
 In the receive

a w 

H u an Ethernet switch or a router, decodes the signals, and converts the serial signals
into parallel signals. The service processing module then performs frame delimitation,
preamble stripping, CRC code termination, and Ethernet performance count for the
signal. Then, the encapsulation module encapsulates Ethernet frames in the GFP-F
format, transmits the frames to the mapping/demapping module, which then maps
the frames. Finally, the encapsulation module transmits the frames to the cross-
connect unit through the interface converting module. The Ethernet unit implements
bidirectional communication with the SCC unit, reports the generated alarms and
performance events to the SCC unit in real time, and receives the configuration
commands issued by the SCC unit.
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 Auto-negotiation Hu
n
tio
 The auto-negotiation function enables one network device to transmit information

a
about its supported working modes to the opposite end on the network and to
c
it fi
receive corresponding information from the opposite end on the network. Extraction

e r
of such information identifies the working modes supported by the remote device as
C
well as some information used for the handshake mechanism of the auto-negotiation
function. &
g
n in
Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS): LCAS provides an error tolerance mechanism that
i

enhances a
T r the robustness of the concatenation function from the following aspects:

 i
e configuration of system capacity, the increase and decrease of the concatenated VC
When being applied in concatenation technologies, the LCAS function enables the

a w
Hu
quantity, and the dynamic change of bearer bandwidth (services are not damaged
during the dynamic change).

 LCAS provides service protection and restoration for failed members.

 Ethernet services:

 Ethernet private line (EPL): EPL services can be configured to realize point-to-point
transparent transmission of Ethernet services.

 Ethernet virtual private line (EVPL): EVPL services are isolated by MPLS/QinQ to
achieve bandwidth sharing.
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H
The preceding table lists the line capacity, lower-order u cross-connect capacity, and higher-
order cross-connect capacity of the CXL1/CXL4/CXL16 boards. According to the table, the
n lower-order cross-connect capacities but
it oof the CXL1/CXL4/CXL16 board corresponds to
three boards have the same high-order and

ahigher-order cross-connect capability of the


different line capacities. The line capacity
the STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 rate, the
f i c
ti and the lower-order cross-connect capability varies
CXL1/CXL4/CXL16 board is 20 Gbit/s,
according to the version. Therlower-order cross-connect capability of the Q1 version is 5
Ceversion is 20 Gbit/s. In this case, the full cross-connection
Gbit/s, and that of the Q2/3
&
function is implemented.
The CXLLN andn g

i CXLQ41 boards are added, and they have only the Q5 version. Compared

modules.ra
in board, the CXLLN board supports the selectable rates of optical
with the Q1/2/3CXL
CXLQ41 is a four-in-one board with multiple optical ports.
i T
eService activation
w
Steady green The cross-connect unit is in the active state.

ua cross-connect unit - Off


status indicator of the

H ACTX
The cross-connect unit is in the standby state.

The CF card can be read and written by the


Steady green
system.
The system is reading data from or writing
Blinking green
data to the CF card.

CF card read-write After the CF card is removed and pre-


indicator - CF R/W processed, the card is in the pluggable state,
Steady red
the card is offline, or the card is not in the
read/write state.
The system is processing the data after
Blinking red receiving the instruction for pre-processing
data before the CF card removal.
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H
The cross-connect and timing unit provides the functionsu of cross-connection, route
selection, and clock processing for the OptiX OSN 3500. The OptiX OSN 3500 has many
n
it obe of the same type. If the types of the cross-
types of cross-connect units. During the configuration, the active and standby cross-

a capacities of the corresponding subracks are also


connect units of the same subrack must
i
connect units are different, the access
f c
ti table, the GXCS board has a 35 Gbit/s VC-4 higher-
different. As shown in the preceding
order cross-connect capacityrand a 5 Gbit/s VC-3/VC-12 lower-order cross-connect
capacity. If the GXCS board Ceis configured in a subrack, the access capability of the subrack
is 35 Gbit/s. The UXCSB & and SXCSB cross-connect boards support extended subracks. To
n
add extended subracks,g the lower-order cross-connect board XCE must be used. The
n i
higher-order cross-connect capacities of the SXCSA and SXCSB cross-connect boards are
both 180 a i
r Gbit/s, and the lower-order cross-connect capacities of them are both 20 Gbit/s.

i T capability of the subrack is 155 Gbit/s. The SXCSB board supports extended
The difference is that the SXCSA board does not support extended subracks and therefore
theeaccess

a w
subracks, and therefore the access capability of the subrack can reach 156.25 Gbit/s.

H u IXCSA/B and SXCSA/B have the same higher-order cross-connect capacity, but the lower-

order cross-connect capacity of IXCSA/B reaches 40 Gbit/s.
 The higher-order and lower- order cross-connect capacities of the FXCSA board are both
120 Gbit/s, and the FXCSA board implements the full cross-connection function.
 The functional version of PSXCSA is N2. When N1SXCSA and N4GSCC boards are used
together, the N2PSXCSA board can substitute for the N1SXCSA board using the board
version replacement function to implement 200 Gbit/s higher-order cross-connection at the
VC-4 level and 20 Gbit/s lower-order cross-connection at the VC-3 or VC-12 level.
 The XCE board is a cross-connect and timing board for the extended subrack. It implements
1.25 Gbit/s lower-order cross-connection at the VC-3 or VC-12 level, and applies only to
the OptiX OSN 3500. The XCE board is installed on the backplane of the OptiX OSN 3500
to function as an extended subrack.
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 The OptiX OSN 7500 has many types of cross-connect u
H units. During the configuration, the
n
active and standby cross-connect units of the same subrack must be of the same type. If
the types of the cross-connect units areio
a t As shown in the preceding table, the GXCS
different, the access capacities of the

fi c
corresponding subracks are also different.

r t i
board has a 240 Gbit/s VC-4 higher-order cross-connect capacity and a 20 Gbit/s VC-3/VC-

C
12 lower-order cross-connecte capacity. If the GXCS board is configured in a subrack, the
&
access capability of the subrack is 200 Gbit/s.
g
n in
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 Clock functions:
Hu
n
Traces the external clock source, line clock source, tributary clock source, or internal
tio

clock source.
ca

rit fi
Supports the non-SSM, standard SSM, and extended SSM.

C e
Supports three working modes that comply with ITU-T G.781, namely, tracing,
holdover, and free-run modes.
&
ng
 Outputs the line clock, tributary clock, and external clock.

i ni
Supports tributary retiming.
a

Tr intelligent clock tracing.


Supports
ei

a w
When configuring the S1 byte clock protection, you must enable the Synchronization Status

H u Message (SSM) protocol. The SSM protocol status of an NE can be set to provide different
clock protection modes.
 Standard SSM: The ITU-T recommends the use of the SSM protocol to identify the
quality of the synchronization source. The lower four bits of the SOH S1 byte can
transmit 16 types of timing quality for the SSM protocol.
 Extended SSM: Based on the SSM protocol recommended by ITU-T, Huawei adds the
concept of clock ID, defines a unique ID for any source, and transmits the ID together
with the SSM information (occupying the higher four bits of the S1 byte), so that the
clock ID is also referenced during clock switching. This prevents the NE from tracing
the clock signals sent by itself when the network is faulty.
 Non-SSM: The S1 byte is not used to distinguish clock quality.
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 There are many indicators on the front panel ofH au
CXL board, including board hardware

o
activation status indicator (ACTX), SCC iunit
nactive/standby status indicator (ACTC), cross-
status indicator (STAT), board software status indicator (PROG), cross-connect unit service

a t
fi
connect unit service alarm indicator c (SRVX), line unit service alarm indicator (SRVL), alarm

r i
muting indicator (ALMC), and tsynchronization clock indicator (SYNC). The line optical ports

C e
of each board are below indicators, and use LC connectors and pluggable optical modules

&
to facilitate routine maintenance. The RESET button is below the optical ports, and can be
pressed to perform g a warm reset on the SCC unit. The ALMCUT button is below the RESET

n inbe pressed for a short period to mute the current alarm sound. If you press
ai button for more than 3 seconds, the alarm sound can be permanently muted.
button, and can
the ALMCUTr
T this button for more than 3 seconds again, the alarm muting function is
If youi press
e
w
ua
canceled.

H  The OptiX OSN 3500 II supports the four-in-one board Q5/Q6CXL. The Q5CXL board can
be used in an OSN 1500B/2500 subrack, and the Q6CXL board can be used only in an OSN
3500 II subrack.
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 The SCC boards of the OSN 3500/7500 have multiple u
H versions. The N1SCC/GSCC board can
n
be used only in the OSN 3500 subrack, the N2SCC/GSCC board can be used only in the
OSN 7500 subrack, and the SCC boardsio
a t of N3 and later versions can be used in both the
OSN 3500 and OSN 7500 subracks.
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u
H overhead processing, and
The SCC unit performs system control, communication,

n
active/standby backup (including database backup) functions.
it o with various boards through inter-board
cafunctions: managing various boards in the subrack,
 The system control function is to communicate

f i
ti events, collecting the status information of other
channels to implement the following
r
Ce relevant management operations, and configuring and
monitoring alarms and performance
functional modules, performing
& The preceding functions include: issuing commands from the
grooming device services.
g
nfunctional modules, collecting the alarms and performance events of each
i
local board to all

a in and rapidly recovering and protecting the failed services through a


functional module,

T r mechanism.
communication
i
Theecommunication function is to transmit OAM information to other NEs through DCCs,

a w
H u report the alarms and performance events of the device to the network management
terminal, and to respond to the commands issued by the network management terminal.

 After performing timeslot cross-connections through the overhead bus from each service
board, the overhead processing function uses the FPGA to process the overhead bytes to
achieve the functions such as orderwire phone, broadcast data port, and 64 kbit/s
codirectional data port.

 The active and standby SCC boards back up each other to achieve the backup of
performance data, alarm data, and configuration data.
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Through the SCC unit, maintenance personnel canuconfigure and modify services at any

H
time, monitor service performance, and quickly restore and protect services when a fault
o n
i
occurs.

a t 1+1 backup protection to achieve comprehensive


 The SCC unit of NG-SDH devices supports
fi c
device-level protection.
t i
r traditional SDH devices, the SCC unit of the OptiX OSN 3500
Different from the SCC uniteof
supports NE ID setting inC

software. By setting different NE IDs, the OptiX OSN 3500 can


&
physically distinguish different transmission devices.

i
The SCC unit also ngsupports ECC communication and extended ECC.
incontrols cabinet indicators and fan units.

ra
The SCC unit
T


ei unit supports external alarm input and internal alarm output.
The SCC

a wshould be noted that not all SCC units support the ASON function. To enable the ASON
It
u function on an OSN device, you must configure the GSCC board physically.

H  The OptiX OSN 1500/2500 supports three external alarm inputs and one internal alarm
output.
 The OptiX OSN 3500/7500 supports 16 external alarm inputs and four internal alarm
outputs.
 The SCC unit reports the power supply (the power supply of the EOW board and the
backup power supply) failure alarm for the AUX/EOW board.
 The SCC unit monitors the –48 V/–60 V power supply.
 The SCC unit detects whether a PIU board is in position and checks whether the surge
protection module of the PIU board fails.
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 The OptiX OSN 1500/2500 supports the ASONH ua when using the Q2/3/5CXL board,
function

n
and does not support the ASON function when using the Q1CXL board.
it ofunction when using the GSCC board, and does
ca using the SCC board.
 The OptiX OSN 3500 supports the ASON

f i
ti board according to the power-on sequence of SCC
not support the ASON function when
r
CeOptiX OSN 3500 is powered on, the active SCC board of the
 The device selects the active SCC
boards. Therefore, after an
& be the SCC board in slot 17. However, considering future
g
OptiX OSN 3500 should

n in
expansion requirements, slot 17 may be used by a service board. Therefore, you are advised
i
a perform an active/standby switchover of SCC boards. That is, the SCC board in
r
to manually
slot 17Tis the standby board, and the SCC board in slot 18 is the active board.
ei
a w
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 If no optical fiber connections are available between u
H NEs, you can use Ethernet ports on the
n
NEs to implement extended ECC communication. If there are only two NEs, you can use a
straight-through network cable to connect it o them. If there are more than two NEs, use
standard network cables to connect
f i cathese NEs to the same hub.
r i
tautomatic
e
 Extended ECC is classified into extended ECC and extended ECC in specified
mode. C
&
nagstraight-through network cable (or standard network cables for hub
 For the automatic extended ECC, you only need to connect the Ethernet ports of two
i
in In this case, you do not need to specify the server or client.
NEs using

r a
connection).
T
ei NE that
 For the extended ECC in specified mode, you must configure one NE (generally the

a w is the nearest to the gateway NE) as the server and other NEs as clients.

H u  In actual application, automatic extended ECC can be enabled for a maximum of four
NEs, and manual extended ECC allows a maximum of four clients that can be
connected to a server. Otherwise, the server may be reset.

 As shown in the preceding figure, an NE on ring A is directly connected to the NMS, and
there is no optical fiber connection between ring A and ring B. If the NEs on ring B need to
be monitored by the NMS, you can enable the extended ECC function of two NEs on ring A
and ring B to monitor ring B on the NMS. In the case of physical connection, a less than 50
m network cable must be used to directly connect the Ethernet ports of the two NEs.
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H
To save NE configuration data, the SCC unit has four u NE databases, namely memory

n
database (MDB), dynamic random database (DRDB), and two flash databases FDB0 and
FDB1.
it o
 MDB: The data in the MDB varies
f i ca according to the configuration, and will be lost if
the SCC unit is reset or a ipower failure occurs.
e rt
 DRDB: The data that C is verified is automatically saved in the DRDB.
Flash database& (FDB): There are FDB0 and FDB1 databases. The data needs to be
g and can be saved permanently.

manually n
n i copied
i
a (U2000)succeeds,

T r
After the NMS delivers configuration data to NEs, the data enters the MDB first.

to e
i
After the verification the configuration data is saved to the DRDB and delivered
each functional unit in the subrack where the SCC unit resides. Then, the NE enters the
w
ua
normal running state. If the data verification of the board fails, the entire NE enters the
H installation state and reports the corresponding alarm information to the NMS. Both the
MDB and DRDB do not save data when a power failure occurs. Once the SCC unit is
removed or encounters a power failure, data will be lost. When the system is powered on
again, the configuration data in the DRDB is copied to the MDB. If no configuration data is
found in the DRDB, the system copies the configuration data from FDB0 or FDB1 to the
MDB, so that the NE can enter the normal running state. If no configuration data is found
in FDB0 or FDB1, the NE enters the installation state. Therefore, to effectively save the NE
configuration data, the SCC units of NG-SDH devices support the automatic backup
function. After the NE configuration is verified, the data in the DRDB is automatically saved
to FDB0 and FDB1 every 30 minutes. In addition, the NE database can be manually backed
up to effectively protect NE configuration data.
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 Common boards
Hu
n
tio
Board PDH Port

ica
Description Optical Port
Type Impedance

t i f
ISU A e r 21 x E1/T1, 8 x FE
2 x STM-1/4,
E1: 120 Ω
C T1: 100 Ω
&
n2gx STM-1/4, 21 x E1/T1
E1: 120 Ω
ISU B
i
a in T1: 100 Ω
S-1.1, L-1.1,
T rC S-4.1, L-4.1,

ei
ISU 2 x STM-1/4, 21 x E1/T1, 8 x FE 75 Ω and LC

a w
H u ISU D 2 x STM-1/4, 21 x E1/T1 75 Ω

E1: 120 Ω
ISU E 2 x STM-1/4, 21 x E1/T1, 8 x FE
T1: 100 Ω

 The ISU board integrates the following units:


