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Chemical Reaction Engineering II SEM1 20182019

Universiti Malaysia Pahang

CRE2 Exercise

Q1
A gas phase reaction of

A +B  C + D

is to be carried out over a nickel catalyst. The feed molar ratio of A:B is 1:3. The reaction rate
law is:

𝑃𝐶 𝑃𝐷
𝑘 [𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐵 − 𝐾 ]
−𝑟𝐴 = 𝐸𝑞. 1
[1 + 𝐾𝐴 𝑃𝐴 + 𝐾𝐵 𝑃𝐵 + 𝐾𝐶 𝑃𝑐 ]2
Where
k = specific reaction rate constant,
PA = partial pressure of A,
PB = partial pressure of B,
PC = partial pressure of C,
PD = partial pressure of D,
KA = adsorption coefficient of A,
KB=adsorption coefficient of B and
KC= adsorption coefficient of C
K = equilibrium constant

i. Propose the mechanism and rate limiting step that consistent with the rate law. Prove
it.
(10 Marks)

ii. The reaction occur at 700 K and 2 atm and the feed molar ratio of A:B is 1:3. At this
condition, it is found that the reaction is irreversible and the species are weakly
adsorbed on the catalyst surface during the reaction in a fixed bed reactor. The specific
reaction rate constant, k is 1.2 mol.(kgcat.min atm2)-1 at 500K and E= 2000 J.mol-1.
Estimate the catalyst weight in the reactor to achieve 95 % conversion when the total
molar flow rate of feed is 8 mol.s-1 and pressure drop parameter, is 2 x 10-5 kg-1.
(10 Marks)

iii. Due to catalyst decay, the consultant claimed that the catalyst activity, a(t) follow first
order decay law which is independent to concentration of A and B. The moving bed is
suggested to be used to reduce pressure drop in the reactor. The catalyst moves through
the moving bed reactor at a rate of 1000 kg/min. The decay constant, kd is 1 min-1. As
a process engineer, suggest the additional amount of catalyst needed in order to have
95% conversion.
Q2

An elementary gas reaction is to be carried out in a packed bed reactor over a nickel catalyst:
A+B C+D
The molar feed rate of A to the reactor is 643 mol/min, and the reactor is operated at 10 atm
and 773 K. The feed consists of 40% of A, 40 % of B and 20 % inert.
Chemical Reaction Engineering II SEM1 20182019
Universiti Malaysia Pahang

i. If A and C are adsorbed on the surface of the catalyst, develop the rate law by assuming
the irreversible reaction step on the catalyst surface in the limiting step.
(10 Marks)

ii. It is found that A and C are weakly adsorbed on the catalyst surface during the reaction.
Estimate the catalyst weight in a packed bed reactor to achieve 80 % conversion and
there is no pressure drop. (k=2.845 mol/kgcat.min atm2 at 600K and E= 1000 J/mol)
(10 Marks)

iii. After maintenance, a contractor accidentally adds another extra 15% of initial catalyst
that leads to pressure drop in the reactor with =0.0004. The contractor claims that the
reactor performance does not change, i.e conversion unchanged. As an engineer, verify
this claim.
(10 Marks)
Q3
A hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane gas phase reaction

CH2=CH2 + H2 CH3-CH3

is carried out in a moving bed reactor over nickel catalyst that flow (Us) at 1 kg.s-1. The feed
consists of 40% of ethylene, 40% of hydrogen and 20% of inert at 1 atm and 150 °C. The feed
molar flow rate of ethylene is 10 kmol.s-1.

a) Hydrogen gas disassociates during the reaction. If surface reaction mechanism controls the
rate of the reaction, prove that the reaction rate law is equal to

𝑘𝑃𝐶𝐻2=𝐶𝐻2 𝑃𝐻2
−𝑟𝐴 = 3
(1 + 𝐾𝐶𝐻2=𝐶𝐻2 𝑃𝐶𝐻2=𝐶𝐻2 + 𝐾𝐻2 √𝑃𝐻2 + 𝐾𝐶𝐻3=𝐶𝐻3 𝑃𝐶𝐻3=𝐶𝐻3 )

where k is surface reaction rate constant while KCH2=CH2, KH2 and KCH3=CH3 are the
adsorption equilibrium constants for ethylene, hydrogen and ethane respectively. State
your assumptions clearly.
(10 Marks)

b) The adsorption of ethylene, hydrogen and ethane are weakly absorbed during the reaction.
The reaction rate constant, k is 0.05 kmol.m-3atm-2s-1 at 423 K. Determine the catalyst
needed to achieve 80 % conversion.
(10 Marks)
𝑎 1
c) A consultant claimed that the catalyst activity, a(t) follows a decay law of ∫1 𝑑𝑎 =
𝑎2
𝑤𝑘
∫0 𝑈𝑑 dw, which is independent of the concentration of reactants and product. The decay
𝑠
constant, kd follows Arrhenius equation and it is 0.0003 s-1 at 423 K. Therefore, the
consultant suggests increasing the catalyst amount to three times as in b in order to have
same conversion as in b. Verify this suggestion.
(10 Marks)