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ISBN 978-0-626-32807-8

SANS 11167:2005

Edition 3

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Textiles — Dimensional stability during domestic washing and drying procedures

stability during domestic washing and drying procedures Published by SABS Standards Division 1 Dr Lategan Road

Published by SABS Standards Division 1 Dr Lategan Road Groenkloof Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Tel: +27 12 428 7911 Fax: +27 12 344 1568 www.sabs.co.za SABS

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

Table of changes

Change No.

Date

Scope

Foreword

This South African standard was approved by National Committee SABS/TC038/SC 01, Textiles – Test methods for textiles, in accordance with procedures of the SABS Standards Division, in compliance with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement.

This edition cancels and replaces the first revision (SABS SM 1167:1994).

Annex A forms an integral part of this standard. Annexes B and C are for information only.

Compliance with a South African National Standard cannot confer immunity from legal obligations.

Reaffirmed and reprinted in March 2016. This document will be reviewed every five years and be reaffirmed, amended, revised or withdrawn.

© SABS

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

Textiles — Dimensional stability during domestic washing and drying procedures

1 Scope

This standard specifies a method of determining the effect of domestic washing and drying procedures on the dimensional stability of fabrics, garments and other textile articles. Eight domestic washing procedures and five drying procedures are described. A complete test consists of a washing and a drying procedure.

2 Normative references

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference to a standard is deemed to be a reference to the latest edition of that standard, parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the most recent editions of the standards indicated below. Information on currently valid national and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division.

ISO 6330, Textiles – Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing.

SANS 70, Conditioning of textiles and standard temperate atmosphere for determining their physical and mechanical properties.

SANS 651, Low-foam laundry detergent (for use in automatic and non-automatic domestic washing machines).

3 Principle

A test specimen is marked, conditioned, measured and then washed in a domestic washing machine and dried in accordance with the appropriate specified procedures. After reconditioning, the test specimen is remeasured and the dimensional change is calculated.

4 Apparatus and reagents

4.1 Flat table, of dimensions such that the complete article or fabric specimen under test can be

laid flat for marking and measurement.

4.2 Measuring device(s), that consist(s) of a rule of length exceeding the longest dimension to be

measured and that has an engraved, bevelled edge that is graduated in millimetres. The rule is used in conjunction with, or in place of, a suitable template of size at least 500 mm × 500 mm.

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

4.3 Suitable means for the marking of datum marks, for example an indelible marking pen, or

fine threads of a colour that contrasts with that of the fabric and so stitched that they will not inhibit any dimensional change of the fabric during testing.

4.4 Detergent, either IEC test detergent, as specified in ISO 6330, or a commercial detergent that

complies with the requirements of SANS 651. (See also 7.1.)

4.5 Domestic washing machine, of one of the following types:

a) an automatic washing machine of the front-loading horizontal rotating drum type that has a rotating drum of diameter 550 mm ± 100 mm and of depth at least 240 mm and three or four equally spaced lifting vanes that extend the full depth of the drum. The rotating speed of the drum is 50 r/min ± 10 r/min during washing and 700 r/min ± 300 r/min during hydro-extraction (spin). Heating is achieved by means of steam or electric heating and is thermostatically controlled to provide the appropriate washing temperature given in table 1; or

b) a non-automatic washing machine of the top-loading agitator or impeller type that has a wash tub of diameter 500 mm ± 50 mm and of depth to the high dip level at least 250 mm. The rotating speed of the tub during hydro-extraction is at least 300 r/min. The washing temperature can be set to the appropriate of the temperatures given in table 2.

4.6 Ballast (loading cloths, make-weights), in the form of overlocked, double-layer woven or

knitted continuous-filament polyester fabric of mass in the range 140 g/m 2 to 200 g/m 2 and of size at least 300 mm × 300 mm, but not exceeding 500 mm × 500 mm.

4.7 Flat-bed press, that has an operating temperature of 150 °C ± 15 °C and that is capable of

drying the specimen to below its conditioned mass and of applying sufficient pressure to remove any creases from the test specimen.

4.8 Domestic tumble dryer, of the rotary tumbler type, that

a) has a cylindrical basket of diameter at least 550 mm and of depth at least 350 mm,

b) is equipped with a means of maintaining a drying temperature of approximately 70 °C, and

c) has a facility for providing a cooling period, i.e. with the heat turned off, at the end of the drying cycle.

4.9 Screen drying racks, of meshed stainless steel or of suitable plastics material.

4.10 Suitable facilities for drip-drying or line drying.

5 Conditioning

Before testing, and before taking any measurements, condition the test specimen(s) for at least 4 h, in accordance with SANS 70.

6

Preparation of test specimens

6.1

So cut a test specimen, of size at least 500 mm × 500 mm, from an uncreased part of the test

sample that the adjacent edges are parallel to the warp (length or wale) direction and the weft (width or course) direction respectively. In the case of

2

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

a) a full-width piece, cut a test specimen from a position at least 1 m, and preferably 3 m, from either end of the piece and at least 75 mm from either selvedge;

b) weft-knitted fabrics, prepare a double-layer test specimen by stitching together, around their edges, two single-layer specimens such that the wale direction of each specimen is aligned; or

c) narrow fabrics, use a full width test specimen.