 System control & communication (SCC)
 Cross-connect (XC)
 Synchronous timing generator (STG)
 STM-1/STM-4 line unit
 10M/100M Ethernet and E1/T1 tributary unit
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 CXL boards Hu
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Board
Description Optical Port
Type

f i ca
CXL1
r ti port
1 × STM-1 optical S-1.1, L-1.1, and LC

C e
CXL4 1&× STM-4 optical port S-4.1, L-4.1, and LC

i ng
a
CXL16in 1 × STM-16 optical port S-16.1, L-16.1, L-16.2, and LC

Tr
ei

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The CXL board integrates the following units:

H u  System control & communication (SCC)

 Cross-connect (XC)

 Synchronous timing generator (STG)

 STM-1/STM-4 line unit

 Power supply unit


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 The UCX board integrates the SCC, cross-connect, u
H timing units to provide
and

n
communication control, service grooming, and clock processing functions. The UCX board
it o
can be installed in slot 15 or 16 of the chassis.

f i caTDM Cross-Connect Capability


ti
Board Type

e r
CCross-connects
UCX & and 5 Gbit/s VC-12 and grooms 280 Gbit/s VC-4 signals

n g or VC-3 signals.

i ni
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 The UCXE board integrates the SCC, cross-connect, u
H and timing units to provide
n
communication control, service grooming, and clock processing functions. The UCXE board
it o
can be installed in slot 15 or 16 of the chassis.

f i ca
Board Type
r ti Basic Function Specification
C e
Higher-order cross-connect capability 280 Gbit/s
&Lower-order cross-connect capability
g 20 Gbit/s
UCXE in
i n Packet switching capability 560 Gbit/s

T ra Access capability in TDM mode 280 Gbit/s

ei Access capability in packet mode 560 Gbit/s


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 When configuring the S1 byte clock protection,H uamust enable the Synchronization Status
you

n
Message (SSM) protocol. The SSM protocol status of an NE can be set to provide different
clock protection modes. it o
f i ca
i
Standard SSM: The ITU-T recommends the use of the SSM protocol to identify the
t

e r source. The lower four bits of the SOH S1 byte can


quality of the synchronization
C of timing quality for the SSM protocol.
transmit multiple types

Extended SSM:&

g Based on the SSM protocol recommended by ITU-T, Huawei adds the
n clock ID, defines a unique ID for any source, and transmits the ID together
concept iof
n
i SSM information (occupying the higher four bits of the S1 byte), so that the
withathe
r
T ID is also referenced during clock switching. This prevents the NE from tracing
i clock
e the clock signals sent by itself when the network is faulty.
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H ua Non-SSM: The S1 byte is not used to distinguish clock quality.

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H u
The AUX board provides the system with various auxiliary ports and management ports and

n
implements centralized backup of +3.3 V power supply for each board of the subrack.
The AMU board provides various auxiliary,it o orderwire phone, and broadcast data ports for
ca

the system.
f i
LAMP1 is the output port of rtheti cabinet alarm indicator and LAMP2 is the input cascading
e

port of the cabinet alarmCindicator. Connecting these ports incorrectly may cause short
circuits. &
To connect the n g

i LAMP indicator, perform the following operations:

a incabinet alarm indicator to the LAMP1 port on the AUX board of the lower

T r
Connect the

ei the LAMP1 port on the AUX board of the upper subrack to the LAMP2 port on the
subrack.

a w
Connect

H u AUX board of the lower subrack.


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 The front panel of the SAP board has the following u
H indicators:
Board hardware status indicator (STAT)
o n - two colors (red and green)
i - two colors (red and green)

a t(PROG)
 Board software status indicator
f i c
i
Channel A –48 V powertindicator (PWRA) - two colors (red and green)
r
e

 C indicator (PWRB) - two colors (red and green)


Channel B –48 V power
&
g
System +3.3 V backup power indicator (PWRC) - two colors (red and green)
inof the SAP board has the following ports:

i n
The front panel
a

r
T NMS port. Currently, on the DCN network, an NE can access the NMS only
i
 ETH:
e through Ethernet by default.
w
H ua COM: commissioning port. It is used for onsite commissioning. Because the COM

port is directly connected to the SCC board, incorrect use of the COM port may
adversely affect the service processing of the NE. In addition, the COM port has a low
rate. Therefore, you are advised to use the Ethernet access mode. This port is
disabled by default.
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 Functions and features Hu
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 Management ports: It provides the OAM interface, which supports the X.25

a
protocol. It provides the management serial port F&f, ETH NMS port, and 10/100M
c
it fi
compatible Ethernet EXT port to manage extended subracks.

e r
Auxiliary ports: It provides four broadcast data ports (Serial 1 to 4) and one 64 kbit/s
C

codirectional data port (port F1).


&
ng
Clock ports: It provides two BITS clock input/output ports whose impedance is 120
ni

i
ohms and two BITS clock input/output ports whose impedance is 75 ohms.
a
Tr contact signal ports: It provides dry contact signal alarm ports for 16 inputs and
Dry
ei four outputs and dry contact signal alarm cascading ports for four outputs.

a w
H u  Cabinet alarm indicators: It provides one 4-output port for cabinet alarm indicators
and one 4-input cascading port for cabinet alarm indicators.

 Power supply backup and detection: It provides the centralized backup of the +3.3 V
power supply for boards in the subrack, which is the 1:N protection for the
secondary power supply of each board. It performs the overvoltage (3.8 V) check and
undervoltage (3.1 V) check on the output of the +3.3 V backup power supply. It
supports audible alarms and the alarm muting function.
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 The AUX board is a system auxiliary interface board u
H of the OptiX OSN 7500. It provides
n
various auxiliary ports and management ports as well as centralized backup of +3.3 V
it o
power supply for each board in the subrack.

f i ca of an EOW board. The following lists the port types


ti
 There are 14 ports on the front panel
r
Ce clock input port 1
and their functions.

CLKI1 SMB 75-ohm


&

CLKO1
n g
SMB 75-ohm clock output port 2
i

CLK2 in RJ-45 120-ohm clock port 2


ra RJ-45 Extended subrack port

T
ei PHONE RJ-45 Orderwire phone port
 EXT

a w 

H u  V1, V2 RJ-45 NNI voice port 1

 OAM RJ-45 OAM port

 S1-S4 RJ-45 Broadcast data port

 COM RJ-45 Commissioning port

 ETH RJ-45 NMS port


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 PIU board Hu
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 The PIU board of the OptiX OSN 500 supports the access of two –48 V or –60 V DC

a
power supplies, and can be installed in slot 5 of the chassis.
c
 FAN board
r it fi

C e
The FAN board adjusts the fan rotating speed, and detects and reports the fan
status.
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 PIU board Hu
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 Two PIUs are provided, and each PIU supports the access of one –48 V or –60 V DC
power supply.
ca

r it fi
The maximum power supply capability of each input is 550 W, and the maximum
current is 15 A.
C e

&
Supports 1+1 hot backup.

Supports n g
i overcurrent protection and short circuit protection.
in surge protection.

ra
Supports
T

e  i Supports input power detection.


a w
H u  Detects the surge protection status, temperature, input overvoltage, undervoltage,
and output overvoltage.

 It can be installed in slots 91 and 92.


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 Functions and features of the FAN board Hu
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 Receives one 12 V power input from each of the active and standby SCC boards,
implementing 1+1 protection.
ca

r it fi
Provides soft-start for the fan power supply and protects fans against overcurrent.


C e
Reports information about the fan rotating speed, alarms, version number, and board

&
in-position status.
g
n alarms when a fan fails or is aged.
i
Reports specific
inthe power supply status of a fan, and reports an alarm indicating that the

a
r supplied to a fan fails.
Detects
T

e i power

aw  Reports specific alarms when the FAN board is offline and stops detecting fan status

Hu if the FAN board is offline.

 Supports intelligent fan speed adjustments, fan speed adjustments in specific areas,
and fan shut-down at low temperature.
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 The AUX board of the OptiX OSN 550 providesH uaorderwire phone port, one external
one

n
clock port, one 64 kbit/s synchronous data port, one 19.2 kbit/s asynchronous transparent
it o port.
data port, and one outdoor cabinet monitoring

f i ca transparent data port or 19.2 kbit/s


ti data port.
 Provides one 64 kbit/s synchronous

e r
asynchronous transparent

Provides two BITS Cclock input/output ports whose impedance is 120 ohms.
&

Provides drygcontact signal alarm ports with six inputs and two outputs.

i n
n
i one outdoor cabinet monitoring port (sharing one physical port with a dry

ra
Provides

i T signal alarm port) for monitoring the temperature and humidity of an


contact
e outdoor cabinet.
w
H ua Provides one orderwire phone port, so that voice communication can be achieved

between the operation or maintenance engineers at different sites.


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 The PIU board is a power input board that supports u
H power access, protection, surge
n
protection status detection, and information reporting. It provides 1+1 hot backup for two
it oin slots 17 and 18.
power supply ports, and can be installed
ca that supports the access of the 90 V to 264 V AC
The APIU board is a power input iboard
f
tiAC power supply into the –53.5 V DC power supply. It

r
e can be installed in slots 17 and 19.
power supply and converts the
supports 1+1 hot backupCand
& fan speed adjustment, fan status detection, and fan status reporting

g
The FAN board has the
n be installed in slot 20 of the chassis.
functions, and ican
n
ai integrates auxiliary ports including external clock ports and dry contact
The AUXrboard
T

signali alarm ports, and provides two BITS clock input/output ports whose impedance is 120
e dry contact signal alarm ports with six inputs and two outputs, one orderwire phone
w
uaport that enables voice communication between the operation or maintenance engineers at
ohms,

H different sites, and two cabinet indicator output/cascading ports for engineers to monitor
device alarms through cabinet indicators.

 These boards can be installed in slots 8 to 14 and slot 19.


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 During the long-haul transmission of optical signals, u
H the signal attenuation is high.
n
Therefore, the booster amplifier (BA) and pre-amplifier (PA) boards must be added to
ensure that the optical receiver receivesio
a t normal optical signals.
c
If the optical signal rate is higher ithan STM-16, the dispersion of optical fibers needs to be
tif to use the DCU to compensate for the dispersion.

considered. In this case, you rneed


Ce case-shaped optical amplifier that does not occupy any slot of
The COA board is an external
the subrack. It mainly&

transmission. in
g amplifies optical signals and applies to long-distance optical fiber

n
ai is a dispersion compensation board that compensates for the dispersion
The DCUrboard
T during the fiber transmission of optical signals and compresses optical signal

i
e so that the transmitted optical signals can be restored. In addition, the DCU board
accumulated
w
uacan implement long-haul transmission with optical regeneration when working with an
pulses,

H optical amplifier board.

 RPC01 is an external forward Raman amplifier, and RPC02 is an external backward Raman
amplifier.
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 Basic functions of optical amplifier units: DuringHthe ualong-haul transmission of optical
n
signals, the signal attenuation is high. Therefore, the BA and PA boards must be added to
ensure that the optical receiver receivesio
a t normal optical signals.

f i c
i
 The preceding figure shows the position of a BA board in an optical transmission system.
t
r signals from the transmit end, and then transmits the
e
The BA board amplifies the optical
amplified optical signals C
to the line for long-haul transmission.
& the input and output optical power must be carefully checked to
g
For the BA board,
in all specifications can meet the optical power requirements. The BA board

n
ensure that

rai the transmit optical power of the line board to 13–15 dBm or 15–17 dBm.
increases

i T
Therefore, when the G.652 optical fiber with a loss of 0.275 dB/km is used, the
e transmission distance can reach 120 km, 130 km, or above.
w
H ua EDFA: The BA board automatically controls the optical power and laser temperature

of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) module, automatically monitors the input
and output optical power of the EDFA module, queries the optical power, and
protects the EDFA module. When no optical signals are input, the laser is
automatically turned off. When optical signals are input, the laser is automatically
turned on.
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 Answer to question 1: Hu
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 SDH unit

PDH unit
ca
it fi

 PCM unit
e r
 EOS unit C
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 SCC, cross-connect, and timing unit
i

a in
Auxiliary unit

Tr
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H
Terminal multiplexer (TM): TMs apply to terminal sitesu in a network. For example, in a chain
network, TMs are located at both ends. They are used to multiplex the low-rate signals of
n of line ports or demultiplex low-rate tributary
it oNote that the line port on a TM inputs/outputs
tributary ports to the high-rate STM-N signals

one STM-N signal and the tributaryca


signals from the high-rate STM-N signals.

f i port inputs/outputs multiple low-rate tributary signals.


The TM provides the cross-connect
r ti function for the multiplexing of low-rate tributary

C e
signals into STM-N frames (multiplexing low-rate signals to the line).

an intermediate node&
 Add/Drop multiplexer (ADM): An ADM has three ports and applies to a transit site, such as

important NE innan gSDHin network.


a chain or a node in a ring. It is the most commonly used and

i ni multiplexer (MADM): An MADM adds/drops tributary signals,


ra the pass-through of line signals at the local site, and enables the transmission
 Multiple add/drop
T
implements
ei requires
of services in different network topologies, such as tangent rings and intersecting rings. The

a w
MADM the cross-connect unit, line unit, and tributary unit.

H u Regenerator (REG): An REG implements the pass-through of line signals at the local site,

and regenerates, reshapes, and re-times the signals.
 The OptiX OSN 2500 REG provides the following functions:
 Supports STM-64 FEC, STM-64, STM-16 FEC (ITU-T G.709), and STM-16 port
rates.
 Each optical interface board regenerates one channel of optical signals in the
regenerator loopback mode.
 Terminates and regenerates the overhead bytes of the frame header and
regeneration section, and transparently transmits other overhead bytes,
pointers, and payloads.
 Inserts the MS_AIS signal to the downstream site when the optical port detects
an R_LOS or R_LOF alarm.
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 Intelligent fan Hu
o n
The power supplies for fan modules back up each other.
i

When one of the fan modulesaist faulty, other fan modules operate at the full speed.

f i c
i
rt temperature is low.
Fans are shut down when
e

 Board protection modes C under abnormal conditions


&
g
Power-failure protection during software loading.
in and undervoltage protection for power supplies.

i n
Overvoltage
a

T r
i
 Temperature detection for the board with a large heat emission.
e
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 OptiX OSN 500 Hu
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 Supports device-level 1+1 protection for power supplies. The PIU board inputs two –

a
48 V (compatible with –60 V) DC power supplies at the same time. The two power
c
it fi
supplies back up each other. If one power supply fails, the device works normally

e r
with the other power supply.

OptiX OSN 550 C


&

ing
Supports device-level 1+1 protection for power supplies. The PIU board inputs two –

in
48 V (compatible with –60 V) DC power supplies at the same time. The two power
a
Tr
supplies back up each other. If one power supply fails, the device works normally

ei power supply modules to provide 1+1 protection for power supplies. Each power
with the other power supply. The APIU board supports hitless switching of two

a w
H u supply module supports protection against input overvoltage or undervoltage, output
overvoltage, output overcurrent, output short circuit, and overtemperature.