NOTE In the case of loosely structured fabrics, it is recommended that the edges be overlocked, using a dimensionally stable sewing thread, to prevent excessive fraying or unravelling of the edges during testing.

6.2 In the case of made-up articles, either test the complete article or cut a test specimen from the

article as given in 6.1. If it is not possible to cut a test specimen of the required size, cut a test specimen of the largest size possible.

6.3 Place the test specimen or made-up article flat on the table (see 4.1) and, using the measuring

device(s) (see 4.2), mark (see 4.3) and measure the test specimen as follows:

a) in the case of cut test specimens, or made-up articles of suitable size, make three pairs of datum marks, at least 350 mm apart (250 mm in the case of narrow fabrics), in both the warp (length or wale) direction and the weft (width or course) direction; and

b) in the case of made-up articles such as garments, make datum marks either as in 6.3 (a), on specific parts of the garment, for example leg, sleeve and body, or measure between specific points, for example neckpoint to hem, leg length, waist, or sleeve length, as indicated in the relevant product specification or as agreed upon between the parties concerned (see annex A).

6.4 Measure and record, to the nearest millimetre, the distance between the datum marks or

specific points, as relevant.

7 Washing procedures

NOTE Details of washing procedures considered suitable for various fabric compositions and laundering requirements are given in annex B.

7.1 Select the appropriate washing procedure given in table 1 or table 2, as specified in the

relevant product specification or as agreed upon between the parties concerned (see annex A).

Use the IEC test detergent (see 4.4), unless use of a commercial detergent is specified in the relevant product specification or agreed upon between the parties concerned (see annex A).

Table 1 — Procedures to be used for front-loading machines (see 4.5(a))

1

2

3

Procedure

Temperature

Duration of wash min

°C

F1

92

± 3

30

F2

60

± 3

30

F3

50

± 3

15

F4

40

± 3

15

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

Table 2 — Procedures to be used for top-loading machines (see 4.5(b))

1

2

3

4

5

Procedure

Temperature

Duration of wash min

Rinsing

Duration of spin min

°C

T1

70

± 3

15

 

5

T2

60

± 3

15

At least one

5

T3

50

± 3

10

rinse of 5 min

3

T4

40

± 3

10

3

7.2 Place the test specimen(s) in the washing machine (see 4.5), together with sufficient ballast (see 4.6) to make up a wash load of the required dry mass. Ensure that not more than half of the total wash load consists of test specimens.

NOTE

of dry load, high dip level and detergent, for machines of different types and drum dimensions:

It is recommended that the following formulae be used to calculate the comparative quantities for mass

a)

V

where

V

r

L

M

= (

πrL 2

)10 -

6

is the volume of the drum, in litres, ignoring the space occupied by the lifters/agitator/impeller;

is the radius of the drum, in millimetres;

is the depth of the drum, in millimetres.

b) = (0,060 ± 0,004) V

where

M

is the dry mass of the test load, in kilograms;

V

is the volume of the drum (from (a) above).

c) In the case of front-loading machines:

H

=

(0,54 ± 0,04) V

In the case of top-loading machines:

H

=

where

(1,08 ± 0,08) V

H

is the high dip level, in litres;

V

is the volume of the drum (from (a) above).

d) In the case of front-loading machines:

D

=

(0,54 ± 0,04) V

In the case of top-loading machines:

D

=

(1,08 ± 0,08) V

4

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where

D

is the quantity of detergent, in grams;

V

is the volume of the drum (from (a) above).

SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

7.3 Fill the machine with water to the high dip level, add the required quantity of detergent and

start the washing cycle (see table 1).

7.4 If a test specimen is required to be drip-dried (see 8.5), stop the machine just before the spin

cycle of the final rinse cycle and remove the test specimen, taking care not to stretch or distort it. Subject the ballast to the final spin cycle.

7.5 After the final spin cycle of the washing procedure has been completed, remove each test

specimen (and the ballast), taking care not to stretch or distort the test specimen during handling, and dry it (and the ballast) in accordance with one of the drying procedures described in clause 8, as given in the relevant product specification or as agreed upon between the parties concerned (see annex A).

8 Drying procedures

8.1 General

If no other method of drying is specified or agreed upon by the parties concerned (see annex A), dry each test specimen in accordance with the procedure given in 8.2.

8.2 Procedure A: flat-bed press drying

Without distorting it, place the test specimen flat on the bed of the press (see 4.7) and apply sufficient pressure for one or more short periods, until enough moisture has been removed to ensure conditioning from the dry side of equilibrium.

8.3 Procedure B: tumble drying

Place the test specimen (and the ballast) in the tumble dryer (see 4.8) and operate the dryer at 70 °C until the load is dry to the touch (usually 20 min to 40 min), then continue to tumble dry for approximately 5 min with the heat turned off. Remove the test specimen and lay it flat to condition.