 Supports 1+1 backup of CXL boards.

 The OptiX OSN 550 supports 1+1 backup of SCC, cross-connect, timing, and line
boards.

 Supports TPS protection at the E1/T1 level. The OptiX OSN 550 supports two groups
of 1:1 protection.
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 The OptiX NG-SDH has powerful network self-healingu
H protection capabilities and provides
n
multiple protection schemes at the SDH layer to protect services against fiber cuts, line
board damage, or node failures. it o
f i ca protection schemes that comply with ITU-T
ti standards:
 The OptiX NG-SDH supports the following

e r
recommendations and international

1+1 or 1:N (N ≤ 14)Clinear MSP


&

Self-healinggring protection schemes, including two-fiber bidirectional MS shared


inring, two-fiber unidirectional MS private protection ring, and four-fiber

n
ai
protection

T r
bidirectional MS shared protection ring. Both the two-fiber and four-fiber rings can

ei transmit STM-64 and STM-16 services.


a w Protection for inter-ring communication services in DNI mode
u

H  Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP)

 Mesh networking and rerouting protection (ASON)


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 Answer to question 1: Hu
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 Device-level protection schemes include 1:N TPS protection for PDH service

a
processing boards, 1:N TPS, 1+1 BPS, and 1+1 PPS protection for Ethernet boards,
c
it fi
1+1 protection for SCC, cross-connect, and timing boards, and 1+1 protection for
power supplies.
e r
C
Network-level protection schemes include 1+1 or 1:N (N ≤ 14) linear MSP, two-fiber
&

ng
bidirectional MS shared protection ring, two-fiber unidirectional MS private
i
in
protection ring, four-fiber bidirectional MS shared protection ring, SNCP, and MS
a
Tr
shared protection.

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ua TPS protection switching. The
When a working PQ1 board is faulty, the deviceHperforms

on
switching process is as follows:

The cross-connect board detectstithat the working PQ1 board is faulty through the
ca

f i
rti is normal, the cross-connect board sends a switching
board status bus.

If the protection PQ1eboard


C board corresponding to the faulty PQ1 board through the

message to the D75S


&
g
switching control bus.
n
i
n board responds to the switching message by transferring services to the
i
The D75S
ra protection bus and stopping sending services to the faulty PQ1 board.

T
shared

ei The protection PQ1 board receives and processes the services that are transferred
w from the D75S board to the protection bus to complete the protection switching.

u a
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 When a working SEP1 board is faulty, the device H u
performs TPS protection switching. The

on
switching process is as follows:

The cross-connect board detectstithat the working SEP1 board is faulty through the
ca

f i
ti is normal, the cross-connect board sends a switching
board status bus.
r
Ceand TSB8 boards corresponding to the faulty SEP1 board
 If the protection SEP1 board
message to the EU08
& control bus.
g
through the switching

n inboard receives and responds to the switching message by switching


ai to the protection bus connected to the TSB8 board and stopping sending
 The EU08

T r
services

e i services to the faulty SEP1 board.


w
ua
 The TSB8 board responds to the switching message and starts transmitting the
H services received from the protection bus to the protection SEP1 board.

 The protection SEP1 board receives and processes the services transmitted from the
TSB8 board. The protection switching is complete.
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H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
ai
i Tr
e
a w

u
H and standby cross-connect boards.
The source service board sends services to the active

o
After service cross-connections are completed, n both the active and standby cross-connect
ti

a
boards send data to the sink service board.
c from the active and standby cross-connect boards.
idata
t
The sink service board selects thei f
r


C e
The buses of the two cross-connect boards work independently and do not interfere with
each other.
&

i ng structure indicates that the service board performs dual data feeding
The dual-bus system

a in side and selective receiving of the data from the cross-connect side.
to the cross-connect
T r

i
The cross-connect configurations of cross-connect boards A and B are the same. The
e board selectively receives services based on the service quality, status, and
w
service

H uaactive/standby status.
n
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ica
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&
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n
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a w
 A clock board traces the NE clock to ensure that u
H clock of the local NE is synchronized
the
with other NEs or reference timing units.
n
it o

a
The clock boards of an OptiX OSN 1500/2500/3500 work in hot backup mode. When the
c is automatically switched to the standby clock
active clock board fails, the clock itracing
i f
board.
e rt
C (including the clock extracted from a line and the external
The NE reference clocks
&

ng
synchronous reference clock) are sent to the active and standby clock boards at the
i
in and standby clock boards generate the synchronous system clock required
same time.

ra
T
 The active

ei the system at the same time.


by

a w Clock board A provides system clocks for cross-connect board A and other service
u

H boards.

 Clock board B also provides system clocks for cross-connect board B and other
service boards.

 Service boards always select the clock of the active clock board. If the active clock
board is abnormal, service boards will select the clock of the standby clock board.
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
r ai
T
ei
a w
Hu
n
a tio
c
rit fi
C e
&
i ng
a in
Tr
ei
a w
H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
r ai
T
ei
a w
Hu
n
a tio
c
rit fi
C e
&
i ng
a in
Tr
ei
a w
H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
r ai
T
ei
a w
Hu
n
a tio
c
rit fi
C e
&
i ng
a in
Tr
ei
a w
H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
r ai
T
ei
a w
 SDH network topologies Hu
n
tio
 An SDH network consists of multiple network nodes (NEs) that are connected

a
through optical fibers. A network topology refers to a network shape, which is a
c
it fi
geometric arrangement of network nodes and transmission lines. It reflects the

e r
physical connections of the network.
C
The validity, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of a network significantly depend on its
&

ng
specific topology.
i

a in
Generally, there are linear (chain), star, tree, ring, and mesh topologies. The linear

Tr
and ring topologies are common in SDH networks.

ei
a w
H u
n
t io
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rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
ai
i Tr
e
a w
 For backbone networks and large regional networks, u
H the concept of subnet is introduced to
n
facilitate routing and management. The network with a complex topology can be divided
into subsets, making the network simple it oand easy to manage.
f i ca that includes network nodes, network
ti
 A subnet can be compared to a container

e r
connections (links), or even lower-level subnets.
C
&
i ng
a in
T r
ei
a w
H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
r ai
T
ei
a w
Hu
n
a tio
c
rit fi
C e
&
i ng
a in
Tr
ei
a w
H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
ai
i Tr
e
a w
 With information playing an increasingly important u
H for all walks of life,
role

n
communications networks need to accurately and promptly transmit information among
users. Once a fault occurs on a networkio
a
the society may suffer a great loss.c(It
tis inevitable actually. For example, optical cables are
that carries increasing information at a high rate,

t i fiTherefore, the survivability or reliability is the first


r
broken during civil construction.)
e
C
consideration for a network.

& capability of automatically recovering services from failures (such


Self-healing is a network
ng a short period (50 ms as specified by ITU-T). In this manner, users

i
as a fiber cut) within

a in happening of the failures. This capability is based on backup routing and


barely feel the

T r capabilities of a network. Backup devices or redundancy capabilities of


reconnection
ei devices can be used to provide backup routing for all or high-priority services. To
working
a w up, the prerequisites for self-healing are redundant routes, powerful cross-connect
sum

H u capabilities, and intelligent NEs.

 Self-healing allows services to be recovered on backup channels, not involving manual


repair or replacement of faulty components or lines. For example, broken optical cables
must be manually reconnected.
n
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rtif
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 Currently, the ring topology is most widely usedHbecauseua it has a strong self-healing
n
capability. Self-healing rings can be classified by service level, direction of services on the
ring, and number of optical fibers between it o NEs.
f i ca fibers between adjacent NEs, self-healing rings can
tirings (a pair of transmit and receive fibers) and four-fiber
 Based on the number of optical
r
e and receive fibers).
be divided into two-fiber
rings (two pairs ofC transmit
& of services on the ring, self-healing rings can be divided into
g
Based on the direction
in rings and bidirectional rings.

n
unidirectional

raiIn the case of a unidirectional ring, the routes for transmitting and receiving
T services are different when the network is normal. The services with diverse

e i
a w routes are called unidirectional services.

H u  In the case of a bidirectional ring, the routes for transmitting and receiving
services are consistent, and are called uniform routes. The services with
uniform routes are called bidirectional services.
n
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 In the view of protection mechanisms and network u
H topologies, SDH self-healing networks
on
are grouped as follows:

Linear MSP, including 1+1 lineartiMSP and 1:N linear MSP.


ca

Ring network protection ifi


r t

C e
MSP ring, including two-fiber unidirectional MSP ring, two-fiber bidirectional

&
MSP ring, and four-fiber bidirectional MSP ring.
g
nprotection

i
Path (PP) ring, including two-fiber unidirectional PP ring and two-
n bidirectional PP ring.
a ifiber
T r
i Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP)
ecourse focuses on the common linear MSP, two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring, four-fiber

w
uabidirectional MSP ring, and SNCP.
 This

H
n
t io
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rtif
C e
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rai
T
ei
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 1+1 linear MSP Hu
n
tio
 The transmit end transmits services on both the working route and protection route,

a
and the receive end receives only the better service signals. Generally, the receive end
c
it fi
receives services from only the working route. When a fault occurs on the working

e r
route, the receive end receives services from the protection route.
C
In 1+1 linear MSP, services are dually fed at the transmit end, and therefore the
&

ng
protection route does not carry extra services.
i
a in
Tr
ei
a w
H u
n
t io
ica
rtif
C e
&
i ng
n
ai
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e
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 According to different switching and restoration H u
modes, 1+1 linear MSP is classified into

on
single-ended and dual-ended switching modes and revertive and non-revertive modes.

In single-ended switching mode,tiswitching occurs only at one end and the status of
ca In dual-ended switching mode, switching occurs

f i
ti
the other end remains unchanged.
at both ends.
e r
In revertive mode, C
after the original working route is restored, the system
& services from the original working route after a specified

g
automatically receives

n in time). In non-revertive mode, the system does not automatically receive


period (WTR

rai from the original working route even if the original working route is restored,
services

i T receives services from the original working route only when switching trigger
and
e conditions are met.
w
H ua Therefore, there are four types of 1+1 linear MSP: single-ended non-revertive mode,

single-ended revertive mode, dual-ended non-revertive mode, and dual-ended


revertive mode.

 1+1 single-ended revertive/non-revertive mode: The APS protocol is not required.


1+1 dual-ended revertive/non-revertive mode: The APS protocol is required. In the
case of linear MSP networking, you are advised to use the 1+1 single-ended non-
revertive mode. In this mode, the switching is fast and reliable, and the K byte is not
involved, featuring simple implementation.
n
t io
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rai
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 1:N linear MSP Hu
n
tio
 In the 1:N linear MSP mode, N working systems share a parallel protection system.

a
The value of N ranges from 1 to 14, and 1:1 is a special case of the 1:N mode.
c

r it fi
In normal cases, N working routes transmit common service signals concurrently. In
e
addition, the protection route can transmit extra services (not important) or are not
C
used.
&

ing
When one of the N working systems fails, as shown in the preceding figure, when

in
the optical fiber of working route 1 between NE A and NE B is broken, the STM-N
a
Tr
signals can be switched to the protection system for transmission. When multiple

ei performed according to the user-defined priorities. If the priorities of these working


systems of the N working systems fail at the same time, protection switching is

a w
H u systems are the same, the protection switching sequence is determined by the
working path ID. Therefore, working path 1 has the highest priority of protection
switching, and working path 14 has the lowest priority of protection switching.

 When the optical fiber of working route 1 between NE A and NE B is restored, NE A


sends a WTR request to NE B using the protection path. After a specified period
(WTR time), both NE A and NE B complete the recovery process.
n
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rtif
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ei
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 1:N linear MSP Hu
o n
1:N linear MSP supports only the dual-ended revertive mode.
i

The 1:N linear MSP switching a t the APS protocol. Devices from different

c requires
fi with each other due to different protocol processing
t i
vendors may fail to interconnect
r
mechanisms.
C e

&
1:N linear MSP supports extra services. That is, when the network is normal, the

n g can be used to transmit the extra services of low priorities. In this


protection path
i
n service capacity is (1+N) x STM-N. Once protection switching occurs, the
i
case, the

T ra of the working system are switched to the protection path for transmission,
signals

e i and the extra services are lost.


aw
Hu
n
t io
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C e
&
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n
ai
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H u
For the OptiX 10G and OptiX OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500/9500 devices, linear MSP is

n
configured based on TMs. In this way, even if a network fault occurs, protection switching
it o switching occurs only between two
is performed by section. That is, the protection
a on services on the entire network. For the
adjacent TMs, which minimizes thecimpact
i
f
i MSP can be configured based on TMs or ADMs.
devices such as OptiX 2500+, tlinear
r
e that linear MSP be configured based on TMs by converting
C
However, it is recommended

&
each linear ADM into two back-to-back TMs, so that section-specific switching can be
implemented. g

n in the linear MSP configuration is completed, the APS protocol can be


ai
 Two minutes after

T r
started normally.
i
Doenot use different optical ports on the same board for the active and standby working

a w
H u routes in the same direction of linear MSP. Otherwise, the protection cannot be
implemented due to the failure of one board.

 Conditions of triggering linear MSP switching:

 Signal failure (SF): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, and B2_EXC

 Signal degrade (SD): B2_SD


n
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 Two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring Hu
n
tio
 The type of NEs on a ring network is generally add/drop multiplexer (ADM). Generally,

a
each NE requires two optical boards installed in paired slots to form a ring. On one
c
it fi
hand, when an SCC fails, overheads (OAM information) can pass through the paired

e r
slots, facilitating the transmission of OAM information between other sites and the
C
NMS. On the other hand, according to the engineering specifications, the two optical
&
boards of an ADM NE must be installed in two paired slots. This is especially

ing
important for the MSP ring. Otherwise, the switching time of the MSP ring may

a in
exceed the threshold (on the OptiX OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500) or the switching

Tr
fails (on the OptiX 155/622H/2500+/10G/OSN 9500).
ei Generally, in the case of a ring network, the left side of two paired slots is called or
aw

Hu
defined as west direction, and the right side of two paired slots is called or defined as
east direction. In MSP networking, when optical fibers are connected between sites,
the east optical board of a site is connected to the west optical board of the
downstream site, and these sites are connected in sequence to form a ring. In this
case, the direction from the east optical board of a site to the west optical board of
the downstream site is the major ring direction, and the reverse direction is the
backup ring direction.

 The major ring is generally represented in counterclockwise direction. In essence, the


direction of the major ring is determined by the fiber connections between sites.
n
t io
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rtif
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ai
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 In a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring, only two H ua fibers are required between two
optical

n
adjacent nodes on a ring. The capacity of each optical fiber in each transmission direction is
it o to the working path, and the other half is
divided into two parts. The first half is allocated
allocated to the protection path. That
f i ca is, one optical fiber carries both the working path S1
and protection path P2, and the
r ti other fiber carries both the working path S2 and
C
protection path P1. Generally,e the working path (S1) on one optical fiber is protected by
is, the last half of g
&
the protection path (P1) on the other optical fiber in the opposite direction of the ring. That
one optical fiber protects the first half of the other fiber. For example,
n
timeslot P2 onithe S1/P2 optical fiber is used to protect the S2 service on the S2/P1 fiber,
n
r
and timeslotai P1 is used to protect the S1 service. This enables bidirectional transmission of
i T traffic.
e
working
w
H ua
n
t io
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rtif
C e
&
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 In this case, the first half timeslots of each optical u
H are used as the working timeslots
fiber

n
(for example, 1# to 8# STM-1 or VC-4 paths in an STM-16 system) to transmit active
services, and the other half timeslots areit oused as the protection timeslots (for example, 9#
to 16# STM-1 or VC-4 paths in an cSTM-16
i a system) to transmit extra services. That is, the
f
ti fiber are used to protect the active services on the other
r
protection timeslots of one optical
optical fiber.
Ce
An STM-N two-fiber & bidirectional MSP ring has N AU-4s. The AU-4 timeslots numbered
g

from 1 to N/2 innthe clockwise direction are assigned to the working path, and the AU-4
i ni from N/2+1 to N are assigned to the protection path. The timeslot
raof the optical fibers in counterclockwise direction is similar. The AU-4 numbered
timeslots numbered

T
allocation
eithe working path is protected by the AU-4 numbered N/2+m of the corresponding
m in
a w
protection path in the opposite direction.

H u
n
t io
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rtif
C e
&
i ng
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ai
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 When the network operates normally, NE A transmits u
H protected services in timeslot S1 (For
o n P2 (For an STM-16 system, extra services
an STM-16 system, protected services use only the first eight timeslots, which are 1# to 8#
STM-1s or VC-4s.) and extra services initimeslot
a ton the S1/P2 optical fiber. NE B transparently
c
fi protected services from timeslot S1 and extra
use only 9# to 16# STM-1s or VC-4s.)
i
transmits these services. NE C textracts
rthe S1/P2 optical fiber.
C
services from timeslot P2 one
& services in timeslot S2 and extra services in timeslot P1 on the
NE C transmits protected
ngNE B transparently transmits these services. NE A extracts protected

i
S2/P1 optical fiber.

a
services fromintimeslot S2 and extra services from timeslot P1 on the S2/P1 optical fiber.
T r
ei
a w
H u
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 When optical cables are broken between NE A and
H u NE B, MSP switching occurs on the
entire network.
n
 For services from NE A to NE C:
it o

f i
NE A performs bridged switching. caoptical
That is, the cross-connect unit switches services
t i
from timeslot S1 on the S1/P2 fiber to timeslot P1 on the S2/P1 optical fiber.
r services are switched from the 1# to 8# STM-1s or VC-4s on
e
(For an STM-16 system,
C to the 9# to 16# STM-1s or VC-4s on the S2/P1 optical fiber.)
the S1/P2 optical fiber
At this moment,& the extra services in timeslot P1 on the S2/P1 optical fiber are
interrupted.gNE D and NE C transparently transmit the services in timeslot P1 (the
n inpath) on the S1/P1 optical fiber to NE B. NE B performs bridged switching.
protection
a i the cross-connect unit switches services from timeslot P1 on the S2/P1 optical
That is,
r
T to timeslot S1 on the S1/P2 optical fiber. NE B transmits the services in timeslot
fiber
i
e services from NE A to NE C are protected.
S1 to NE C, and then NE C extracts the services in timeslot S1. In this manner,
w
H uaFor services from NE C to NE A:

 NE C transmits protected services in timeslot S2 to NE B. NE B performs bridged


switching. That is, the cross-connect unit switches the services from timeslot S2 on
the S2/P1 optical fiber to timeslot P2 on the S1/P2 optical fiber. At this moment, the
extra services on timeslot P2 are interrupted. NE C and NE D transparently transmit
services along the S1/P2 optical fiber to NE A. NE A performs bridged switching to
receive services in timeslot P2 on the S1/P2 optical fiber.
 Self-healing is implemented according to the protection schemes described above. Please
note that services do not pass through optical boards within switching sections. In other
sections (NE A to NE D or NE B to NE C), the protected services still use the original working
paths.
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 After the optical cables between NE A and NE BHare uarepaired, the entire network enters the
n
wait to restore (WTR) state (the WTR time is 10 minutes by default). In this case, the
it o with those in the switching state. That is, the
services on the entire network are consistent

i
services that are originally transmitted
f ca between NE A and NE B (switching section) are
protected by the protection path
r ti in the NE A–D–C–B section of the normal optical path.

e by default), if the optical path between NE A and NE B is
Within the WTR time (10Cminutes
& enters the normal state. That is, all services, including extra
normal, the entire network
g
n to the original timeslot paths. The WTR state prevents frequent
i
services, are restored

a in
network switchovers caused by the unstable optical path during optical cable repair,

T r
thereby avoiding multiple transient interruptions of services.
ei
a w
H u
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An MSP ring supports the APS protocol, and APS u

H protocol information is transmitted
through K1 and K2 bytes in the multiplex section overhead. Specifically, if the MSP ring
n all NEs on the ring must process the APS
it oproperly, involving the optical boards, SCC units,
needs to be correctly switched and restored,

onathe ring. The APS protocol of the OptiX OSN


protocol and perform switching actions
and cross-connect units of all NEs c
f i
1500/2500/3500/7500 is processed
ti by cross-connect units, and the SCC units of the OptiX
OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500 rare only responsible for the MS configuration.
C e

&
On an MSP ring, NEs may be migrated in four MSP statuses.
g
n command triggers switching. This is the general state of an MSP
Normal state: That is, the entire network is in the normal state, and no optical path
alarm oriexternal

ring. i n
T ra state: When a switching trigger condition is met on the ring, for example,
ei optical cables are broken, the NEs on both sides enter the switching state. That is,
 Switching

a w bridged switching is performed to directly switch services on the working path to the
H u protection path through the cross-connect unit.
 Pass-through state: When a switching trigger condition is met on the ring, for
example, optical cables are broken, the NEs on both sides enter the switching state.
In this case, other NEs on the ring enter the pass-through state. That is, services in
the protection path pass through all these NEs.
 WTR state: When the switching trigger condition is cleared on the ring, for example,
optical cables are repaired, the NEs on both sides enter the WTR state (other NEs are
still in the pass-through state). In this case, the service status is consistent with that in
the switching state. If no switching trigger condition occurs during the WTR time, the
entire network enters the normal state. The WTR state is used to prevent frequent
switchovers caused by an unstable line. It is recommended that you set the WTR time
to 5 to 12 minutes. The default WTR time is 10 minutes.
n
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ua SF events, such as R_LOS, R_LOF,
The conditions of triggering MSP ring switchingHinclude

n
MS_AIS, and B2_EXC (B2_OVER) and SD events, generally referring to B2_SD. MSP ring
it o Whether the switching is triggered is
switching is based on the multiplex section.

i
determined by the quality of multiplex
f ca section signals transmitted on the ring, rather than
r ti service. Therefore, MSP is a network-level protection
the connectivity status of a certain
scheme. The MSP does notedirectly protect a service, and the MSP switching and
C
&
restoration are not affected even if there is no service on the MSP ring.

i ng
a in
T r
ei
a w
H u
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&
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H u
After a timeslot in a bidirectional MSP ring is occupied by a service transmitted over a

n be reused. In this way, the total number of


section, the timeslot can still be used to transmit services between other sites on other fiber
sections in the ring. That is, the timesloto
i can
tincreases with the number of sites on the ring.
services on the bidirectional MSP ring
c a
t i fi bidirectional MSP ring depends on the number of
r of services between nodes. When services in a network
 The service capacity of a two-fiber
e
network nodes and the distribution
C node, services on all other nodes are the services to the central
are distributed on a central
&
ngdistribution in the ring, the service capacity of the ring is the smallest
node, and therefore the services between two nodes do not exist. That is, in the case of
i
centralized service

a in to the number of ring nodes. It is STM-N. When each network node has
and is irrelevant
T r with its adjacent nodes, that is, all services on a ring are scattered in a
only services
ei manner, the service capacity of the ring can reach the maximum value and is
distributed
a w to the number of nodes on the ring. It is (K/2) x STM-N, where K is the number of
related

H u nodes on the ring. Therefore, the two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring is applicable to the
scenarios where services are scattered in a ring.
 In an MSP ring, the APS protocol must be used to control protection switching. The APS
protocol is complex to implement. When protection switching occurs, the protection
switching time of services is long because the APS protocol communication process of all
sites on the ring is involved. However, the protection switching time is still less than 50 ms,
which is defined in ITU-T Recommendations.
 According to ITU-T Recommendations, K1 and K2 bytes are used to transmit APS protocol
information. each byte has four bits that indicate the addresses of the source node and sink
node. Therefore, the number of nodes in an MS ring cannot exceed 16.
n
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 System architecture of a four-fiber bidirectionalH uaring
MSP

In a four-fiber MSP ring, four opticalnfibers (S1, P1, S2, and P2) are used to connect
o and S2 are working paths that transmit active
iS1

t
caand P2 are protection paths that transmit standby
two adjacent sites. Optical fibers

i
services, and optical fibers P1
f i
services. That is, opticalrtfibers P1 and P2 are used to protect the active services on
CeS2 when the working paths are faulty. Note that the service
optical fibers S1 and
& fibers S1 and S2 are opposite (uniform route and bidirectional
directions of optical
g
ring). Thenservice directions of optical fibers S1 and P1 are opposite to those of
i S2 and P2. As shown in the preceding figure, the service directions are
nfibers
a i
optical
ther same between S1 and P2 and between S2 and P1.
T
ei Note that each NE node on a four-fiber MSP ring must be configured with two ADMs.
a w An ADM has only two line ports (east and west). One pair of transmit and receive

H u optical fibers is called a line port. However, an NE node on the four-fiber MSP ring
has two line ports in the east and west directions respectively. Therefore, two ADMs
must be configured for each NE node.
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 Service signal flows in normal cases Hu
n
tio
 When a ring network is normal, the active services from NE A to NE D are added to

a
and dropped from NE D through the S1 optical fiber and NE F and NE E. The services
c
it fi
from NE D to NE A are transmitted through the S2 optical fiber and NE F and NE E to

e r
NE A (bidirectional services and uniform route).
C
The extra services between NE A and NE D are transmitted over the P1 and P2 optical
&

ng
fibers. NE A and NE D receive services on the working paths to interconnect active
i
in
services between the two NEs, and receive services on the protection paths to
a
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interconnect standby services between the two NEs.

ei
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ua path
Section switching after a fiber cut occurs on theHworking

After the S1 optical fiber between NE


o n E and NE F is broken, section switching is
i two sides of the broken optical fiber. In this case,

performed on NE E and NE F at tthe


the active services from NE iA
a
c to NE D are transmitted to NE F along the S1 optical
i f
fiber, section switchingrtis performed on NE F, the active services from NE A to NE D
are switched to theCP2e optical fiber for transmission, and the extra services on the P2
&interrupted. On NE E, the services on the P2 optical fiber are
optical fiber are
switched n g
i back to the S1 optical fiber because section switching is performed. Then,
n the services from the S1 optical fiber, which are the active services
NE D ireceives
a
r NE A to NE D.
T
from
ei The switching process of the services from NE D to NE A is similar.
a w 

H u  Based on the preceding analysis, section switching occurs only on the NEs at both
sides of the broken optical fiber, which is fast and reliable and similar to 1:1 linear
MSP. This protection scheme does not adversely affect the active and extra services
in other spans.
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 Ring switching after fiber cuts occurs on both the H uworking and protection paths

o n and protection paths) between NE E and


After all optical fibers (both in the working
NE F are broken, ring switchingtisi performed on NE E and NE F at the two sides of

the broken optical fibers. Inic


a
f
ti the S1 optical fiber, ring switching is performed on NE F,
this case, the active services from NE A to NE D are
r
e NE A to NE D are switched to the P1 optical fiber for
transmitted to NE F along
the active services Cfrom
transmission, and& the extra services on the P1 optical fiber are interrupted. The
g
n the P1 optical fiber pass through NE A, NE B, NE C, and NE D
i
services on

a in
(implementing the pass-through function) to reach NE E. On NE E, the services on the
P1roptical fiber are switched back to the S1 optical fiber because ring switching is
i T
e performed. Then, NE D receives the services from the S1 optical fiber, which are the
a w active services from NE A to NE D.
H u  The switching process of the services from NE D to NE A is similar.

 Ring switching requires the participation of all NEs on the ring and interrupts all extra
services.
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H
The four-fiber bidirectional MSP ring allows timeslot u multiplexing. There are two extreme
scenarios of calculating the service capacity. Scenario 1: A service centralization site exists
on a ring, and each NE are interconnectednwith this site for service transmission, but there
t ioNEs. In this case, the minimum service capacity of
ca and 4 x STM-N (including extra services). Either the
are no services between other adjacent
f i
the ring is 2 x STM-N (active services)
east or west side of the serviceticentralization site only supports a maximum of STM-N
e r(including extra services). Why? Answer: The rate level of the
C STM-N. Scenario 2: Services only exist between two adjacent
(active services) or 2 x STM-N

&
optical cable section is only

ngadjacent NEs that communicate with each other. For example, the A–B
NEs on a ring, and cross-NE services do not exist. In this case, each optical cable section is
i
dedicated for the
optical cablein
ra section
section transmits only bidirectional services between A and B, and the B–C
T
optical cable transmits only bidirectional services between B and C. The services
ei way,adjacent
between NEs do not occupy the timeslot resources of other optical cable sections.

a w
In this each optical cable section can transmit a maximum of STM-N (active services)

H u or 2 x STM-N (including extra services) services, and timeslot resources can be reused. The
number of optical cable sections on the ring is equal to the number of NEs on the ring.
Therefore, the service capacity in this scenario reaches a maximum of N x STM-N or 2N x
STM-N. The four-fiber bidirectional MSP ring also needs to be supported by the APS
protocol. During the switching and restoration, the optical boards, SCC units (except those
of the OptiX OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500), and cross-connect units of all NEs on the ring
must correctly transmit and process the APS protocol and cross-connect matrix. In addition,
because the system requires high redundancy and the dual-ADM configuration is used, the
cost is high.
 The most outstanding advantage of a four-fiber bidirectional MSP ring is large service
capacity. If services are scattered in a distributed manner on more NEs, there will be a
larger capacity and higher path utilization.
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 SNCP uses 1+1 protection and features dual feeding u
H and selective receiving. SNCP is
n
service-based. That is, no intra-site protocols are used and all monitoring and switching
operations are performed by a single site.it o SNCP is reliable and allows flexible service
configurations. SNCP can be used c toaprotect cross-subnet services in flexible networking
i f i
topologies, such as ring-chaintnetworks,
r tangent rings, intersecting rings, and dual node
e rings. In the respective of protection forms, SNCP is an
C
interconnection (DNI) in two

&
extension of path protection (PP).
g
The subnet termnhere is generic. It refers to any network topology that allows a working
ni path such a chain, ring, or complex network, or even an optical fiber.

a i
path and protection
For easy rmanagement and analysis, a subnet provides a working path and protection path
i T
to e
implement service connections regardless of its real topology.
a w
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 The protection mechanism of SNCP is dual feeding u
H selective receiving. The transmit end
and

o
sources and selectively receives one. In ithis
nway, the service is protected, which is similar to
of an SNCP service transmits two service sources, and the receive end checks the service

a t
PP.
f i c
t i
r including lower-order services such as VC-12 and VC-3 and
e
 SNCP supports various services,
Cas VC-4 and VC-4 concatenation services. Hybrid SNCP
higher-order services such
& for multiple services at the same time. In addition, SNCP
protection can be configured
protection usesn g
i a single service as the basic unit. The logic and status of each SNCP service

a in of others.
is independent

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u
H board. For SNCP, services are
For PP, services are selectively received on the tributary

n
selectively received on the cross-connect board. Therefore, SNCP can protect pass-through
it o services dropped to the local tributary board.
services on the line while PP can only protect