8.4 Procedure C: flat drying

Spread the test specimen out on the horizontal screen drying rack (see 4.9), remove any wrinkles by hand without stretching or distorting the test specimen, and allow it to air-dry at a temperature not exceeding 60 °C.

8.5 Procedure D: drip-drying (see 4.10)

Allow the test specimen (that has been removed from the machine before the spin cycle of the final rinse cycle (see 7.4)) to dry in accordance with the procedure given in 8.6.

8.6 Procedure E: line drying (see 4.10)

Suspend the test specimen from a line, in still air at room temperature, and allow it to air-dry. Ensure that the warp (length or wale) direction of the specimen is vertical and that made-up articles are suspended in the direction of use.

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

9 Reconditioning and remeasuring

After completion of the relevant drying procedure, recondition each test specimen as described in clause 5. Remeasure each test specimen and record, to the nearest millimetre, the distance between the datum marks or specific points, as relevant (see 6.3).

10 Calculation

For each test specimen, calculate the dimensional change, in each direction, to the nearest 0,1 % of the corresponding original value. Indicate a decrease in dimension by a minus sign () and an increase in dimension by a plus sign (+). In the case of piece-goods, calculate the mean percentage dimensional change of the test specimen in the warp (length or wale) direction and the weft (width or course) direction, separately. In the case of a garment, calculate the percentage dimensional change for each measuring point.

Calculate the percentage dimensional change C, using the following formula:

C

where

=

B

A

A

× 100

C

is the percentage dimensional change;

B

is the distance between the datum marks after washing;

A

is the distance between the datum marks before washing.

11 Test report

Report the following information:

a) all the data needed to identify the specimen tested;

b) confirmation that the test was carried out in accordance with this standard;

c) any deviation from this standard;

d) when relevant, the type of detergent used;

e) the washing procedure used;

f) the drying procedure used; and

g) the mean of the dimensional changes

1)

in the warp (length or wale) direction, and

2)

in the weft (width or course) direction, or

3)

in the case of made-up articles such as garments (see 6.3(b)), between the specific measuring points.

6

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Annex A

(normative)

SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

Notes to users

When relevant, and if not specified in the relevant product specification, the following shall be agreed upon between the parties concerned:

a) in the case of made-up articles such as garments, whether to make datum marks on specific parts of the garment or to measure between specific points (see 6.3(b));

b) the appropriate washing procedure (see 7.1);

c) the use of a commercial detergent (see 7.1); and

d) the drying procedure to be used (see 7.5 and 8.1).

Annex B

(informative)

Information and guidance on suitable applications for the washing procedures

Details of washing procedures considered suitable for various fabric compositions and laundering requirements are given in table B.1.

Table B.1 — Suitable washing procedures

1

Fabric composition and laundering requirements

Cotton and cellulosic blend fabrics that are required to withstand severe washing

Cellulosics, polyesters, polyamides, polyester/cellulosic blend fabrics that are required to withstand frequent washing at moderate temperatures

Acrylics, acetates, cuprammonium rayon, all minimum care fabrics

Normal washable wool fabrics (including blankets)

2

Washing

procedure

F1/T1

F2/T2

F3/T3

F4/T4

NOTE Other details concerning suitable labelling symbols for washing, bleaching, ironing, dry cleaning and tumble

NOTE Other details concerning suitable labelling symbols for washing, bleaching, ironing, dry cleaning and tumble drying are given in SANS 10011.

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SANS 11167:2005 Edition 3

Annex C

(informative)

Summarized version of test method, and worked example

This annex gives a basic outline of the steps to be followed in determining the dimensional changes of textiles during washing and drying and gives a worked example (see table C.1). This summary serves only as a guide to a person who has studied the full method carefully and should not be used as a substitute for the full method, which contains important details.

Table C.1 — Summarized version of test method, and worked example

1

 

2

 

Procedure

 

Worked example

 

1) Prepare, mark and measure the conditioned fabric, made-up article or garment specimen.

Warp direction

 

Weft direction

 

352

351

351

351

350

352

053

1 1 054

2) Select the appropriate washing procedure from those given in table 1 or table 2.

 

 

3) Place the wash load in the washing machine, fill the machine with water to the high dip level, add detergent and start the machine.

 

 

4) If a specimen is to be drip-dried, remove it from the machine before the final spin cycle and dry it in accordance with 8.6.

 

 

5) After the final spin cycle, remove the test specimen and dry it using the relevant procedure given in clause 8.

 

 

6) Condition the dried test specimen in accordance with clause 5 and remeasure between the datum marks or specific points.

 

 

7) Calculate the dimensional change.

 

345

 

347

343

346

342

347

1 1 040

030

Warp =

1030

1053

× 100 =

2,2 %

1053

 

Weft =

1040

1054

× 100 =

1,3 %

1054

 

8) Report the results to the nearest 0,1 %.

 

 

Bibliography

SANS 10011, Care-labelling of textile piece-goods, textile articles.

8

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