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 An SNCP service pair consists of one working source, u
H one protection source, and one
n
service sink. It corresponds to the SNCP protection group that is configured, managed, and
maintained. In an SNCP service pair, theio
monitored, but the working sourcecand a t protection source are two monitoring points of the
status of the sink node does not need to be

t i fi the SNCP service pair is switched or restored depends


rsource and protection source.
protection group. That is, whether
e
C
on the status of the working

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 After the optical cable between NE B and NE CH is u
repaired, the SNCP status of NE C enters

n
the WTR state. The WTR time is 10 minutes by default, and can be to 5 to 12 minutes. In
it o are still the same as those when the optical
this case, the services on the entire network

i
cable is broken. Within the WTR time,
f ca if the optical path between NE B and NE C is normal,
the entire network enters the t
r i state. That is, all services are restored to their original
normal

C
timeslot paths. The WTR statee prevents frequent network switchovers caused by the
&
unstable optical path during optical cable repair, thereby avoiding multiple transient
g
interruptions of services.

n in
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Hu
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 References: Hu
n
tio
 IEEE 802.1Q

IEEE 802.3X
ca
it fi

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 Currently, the standard Ethernet is seldom used, u
H the FE/GE is most commonly used. In
and

n
the future, more 10GE interfaces will be used as Network to Network Interfaces (NNIs) on
metro Ethernet. it o
f i ca
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Ce
&
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H
At first, the 10 Mbps bandwidth provided by Ethernet u seemed to be more than enough.

n1990s, and the network bandwidth became the


However, due to the rapid development of the computer running speed, the 10 Mbps
bandwidth was overburdened in the early
i o
tTherefore, it is imperative to develop communication
bottleneck of device communication.
c a
technologies that support higherfispeed.
r t i
The study of Fast Ethernet e began in 1993 and standards were created in 1995. Fast
C

Ethernet inherited some standards defined in 10BASE-T, such as Ethernet frame format,
& and structured wiring. Fast Ethernet just increased the
g
multi-port repeater, bridge
bandwidth by 10
n in times, and of course the Ethernet standard changed, too. For example,
a i that have been widely used cannot be used to carry fast Ethernet signals.
telephone lines
r
i Telectromagnetic radiation in the transmission exceeded the FCC and European
This was because the attenuation of Fast Ethernet signals was too severe on telephone lines
andethe
a w
standards. At that time, the problem was to determine whether to use a new type of cable,

H u or retain the telephone line but use a new transmission technology.


 Among Fast Ethernet standards, 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX are often used.
 100Base-TX is the most commonly used standard. It uses two pairs of Cat 5 twisted pairs.
 In the name of 100Base-FX, F refers to fiber. 100Base-FX supports a longer transmission
distance than 100Base-TX. When 100Base-FX works in half duplex mode and uses a P2P
connection, its transmission distance is 412 m due to the limitation of collision. In full
duplex mode, the transmission distance is up to 2000 m.
 The other two fast Ethernet standards are 100BASE-T4 and 100BASE-T2. 100BASE-T4 uses
four pairs of Cat 3 or 5 twisted pairs. 100BASE-T2 uses two pairs of Cat 3 twisted pairs.
100BASE-T4 and 100BASE-T2 are no longer used now.
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 When 100Base-T4 uses Cat 3 unshielded twisted u
H pairs, the signal frequency of such a
o n of twisted pairs are required in 100Base-T4.
cable is 25 MHz, only 25% faster than that of Standard Ethernet, which is 20 MHz. To
provide a 100 Mbit/s bandwidth, four ipairs
a t
c
100Base-TX uses Cat 5 twistedi pairs. The clock frequency of such a cable is 125 MHz.
tif are required to provide a 100 Mbit/s bandwidth.

Therefore, only two twistedrpairs


Ce are collectively called 100Base-T.
100Base-TX and 100Base-T4
& fibers: one for signal transmission, and the other for signal

g
100Base-FX uses two

n infibers provide a transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. An MMF supports a


receiving. Both

r ai distance of 2 km, and a single-mode optical fiber supports a transmission


transmission

i T of 15 km.
distance
e
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Due to the increasing demand for bandwidth, theuGigabit Ethernet standard was officially

H
released in 1998, which enables the signal bandwidth of optical fibers or twisted pairs to
reach 1 Gbit/s.
o n
i
t was responsible for the standardization of this
c a
The IEEE Gigabit Ethernet working group
fi are IEEE 802.3z (optical fiber and copper cable) and

IEEE802.3ab (twisted pair). rti


technology. Its technical standards

 Ce uses the modified physical layer protocol and the MAC layer
The Gigabit Ethernet standard
&
similar to Standard Ethernet and Fast Ethernet standard. To cope with the problem of
g that Ethernet works at such a high rate, the Gigabit Ethernet standard
nthe
collision and ensure
i
n previous standards.
is different from
i

ra can work in half-duplex or full-duplex mode. As the prices of related
Gigabit Ethernet
devicesTdecrease, it is widely used in the interconnection of the backbone layer, campus
ei and common devices.
w
network

u
 aCompared with the traditional Standard Ethernet standards, the Gigabit Ethernet standard
H has changed greatly, but it is still regarded as an evolved Standard Ethernet technology.
Some devices have GE, FE and 10 Mbit/s ports at the same time to facilitate seamless
connection of Ethernet signals at various rates.
 Gigabit Ethernet defines three types of media:
 1000Base-LX – single-mode optical fiber (with a transmission distance of more than 3
km).
 1000Base-SX-MMF (with a transmission distance of 300 to 550 m).
 1000Base-CX – coaxial cable (with a transmission distance of more than 25 m).
 1000Base-T - four pairs of unshielded twisted pairs (with a transmission distance of
100 m).
 Gigabit Ethernet is an ideal solution for Ethernet backbone network.
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 Gigabit Ethernet supports two working modes:H uduplex
full mode and half duplex mode.

Gigabit Ethernet supports twisted pair andnoptical fiber transmission.


io

t
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 The physical layer of LAN
Hu
n
The physical layer of LAN is often used for the interconnection between routers and

tio

switches. Although it is called LAN, if 10GBase-LR or 10GBase–ER optical module is

ca
used, the transmission distance can reach 80 km. The data rate of the physical layer

it fi
of LAN is 10.3 Gbit/s, which uses the 64B/66B coding.
r

82 m. C e
10GBASE-SR (Short Range) uses MMFs and supports a transmission distance of 26 to

&
ng
 10GBASE-LRM is derived from IEEE 802.3aq and uses FDDI-grade 62.5 µm MMFs.
i
The transmission distance can reach 220 m.

a in
10GBASE-LR (Long Range) uses 1300 nm SMFs, and supports a transmission distance
Tr

of 10 to 25 km.
ei 10GBASE-ER (Extended Range) uses 1550 nm SMFs, and supports a transmission
aw

distance of 40 km.

Hu  10GBASE-LX4 supports a transmission distance of 240 to 300 m using coarse


wavelength division multiplexing technology and multimode optical fibers. 10GBASE-
LX4 uses four separate laser sources with different wavelengths around 1300 nm.
The four channels all transmit laser signals at a rate of 3.125 Gbit/s. 10GBASE-LX4
also supports SMFs supporting a transmission distance of 10 km.
 10GBASE-T, based on IEEE 802.3an, provides 10 Gbit/s bandwidth over traditional
unshielded or shielded twisted pairs. 10GBASE-T supports a transmission distance of
56 to 100 m using Cat 6 twisted pairs.
 The physical layer of WAN
 10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW and 10GBASE-EW are used at the physical layer of WAN
and are applicable to the interconnection with the SDH/SONET equipment that uses
the OC-192/STM-64 (with the signal rate of 9.953 Gbit/s). This interface is used when
enterprise users want to use the SDH/SONET or WDM system to carry 10G Ethernet
signals.
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 10GBase-SR/LR/ER WAN interface Hu
o n
10GE Ethernet services at the rate of 10.31 Gbit/s.
i

a t services.

fi c
It is used to access 10GE Ethernet

t i
er
 10GBase-SW/LW/EW WAN interface

 Maps an Ethernet C frame to a SONET/SDH frame at the rate of 9.953 Gbit/s.


&
g
It is used for 10G POS access services.
in interface

10GBase-LX4nLAN
ai

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 The physical layer defines the standards relevant u
H the physical media carrying TCP/IP
to
communications:
n
it o the signal characteristics such as signal level,
ca mode and signal waveform.
 The electrical/optical protocols describe

f i
ti are specifications such as connector dimensions and
optical power, bit timing, encoding

e r
Mechanical specifications
transmission mediaCtypes.

&
The data link layergdefines the protocols for controlling the physical layer: how the medium
inshared, how devices on the medium are identified, and how data is framed

n
ai transmitted on the medium. Common data link layer protocols include IEEE
is accessed and

T r
before being

e i
802.3/Ethernet, IEEE 802.5/Token Ring, and FDDI/Fiber Distributed Data Interface.

a w
Network layer defines the packet format and addressing mode and is responsible for the
u

H routing of data packets in the network.

 The transport layer defines protocols for controlling the network layer. Both the transport
layer and data link layer are able to perform flow control and error control. The data link
protocol controls traffic on the data link, which is the physical medium connecting two
devices. While the transport layer protocol controls traffic on the logical link, which is the
E2E connection between two devices whose logical link may traverse a series of data links.

 The application layer in the TCP/IP model corresponds to the session layer, presentation
layer, and application layer in the OSI model. The application layer provides interfaces that
applications use to access the network.
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 In a collision domain, a collision occurs when data H u packets from different devices are sent
to the shared medium at the same time.
n
Each device on the network can send tdata io only when the network is idle. Therefore, the
cathe network efficiency is lower when there are more

f i
ti
possibility of collisions is higher and
r
Ce
devices on the network.

Collision domain:
&

Points that g
inof a hub belong to the same collision domain, no port can receive and
 share the same information channel form a collision domain. For example,
n
aidata at the same time.
if all ports

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send

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 Due to the limitation of CSMA/CD algorithm, the u
H length of Standard Ethernet should
frame

n
not be smaller than 64 bytes, which is determined by the maximum transmission distance
and the working mechanism of collisionio
a t detection.

f c
i prevents situations in which a station finishes sending
i
 The use of a minimum frame length
t
r first bit of the packet has not arrived at the remote station.
e
the last bit of a packet, but the
At this point, the remoteC station senses that the line is idle and begins to send data, leading
to a collision. &
The upper layerin
g
n
protocol must ensure that the minimum length of the Data field in an
i

ra is 46 bytes. If the length is less than 46 bytes, the upper layer protocol must
Ethernet frame
fill the T
i redundant bits to make the length of the Data field reach 46 bytes. A 46-byte Data
e a 14-byte Ethernet frame header, and a 4-byte verification code form a 64-byte
w
field,

H uaminimum Ethernet frame.


 In an Ethernet frame, the maximum length of the Data field is 1500 bytes.

 The maximum transmission distance depends on the elements such as line quality and
signal attenuation.
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 MAC: Media Access Control Hu
n
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 A MAC address is the physical address of a network device. MAC addresses are

a
managed and allocated by IEEE and are globally unique.
c

r it fi
A MAC address consists of two parts: the device supplier code is used to uniquely
e
identify a device supplier, other bytes are allocated by the device suppliers.
C

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A MAC address is 48 bits and is usually represented as a 12-digit string in dotted

ng
hexadecimal notation.
i
a in
The first 24 bits indicate the identifier of the device supplier, and the last 24 bits are
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allocated by the device supplier.


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u
H This broadcast MAC address is
An all-one MAC address is a broadcast MAC address.

n
represented as FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal notation.
it o
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 Destination MAC addresses in Ethernet frames H areuclassified into three types:

Unicast address: only the specified host


o n can receive and process the frame.
i receive and process the frame.

a tcan
 Broadcast address: all the hosts
f i c
i
Multicast address: all thet hosts in a specified multicast group can receive and process
r
e

the frame.
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 The fields of an Ethernet frame: Hu
n
tio
 Preamble, which is 7 bytes long. The bit pattern of each byte is 10101010, which is

a
used for timing synchronization between the transmit end and the receive end.
c

rit fi
SFD: frame start delimiter. The bit pattern is 10101011, which is used to inform the
e
receive end that the next byte is the beginning of the frame.
C

&
DMAC: destination MAC address. The length is 6 bytes.
g
n MAC address. The length is 6 bytes.
i
SMAC: source
in Length/Type. The length is 2 bytes. The meaning varies according to

a
r value:
Length/Type:
T

e i the

aw  If Length/Type > 1500, it indicates the type of the data frame (the upper layer

Hu protocol type, for example, 0x0800 indicates that the Layer 3 data is an IP
packet).

 If Length/Type <= 1500, it indicates the length of the data and the padding
field in the data frame.

 DATA: the length is 46 - 1500 bytes. If the length of the Data field is less than 46
bytes, the field must be padded to ensure that the length of the entire frame is at
least 64 bytes.

 FCS: frame check sequence. The length is 4 bytes.

 The frame length range is 64 - 1518 bytes.


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H u
The half-duplex mode has the following characteristics:

o
A device can either receive or send datan in one direction at one time.
ti

 CSMA/CD is required.
i c a
i f

e rt distance transmission.
This mode applies to short

 The full-duplex mode hasCthe following characteristics:


&
g
A device can receive and send data simultaneously.
in is doubled compared to the half-duplex mode.

i n
The throughput
a

r
T mode has no limitation on the transmission distance.
i
 This
e
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 IEEE 802.3u first defined auto-negotiation, whichH umeans that auto-negotiation was

n
introduced into the 100M Ethernet, but auto-negotiation could be backward compatible
with 10BASE-T. In 1999, auto-negotiationit o was extended to IEEE 802.3ab (the Gigabit
Ethernet protocol).
f i ca
r ti transmission rates (such as 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s) and
e
 For devices that support multiple
multiple working modes C (half-duplex and full-duplex), the two connected devices can use
the auto-negotiation& mechanism to determine the best communication mode, "the best"
g
means that highntransmission rate is better than low transmission rate. For the same rate,
i nimode is better than the half-duplex mode.
ra
the full-duplex

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 A device not supporting auto-negotiation may H failuto negotiate with a device supporting

n
auto-negotiation. A device supporting auto-negotiation can detect the rate of the
connected device based on the receivedio
a t signal, but cannot detect the full or half duplex

fi
mode of it. At this time, one devicec may work in full-duplex mode, and another device may
work in half-duplex mode. Thistisituation
r is called duplex mode mismatch. Although they

Ce
can communicate, the communication efficiency is low.

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 Many new Ethernet cards, switches, and hubs can H uautomatically implement internal cross-

n
over functions, which is called automatic MDI/MDI-X identification, universal cable
it o you do not need to use cross-over cables or
identification, or auto-sensing. Therefore,
worry about using a wrong cable. ca
t i fi
e r
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 If a congestion occurs in the receiving queue ofH anuEthernet port (the data in the buffer of

o
signal to simulate line congestion. This imakes
n the connected device lower its transmission
the incoming port exceeds a certain threshold), the Ethernet port can send a jamming

a t
rate and avoids packet loss.
f i c
t i
r mode uses the back pressure technology to control the
e
 An Ethernet port in half-duplex
C Ethernet is seldom used.
traffic. Currently, half-duplex
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 Ethernet supports the flow control based on PAUSE u
H frames. A PAUSE frame can request the
n
remote station to stop sending data to the local end.
io between device A and device B. If the rate at
For example, a full-duplex connectiontexists

which device A sends data framesic


a
i f is higher than device B can process, congestion occurs in
the receiving queue of devicertB after a period of time. Then, device B sends a PAUSE frame
Ce A to stop sending data within a period of time.
to device A, requesting device

A PAUSE frame uses &



g the standard Ethernet frame format and is identified by the value of
Type field.
n in
rai parameter field contains a 16-bit value that specifies the duration in which
T
 MAC control
data iframes are not sent (the unit is 512 bit times). The value varies from 00-00 to FF-FF
e
a w
(hexadecimal notation).

H u
 A 42-byte reserved field is required to pad the PAUSE frame to meet the requirement of the
minimum Ethernet frame length.
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 An Ethernet switch or bridge has the followingH ua
functions:

Learns MAC addresses by examiningnthe source MAC address of each frame.


io MAC addresses.

t

f i ca
Forwards frames based on destination

r ti
Filters frames based on destination MAC addresses.
e

 Floods a frame whenC the destination address is not learned.


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Comparisons between hubs and switches:
in at the physical layer and a switch works at the data link layer.

1. A hubnworks
a i
2. T r
i
Hub: a hub works in half-duplex mode, floods packets, and is inefficient. Switch: a
e switch works in full-duplex mode, generates a CAM table by learning MAC
w
H ua addresses, prevents collisions, and creates a broadcast domain.

 To provide higher bandwidth, hubs have been replaced by switches widely.


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 Each switch has a CAM table that defines the mapping
H u between MAC addresses and ports
and forwards frames based on the CAM table.
By examining the source MAC address iof o n

a t a new switch is powered on, its CAM table is empty.


each frame received, a switch learns the MAC
addresses of connected devices. When
c
fi a connected device, the switch examines the source
Upon receiving a data frame from
t i
MAC address of the receivedrframe, and learns the MAC address of the connected device.
Then, the switch creates C
e
an entry in the CAM table to record the mapping between the
& of the device connected to the port. Over time, the switch learns
port and the MAC address
g
in
the MAC addresses of all connected devices.
n
a
In the figure,i if PC A sends a frame to PC D, the device receives the frame from port 1. The
r

device Tfirst checks the destination MAC address of the frame, and then looks up the CAM
e i
table. If no entry in the CAM table matches the destination MAC address, the device

a w
forwards the frame out of all ports except port 1 and adds the source MAC address of the

H u frame into the CAM table. The mapping between port 1 and PC A's MAC address is created.
The device establishes the CAM table by using the preceding method.
 If no entry in the CAM table matches the destination MAC address of the received data
frame, the device floods the frame out of all the other ports except the port on which the
frame is received. The device learns MAC addresses through flooding. Flooding does not
cause the loss of data frame because the device is transparent in the whole network when
flooding.
 After learning MAC addresses for a period of time, the device establishes a CAM table and
can stably forward frames. The device directly forwards a data frame by looking up the
CAM table for the port mapped to the destination MAC address, improving forwarding
efficiency.
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 When a switch receives a data frame, the device u
H the destination MAC address of the
reads

on
data frame and compares the MAC address in the CAM table.

If the destination MAC address tisi found in the CAM table, the frame is directly
ca port.

f i
ti does not exist in the CAM table, the frame is flooded
forwarded out of the corresponding
r
Ce the port that receives the frame.
If the destination MAC address
out of all ports except
&
Aging Mechanismg

i n
i n

ra
The capacity of the CAM table is limited. It contains only a certain number of entries.

i T
Switches provide a timer for each MAC forwarding entry. The timer decreases from
e an initial value. Each time the entry is used (the entry matches a received data frame),
w
ua
the timer is reset. If the entry is not matched for a long time and the timer decreases
H to zero, the entry is deleted.

 The default value of the timer is 5 minutes, that is, the aging time is 5 minutes.
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 Cut-through mode
Hu
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Switches operating in cut-through mode check only the first 6 bytes of a frame. The

tio

first 6 bytes represent the destination MAC address, which is sufficient for

ca
forwarding data frames. The cut-through mode has short delay, but the devices may

errors. rit fi
forward errored frames because they forward data frames without checking for

 Store-and-forward mode C e
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 Before forwarding data frames, the devices in store-and-forward mode check for

ni
errors so that only correct data frames are forwarded. However, the forwarding
i
efficiency is low.

T ra mode
Fragment-free
ei This mode has the advantages of both the cut-through mode and store-and-forward

w mode. Just as in the cut-through mode, the devices in fragment-free mode can

u a
H
forward a data frame after receiving the first 64 bytes instead of waiting for receiving
the complete data frame. As in the store-and-forward mode, the devices in
fragment-free mode check for errors in the first 64 bytes and discards the errored
frames.
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 As shown in the figure, a switch divides a network u
H multiple collision domains. If each
into

n
port of the device connects to a hub, then each port is a collision domain.
it oa broadcast domain. Any broadcast packet is
ca and all devices can receive the broadcast packet.
 The device and the connected LANs form

f i
ti
flooded in the entire broadcast domain
Too many broadcast packetsrtransmitted
e
in a broadcast domain may occupy excess
network bandwidth and C reduce forwarding efficiency. This is because the broadcast
packets are also sent&to the hosts that do not desire these packets.
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 Improve bandwidth utilization Hu
n
tio
 VLAN can effectively resolve the performance deterioration caused by broadcast
storms.
ca

r it fi
Enhance communication security


C e
Data frames with a VLAN ID will not be received by hosts in other VLANs, protecting

&
data security.
g
n stability

i
Enhance network

a innetwork scale expands, some network failures may adversely affect the entire

T r By introducing VLANs, network failures in one VLAN do not affect other


As the

ei VLANs.
network.

a w
H u Suppress broadcast

 By creating VLANs, the broadcast domain can be limited to the ports that belong to
the same VLAN.
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 The 802.1Q tag header contains the following H ua
information:

Tag protocol identifier (TPID) field: 2nbytes.


tio2 bytes.

Tag control information (TCI) a


f i c field:


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The TPID indicates the 802. 1Qt tag. The value of TPID is fixed to 0x8100.

 The TCI contains the following


e
C control information:
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Priority: indicates the priority of a frame. There are three bits, indicating the eight
prioritiesin

i n from 0 to 7. For details, see the IEEE 802.1p standard.


CFIra

T (criteria format identifier): it is used to distinguish the coding format of addresses

ei inframe.
the data frame. If the CFI value is 0, the Ethernet frame is a standard Ethernet

a w If the value is 1, it indicates that the frame is a token ring or FDDI frame.

H u  VLAN ID: indicates the value of the VLAN ID. There are 12 bits in total. A maximum
of 4096 VLANs are supported.

 There are two types of Ethernet frames:

 Untagged frame: a frame without an 802.1Q tag.

 Tagged frame: a frame with an 802.1Q tag.


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 Port-based VLAN assignment Hu
VLAN 1 is reserved.
o n
i

In the figure, port 1 and port a 7 tbelong to VLAN 5, and port 3 and port 10 belong to

c
fiC are connected to port 1 and port 7 respectively, so they
VLAN 10. Host A and host
t i
r host B and host D belong to VLAN 10. Therefore, host B
e
belong to VLAN 5. Similarly,
C with host A.
cannot communicate
&
If there are g

VLAN.n i n multiple switches, you can add ports of different devices in the same

i For example, you can add ports 1 to 6 on device 1 and ports 1 to 4 on device

T rathe same VLAN.


2 to

e iPort-based VLAN assignment is the most frequently used method because its
aw

configuration is simple. You can easily define VLAN members. If the user leaves the
Hu previous port and reconnects to a port on a new device, the VLAN that the new port
belongs to must be re-specified.
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 UNI Hu
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 UNI port attributes include Tag aware, Access, and Hybrid.

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 In the receive direction: Hu
n
io
 Add the default VLAN ID to received untagged frames.
t
 Discard received tagged frames.
f i ca
 In the transmit direction:
r ti
 Ce ID.
Strip the original VLAN
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 In the receive direction: Hu
Discard untagged frames.
o n
i

t
Transparently transmit taggedaframes.

fi c
 In the transmit direction:
r t i
 C e
Transparent transmission
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 In the receive direction: Hu
o n
Add the default VLAN ID if receive untagged frames.
i

t
Transparently transmit taggedaframes.

fi c
t i
er
 In the transmit direction:

 Remove the VLANC ID if the VLAN ID in the received frame is the same as the default
VLAN ID. &
g
n in transmit the received frame if the VLAN ID in the received frame is
Transparently
ai from the default VLAN ID.

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different
T
e i
w
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 If hosts in different VLANs need to communicate u
H each other, Layer 3 switches must be
with
used.
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 Question 1: Learn MAC addresses by examiningHthe uasource MAC address of each frame,
on
and forward frames based on destination MAC addresses

Question 2: There are three types: Tagtiaware, Access, and Hybrid.


ca

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Ce
&
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 Concatenation is an important feature of SDH. H It isuused to transmit client signals whose

n
capacity is greater than C-4 (149 760 kbit/s) and do not introduce additional damage to
client signals. it o
f i ca that combines multiple containers so that their
tias a single container that retains bit sequence integrity.
 Concatenation is a combination process
r
Ce
combined capacity can be used

Concatenation service transmission is mainly based on the new G.707 protocol of ITU-T.
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 Contiguous concatenation is performed in the same u
H STM-N by concatenating contiguous C-
n
n to into a C-n-Xc to form a single structure for transmission. It can be known that the
contiguously concatenated VC-4-Xc share it o the same set of POH. Therefore, contiguous
i
concatenation must maintain continuous
f ca bandwidth during the entire transmission process.
r ti of all intermediate devices on the network, and most
This technology requires the support

Ce have this capability.


of the existing devices do not

& the VC-ns (which can be of the same route or different routes)
In virtual concatenation,
g

i n STM-Ns can be concatenated to form a virtual VC-n-Xv for


distributed in different

a
transmission.inEach VC-n in the virtual concatenation has an independent structure and its
own POH,
T r forming a complete VC-n structure. VC-n virtual concatenation is equivalent to
eiinterleaving. In terms of equipment, only the devices at both ends need to support
VC-n
a w concatenation technology.
the

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 The concatenation indication in the AU-4 pointer u
H used to indicate that multiple C-4
is

n
payloads carried in a single VC-4-Xc must be kept together. Available capacity for mapping
it o by X (for example, when the value of X is 4,
equals the capacity of multiple C-4s multiplied
the capacity is 599,040 kbit/s; when
f i cathe value of X is 16, the capacity is 2,396,160 kbit/s).
r tifixed padding bits, and column 1 of VC-4-Xc is used as POH.
CeVC-4-Xc.
 Columns 2 to X of VC-4-Xc are
This POH is allocated to the

The first AU-4 in the &



g AU-4-Xc should have a normal pointer value. All subsequent AU-4s in

n in set their pointers to concatenation indications. That is, bits 1-4 are set
the AU-4-Xc should
i 5-6 are not specified, and bits 7-16 are set to "1111111111". The
to "1001",abits
r
T indication specifies that the pointer processor should perform the same
i
concatenation
e
w
operations as those in the first AU-4 in the AU-4-Xc.

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 One VC-4-Xv provides a capacity of X times of H ua kbit/s for the X contiguous C-4
149,760

n
payload area (C-4-Xc), and the container is mapped to X independent VC-4s constituting
the VC-4-Xv. Each VC-4 has its own POH. it o The POH specification of each VC-4 is the same
as that of the common VC-4. The c
i abyte in the POH is used as the specified sequence
H4
f
ti (MFI) of the virtual concatenation.
r
number and multiframe indication

 Cethe VC-4s of the VC-4-Xv. It is transmitted in bits 5-8 of the H4


The MFI is generated in all
byte in all the VC-4s.&
The multiframe indication is numbered from 0 to 15.
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 Due to the processing requirements of the SDHH ua concatenation services, all the
contiguous

However, it is difficult for the network ito o n


intermediate NEs for the E2E services must be able to process the VC4-Xc services.

converted from VC4-Xc to VC4-Xvcat a tthe edge of the network that provides access for the
meet this requirement. Therefore, the services are

t i fi In this case, the intermediate sites in the network do


rand only needs to process individual VC4s. The conversion
contiguous concatenation services.
e
not need to process VC4-Xcs
C
&
between VC4-Xcs and VC4-Xvs is performed at network edge.


i ngline boards of the OptiX OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500/9500 support the
Currently, the SDH

a in
access of contiguous concatenation services.

T r data boards of the OptiX devices use the virtual concatenation mode to form VC-
ei The networking is flexible and supports multi-path transmission. In addition, the
 Most EoS

a w
TRUNKs.

H u data boards can be used with the LCAS to adjust the link bandwidth.
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 With the development of multi-service transmission u
H of SDH/SONET and the increasing
n
demand for access bandwidth, the original container (the maximum granularity is VC4)
cannot meet the requirements. Therefore,it o the concatenation technology is used. Virtual
i ca and higher bandwidth utilization than
concatenation allows for greater flexibility
f
contiguous concatenation. ti
e r
 Both virtual concatenationC contiguous concatenation have the following issues:
and
& physical channel in the concatenation leads to the failure of the
g
The failure of any
in

n
entire concatenation channel. In other words, all the services are interrupted.
i

T ra adjustment has great impact on services. If the bandwidth is adjusted
Bandwidth

ei after a service is established, the user service is usually interrupted for a period of

a w time.
H u  It takes a long time for service provisioning: The period from the time when a user
applies for a service to the time when the service is provisioned is too long.

 LCAS is a link capacity adjustment scheme and an extension of the virtual concatenation
technology.
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 LCAS is designed to solve the preceding problems u
H virtual concatenation and complies
of
with ITU-T standard G.7042.
n
it o end and the destination end of LCAS can
caaccording to the traffic volume of the services to be
 The control mechanism between the source

f i
ti In addition, LCAS can temporarily cancel the link
dynamically adjust the VCG capacity
r
Cecontainer (MEMBER) that has mapped the service is faulty.
mapped and the required bandwidth.
when the link of the virtual
Assume that four VC-4s& are mapped to a VC-TRUNK in the normal state. When two
channels in the n g
i virtual concatenation fail, LCAS automatically adjusts the capacity of the

a in rate is reduced to prevent service data loss. After the faulty channel is
VCG. The service

T r the original virtual concatenation bandwidth can be automatically restored.


recovered,
ei if LCAS technology is used to dynamically adjust the virtual concatenation

a w
In addition,

H u bandwidth on the multiplex section protection (MSP) ring network, the transmission
bandwidth of the protection MSP channel can be fully used. The details are as follows: The
protection MSP channel can be used to transmit extra services, but the extra services are
not protected. Therefore, the availability is not guaranteed. If virtual concatenation is used,
some services are mapped to the working channel, and the other services are mapped to
the protection channel. If the protection channel fails, the LCAS dynamically decreases the
VCG members in a virtual concatenation group. As a result, the service transmission
bandwidth automatically decreases, and the services are not interrupted. After the
protection channel recovers, the bandwidth is automatically restored.
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 Encapsulation format Hu
n
tio
 MSTP defines three standard encapsulation protocols: HDLC, LAPS, GFP. Vendors can

a
use different encapsulation protocols. In actual systems, one or two options are often
c
it fi
selected. However, some options are different even if the same encapsulation
protocol is used.
e r
C
The compatibility of encapsulation format is important. If the encapsulation formats
&

ng
of different vendors can be compatible with each other, then GE or FE Ethernet
i
in
services can traverse SDH networks of different vendors and the two ends of the
a
Tr
network can use SDH devices from different vendors. In this manner, the SDH

ei Ethernet services, making it possible to Layer 2 networks for large organizations.


network formed by devices of different vendors will become a transparent channel to

a w
H u  The GFP protocol is highly standardized. It is a standard mode in which data services
are mapped to SDH/OTN and it complies with ITU-T G.7041. There are two modes of
GFP: frame-mapped and transparent. GFP collects statistics on data signals and
multiplexes the signals. GFP prevents errored frames caused by bit errors and
facilitates interworking between devices of different vendors.
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GFP, defined as G.7041, provides data header scrambling and multiplexes multiple physical

n Frame-mapped GFP encapsulates framed


interfaces into one network channel. Most importantly, GFP provides frame-mapped and
it o
transparent modes to support more applications.

i ca rate adjustment and multiplexing at the sub-rate


client signals into GFP frames. It supports
f
level. Transparent GFP receivestioriginal digital signals without any change and is used only
in the SDH frame with low e
r
C overhead and low latency digital encapsulation. GFP can

&
encapsulate packets of any protocols and ensure that packets of common protocols are
transmitted at thegoptical layer. It also ensures flexibility and finer bandwidth granularities.

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 GFP has two modes: Hu
Frame-mapped GFP (GFP-F)
o n
i

a t processing mode. It encapsulates the entire PDU



c
The GFP-F is a PDU-oriented
fiarea and makes no modification on the encapsulated
into the GFP payload
t i
r whether to add a detection area for the payload area,
e
data. It determines
C requirements.
depending on
&
TransparentgGFP (GFG-T)

i n
n
raiThe
 GFP-T is a block-code (8B/10B code block) oriented processing mode. It

iT
extracts a single character from the received data block and maps the character
e into the fixed-length GFP frame.
aw
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 Ethernet MAC frame encapsulation Hu
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 The content of the Ethernet MAC frame from the destination address to the frame

a
check sequence is placed in the GFP payload information field, and the byte order
c
it fi
and bit sequence in the GFP frame are not changed.

e
Deletion and recovery of the IFGr
C


&
When the client signal is not a local client that passes the GFP frame mapping, the

ng
IFG may need to be deleted and restored according to the following rules:

i ni IFG is deleted before GFP adaptation at the source end and is inserted
a The
Tr after GFP adaptation at the sink end.

ei
aw
 When the Ethernet MAC frame is extracted from the client data, the IFG is

Hu
deleted. Then, the extracted Ethernet MAC frame is processed at the source
end of GFP, and encapsulated into GFP frames.

 After the Ethernet MAC frame is extracted from the received GFP frame, the
IFG is restored. The restoration of IPGs assures that sufficient bytes that contain
00 exist between consecutively received Ethernet MAC frames to meet the
minimum IFG requirements (16 bytes).
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 Question 1:
Hu
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Function: Adjust the bandwidth as required to dynamically increase and decrease the
tio

number of members in the VC-TRUNK without affecting services. When a member in a


ca
it fi
virtual concatenation group fails, the bandwidth can be quickly adjusted to ensure the
normal transmission of data. After the faulty member recovers, the original bandwidth of
e r
the virtual concatenation group is automatically restored.
C

&
Implementation mechanism:

ng
Increase and decrease bandwidth, and suppress and restore failed members using
ni

i
the handshake protocol between the source NE and the sink NE.
a
Tr the SDH overhead byte H4/K4 (H4 for the higher order virtual concatenation and
Use
ei K4

for the lower order virtual concatenation) to carry the control information and

a w perform the handshake operation between the source NE and the sink NE.

H u
 Question 2:
 Frame-mapped GFP (GFP-F)
 The GFP-F is a PDU-oriented processing mode. It encapsulates the entire PDU into the
GFP payload area and makes no modification on the encapsulated data. It
determines whether to add a detection area for the payload area, depending on
requirements
 Transparent GFP (GFG-T)
 The GFP-T is a block-code (8B/10B code block) oriented processing mode. It extracts
a single character from the received data block and maps the character into the
fixed-length GFP frame.
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u
H are transmitted by both datacom and
Of course, in real-world service scenarios, the services

n
transport networks. However, in essence, the services are Ethernet services, although the
name may vary with scenarios. it o
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ua signal relay stations, indoor and
Video images of GSM-R base stations along theHrailway,

n
outdoor units in the traction equipment room, indoor and outdoor units of power stations,
and railway bridges. it o
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u
H and scheduling services and is one
The power scheduling data network carries production

n
of the core information networks of the power industry.
it o data is transmitted in the transmission
ca of Ethernet services.
 In the power scheduling system, the scheduling
network and data network in theiform
ti f
r
Ce
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u
H and county-level units have their own
In the government network system, municipal units
intranets.
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 EPL: Ethernet Private Line Hu
n
tio
 Features: Bandwidth is not shared, data is not forwarded based on MAC addresses,

a
and the topology is point-to-point.
c

rit fi
EVPL: Ethernet Virtual Private Line


C e
Features: Bandwidth is shared, data is not forwarded based on MAC addresses, and

&
the topology can be point-to-point or point-to-multipoint.
g
EPLAN: EthernetnPrivate LAN

n i
i
a Bandwidth is not shared, data is forwarded based on MAC addresses, and

r
Features:
T topology is multipoint-to-multipoint.
i the
e Ethernet Virtual Private LAN
w
ua
 EVPLAN:

H  Features: Bandwidth is shared, data is forwarded based on MAC addresses, and the
topology is multipoint-to-multipoint.
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 EPL service is transparent, which means that the H u
access, termination, and intermediate

n
transport devices form a private line for the user data.
it ooccupies a VCTRUNK and does not need to share
ca the EPL service has strict bandwidth guarantee
 In the EPL service, each user exclusively

f i
ti require other QoS mechanisms and security mechanisms.
the bandwidth with other users. Therefore,
and user isolation, and does r
Ce
not

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 As shown in the preceding figure, the service isH ua
transmitted transparently end-to-end,
without bandwidth sharing.
n
it o data services through the Multi-service

i a site has an Ethernet service processing board. The


Company A and Company B transmit
cEach
f
ti Company B are completely isolated. The bandwidth used
Transport Platforms (MSTPs).
services of Company Arand
e
by Company A andCCompany B can be determined by the number of VC-12s, VC3s,
and VC-4s. &
ng
The P2P itransparent
n
transmission allows the EPL service to exclusively occupy the
i

r a of the line and be isolated from other services to ensure security. This
bandwidth

i T applies to VIP customers.


method
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 Question 1: If the port or bandwidth resources H areuinsufficient, users may need to share

n
resources. In this case, the VLAN ID, MPLS label, or QinQ technology can be used to isolate
data of different users. it o
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ua labels, and QinQ VLAN tags.
EVPL services can be isolated by VLAN ID labels,HMPLS

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u
H and VCTRUNKs.
EVPL services allow for the sharing of physical ports

In the case of physical port sharing, n


o
data of different users can be isolated by VLAN
ti

IDs.
a
ic the data of different users can be isolated by VLAN
i f
rt tags.
 In the case of VCTRUNK sharing,
IDs, MPLS labels, andeQinQ
C

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In MSTP networks, the most common method is using VLAN IDs.

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 Using VLAN IDs, ports on Ethernet service process H uboards can be shared, providing

n
flexibility in networking. P2MP transparent transmission can be provided for users. The data
frames from one Ethernet port can be sent it o to different destinations based on the VLAN IDs,
and the data frames from multiplecsources
i a can be aggregated on one destination Ethernet
ti f
port.
r
 In the preceding figure: Ce

Data sent from&


g the HQ needs to be sent to different departments.
inframes for different departments are distinguished by VLAN IDs.

n
aiThe bandwidth is allocated based on VCTRUNKs. The services of a VLAN are
 The data

T r
i

e allocated to an independent VCTRUNK. Therefore, the bandwidth of the VLAN


w
ua
is guaranteed.
H  EVPL supports P2MP networking for Ethernet services. Multiple services can share a port
and be distinguished by VLAN tags.
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 An Ethernet service processing board can provide u
H limited number of VCTRUNKs. In this
a

n
case, VCTRUNK sharing can be implemented to transmit Ethernet data from multiple VLANs
through the same VCTRUNK channel. Inio
a t this case, the bandwidth for a VLAN cannot be
guaranteed.
f i c
r t i
e
 As shown in this figure:
C frames and scheduling data frames share the same VCTRUNK
The surveillance data
&

g
and are distinguished by VLAN IDs.
n
When n i

a i multiple VLANs share a VCTRUNK, the bandwidth resources for a VLAN cannot
berguaranteed.
T
ei If two VLANs share the same VCTRUNK and one VLAN occupies 90% of the
w

ua
bandwidth, only 10% of the total bandwidth is available to the other VLAN.
H  The Committed Access Rate (CAR) function can be used to control the access
rate of ports by setting the committed access rate (CIR) parameter for different
users.

 In this mode, services can be converged and bandwidth can be shared on the line. Multiple
services can share a VCTRUNK and be distinguished by VLAN tags. Users sharing a
VCTRUNK compete for bandwidth. Therefore, this method is suitable for users whose
service peaks occur in different periods of time.
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 EPLAN uses Layer 2 switching. EPLAN supportsH allunetworking types of EPL and EVPL,

n
except MPLS. EPLAN also supports multi-point networking.
it o N1EGS4, N3EGS4, and N1EAS2 boards of

a
Currently, only the N2EFS4, N4EFS0, N1EMS4,
the NG-SDH series support EPLANic(IEEE 802.1d bridge) services.
ti f
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 As shown in the figure, Hu
n
tio
 The three branch offices of company H are connected to NE A, NE B, and NE D,

a
respectively. The branch offices need to exchange information with each other. In
c
it fi
this case, the Ethernet board of NE B needs to implement the Ethernet Layer 2
switching function.
e r
C
The EPLAN service realizes the multi-point dynamic sharing of Ethernet services,
&

ng
which complies with the dynamic features of data services and saves bandwidth

ni
resources.
i
a broadcast storms, Ethernet EPLAN services must be loop-free. Therefore,
Torprevent
T

ei ifprevent
the ring topology is used, the Spanning Tree Protocol (SPT) must be enabled to

a w loops and consequent broadcast storms.

H u
 EPLAN is implemented based on IEEE802.1d. Therefore, EPLAN is also called 802.1d bridge.
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 IEEE 802.1q bridge: Supports one layer of VLAN u
H for data isolation. The 802.1q bridge
tags

n
checks the VLAN tags of the data frames and performs Layer 2 switching based on the
destination MAC addresses and VLAN IDs it o of the data frames.
i a of company H need to communicate with each
coffices

f
ti company G need to communicate with each other, and the
As shown in the figure, the branch
other, and the branch officesrof
data of company H needs Ctoe be isolated from that of company G. Therefore, the virtual
&on NE B needs to distinguish the data of the two companies by
bridge (VB) configured
g
VLAN IDs.
n in
i connected to the VB on NE B include PORT 1, PORT 2, VCTRUNK 1, and
Theaports

T r
e i VCTRUNK2, and a VLAN forwarding table needs to be configured.

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 IEEE 802.1ad bridge: Data frames with two layers u
H VLAN tags are supported. The outer S-
of

n
VLAN tag is used for VLAN isolation. Only the ports whose port attributes are C-Aware and
S-Aware can be used. it o
f i cacheck the VLAN tags of the data frames and performs
i the destination MAC addresses.
The 802.1ad bridge does not
ton

Layer 2 switching based


e r
The 802.1ad bridge Cchecks the VLAN tags of the data frames and performs Layer 2
&

g
switching based on the destination MAC addresses and S-VLAN IDs of the data
frames. in
a inthe figure, the VoIP and high-speed Internet services of the two residential

T
As shown r in

e i
communities need to be separately connected to the VoIP server and the high-speed

a w access server, respectively. During transmission, the VoIP and the high-speed
Internet

H u Internet services need to be separately scheduled and isolated at the transmission network
side. In this case, the VB configured on NE B needs to add different S-VLAN tags to data
frames to identify the two types of services.

 When the services arrive on the VB on NE B, S-VLAN tags need to be added. When
the services arrive on the next hop, the S-VLAN tags need to be stripped.
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 IEEE 802.1q bridge: Supports one layer of VLAN u
H for data isolation. The 802.1q bridge
tags

n
checks the VLAN tags of the data frames and performs Layer 2 switching based on the
destination MAC addresses and VLAN IDs it o of the data frames.
f i ca based on page 20 and the actual situation on the
ti
 Typical scenarios: Discuss this question
live network to deepen your runderstanding.
Ce
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u
H Ethernet services.
This section describes the parameters for configuring

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u
H Ethernet services during port
This section describes the parameters for configuring

n
configuration. For details about the service configuration methods, see the subsequent
configuration course. it o
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Hu
Disabling an Ethernet port may interrupt services.

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 Working mode: When setting this parameter, you u
H ensure the working modes of the
must

n
interconnected ports are the same. Otherwise, the services are unavailable.

Value mode: Auto-negotiation, t10Mio half-duplex, 10M full-duplex, 100M half-duplex,


ca

i f i
100M full-duplex, 1000M half-duplex, 1000M full-duplex, 10GE full-duplex LAN,
t
10GE full-duplex WAN,r and 10GE full-duplex WAN (SONET mode).
Ce
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u
H faults, but services are interrupted.
MAC loopback and PHY loopback are used to locate

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The two functions are mutually exclusive. When MAC inloop is configured, PHY inloop
cannot be configured, and vice versa. io
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u
H services.
Configuring the ports of Ethernet boards may interrupt

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u
H are tagged.
All Ethernet packets that arrive on an Ethernet board

Generally, when the tag is Hybrid, various n


o
data packets can be transmitted flexibly, but
ti when the device (such as a computer)

a
caution needs to be exercised. For example,
ic untagged data packets and the VLAN ID carried in the
i f
connected to a port can receive only

e rt from the VLAN ID on the port, the data packets are


packets leaving the port is different
Cand the peer device cannot identify the data packets and
transparently transmitted,
& in service interruption.
discards them, resulting
g
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 The boards can receive MPLS encapsulated dataHpackets ua and common Ethernet data
packets.
n
it o type. Therefore, you need to configure the
ca the port is a PE port or a P port.
 A port handles packets based on the packet

i f i
attribute of the port, that is, whether

PE ports do not haveean rtencapsulation format, but P ports have an encapsulation


C

format.
&
A P port is agport connected to the service provider network. Therefore, a P port

n encapsulated data packets.
iMPLS
n
ai
receives

T r
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uaactual service requirements. For
Select the level of the bound paths according toHthe

n
example: To configure the 10Mbit/s service, select VC12-xv. To configure the 100Mbit/s
service, select VC3-xv. it o
f i cathe bound paths are displayed in a centralized manner.
ti displayed in a distributed manner.
 If you select Display in Combination,
Otherwise, the bound paths r
Ce
are

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 Broadcast Packet Suppression Threshold: Hu
n
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 After broadcast packet suppression is enabled, broadcast packets are suppressed

a
when the bandwidth occupied by broadcast packets exceeds the total bandwidth of
c
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the port multiplied by the suppression threshold.

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 Loop Detection: Hu
n
tio
 For the external physical interface of the board, the transmit end is connected to the
receive end by a fiber.
ca

r it fi
The two external physical ports on the board are connected to each other through
fibers.
C e

&
A cross-connection is created on the same VCTRUNK of the board.

n g
i
A cross-connection is created between different VCTRUNKs of the board.
in

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 If the value of Scramble for the VCTRUNK of the u
H equipment is different from that of
local

n
the interconnected equipment, the service is interrupted.
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 Extension Header Option: Hu
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 Specifies whether Mapping Protocol of the GFP protocol supports the extension
header.
ca

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This parameter takes effect only when Mapping Protocol is set to GFP.


C e
For the N1EFT8, N1EFT8A, R1EFT4 or N1EAS2 board, if the value of Extension

&
Header Option is inconsistent for the VCTRUNK ports of the interconnected

ng
equipment at the two ends, the service is interrupted. Moreover, the FCS_ERR alarm

i ni
is reported.

T raProtocol is set to HDLC or LAPS and the value of Check Field Length is different
If Mapping
eithat for the interconnected VCTRUNKs at the two ends, the service is interrupted.

from
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 LCAS is a bidirectional protocol, which can run H ua only when bandwidth is available
normally

n
in both directions of physical channels. If bandwidth is available only in one direction, the
bandwidth adjustment result of the LCAS it omay not be correct.
i a to the following principles:
cadhere
f
rti are Huawei devices, use Huawei mode at both ends.
 When configuring the LCAS mode,

If the devices at botheends


C


&
If a Huawei device is interconnected with a third-party device, set the mode to the
same one atgboth ends based on the modes supported by the third-party device.
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H
WTR Time (s): The fault recovery time of the LCAS u
protocol is affected. After the network

n
recovers from a fault, the LCAS protocol can recover only after a WTR duration.
it o
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 Value range: 0-720.

f i
 Default value: 300 (s)
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 Answer: Hu
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 False.

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H u
In the preceding figure, the XML/CORBA/SNMP/FTP/TL1/112 test interfaces are northbound

n
interfaces (NBIs). The U2000 offers network monitoring information, such as the alarm,
performance, and inventory information, it ofor OSSs through NBIs. The NBIs support network
i
management functions, such as service
f ca configuration and diagnostic tests. Through NBIs,
r i
the U2000 can integrate with tdifferent OSSs flexibly.

 Ce Network (TMN) is a protocol model defined by ITU-T for


Telecommunications Management
managing open systems & in a communications network. It is also an architecture for
n g
i
management, including planning, provisioning, installation, maintenance, operation and

a in of telecommunications equipment, networks and services.


administration

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 In the U2000 single-server system, there is onlyH uaU2000 server but multiple U2000
one

n
clients. The clients can gain access to the server at the same time.
it o
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 In single-server system deployment mode, onlyH uaU2000 server is deployed, and all
one

n
processes are running on this server. Multiple clients can be connected and operated.
it o and the cost is low. However, it does not provide
ca
 The single-server system is easy to deploy
high reliability and is weak in risk iresistance.
t i f If high reliability is required, the U2000 HA

e r
deployment solution is recommended.

The single-server system C can be deployed on the Windows, Solaris, or SUSE Linux operating
&

ngarea networks (LAN) or wide area network (WAN).


system to management multiple clients. The server and clients communicate with each
i
in
other over a local

r a
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 The U2000 manages the network, devices and H ua and stores a large quantity of
services,

n
crucial data. Due to the importance of the U2000, it must be highly reliable to run 24 x 7,
and measures must be in place to ensureit oavailability in case of various disasters. In addition,
a systems and services after a disaster occurs. The
the U2000 must be able to quicklycrecover
i
ti f
r
HA solution uses a physical redundancy mechanism. The standby system automatically

Ce or hardware of the active system fails.


takes over when the software

&
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 A remote HA system consists of a primary site and u
H secondary site. Both sites can run on
a

n
Solaris or Linux and support multiple clients. During deployment, you can deploy the
servers at the primary and secondary sitesit o in the same place (local) or in different cities
(remote). Ensure that the hardwareca
f i configurations of the primary and secondary sites are
the same.
r ti
 Ce on Veritas. Veritas not only synchronizes data between the
The remote HA system relies
primary and secondary &sites in real time but also monitors the running status of the U2000.
g
n site is faulty, the network monitoring service is automatically switched to
i
When the primary

a
the secondaryin site.
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 A local HA system consists of a primary site andH au
secondary site. The primary and

n
secondary sites can be deployed only on SUSE Linux operating systems and support
multiple clients. During deployment, deployit o the servers at the primary and secondary sites
in the same place (local) and ensure
f i cathat the hardware configurations are the same at the
two sites.
r ti
 The local HA system reliesCone Veritas. Veritas not only synchronizes data between the
primary and secondary &sites in real time but also monitors the running status of the U2000.
g
n site is faulty, the network monitoring service is automatically switched to
i
When the primary

a
the secondaryin site.
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 In a standalone system (Vmware, PC server), VMwareu
H software is installed on a PC server to
n
create one or more virtual servers. The U2000 is installed on a virtual server.
it o
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 In a standalone system (VMware, E9000 blade H ua a blade server and a disk array are
server),

n
used. VMware software is installed on each blade of the blade server. The VMware
it oservers, and the U2000 is installed on a virtual
software is used to create multiple virtual

i ca is stored in the disk array. The CPU and memory


server. The data of these virtual servers
f
r ti computing capacity.
resources of the blade server provide

 Ce E9000 blade server), two blades are needed, one for


In a standalone system (VMware,
backup, and the other&for installing vCenter.
g
n which the U2000 is running is faulty, the U2000 on the faulty blade is
When a blade ion
n
ai switched to the backup blade.

r
automatically
T installed on the other blade manages multiple ESXi hosts, allowing all blades
 i
eVMs in the system to form a cluster. When a blade is damaged, VMs running on the
The vCenter
w
uablade are automatically migrated to the backup blade, achieving local hardware HA.
and

H
 Terms:

 Blade: A blade is also called a computing node.

 ESXi: ESXi is a Linux operating system heavily customized by VMware and is a


virtualization platform for hosting VMs. One VMware vSphere ESXi must be installed
on each blade.

 vCenter: You can use the vCenter server to manage multiple ESXi hosts at a time.
Using vCenter Server to manage multiple hosts allows you to experiment with
advanced management options, such as resource sharing, and all of the other
options available within the vSphere environment.
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 Note: Hu
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 The configuration refers to the hardware configuration of a VM, not the physical

a
hardware configuration of the server where the VMware ESXi is installed. Huawei
c
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RH5885H V3 PC servers and E9000 blade servers are recommended for installing
VMware ESXi servers.
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 Note: Hu
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 In the scenario of managing single-domain devices on an access network, the

a
following servers can also manage medium-scale networks.
c

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RH2288H V3: 1. CPU: two hexa-core Xeon CPUs, 2.4 GHz or higher; 2.
e
Memory: 64 GB or more; 3. Hard disk: 8*300 GB or more
C

&
The configuration refers to the hardware configuration of a VM, not the physical

ng
hardware configuration of the server where the VMware ESXi is installed. Huawei
i
in
RH5885H V3 PC servers and E9000 blade servers are recommended for installing
a
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VMware ESXi servers.

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 Note: Hu
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 In the scenario of managing single-domain devices on an access network, the

a
following servers can also manage medium-scale networks.
c

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RH5885H V3: 1. CPU: 4 octa-core Xeon CPUs, 2.0 GHz or higher; 2. Memory:
e
64 GB or more; 3. Hard disk: 8*300 GB or more
C

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The configuration refers to the hardware configuration of a VM, not the physical

ng
hardware configuration of the server where the VMware ESXi is installed. Huawei
i
in
RH5885H V3 PC servers and E9000 blade servers are recommended for installing
a
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VMware ESXi servers.

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 Note: Hu
n
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 In the scenario of managing single-domain devices on an access network, the

a
following servers can also manage medium-scale networks.
c

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RH5885H V3: 1. CPU: 4 octa-core Xeon CPUs, 2.0 GHz or higher; 2. Memory:
e
128 GB or more; 3. Hard disk: 2 *300 GB or more
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 The U2000 supports only simplified Chinese andH u
English operating systems.

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 A U2000 client can be installed on a Windows H OS.uCurrently, the U2000 client cannot be
installed on a SUSE Linux or Solaris OS.
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 The connection mode between the U2000 andH theuDCN depends on the spatial relationship

n
between the U2000 and the connected NE. If the U2000 is near the connected NE (for
it o
example, they are in the same telecommunications room), they can be connected through a

i ca
LAN. If the U2000 is far from the connected
f
NE, they can be connected through dedicated

r ti networking mode.
lines; this is similar to the out-of-band

 Ce no extra device needed, and low cost


Advantages: Flexible networking,

Disadvantages: When&

g the network fails, the service channel between NMS and the
managed network
n in is interrupted and the U2000 cannot launch maintenance tasks.
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 In out-of-band networking mode, the U2000 can H uconnect to managed devices through a

n
DCN, E1 lines, or routers. In this example, the U2000 manages devices through a DCN.
it o to the managed network. The U2000
canetwork through the DCN that consists of other
 Devices managed by the U2000 are connected

f i
ti
connects to devices on the managed
devices.
e r
Advantages: The U2000 C does not directly connect to its managed devices. Instead, the
&by dedicated equipment, which ensures more reliable management

g
connection is provided

n
channels. When ina managed device fails, the U2000 can quickly identify the information
i device and monitor the device in real time.
about theafaulty
T r

e i
Disadvantages: The out-of-band networking constructs a network that consists of extra

a w to provide maintenance channels, increasing the deployment cost.


devices

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 Security management implements security control u
H the NMS. It ensures the security of
on

n
the U2000 through user management, operation authorization (rights-and domain-based
management), user login management,io
a
can manage logs generated duringcuser
t login, user operations, and U2000 running. It also
and a series of other security policies. The U2000

t i fi and database backup to further improve data


r
supports comprehensive HA solutions
e
security.
C
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 In topology management, the managed NEs and u
H connections are displayed in a
their

n
topology view. You can learn the network structure and monitor the operating status of
it o the topology view.
the entire network in real time by browsing

The U2000 has the Physical Root,ic


a

f
ti views, which enables you to ascertain and monitor the
Clock View, and Custom View. Important information
r
Ce network conveniently.
can be easily learned in different
operating status of the entire
& topology management for various end-to-end services such as

g
The U2000 offers service

n in E-AGGR, and tunnel services.


VPLS, PWE3, L3VPN,

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 Monitoring NE performance: This function supports u
H the following NE-level performance
indicators:
n
it o
ca
 CPU usage

f i
 Memory usage.
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 Hard disk usage
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Monitoring network & traffic: This function is used to collect the traffic statistics of network
g

ports, including:n
n i
i
a traffic

T r
Incoming

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 Outgoing traffic
w
H ua Packet error rate

 Monitoring SLA data: This function supports multiple types of SLA data, including:

 Delay, jitter, and loss ratio of ICMP, TCP, UDP, and SNMP packets

 Connection delay and download speed of Internet services such as HTTP and FTP
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 Uploading: The data on NEs is reported to the U2000
H u and overwrites the original NE data
on the U2000. The data that is present on the U2000 but absent on the NEs is not deleted.
o nis applied to the NEs; the original data on the NEs
 Downloading: The NE data on the U2000
t i
is overwritten.
c a
i NE data on the U2000 is consistent with the data on
Consistency check: Verifies thatifthe

t
r U2000 will synchronize or upload the NE configuration
data. C e
the NEs. If it is inconsistent, the

&

n gNEs but absent on the U2000) to the NE layer on the U2000. The data
Synchronization: Uploads the inconsistent data (including the conflicting data and the data
i
that is present on
n on both the U2000 and the NEs is not uploaded, and the data that is
i
that is present
present on
T rathe U2000 but absent on the NEs is not deleted.

ei
Duplication: For NEs of the same type and of the same software version, if the

a w
configuration data of an NE to be configured is the same as that of a configured NE, you

H u can configure the new NE by duplicating the data of the configured NE. Duplicating the NE
data only changes the data on the U2000 and does not affect the data on the NE. To make
the duplicated data take effect on the NE, you need to apply the configuration.
 Preconfiguration: The configuration data of an NE is saved only at the NE layer on the
U2000 and does not affect the actual configuration data on the NE. The preconfiguration
function is generally used for large-scale service adjustment or expansion.
 Initialization of the NE data on the U2000: The NE data is deleted from the NE layer on the
U2000. The NE will be unconfigured after the initialization.
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H u
Saving: After the system is configured, the configuration data is saved in the memory or

n
hard disks of NEs so that the data will not be lost when the system is restarted.
it o

a
Backup: Backs up NE data (such as configuration data/data file) to storage devices other
than NEs. The backup data is usedicfor restoring NE data. If the U2000 has the rights to
t i fbackup, or restoration operation is being performed on the
e
manage the NE and no loading, r
NE, the NE will accept theC request to back up the data. The U2000 then transmits the
contents to be backed &up to the specified backup directory on the server by using a
g
n And the backup data can be also backed up to the client, or to the third
i
transfer protocol.
part server. in

T ra

on e
i
Policy management: Setting policies in advance enables the system to perform operations

w NEs periodically or when trigger conditions are met. This is applicable to routine NE

H uamaintenance. A policy is periodic. It is used for operations that are performed frequently,
such as data saving and data backup. You can select a policy based on the scenarios at the
sites.

 Loading: Loads software for upgrading an NE. If the U2000 has the rights to manage the
NE upgrading and no loading, backup, or restoration operation is being performed on the
NE, the NE will accept the request to load the software.
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The logs of the U2000 are classified into operation u logs, system logs, security logs, and NE

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logs. The logs can be saved to TXT, HTML, CSV, PDF, XLSX, and XLS files.
it o operations that users performed, such as

creating a subnet and enabling oric


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Operation logs record the non-security-related

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ti that the U2000 automatically performed, such as
disabling the alarm sound.
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Cetasks.
 System logs record the operations
scheduled tasks and system
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inand unlocking.
 Security logs record the security-related operations that users performed, such as login,

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logout, lockout,
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i T operation logs record the operation results of managed NEs. You can acquire the
NE Syslog
NEeoperation logs from the U2000 client instead of having to do so from each NE. This
a w is applicable to access OLT, MDU, MSAN, and DSLAM series NEs.
function
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 NE Syslog running logs record the running information of NEs managed by the U2000. The
U2000 obtains all Syslog running logs from NEs. Therefore, you can acquire the Syslog
running logs of the managed NEs from the U2000 instead of having to do so from each NE.
This function is applicable to routers, switches, and service gateway NEs.

 NE security logs record security-based operations that all NE users perform on an NE. You
can view the NE security logs on the U2000, rather than viewing them on each NE. The
U2000 allows you to browse security logs of transport NEs.
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 Note: Hu
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